WorldWideScience

Sample records for older african americans

  1. Culturally Conscientious Pain Measurement in Older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.

  2. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  3. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  4. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2012-03-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans.

  5. Eating Behaviors of Older African Americans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neal, Catherine Walker; Wickrama, Kandauda (K.A.S.); Ralston, Penny A.; Jasminka Z Ilich; Harris, Cynthia M.; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger inte...

  6. Eating behaviors of older African Americans: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Ralston, Penny A; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Harris, Cynthia M; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57-63 years) participating in a larger intervention study. Attitudes about eating fruit and vegetables, subjective social norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to older African Americans' intentions to consume fruits and vegetables. Social norms and behavioral intentions were associated with fruit and vegetable eating behaviors. Perceived control did not moderate the influence of behavioral intentions on actual behavior. Results indicated that the theory of planned behavior can be used to explain variation in older African Americans' eating behavior. This study also emphasizes the value of considering broader behavioral domains when employing the theory of planned behavior rather than focusing on specific behaviors. Furthermore, social service programs aimed at reducing the incidence of diseases commonly associated with poor eating behaviors among older African Americans must consider promoting not only fruit and vegetable consumption but also related behaviors including preparing and self-monitoring by eliminating structural, cognitive, and normative constraints.

  7. Strategic Planning for Recruitment and Retention of Older African Americans in Health Promotion Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreer, Laura E; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research.

  8. Using a Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Protocol With Community Dwelling Older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heather; Tarraf, Wassim; Saleh, Dan J; Cutchin, Malcolm P

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the feasibility of smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) approaches to collect psychosocial data from older populations, especially disadvantaged older populations. In response to this gap, this report provides evidence of the feasibility and utility of a smartphone-based EMA approach for real-time assessment with older African Americans. In addition, we share lessons learned about how to improve utility. Ninety-seven older African Americans ages 55 and older (range: 55-95 years) used an Android smartphone loaded with an EMA application to provide data about their everyday activities and stress four times per day for seven consecutive days. Exit interviews early in the study suggested enhancements to the EMA interface. Adherence was demonstrated with response completion rates of 92-98% on EMA measures and no participant attrition based on the EMA protocol. Our findings suggest using a smartphone-based EMA approach for data collection is feasible and has utility with older African Americans. We most likely enhanced adherence by testing, training, monitoring, and adapting the EMA protocol using input from older adults early in the EMA design process.

  9. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke C. Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.

  10. Transformative Learning Intervention: Effect on Functional Health Literacy and Diabetes Knowledge in Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntiri, Daphne W.; Stewart, Merry

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a transformative learning (TL) intervention on functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge in older African Americans. Twenty participants from senior community centers completed a six-session intervention. The short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA), Literacy Assessment for…

  11. Recruitment Challenges: Lessons from Senior Centers and Older African-American Participants in a Literacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntiri, Daphne W.; Stewart, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges encountered in the recruitment of urban older African-Americans in a study to explore the effects of interactive educational intervention on functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge. Our methods included identification of challenges related to the individual characteristics of seniors' centers that…

  12. Community engagement: an essential component of well-being in older African-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Active engagement in life is a critical factor for successful aging. Research indicates that community engagement is strongly associated with health and well-being in late life. However, less is understood regarding the influence of neighborhood conditions on health and well-being, particularly in older African-American adults. The current study describes a convenience sample of older African Americans (N = 501, mean age = 70.7 [range 55-95] years) living in Detroit. The specific goal is to examine the relationships between their perceptions of neighborhood conditions, level of community engagement, and their health and well-being. Survey findings reveal a sample of highly engaged older African Americans in reasonable health who perceive their neighborhoods favorably. Regression analysis results indicate that community engagement is closely associated with both neighborhood perceptions and well-being in this sample. We propose that community engagement or "participation" mediates the relationship between neighborhood conditions and well-being for older African Americans living in Detroit.

  13. Attitudes on Aging Well Among Older African Americans and Whites in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Corwin, Sara J; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive impairment in older adults is a major cause of functional disability. Interest in protecting brain health is likely to grow as the US population ages and more people have experiences with cognitive decline. Recent scientific evidence suggests that physical activity, heart-healthy diets, and social involvement may help to maintain brain health. We investigated attitudes about aging well among older African Americans and whites to inform the development of interventions t...

  14. Barriers, Motivations, and Preferences for Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha P. Gothe PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20. Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.

  15. Diary days needed to estimate activity among older African-American and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Karen E; Masse, Louise C; Kelder, Steven H; Tortolero, Susan R

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate variation in energy expenditure among older African-American and Hispanic female workers and nonworkers, and identify the number of days of diary self-report necessary to reliably estimate activity. 227 women (111 African-American, 116 Hispanic) from the Women On The Move study completed a 7-d diary and were used in the analysis for this study (mean age 49.3 yr, SD = 7.0; mean weight 77.0 kg, SD = 17.6 kg; mean BMI 30, SD = 6.5). Kcal per day for total activity and specific types of activity were calculated for each subject and used in generalizability analyses. Results indicated that 11 d of activity are needed to reliably estimate total activity for African-American nonworkers and 8 d for Hispanic nonworkers. For workers, 12 d of activity are needed to reliably estimate total activity for African-Americans and 14 d are required for Hispanics. Days of diary self-report required by activity type for African-Americans range from 6 to 48 for nonworkers and from 6 to 30 for workers. For Hispanics, days of diary self-report required by activity type range from 8 to 111 for nonworkers and 7 to 42 for workers. The results of this study indicate the need for more than 7 d of diary self-report to achieve reliable estimates of total activity in older African-American and Hispanic women. The study also found that certain types of activity could be reliably estimated in less than 7 d. However, when there is less variability in the measure/behavior, the reliability is expected to be less and more measurement days are needed to achieve a desired level of reliability.

  16. Active coping, personal satisfaction, and attachment to land in older African-American farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciuba, Sandra A; Westneat, Susan C; Reed, Deborah B

    2013-05-01

    Elevated suicide mortality rates have been reported for farmers and for the elderly. Very little literature exists that looks at the health of older minority farmers. This mixed-method study describes older African-American farmers (N = 156) in the contexts of active coping, personal satisfaction from farm work, and attachment to their farmland to provide insight into the psychosocial dimensions of their mental health. Findings show that the farmers have positive perspectives on work and farm future, and strong attachment to the land. Differences were noted by gender. Nurses can use these findings to frame culturally appropriate strategies for aging farmers to maximize positive outcomes.

  17. Does Religiosity Account for Lower Rates of Advance Care Planning by Older African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Catheryn S

    2017-02-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) is associated with higher quality care at the end of life and increased odds of receiving hospice care and of dying at home. Older African Americans are less likely to complete advance directives (ADs) or discuss life-sustaining treatment preferences. This study examined whether religiosity accounts for race disparities. Analyses were conducted with Health and Retirement Study data (1,180 African Americans, 5,681 Whites). Two forms of ACP were regressed on race, five measures of religiosity, and demographic, health, and health care covariates. Whites were twice as likely to engage in ACP. Including religiosity predictors did not close these gaps. Frequency of service attendance was positively associated with AD completion for both White and African American participants. Relationships between religious affiliation and advance care discussion varied by race. For White participants only, more frequent prayer was associated with higher odds of advance care discussion. Although religiosity is often proposed as a reason for low rates of ACP among African Americans, religiosity measures did not explain race differences. Distinct aspects of religiosity were associated with ACP both negatively and positively, and these relationships varied by type of ACP and by race.

  18. Transitions among disability levels or death in African American and white older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J; Weiss, Carlos; Xue, Qian-Li; Fried, Linda

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the racial differences in probabilities of transitioning across three disability levels of walking (1/2) mile in a community-dwelling population of older women. The sample comprised 436 community-dwelling older women who were among the two-third least disabled women in Baltimore, Maryland. The levels of disability status of walking (1/2) mile included high functioning defined as reporting no difficulty, preclinical disability defined as reports of task modification but no reported difficulty, and disability defined as reported difficulty. First-order Markov transition models were specified to determine whether race influences the types of individual-level transitions between difficulty levels of walking (1/2) mile. Among high-functioning women, African Americans were more likely to be disabled at the next round than their White counterparts. African American women who began with preclinical disability were more likely to die before the next round. After adjusting for age, education, and perceived income inadequacy, African American women tended to have an increased risk of becoming disabled if preclinically disabled than White women. Prevention through identification of individuals at an early phase of decline appears to be key to addressing racial disparities in physical disability even in later life.

  19. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  20. Subjective Well-being of Older African Americans with DSM IV Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tina L; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W

    2014-10-01

    This study examined demographic and mental health correlates of subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, happiness) using a national sample of older African Americans with psychiatric disorders. We used a subsample of 185 African Americans, 55 and older with at least one of thirteen lifetime psychiatric disorders from The National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century (NSAL). The findings indicated that among this population of older adults who had a lifetime psychiatric disorder, having a lifetime suicidal ideation was associated with life satisfaction but not happiness. Further, having a 12-month anxiety disorder or a lifetime suicidal ideation was not associated with happiness. Having a 12-month mood disorder, however, was negatively associated with an individual's level of happiness, as well as their life satisfaction. Additionally, there were two significant interactions. Among men, employment was positively associated with life satisfaction, and marriage was associated with higher levels of happiness among men but not women. The overall pattern of findings reflects both similarities and departures from prior research confirming that well-being evaluations are associated with multiple factors.

  1. Perceived discrimination and social networks among older African Americans and Caribbean blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gillian L; Rue, Tessa C

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among older black American populations is poorly understood. Although a small number of studies have examined the relationship between stress and social support, few have examined the association between perceived discrimination, social networks, and depressive symptoms among a representative sample of older racial and ethnic groups. This study examines (a) the relationship between sociodemographic factors, perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms and (b) social networks as a potential moderator in the perceived discrimination and depressive symptom relationship between 2 groups of older black Americans. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the National Survey of American Life with a sample of older African Americans (N = 837) and Caribbean blacks (N = 271). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Linear regression analyses were used to predict depressive symptoms. The relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant in both groups. Social networks contributed as a protective factor for depressive symptoms for both groups. However, there was no significant moderation effect. Results suggest that regardless of ethnic affiliation, the experience of perceived discrimination is similar in both groups and is a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Future research is needed in this area to better understand the associations between sociodemographic factors, perceived discrimination, social networks, and their impact on depressive symptoms.

  2. Values important to terminally ill African American older adults in receiving hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    While racial disparity in the use of hospice care by older African Americans is widely acknowledged, little is known about the values that they consider as important in receiving health care services along with direct experiences with having these values respected by hospice care providers. Using individual, face-to-face interviews, data were collected directly from 28 African American hospice patients about their experiences in hospice care. Content analysis was used to identify and categorize themes from multiple readings of the qualitative data. Resulting themes included: dying at home, open communications, independent decision-making, autonomy in daily life, unwillingness to be a burden, and relationships. Through the initial assessment, value preferences can be explored and then shared with hospice team members to ensure that services are provided in such a way that their values and preferences are respected.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine use among older urban African Americans: individual and neighborhood associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Priscilla T; Wolpert, Beverly; Orwig, Denise; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Black, Sandra A

    2008-10-01

    Older African Americans may be vulnerable to risks due to impaired healthcare access and understudied complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and other traditions. We describe CAM use among older African Americans in Baltimore, MD, examining associations among CAM and sociodemographic, health status, healthcare utilization and neighborhood factors. Cross-sectional telephone survey of 95 African Americans ages > or =60 on use of CAM modalities (herb/home remedies, prayer, group spiritual practices, meditation/visualization, massage, chiropractic, acupuncture, relaxation/biofeedback) in prior year. A large majority (88.4%) reported CAM use in the previous year: 50.5% reported CAM use excluding individual prayer. The most commonly reported modalities were individual prayer (96.8%), herbs/home remedies (29.5%) and group spiritual practices (17.0%). Most (77.3%) herbal/home remedy users disclosed use to providers. In multivariable logistic regression at the individual level, CAM was associated with higher number of comorbidities (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45), older age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.17) and more years of education (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.03-1.49). Adding neighborhood variables attenuated effects of comorbidity (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.99-1.39); residence in more racially integrated neighborhoods (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06; p = 0.047) was also important. CAM use was greater than expected. Although disclosure of herb use was high, providers should probe for CAM use.

  4. Older partner selection in young African-American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Leonard, Lori; Brooks, Durryle; Celentano, David; Ellen, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Young African-American (AA) men who have sex with men (YAAMSM) have experienced the greatest proportional increase in new HIV cases compared with other groups. Bridging sexual partnerships between YAAMSM and older aged cohorts with higher rates of primary HIV infection has emerged as an important independent risk factor for the development of HIV. We explored reasons young AAMSM cite for being attracted to and seeking an older partner and the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Seventeen in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted in YAAMSM residing in a midsized urban city with high HIV prevalence. Two coders independently evaluated transcribed data to identify/collapse codes that emerged. We analyzed data using categorical and contextualizing analytic methods. Two themes emerged from the text for seeking an older sexual partner: the emotional maturity the older partner represented and the ability of the older partner to expose the younger partner to more life experiences. In addition, two themes emerged around attraction: support and physical attractiveness of the older partner. Few men described seeking age-discordant relationships for the sole purpose of exchange sex. Older partners during first same-sex experience helped younger partners sort through sexual position and how to perform in relationships. These interviews suggest that YAAMSM may be seeking older partners to fulfill desires to be in a stable, emotionally mature relationship and for exposure in the larger community. Prevention strategies aimed at targeting adolescent MSM age-discordant relationships will need to address the interpersonal needs met within older sexual partnerships. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability.

  6. Health-promoting lifestyles and exercise: a comparison of older African American women above and below poverty level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B; Nies, M A

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the health-promoting behaviors and exercise behaviors of older African American women above and below poverty level. Fifty-eight African American women completed a demographic form and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP). Results indicated that African American women living above the poverty level had higher overall scores on the total HPLP and higher scores on the exercise subscale of the HPLP than women living below poverty level. Implications include teaching culturally specific, practical, and inexpensive exercise activities in primary care and community settings.

  7. Employing a Participatory Research Approach to Explore Physical Activity among Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Sebastião

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Older African American women are particularly vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases and conditions. This study explored older African American women’s perception of physical activity as well as facilitators of and barriers to being physically active in their local environment. Methods. Using a participatory research approach, a total of 7 women aged 65 years and over had their PA level assessed objectively through accelerometry. In addition, physical activity was discussed through the photo-elicitation procedure, which was supplemented by semistructured interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify patterns and themes emerging from participants’ interview. Results. Participants exhibited low levels of physical activity and viewed “physical activity” to be a broadly defined, nonspecific construct. Interviews revealed that many participants lack important knowledge about physical activity. A variety of personal, social, and environmental facilitators and barriers were reported by the participants. Conclusion. Efforts should be made towards clarifying information on physical activity in this population in order to help them incorporate physical activity into their routines, overcome barriers, and make use of opportunities to be active.

  8. An intensely sympathetic awareness: experiential similarity and cultural norms as means for gaining older African Americans' trust of scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Myra G; Pillemer, Karl A

    2014-04-01

    Well-known trust-building methods are routinely used to recruit and retain older African Americans into scientific research studies, yet the quandary over how to overcome this group's hesitance to participate in research remains. We present two innovative and testable methods for resolving the dilemma around increasing older African Americans' participation in scientific research studies. Certain specific and meaningful experiential similarities between the primary researcher and the participants, as well as clear recognition of the elders' worth and dignity, improved older African Americans' willingness to adhere to a rigorous research design. Steps taken in an intervention study produced a potentially replicable strategy for achieving strong results in recruitment, retention and engagement of this population over three waves of assessment. Sixty-two (n=62) older African Americans were randomized to treatment and control conditions of a reminiscence intervention. Sensitivity to an African American cultural form of respect for elders (recognition of worth and dignity), and intersections between the lived experience of the researcher and participants helped dispel this population's well-documented distrust of scientific research. Results suggest that intentional efforts to honor the worth and dignity of elders through high level hospitality and highlighting meaningful experiential similarities between the researcher and the participants can improve recruitment and retention results. Experiential similarities, in particular, may prove more useful to recruitment and retention than structural similarities such as age, race, or gender, which may not in themselves result in the trust experiential similarities elicit.

  9. A Synthesis of Perceptions About Physical Activity Among Older African American and American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. In this review of qualitative data from the Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study (CAPS), we synthesize the major findings of studies designed to identify minority women’s perceptions of physical activity. Methods. We interviewed 30 African American and 26 American Indian women with constant comparison techniques. We analyzed the data with a coding system developed from the data. Results. The women led active, busy lives. Most perceived physical activity as being good for them, identified constraints to time and space for physical activity, and wanted social support for physical activity. Sociocultural issues also were related to physical activity. Conclusions. Both personal and cultural values influenced the women’s physical activity behaviors. (Am J Public Health. 2003;93:313–317) PMID:12554592

  10. A brief report on WAIS-R normative data collection in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Historically, neuropsychological measures such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have yielded unacceptably high rates of misdiagnosis of impairment among cognitively normal African Americans, primarily due to poor test specificity and inadequate representation of ethnic minorities in the normative sample. In this report, we briefly review these issues and describe efforts by investigators in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS) to develop more appropriate norms for African American elders on the WAIS-R. During MOAANS data collection, the third edition of the WAIS (WAIS-III) was introduced with updated representation of ethnic minorities in the normative database. More recently, specific demographic corrections for African Americans have been derived for WAIS-III subtest scores and indices. As such, WAIS-R normative estimates are not presented here. Interested readers who wish to obtain a full set of MOAANS WAIS-R norms, however, are invited to contact the authors for these data.

  11. Non-adherence to medication regimens among older African-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Smith, James; Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Movassaghi, Masoud; Martins, David; Orum, Gail

    2017-07-25

    Despite concerns about racial differences on adherence to prescribed medication rigimens among older adults, current information about nonadherence among underserved elderly African Americans with co-morbidities is limited. This study examines the association between adherence to drug regimens and an array of medication-related factors, including polypharmacy, medication regimen complexity, use of Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIM), and knowledge about the therapeutic purpose and instructions of medication use. Four-hundred African Americans, aged 65 years and older, were recruited from South Los Angeles. Structured, face-to-face interviews and visual inspection of participants' medications were conducted. From the medication container labels, information including strength of the drug, expiration date, instructions, and special warnings were recorded. The Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) was measured to quantify multiple features of drug regimen complexity. The Beers Criteria was used to measure the PIM use. Participants reported taking an average of 5.7 prescription drugs. Over 56% could not identify the purpose of at least one of their medications. Only two-thirds knew dosage regimen of their medications. Thirty-five percent of participants indicated that they purposely had skipped taking at least one of their medications within last three days. Only 8% of participants admitted that they forgot to take their medications. The results of multivariate analysis showed that co-payment for drugs, memory deficits, MRCI, and medication-related knowledge were all associated with adherence to dosage regimen of medications. Participants with a higher level of knowledge about therapeutic purpose and knowledge about dosage regimen of their medications were seven times (CI: 4.2-10.8) more likely to adhere to frequency and dose of medications. Participants with a low complexity index were two times (CI: 1.1-3.9) more likely to adhere to the dosage regimen

  12. Predictors of retention among African American and Hispanic older adult research participants in the Well Elderly 2 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Mike; Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Holguin, Jess; Lai, Mei-Ying; Marterella, Abbey; Vigen, Cheryl; Gleason, Sarah; Lam, Claudia; Azen, Stan; Clark, Florence

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to document predictors of long-term retention among minority participants in the Well Elderly 2 Study, a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for community-dwelling older adults. The primary sample included 149 African American and 92 Hispanic men and women aged 60 to 95 years, recruited at senior activity centers and senior residences. Chi-square and logistic regression procedures were undertaken to examine study-based, psychosocial and health-related predictors of retention at 18 months following study entry. For both African Americans and Hispanics, intervention adherence was the strongest predictor. Retention was also related to high active coping and average (vs. high or low) levels of activity participation among African Americans and high social network strength among Hispanics. The results suggest that improved knowledge of the predictors of retention among minority elders can spawn new retention strategies that can be applied at individual, subgroup, and sample-wide levels.

  13. Rates and factors associated with falls in older European Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, and Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira ER

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Edgar Ramos Vieira,1,2 Ruth Tappen,3 Gabriella Engstrom,3 Bruno R da Costa11Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Neuroscience, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 3Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAPurpose: To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups.Participants and methods: Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics.Results: Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0, having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013, back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8, feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7, and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6 were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups.Conclusion: Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging.Keywords: ethnicity, falls, risks, community dwelling, older adults

  14. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  15. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  16. Preventing cognitive decline in older African Americans with mild cognitive impairment: design and methods of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Leiby, Benjamin E

    2012-07-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) affects 25% of older African Americans and predicts progression to Alzheimer's disease. An extensive epidemiologic literature suggests that cognitive, physical, and/or social activities may prevent cognitive decline. We describe the methods of a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of Behavior Activation to prevent cognitive decline in older African Americans with the amnestic multiple domain subtype of MCI. Community Health Workers deliver 6 initial in-home treatment sessions over 2-3 months and then 6 subsequent in-home booster sessions using language, materials, and concepts that are culturally relevant to older African Americans during this 24 month clinical trial. We are randomizing 200 subjects who are recruited from churches, senior centers, and medical clinics to Behavior Activation or Supportive Therapy, which controls for attention. The primary outcome is episodic memory as measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised at baseline and at months 3, 12, 18, and 24. The secondary outcomes are general and domain-specific neuropsychological function, activities of daily living, depression, and quality-of-life. The negative results of recent clinical trials of drug treatments for MCI and Alzheimer's disease suggest that behavioral interventions may provide an alternative treatment approach to preserve cognition in an aging society.

  17. The association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among older African Americans: the role of psychological and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sarah B; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Cothran, Fawn; Barnes, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Several studies have demonstrated a link between perceived discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups, yet most have focused on younger or middle-aged African Americans and little is known about factors that may moderate the relationship. Participants were 487 older African Americans (60-98 years old) enrolled in the Minority Aging Research Study. Discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological and social resources were assessed via interview using validated measures. Ordinal logistic regression models were used to assess (1) the main relationship between discrimination and depression and (2) resilience, purpose in life, social isolation, and social networks as potential moderators of this relationship. In models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income, perceived discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.31; p social isolation, or social networks (all ps ≤ .05). Findings provide support for accumulating evidence on the adverse mental health effects of discrimination among older African Americans. Because the association was not modified by psychological or social factors, these findings do not support a role for a buffering effect of resources on discrimination and depressive symptoms. Further studies are needed to examine a wider range of coping resources among older adults.

  18. Social Relationships and Salivary Telomere Length Among Middle-Aged and Older African American and White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D; Lloyd, Donald A; Nguyen, Ann W

    2017-05-09

    A common mechanism underlying premature morbidity may be accelerated biological aging as reflected by salivary telomere length (STL). This study examined the extent to which social relationships, both positive and negative, can be protective or confer risk relative to biological aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Study and multiple regression were used to examine cross-sectional associations between STL, self-reported social support, and negative interaction (e.g., conflict, criticism) with family in a nationally representative sample of African American and non-Hispanic White middle-aged and older adults (N = 4,080). Social support from family was associated with shorter STL. Negative interaction with family had no main effect on STL but interactions characterized by high social support and more frequent negative interactions were associated with longer STL. Negative interaction with family was negatively associated with STL for African Americans and Whites but the magnitude of the effect was greater for African Americans. Study findings highlight the role of social relationships in physiological deterioration among middle-aged and older adults and identify a potential mechanism whereby race is linked to accelerated biological aging. Findings highlight the importance of considering positive and negative aspects of social relationships to understand the consequences of social connections for cellular aging in diverse populations.

  19. Telling my story: from narrative to exhibit in illuminating the lived experience of homelessness among older African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P

    2008-03-01

    The authors document the integration of methods from the arts and humanities into a social research and development project, the objectives of which are to create and test promising interventions helpful in assisting older homeless African American women get and stay out of homelessness in the city of Detroit, Michigan, USA. The exhibit incorporates multiple forms of narrative, includes performative features, promotes public awareness of homelessness in the city of Detroit, and engages homeless and formerly homeless women in social action. The authors examine the prototype design and the involvement of participants in creating artistic portrayals of their homeless experience.

  20. Predictors of Retention Among African American and Hispanic Older Adult Research Participants in the Well Elderly 2 Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Mike; Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Holguin, Jess; Lai, Mei-Ying; Marterella, Abbey; Vigen, Cheryl; Gleason, Sarah; Lam, Claudia; Azen, Stan; Clark, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document predictors of long-term retention among minority participants in the Well Elderly 2 Study, a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for community-dwelling older adults. The primary sample included 149 African American and 92 Hispanic men and women aged 60–95 years, recruited at senior activity centers and senior residences. Chi-square and logistic regression procedures were undertaken to examine study-based, psychosocial, and health-related predictors of retention at 18 months following study entry. For both African Americans and Hispanics, intervention adherence was the strongest predictor. Retention was also related to high active coping and average (vs. high or low) levels of activity participation among African Americans and high social network strength among Hispanics. The results suggest that improved knowledge of the predictors of retention among minority elders can spawn new retention strategies that can be applied at individual, subgroup, and sample-wide levels. PMID:24652865

  1. Examining the perceptions, preferences, and practices that influence healthy aging for African American older adults: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Cheryl

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the healthy aging and health promotion perceptions, preferences, and practices of a purposive sample of African American older adults who resided in two communities in the south. An ecological framework was used to capture environmental factors, perceptions regarding access to health promotion resources, and health behavior preferences and practices. A mixed-method approach was used. Health supporting amenities were mapped, focus groups were conducted, and demographic information was obtained. The data were merged to create consolidated themes. The results indicated that health promotion amenities were available, but with some limitations. Convenient access to transportation strongly affected ability to use resources. Older adults were interested in preserving their health and independence, but some had difficulty staying motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle. They wanted easier access to amenities. Implications for best practice include attention to culturally responsive outreach, motivating with social support and incentives, and developing community-based culturally compatible programming.

  2. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  3. Mediators of the impact of a home-based intervention (beat the blues) on depressive symptoms among older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Laura N; Roth, David L; Huang, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Older African Americans (N = 208) with depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a home-based nonpharmacologic intervention (Beat the Blues, or BTB) or wait-list control group. BTB was delivered by licensed social workers and involved up to 10 home visits focused on care management, referral and linkage, depression knowledge and efficacy in symptom recognition, instruction in stress reduction techniques, and behavioral activation through identification of personal goals and action plans for achieving them. Structured interviews by assessors masked to study assignment were used to assess changes in depressive symptoms (main trial endpoint), behavioral activation, depression knowledge, formal care service utilization, and anxiety (mediators) at baseline and 4 months. At 4 months, the intervention had a positive effect on depressive symptoms and all mediators except formal care service utilization. Structural equation models indicated that increased activation, enhanced depression knowledge, and decreased anxiety each independently mediated a significant proportion of the intervention's impact on depressive symptoms as assessed with 2 different measures (PHQ-9 and CES-D). These 3 factors also jointly explained over 60% of the intervention's total effect on both indicators of depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that most of the impact of BTB on depressive symptoms is driven by enhancing activation or becoming active, reducing anxiety, and improving depression knowledge/efficacy. The intervention components appear to work in concert and may be mutually necessary for maximal benefits from treatment to occur. Implications for designing tailored interventions to address depressive symptoms among older African Americans are discussed.

  4. Depressive Symptoms Are More Strongly Related to Executive Functioning and Episodic Memory Among African American compared with Non-Hispanic White Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard C.; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the reserve capacity model can be extended to cognitive outcomes among older African Americans. Two hundred and ninety-two non-Hispanic Whites and 37 African Americans over age 54 participated in the normative study for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Multiple-group path analysis showed that associations between depressive symptoms and cognition differed by race, independent of age, education, reading level, income, health, and recruitment site. Depressive symptoms were associated with slowed processing speed among Whites and worse task-switching, inhibition, and episodic memory among African Americans. African Americans may be more vulnerable to negative effects of depression on cognition than non-Hispanic Whites. Further research is needed to explicate the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of this greater vulnerability. PMID:25280795

  5. The telling my story quilting workshop: innovative group work with older African American women transitioning out of homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences.

  6. Rhythm experience and Africana culture trial (REACT!): A culturally salient intervention to promote neurocognitive health, mood, and well-being in older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukach, Alexis J.; Jedrziewski, M. Kathryn; Grove, George A.; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn J.; Williams, Shardae S.; Wollam, Mariegold E.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2017-01-01

    The Rhythm Experience and Africana Culture Trial (REACT!) is a multi-site randomized controlled intervention study designed to examine the efficacy of using African Dance as a form of moderate-intensity physical activity to improve cognitive function in older African Americans. African Americans are almost two times more likely than Caucasians to experience cognitive impairment in late adulthood. This increased risk may be attributed to lower level and quality of education, lower socioeconomic status, and higher prevalence of vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, all of which are recognized as risk factors for dementia. Fortunately, interventions targeting cardiovascular health (i.e., physical activity) are associated with improved neurocognitive function and a reduced risk for dementia, so African Americans may be particularly suited for interventions targeting cardiovascular health and cognitive function. Here, we describe a randomized intervention protocol for increasing physical activity in older (65–75 years) African Americans. Participants (n = 80) at two study locations will be randomized into one of two groups. The treatment group will participate in African Dance three times per week for six months and the control group will receive educational training on Africana history and culture, as well as information about health behaviors, three times per week for six months. If successful, the REACT! study may transform community interventions and serve as a platform and model for testing other populations, age groups, and health outcomes, potentially identifying novel and creative methods for reducing or eliminating health disparities. PMID:27033674

  7. Rhythm experience and Africana culture trial (REACT!): A culturally salient intervention to promote neurocognitive health, mood, and well-being in older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukach, Alexis J; Jedrziewski, M Kathryn; Grove, George A; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn J; Williams, Shardae S; Wollam, Mariegold E; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-05-01

    The Rhythm Experience and Africana Culture Trial (REACT!) is a multi-site randomized controlled intervention study designed to examine the efficacy of using African Dance as a form of moderate-intensity physical activity to improve cognitive function in older African Americans. African Americans are almost two times more likely than Caucasians to experience cognitive impairment in late adulthood. This increased risk may be attributed to lower level and quality of education, lower socioeconomic status, and higher prevalence of vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, all of which are recognized as risk factors for dementia. Fortunately, interventions targeting cardiovascular health (i.e., physical activity) are associated with improved neurocognitive function and a reduced risk for dementia, so African Americans may be particularly suited for interventions targeting cardiovascular health and cognitive function. Here, we describe a randomized intervention protocol for increasing physical activity in older (65-75years) African Americans. Participants (n=80) at two study locations will be randomized into one of two groups. The treatment group will participate in African Dance three times per week for six months and the control group will receive educational training on Africana history and culture, as well as information about health behaviors, three times per week for six months. If successful, the REACT! study may transform community interventions and serve as a platform and model for testing other populations, age groups, and health outcomes, potentially identifying novel and creative methods for reducing or eliminating health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. African Americans in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains research and expository papers by African-American mathematicians on issues related to their involvement in the mathematical sciences. Little is known, taught, or written about African-American mathematicians. Information is lacking on their past and present contributions and on the qualitative and quantitative nature of their existence in and distribution throughout mathematics. This lack of information leads to a number of questions that have to date remained unanswered. This volume provides details and pointers to help answer some of these questions. Features: Research articles by distinguished African-American mathematicians. Accomplishments of African-American researchers in the mathematical sciences. Articles that explore issues important to the African-American community and to the mathematics community as a whole. Inspiration for African-American students who wish to pursue advancement in the mathematical sciences.

  9. Explaining differences in episodic memory performance among older African Americans and Whites: the roles of factors related to cognitive reserve and test bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, Denise C; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Barnes, Lisa L; Manly, Jennifer J; Bennett, David A; Crane, Paul K

    2011-07-01

    Older African Americans tend to perform poorly in comparison with older Whites on episodic memory tests. Observed group differences may reflect some combination of biological differences, measurement bias, and other confounding factors that differ across groups. Cognitive reserve refers to the hypothesis that factors, such as years of education, cognitive activity, and socioeconomic status, promote brain resilience in the face of pathological threats to brain integrity in late life. Educational quality, measured by reading test performance, has been postulated as an important aspect of cognitive reserve. Previous studies have not concurrently evaluated test bias and other explanations for observed differences between older African Americans and Whites. We combined data from two studies to address this question. We analyzed data from 273 African American and 720 White older adults. We assessed DIF using an item response theory/ordinal logistic regression approach. DIF and factors associated with cognitive reserve did not explain the relationship between race, and age- and sex-adjusted episodic memory test performance. However, reading level did explain this relationship. The results reinforce the importance of considering education quality, as measured by reading level, when assessing cognition among diverse older adults.

  10. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  11. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cogn...

  12. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  13. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  14. Narcolepsy in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Although narcolepsy affects 0.02-0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  16. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  17. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  18. A community-integrated home based depression intervention for older African Americans: descripton of the Beat the Blues randomized trial and intervention costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitlin Laura N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care is the principle setting for depression treatment; yet many older African Americans in the United States fail to report depressive symptoms or receive the recommended standard of care. Older African Americans are at high risk for depression due to elevated rates of chronic illness, disability and socioeconomic distress. There is an urgent need to develop and test new depression treatments that resonate with minority populations that are hard-to-reach and underserved and to evaluate their cost and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Beat the Blues (BTB is a single-blind parallel randomized trial to assess efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in 208 African Americans 55+ years old. It involves a collaboration with a senior center whose care management staff screen for depressive symptoms (telephone or in-person using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Individuals screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 5 on two separate occasions over 2 weeks are referred to local mental health resources and BTB. Interested and eligible participants who consent receive a baseline home interview and then are randomly assigned to receive BTB immediately or 4 months later (wait-list control. All participants are interviewed at 4 (main study endpoint and 8 months at home by assessors masked to study assignment. Licensed senior center social workers trained in BTB meet with participants at home for up to 10 sessions over 4 months to assess care needs, make referrals/linkages, provide depression education, instruct in stress reduction techniques, and use behavioral activation to identify goals and steps to achieve them. Key outcomes include reduced depressive symptoms (primary, reduced anxiety and functional disability, improved quality of life, and enhanced depression knowledge and behavioral activation (secondary. Fidelity is enhanced through procedure manuals and staff

  19. Evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention program to decrease blood pressure in low-income African-American older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Page, G; Piferi, R L; Gill, J M; Hayat, M J; Connolly, A B; Szanton, S L

    2012-04-01

    Hypertension affects a large proportion of urban African-American older adults.While there have been great strides in drug development, many older adults do not have access to such medicines or do not take them. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)has been shown to decrease blood pressure in some populations. This has not been tested in low-income, urban African-American older adults. Therefore, the primary purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based program for low income, minority older adults provided in residence. The secondary purpose was to learn if the mindfulness-based program produced differences in blood pressure between the intervention and control groups. Participants were at least 62 years old and residents of a low-income senior residence. All participants were African-American, and one was male.Twenty participants were randomized to the mindfulness-based intervention or a social support control group of the same duration and dose. Blood pressure was measured with the Omron automatic blood pressure machine at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. A multivariate regression analysis was performed on the difference in scores between baseline and post-intervention blood pressure measurements, controlling for age,education, smoking status, and anti-hypertensive medication use. Effect sizes were calculated to quantify the magnitude of the relationship between participation in the mindfulness-based intervention and the outcome variable, blood pressure. Attendance remained 980%in all 8 weeks of both the intervention and the control groups. The average systolic blood pressure decreased for both groups post-intervention. Individuals in the intervention group exhibited a 21.92-mmHg lower systolic blood pressure compared to the social support control group post-intervention and this value was statistically significant(p=0.020). The average diastolic blood pressure decreased in the

  20. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Financially exploited individuals, and non-exploited individuals, showed mean group differences on the Mini Mental State Exam, Financial Situational Awareness, Psychological Vulnerability, Current Decisional Ability, and Susceptibility to undue influence subscales, and Total Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale Score. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool for measuring both decisional abilities and financial exploitation. PMID:26285038

  1. Variations in Social Network Type Membership Among Older African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W

    2017-07-01

    This study examined race differences in the probability of belonging to a specific social network typology of family, friends, and church members. Samples of African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites aged 55+ were drawn from the National Survey of American Life. Typology indicators related to social integration and negative interactions with family, friendship, and church networks were used. Latent class analysis was used to identify typologies, and latent class multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of race, and interactions between race and age, and race and education on typology membership. Four network typologies were identified: optimal (high social integration, low negative interaction), family-centered (high social integration within primarily the extended family network, low negative interaction), strained (low social integration, high negative interaction), and ambivalent (high social integration and high negative interaction). Findings for race and age and race and education interactions indicated that the effects of education and age on typology membership varied by race. Overall, the findings demonstrate how race interacts with age and education to influence the probability of belonging to particular network types. A better understanding of the influence of race, education, and age on social network typologies will inform future research and theoretical developments in this area.

  2. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  3. Descriptive anthropometric reference data for older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, M F; Kuczmarski, R J; Najjar, M

    2000-01-01

    To present selected anthropometric data derived from adults aged 60 years and older examined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NHANES III used a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster sample design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Persons aged 60 years and older, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans were oversampled to produce more reliable estimates for these groups. Trained technicians measured height, weight, skinfold thickness, and circumferences using standardized procedures. A total of 5,700 persons aged 60 years and older, and 1,861 persons aged 50 to 59 years. Mean and selected percentiles for body weight, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, mid upper arm circumference, and arm muscle circumference were calculated by gender, race/ethnicity, and 3 age categories. Weight (lb) per height (in) tables were generated for men and women by age group. Mean body weight was lowest for persons aged 80 years and older. A decline in body mass index occurred that paralleled the direction and magnitude of the progressive decrease observed in weight. Muscle loss with increasing age, as indicated by arm muscle circumference, appeared to be greater among men than women. In addition to being relatively simple, quick, and inexpensive, anthropometry is the most reliable and specific indicator of malnutrition in the older adult population. The cross-sectional reference data provided can be used by dietitians to interpret anthropometric measurements of persons aged 60 years and older.

  4. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  5. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  6. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  7. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  8. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  9. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  10. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Great Help for Older Americans ... on National Pepper Center website. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / ...

  11. How Active Are Older Americans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger, PhD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969 according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active.ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in

  12. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  14. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  15. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  16. A Qualitative Analysis of the Use of Financial Services and Saving Behavior Among Older African Americans and Latinos in the Los Angeles Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa R. Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For this study, we conducted seven focus groups in the Los Angeles area with a total of 70 participants (42 Latinos and 28 African Americans recruited from three senior centers and a church. There was a wide variety of responses in relation to the usage of financial services among participants. We found that although some participants seem to participate more in the formal financial sector and show a higher level of sophistication when managing their finances, other participants’ use of formal financial institutions is minimal. Among African American participants, we found several instances in which individuals feel very comfortable using banks. Lower levels of participation in the formal financial sector were found among the lower income Latino participants. In relation to barriers to participate in the financial sector, supply was not an issue, but demand and behavioral factors seem more important. Overall, no participants saved very much on a regular basis. We also find that participants in general do not want to ask their children for money, and also do not want to save and accumulate wealth to leave to their children.

  17. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B

    1996-09-01

    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  18. Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie N Fongwa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors

  19. Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160985.html Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans Rates accelerate especially ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new study finds widespread hearing loss among elderly Americans, with an especially high rate ...

  20. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  1. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  2. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  3. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  4. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  5. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  6. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  7. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  8. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  9. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  10. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  11. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  12. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  13. African-American Women in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Describes two reference books suitable for middle/junior high school library media centers that present information about African-American women and suggests activities for Afro-American History Month. Library media skills objectives, social studies and art objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures,…

  14. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  15. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  16. Self-esteem mediates the relationship between volunteering and depression for African American caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Pickard, Joseph G; Johnson, Sharon D

    2013-01-01

    Research on the influence of volunteering on mental health outcomes has not placed enough focus on African American female caregivers who are at risk for adverse outcomes such as depression. This study addresses this gap by examining the mechanism through which volunteering might influence depressive symptoms using data collected from 521 African American female caregivers of older adults. Regression results indicate that although volunteering is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, self-esteem mediates this relationship. Findings suggest inclusion in volunteering for African American female caregivers may be relevant to promotion of their mental well-being.

  17. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook.

  18. Perceptions, Knowledge, Incentives, and Barriers of Brain Donation among African American Elders Enrolled in an Alzheimer's Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Susan; Cantwell, Nicole; Islam, Fareesa; Horvath, Kathy; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To learn about African American older adults' knowledge and perceptions of brain donation, factors that relate to participating or not participating in a brain donation research program, and methods to increase African American brain donation commitment rates in the context of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) research program. Design and…

  19. Perceptions, Knowledge, Incentives, and Barriers of Brain Donation among African American Elders Enrolled in an Alzheimer's Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Susan; Cantwell, Nicole; Islam, Fareesa; Horvath, Kathy; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To learn about African American older adults' knowledge and perceptions of brain donation, factors that relate to participating or not participating in a brain donation research program, and methods to increase African American brain donation commitment rates in the context of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) research program. Design and…

  20. Developing suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal; Puri, Rupa; Lyles, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches may have broad appeal because: (1) the Black Church has a strong history of helping community members, regardless of church membership; (2) African Americans have the highest level of public and private religiousness; and (3) the church can help shape religious and cultural norms about mental health and help-seeking. The proposed gatekeeper model trains lay helpers and clergy to recognize the risk and protective factors for depression and suicide, to make referrals to the appropriate community mental health resources, and to deliver a community education curriculum. Potential barriers and suggestions for how to overcome these barriers are discussed.

  1. Why We Must Continue to Investigate Menthol's Role in the African American Smoking Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Fagan, Pebbles

    2016-04-01

    The disproportionate burden of tobacco use among African Americans is largely unexplained. The unexplained disparities, referred to as the African American smoking paradox, includes several phenomena. Despite their social disadvantage, African American youth have lower smoking prevalence rates, initiate smoking at older ages, and during adulthood, smoking rates are comparable to whites. Smoking frequency and intensity among African American youth and adults are lower compared to whites and American Indian and Alaska Natives, but tobacco-caused morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionately higher. Disease prediction models have not explained disease causal pathways in African Americans. It has been hypothesized that menthol cigarette smoking, which is disproportionately high among African Americans, may help to explain several components of the African American smoking paradox. This article provides an overview of the potential role that menthol plays in the African American smoking paradox. We also discuss the research needed to better understand this unresolved puzzle. We examined prior synthesis reports and reviewed the literature in PubMed on the menthol compound and menthol cigarette smoking in African Americans. The pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol and their interaction with biological and genetic factors may indirectly contribute to the disproportionate burden of cigarette use and diseases among African Americans. Future studies that examine taste sensitivity, the menthol compound, and their effects on smoking and chronic disease would provide valuable information on how to reduce the tobacco burden among African Americans. Our study highlights four counterintuitive observations related to the smoking risk profiles and chronic disease outcomes among African Americans. The extant literature provides strong evidence of their existence and shows that long-standing paradoxes have been largely unaffected by changes in the social

  2. A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of Social Network Changes among African-American, Caribbean, and U.S.-Born Caucasian Urban Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born…

  3. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  4. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of African Americans is a story of... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...

  5. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  6. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  7. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  8. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  9. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  10. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Format: Select One File [163K] ...

  11. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  12. Examining School Engagement of African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk; Jackson, Lisa R.

    This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 African American high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and affective…

  13. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  14. Heart Truth for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? ... That’s a man’s disease.” But here’s The Heart Truth ® : Heart disease is the #1 killer of women ...

  15. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  16. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  17. African American Vernacular English and Rap Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波

    2015-01-01

    African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.

  18. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  19. The African American Public Policy Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Robert; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews actions of the 102nd Congress of particular interest to African Americans, including the (1) Domestic Marshall Plan House Resolution; (2) Unemployment Benefits extension; (3) Job Training Partnership Act; (4) Workplace Fairness Act; (5) Family and Medical Leave Act; and (6) Civil Rights Act of 1991. (SLD)

  20. Expository Writing Patterns of African American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Arnetha F.

    1996-01-01

    Shares information about how four African American vernacular English speakers have successfully used their language abilities--the language of their everyday lives--within the context of their expository writing. Discusses principles that have guided one teacher in her work with language diverse students. (TB)

  1. Phonetic Transcription of African American Vernacular English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Karen E.; Meredith, Linette Hinton

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes African American Vernacular English (AAVE) phonological features from the perspective of phonetic transcription. Relevant International Phonetic Alphabet symbols and diacritics are discussed, as well as the importance of transcription detail when differentiating dialect variation from phonological delay or disorder. A chart…

  2. Obesity in inner-city African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, C L; Houston, C A

    1996-12-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for chronic diseases, has a high prevalence in African Americans and low-income individuals. However, little is known about perceptions of overweight, attempts to lose weight, and strategies used to lose weight among African Americans in inner cities. A 1990 cross-sectional telephone survey (n = 1445) of north St Louis and central Kansas City, USA. Obesity was common (44%) in this sample of inner-city African Americans. The obese perceived themselves as overweight (70%) and were trying to lose weight (66%). The majority of the obese (68%) were both dieting and exercising to lose weight. Smoking prevalence was not higher among the obese or those trying to lose weight. Many of the obese had received medical advice recently on low-fat diets (51%) and had been advised to lose weight (40%). Factors independently associated with perception, attempts to lose weight and medical advice differed, but included degree of obesity. These results corroborate US national data that obesity is a public health problem in this population and that obese inner-city African Americans perceive themselves as overweight and are trying to lose weight, especially as degree of obesity increases. It also appears that smoking is not being used as a weight loss strategy and that the obese, as a group, are receiving some medical advice on low-fat diets. This information is critical for designing culturally sensitive weight-control programmes.

  3. Encyclopedia of African-American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Wilson, Faustine C., Ed.; And Others

    This encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference tool for researchers, teachers, scholars, students, and laypersons who need information under a single cover on significant issues, policies, historical events, laws, theories, organizations, institutions, and people incident to the education of African Americans. This population is unique in that its…

  4. African-American Axioms and Maxims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  5. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  6. The Role of Age in Understanding the Psychological Effects of Racism for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M; Spalding, Abby

    2017-03-16

    The purpose of the current study was to test age as a moderator of the effects of types of racism on psychological symptoms for a sample of 184 African American women. We hypothesized that increased age would be associated with greater severity in psychological symptoms in relation to exposure to types of racism. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses were performed to test our hypothesis. Findings revealed significant interactions between institutional racism and age in predicting anxiety. Younger women experienced more severe anxiety in relation to greater exposure to institutional racism compared to older African American women. Findings suggest that older age may function as a buffer to psychological outcomes related to racism exposure. Additional studies are needed to understand the ways in which older African American adults cope with racism-related experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Differential effects of the classroom on African American and non-African American's mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Katerina; Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W; Sarama, Julie H; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether African American students differentially responded to dimensions of the observed classroom-learning environment compared with non-African American students. Further, we examined whether these dimensions of the classroom mediated treatment effects of a preschool mathematics intervention targeted at students from low-income families. Three observed dimensions of the classroom (teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness; teacher confidence and enthusiasm; and support for mathematical discourse) were evaluated in a sample of 1,238 preschool students in 101 classrooms. Using multigroup multilevel mediation where African American students were compared to non-African American students, we found that teachers in the intervention condition had higher ratings on the observed dimensions of the classroom compared with teachers in the control condition. Further, ratings on teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness had larger associations with the achievement of African American students than for non-African Americans. Findings suggest that students within the same classroom may react differently to that learning environment and that classroom learning environments could be structured in ways that are beneficial for students who need the most support.

  8. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  9. Social class and heart disease mortality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Williams, Carol R; Moore, Latetia; Chen, Fangfei

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine variation in heart disease death rates by the social class of decedents. The term, "social class" refers to a complex set of phenomena such as control over economic resources, social status, and power relative to others in society. The target population for this study was African-American adults aged 35-74 years old who resided in the United States during the years 1996-1997. As a proxy for social class, we examined 5 levels of educational attainment: 0-8 years of school completed (Social Class I), 9-11 years of school completed (Social Class II), high school graduate/12 years of school completed (Social Class III), some college completed (Social Class IV), and college degree completed (Social Class V). Older age, male gender, and lower social class were all independently associated with higher heart disease death rates. For all ages, more disadvantaged social classes had a higher risk of heart disease mortality. The highest relative risks were found for Social Classes I and II among the younger age groups. Many of the "prerequisites" for the "heart healthy lifestyle" are predicated on the benefits of a privileged social class position. For African Americans, there are the additional stressors of segregation, exclusion, and discrimination to overcome, as well as the cumulative physiological toll of lifetime resistance to various forms of racism. For many African Americans in disadvantaged social class positions, the obstacles to reducing the risk for heart disease are very difficult to overcome.

  10. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  11. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  12. African American issues in geriatric psychiatry: a perspective on research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G D

    1993-01-01

    Racial, ethnic, and cultural factors influencing mental health in later life are important to study in their own right. However, they also offer an opportunity to expand our understanding of mental health and mental illness in older adults independent of race, ethnicity, or culture. Any time an opportunity arises to examine a problem from a different perspective, chances increase that new light will be shed on the problem. For example, while suicide is greatest in older Americans compared with any other US population group, it is less frequent in older blacks than older whites. Why? Among the different theories that have been advanced, one holds that older African Americans in reaching later life have surmounted more threats to self-esteem (compared with whites) and are thereby better adapted to new challenges associated with aging. Still, the discrepancy in suicide rates between older blacks and whites remains an important research question. In studying suicide with attention to racial and ethnic variables, the opportunity presents itself to gain a more fundamental understanding of suicide itself--to the benefit of all older adults, indeed to the benefit of all age groups. This paper focuses on some African American issues pertinent to geriatric psychiatry and identifies areas for further research. In addition to a selected literature review, the author draws on his own research from a 20-year longitudinal study, initiated in 1971, of a senior citizens' apartment building in Washington, DC, with a predominantly African American population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The quality of demographic data on older Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Randall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing appropriate and equitable policies for older people in Africa requires accurate and reliable data. It is unclear whether existing data can accurately assess older African population structures, let alone provide the detailed information needed to inform policy decision-making. Objective: To evaluate the quality of nationally representative data on older Africans through examining the accuracy of age data collected from different sources. Methods: To measure the accuracy of age reporting overall we calculate Whipple's Index, and a modified Whipple's Index for older adults, using the single year age-sex distributions from (a the household roster of 17 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, (b the censuses of 12 of these countries, and (c the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS for Ethiopia and Niger. We compare reported sex ratios by age. Results: The quality of age data is very poor for most countries outside Southern Africa, especially for older adults. In some Sahelian countries DHS surveys appear to omit a considerable proportion of older women. Data on population structure of older people by age and sex produced by the DHS and the census are inconsistent and contradictory. Conclusions: Different field methodological approaches generate contradictory data on older Africans. With the exception of Southern Africa, it is impossible to assess accurately the basic demographic structure of the older population. The data available are so problematic that any conclusions about age-related health and welfare and their evolution over time and space are potentially compromised. This has ramifications for policymakers and practitioners who demand, fund, and depend on large-scale demographic data sources. Contribution: The paper highlights a number of problems with data on older Africans, beyond the well-known issues of age heaping. In doing so it contributes to general understanding of the limitations of existing demographic data

  14. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  15. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W; Burns, C

    1999-01-01

    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  16. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  17. The Lived Experience of African American Caregivers Caring for Adult African American Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.

  18. Can Faith and Hospice Coexist: Is the African American Church the Key to Increased Hospice Utilization for African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Apollo; March, Alice L; Kimball, Jan

    2017-01-01

    African Americans are twice as likely as Caucasian Americans to choose aggressive hospital treatment when death is imminent. Repeat hospitalizations are traumatic for patients and drain patient and health system resources. Hospice care is a specialized alternative that vastly improves patient quality of life at end-of-life. This study was conducted to determine if hospices partnering with African American churches to disseminate hospice education materials could increase utilization of hospice services by African Americans. Members of two African American churches (N = 34) participated in focus group discussions to elicit beliefs about hospice care. Focus group transcripts were coded and comments were grouped according to theme. Six themes were identified. Lack of knowledge about hospice services and spiritual beliefs emerged as the top two contributing factors for underutilization of hospice services. Study findings support partnerships between hospices and African American churches to provide hospice education to the African American community. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... universal truths of our shared humanity. African-American musicians have left an indelible mark on...

  20. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  1. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  2. 76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians and their gifts to our country and our world. From the cadenced hums of spirituals to the melodies of rhythm... and equality for all. Today, African-American musicians continue to create new musical genres...

  3. Discrimination, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…

  4. Variation in Vowel Duration Among Southern African American English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-08-01

    Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. In this study, we examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the 2 groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Vowels produced by females were significantly longer than vowels produced by males for both AAE and WAE. African American speakers should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers.

  5. Mothers' and Fathers' Racial Socialization in African American Families: Implications for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Burton, Linda M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Swanson, Dena P.

    2006-01-01

    Mothers' and fathers' cultural socialization and bias preparation with older (M=13.9 years) and younger (M=10.31 years) siblings were studied in 162 two-parent, African American families. Analyses examined whether parental warmth and offspring age and gender were linked to parental practices and whether parents' warmth, spouses' racial…

  6. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  7. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  8. Material Hardship and Self-Rated Mental Health among Older Black Americans in the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gillian L; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L

    2017-05-01

    This article examines the association between material hardships and self-rated mental health (SRMH) among older black Americans and determines whether the effect varies by race and ethnicity. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, multiple logistic regression models were specified on a sample of older white Americans (n = 289), African Americans (n = 1,135), and black Caribbean Americans (n = 377). Material hardship was measured as an index of seven items that occurred within the past year. Material hardship (odds ratio = 0.48; 95 percent confidence interval = 0.29-0.79) was associated with SRMH for both groups. None of the interactions were significant. The study concludes that material hardship may contribute to poorer SRMH among older African Americans and black Caribbean Americans. Future studies should examine these associations by using longitudinal designs, which may be better designed to confirm these results. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  9. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    OpenAIRE

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...

  10. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  11. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  12. Critical social theory and the domination of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S P

    1995-01-01

    This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.

  13. Bullying and victimization among African American adolescents: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-05-01

    Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Aging out: a qualitative exploration of ageism and heterosexism among aging African American lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Imani

    2014-01-01

    African Americans elders, like their non-African American counterparts, are not a homogeneous group; however an early characteristic placed on all African Americans is in their shared history in the United States. As members of multiple minority groups, older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of African descent have survived racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and now ageism. This article describes a qualitative study grounded in Black feminist and minority stress theories that explored the issues of perceived social discrimination and alienation of 15 older African American lesbians and gay males whose lived experiences were captured using in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Several themes were identified in the study, including (a) Sense of Alienation in the African American Community, (b) Deliberate Concealment of Sexual Identity and Orientation, (c) Aversion to LGBT Labels, (d) Perceived Discrimination and Alienation From Organized Religion, (e) Feelings of Grief and Loss Related to Aging, (f) Isolation, and (g) Fear of Financial and Physical Dependence. The implication of the findings suggests that the ethos and needs of older African American lesbian women and gay men need to be addressed to eliminate potential barriers to successful aging for this cohort.

  15. Atrial Fibrillation and Colonic Neoplasia in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nouraie

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American.We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression.The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10% followed by adenoma patients (7.2% then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002. In the three groups of participants, older age (P<0.008 and heart failure (P<0.001 were significantly associated with higher risk of AF. After adjusting for these risk factors, CRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI:0.9-2.2, P = 0.2 and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI:0.7-1.6, P = 0.7 were not significantly associated AF compared to control group.AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.

  16. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  17. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  18. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  19. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  20. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A

    2001-12-01

    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  1. Religiosity in black and white older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengwu; Ford, Marvella E.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Greene, Ruth L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Racial difference of religiosity in a heterogeneous older population had long been a focal point of gerontological research. However, most religiosity measures were developed from homogenous sample, few underwent rigorous psychometric validation, and studies on racial difference of religiosity had been obstructed. This cross-sectional study adapted a religiosity measure originally designed for blacks only to a heterogeneous older population of blacks and whites, validated its psychometric properties, and examined racial difference of religiosity. Based on qualitative research of concepts, intensive literature review, and abundant experiences in this field, we adapted the original measure. Then, using the data collected from a survey of 196 black and white Americans 55 years and older in Charlotte, North Carolina, we investigated full-scale psychometric properties of the adapted measure at the item-, domain-, and measure- level. These psychometric validations included item analysis, item-scale correlations, correlation matrix among items, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine if the original factor structure held after adaptation, and reliability analysis using Cronbach's alpha. Finally, using Multiple Indicators and MultIple Causes (MIMIC) models, we examined racial difference of religiosity through regression with latent variables, while potential measurement bias by race through differential item functioning (DIF) was adjusted in the MIMIC models. In result, we successfully adapted the original 12-item religiosity measure for blacks into an 8-item version for blacks and whites. Although sacrificed few reliability for brevity, the adapted measure demonstrated sound psychometric properties, and retained the original factor structure. We also found racial differences of religiosity in all three domains of the measure, even after adjustment of the detected measurement biases in two domains. In conclusion, the original measure can be adapted to and

  2. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women.

  3. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  4. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  5. Their Own Story: Literature for African-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinn, Jeanne

    1994-01-01

    Notes that too few books reflect the contemporary experiences of African American children. Suggests that African American literature that is available is school libraries is often limited to folktales or focused on problems of poverty and racism. Appends a 39-item annotated bibliography. (RS)

  6. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  7. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., there is no progress.'' Progress in America has not come easily, but has resulted from the...

  8. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  9. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  10. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  11. General Dissociation Scale and Hypnotizability with African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty; Hitchcock, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the General Dissociation Scale with African American college students, and provide additional data on how to assess hypnotizability with these students. Two-hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure…

  12. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  13. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  14. Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

  15. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  16. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  17. EPEC-O - Plenary AA - Cancer & the African American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  18. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 16 AA - Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.

  19. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  20. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  1. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  2. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  3. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  4. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  5. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2008-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  6. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon

    2011-01-01

    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  7. Enriching Inclusive Learning: African Americans in Historic Costume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…

  8. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  9. The Struggle of African American Students in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubenga, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…

  10. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  11. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  12. Stalling Out: The Relative Progress of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Billy J.

    The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…

  13. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.

  14. Self-Esteem and Anger among African-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.

    Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…

  15. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  16. Components of School Engagement among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how various components of school engagement contribute to the academic performance of African American adolescents. The sample consisted of 499 African American adolescents in Grades 9 to 11. We investigated how adolescents' gender, grade, cognitive functioning, and parental education affect their school engagement and whether…

  17. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  18. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  19. Evaluating brief cognitive impairment screening instruments among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddoe, Jared M; Whitfield, Keith E; Andel, Ross; Edwards, Christopher L

    2008-07-01

    This article compared and contrasted the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS) to the racially-sensitive Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). The empirical questions addressed was whether the TICS over-represented African American (AA) cognitive impairment (CI) relative to the SPMSQ, if there were age differences in CI prevalence between younger subjects (ages 50-64) and older ones (>64 years) and on accuracy to detect CI in individuals with higher levels of educations (> or =13 years) versus those with lower education levels (TICS at 45.0%. Within the younger group, TICS and CI prevalence was 49.3 and 80% among the older group. Within the younger group SPMSQ and CI prevalence was 14.5 and 53.8% among the older group. Within the higher educated group, TICS and CI prevalence was 36.7 and 51.4% among the lower educated. Within the higher educated group, SPMSQ and CI prevalence was 7.7 and 14.5% among the lower educated. Findings are consistent with our hypotheses that the TICS would be a less accurate assessor of CI among AAs.

  20. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  1. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  2. Men on the Move-Nashville: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Technology-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Middle and Older Age African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Donnatesa A L; Griffith, Derek M; McKissic, Sydika A; Cornish, Emily K; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-04-19

    Men on the Move-Nashvillewas a quasi-experimental, 10-week pilot physical activity intervention. A total of 40 overweight or obese African American men ages 30 to 70 (mean age = 47) enrolled in the intervention. Participants attended 8 weekly, 90-minute small group sessions with a certified personal trainer. Each session consisted of discussions aimed to educate and motivate men to be more physically active, and an exercise component aimed to increase endurance, strength, and flexibility. Throughout each week, men used wearable activity trackers to promote self-monitoring and received informational and motivational SMS text messages. Of the 40 enrolled men, 85% completed the intervention, and 80% attended four or more small group sessions. Additionally, 70% of participants successfully used the activity tracker, but only 30% of men utilized their gym memberships. Participants benefited from both the small group discussions and activities through increasing social connection and guidance from their trainer and group members. These African American men reported being motivated to engage in physical activity through each of these technologies. Men reported that the activity trackers provided an important extension to their social network of physically active people. The intervention resulted in significant increases in men's self-reported levels of light, moderate, vigorous, and sports-related physical activities, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and significant decreases in weight and body fat percentage with small, moderate and large effects shown. Including technology and didactic components in small group-based interventions holds promise in motivating African American men to increase their physical activity.

  3. African Americans,hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra; F; Williams; Susanne; B; Nicholas; Nosratola; D; Vaziri; Keith; C; Norris

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system(RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans.

  4. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  5. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  6. A registry of adult African American twins: the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-02-01

    Twin studies have seldom addressed ethnicity as one of the possible factors that create unique combinations of genetic and environmental influences. The major objective of the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging is to identify the proportion of the genetic and environmental sources of individual variation in measures of health and behavioral factors in a sample of adult African Americans. Drawn from birth records from the State of North Carolina, this in-person study used public records to identify a cohort of twins between 22 and 92 years of age (X = 49.82 yrs, SD = 14.62), 39.7% of which were men. Members of non-intact twin pairs and siblings were also recruited to explore alternative models to the classic twin design. To date, the project has contributed to knowledge about blood pressure, forced expiratory volume, chronic illness, body mass index, and waist-hip ratio memory, personality, social, and demographic factors, mortality, and mental health.

  7. Neighborhood racial composition, racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-12-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults.

  8. Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

  9. Relationships among Blood Pressure, Triglycerides and Verbal Learning in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Gordon, Shalanda; Clark, Elijah; Abayomi, Kobi A.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) display poorer cognitive functioning across various cognitive domains. This finding is particularly prevalent among older adults; however, few studies examine these relationships among younger adults or among African Americans. Purpose The objective was to examine the relationships among 2 cardiovascular risk factors, elevated blood pressure and elevated triglycerides, and verbal learning in a community-based sample of African Americans. Methods Measurements of blood pressure and triglycerides were obtained in 121 African-American adults and compared to performance on 3 domains of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Results Blood pressure was not related to CVLT-II performance. Triglyceride levels were inversely related to CVLT-II performance. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poorer immediate, short delay and long delay recall. Conclusions Consistent with studies involving older participants, the current investigation shows that in a nonelderly sample of African Americans, triglyceride levels may be related to cognitive functioning. Because early detection and intervention of vascular-related cognitive impairment may have a salutary effect, future studies should include younger adults to highlight the impact of cardiovascular risk on cognition. PMID:18942281

  10. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  11. African and Arab American Achievement Motivation: Effects of Minority Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Bernadette S.; Hillman, Stephen B.

    The association between ethnic group identification, attributional style, and the use of self-protective attributions with respect to self-esteem, academic achievement and motivation among ethnically diverse adolescents was examined. Participants in the study included 422 African American, 90 Arab American, and 194 European American high school…

  12. Parent-Adolescent Conflict in African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Olivenne D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-10-01

    Parent-adolescent conflict is frequent in families and has implications for youth adjustment and family relationships. Drawing on a family systems perspective, we examined mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-aged siblings' (50.5 % females) reports of parent-adolescent conflict in 187 African American families. Using latent profile analysis in the context of an ethnic homogeneous design, we identified three family types based on levels of and differences between parent and youth conflict reports: low conflict, father high conflict, and younger sibling high conflict. Compared to low conflict families, youth in younger sibling high conflict families reported more depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. The results for parents' acceptance revealed that, in comparison to low conflict families, older siblings in father high conflict families reported lower acceptance from mothers, and mothers in these families reported lower acceptance of their children; further, older siblings in younger sibling high conflict families reported less acceptance from fathers, and fathers in these families reported less acceptance of their children. Results underscore the significance of levels of and both differences between and direction of differences in parents' and youth's reports of their "shared" experiences, as well as the importance of examining the larger family contexts of dyadic parent-relationships.

  13. The English History of African American English. Language and Society Series; 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplack, Shana, Ed.

    Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English…

  14. African Americans and Hospice Care: A Narrative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Patrick J; Roscoe, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that terminally ill African Americans' care is generally more expensive and of lower quality than that of comparable non-Hispanic white patients. Scholars argue that increasing hospice enrollment among African Americans will help improve end-of-life care for this population, yet few studies have examined the experiences of African American patients and their loved ones after accessing hospice care. In this article, we explore how African American patients and lay caregivers evaluated their hospice experiences. Drawing from 39 in-depth interviews with 26 participants, we use a modified version of Bute and Jensen's (2011) narrative typology to organize patients' and caregivers' stories into three general categories: narratives of satisfaction, narratives of regret, and narratives of ambivalence. Building from these categories, we discuss the implications of this research for understanding hospice experiences, promoting hospice access, and improving end-of-life care for marginalized populations.

  15. African American marriage in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Elaine B

    2002-01-01

    It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.

  16. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  17. Directory of Scholarships for African-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This database lists scholarships specifically available to African American students and some available to minority students in general. Scholarships for undergraduates in general and specific fields and awards for graduate and professional students are listed. (SLD)

  18. Issues in Reconstructing Earlier African-American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Walt

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the major issues that need to be confronted in resolving the controversy over the historical roots of African American Vernacular English. and discusses their implications for reconstruction. (Author/VWL)

  19. Assessing Stigma among African Americans Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations.

  20. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... music they made-- songs of hurt and hardship, yearning and hope, and struggle for a better day. Those feelings speak to something common in all of us. With passion and creativity, African-American...

  1. Telephone surveys underestimate cigarette smoking among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope eLandrine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method. A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N= 2118 California (CA African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315, a statewide, random digit-dial telephone-survey conducted simultaneously. Results. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33% than among telephone-survey (19% Blacks, even after controlling for sample-differences in demographics.Conclusions. Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them.

  2. Use and Misuse of Speech Diagnostics for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, John

    2015-01-01

    Many African American students have been tested using speech pathology diagnostics that are ill suited to their distinctive linguistic circumstances. Slave descendants of African origin share a unique linguistic heritage in contrast and comparison to every other immigrant group residing within America. In an effort to overcome the legacy of…

  3. Decline of African American Enlistment in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    be considered equal men. Racially motivated slander, bigotry, and condemnation of African Americans’ wartime service plagued the Army at the... workplace . The Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 was another program that assisted Vietnam Veterans in education and job placement...programs, which are now nearly extinct , gave priority to hiring of minorities and offering government contracts to African American businesses. Many

  4. Relativization Strategies in Earlier African American Vernacular English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottie, Gunnel; Rey, Michel

    1997-01-01

    Examines the system of relative markers in early African American English as documented in the Ex-Slave Recordings. Found a higher incidence of zero marking in adverbial than in nonadverbial relatives. The lack of "wh"-relatives found, as well as this frequency of zero subject relatives, is interpreted as evidence that African American…

  5. Relativization strategies in Earlier African American Vernacular English

    OpenAIRE

    Tottie, Gunnel; Rey, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This article, which examines the system of relative markers in Early African American English as documented in the Ex-Slave Recordings (Bailey et al., 1991), is intended as a contribution to two areas of research: African American Vernacular English and the system of relativization in English. We found a significantly higher incidence of zero marking in adverbial relatives than in non-adverbial relatives. Among non-adverbial relatives, a variable rule analysis showed that non-humanness of the...

  6. Bessie Coleman, First African American Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1921-01-01

    Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.

  7. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Mehari

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence in United States (US adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs. However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA.To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system.We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO with wide range of BMI.Functional residual capacity (FRC and expiratory reserve volume (ERV decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV. However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC and residual volume (RV were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients.We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases.

  8. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  9. Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie

    2003-04-15

    The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials.

  10. Cultural barriers to African American participation in anxiety disorders research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.

  11. Clozapine underutilization and discontinuation in African Americans due to leucopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Deanna L; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa; Love, Raymond C; Medoff, Deborah; Conley, Robert R

    2007-09-01

    Clozapine use has been notably lower in African American patients than in Caucasians. It has been suggested that lower normal ranges for white blood cell (WBC) counts in African Americans, known as benign ethnic neutropenia, may account partially for the disparity. We examined the rates of leucopenia and agranulocytosis as reasons for discontinuation of clozapine in a sample of 1875 patients with schizophrenia treated in the State of Maryland. Between 1989 and 1999, 5.3% (31/588) of African Americans and 2.4% (31/1287) of Caucasians discontinued clozapine treatment due to leucopenia (chi square = 10.35, df = 1, P = 0.001). No African American patients developed agranulocytosis while 8 Caucasian patients (0.62%) developed this blood dyscrasia. Discontinuations due to leucopenia occurred throughout treatment. Discontinuations due to agranulocytosis occurred primarily in the first 18 weeks (7/8; 87.5% patients with agranulocytosis). It is likely that African Americans had clozapine discontinued unnecessarily due to benign ethnic neutropenia. We concur with recent recommendations to acknowledge differences in WBC values in African Americans and to modify prescribing guidelines or formally acknowledge benign ethnic leucopenia like in other countries in order to facilitate greater use of clozapine in these patients.

  12. Development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy in African-Americans and whites with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, C L; Reno, P L; Santiago, J V; Klein, R

    1998-05-01

    To investigate the comparable risk of developing proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in African-Americans and whites with type 1 diabetes. Using a cohort design with the sample drawn from medical records, the sample consisted of 312 people with type 1 diabetes (97 African-Americans, 215 whites) having at least two visits to a Model Demonstration Unit with gradeable fundus photographs (stereo, color, 7 standard fields). Excluded were subjects with preexisting or treated PDR or hemoglobinopathy. Masked grading of the fundus photographs was conducted at the Wisconsin Reading Center. At baseline, African-Americans had poorer glycemic control (mean HbA1 of 11.3 vs. 10.0%, P < 0.0001), higher systolic blood pressure (mean of 117 vs. 110 mmHg, P < 0.001), and were older (mean of 26.8 vs. 19.3 years, P < 0.0001) than the white subjects. African-Americans also tended to have slightly longer duration of diabetes and length of follow-up. In the African-Americans, 17.5% developed PDR, compared with 10.2% in the 215 whites, for an odds ratio (OR) of 1.86 (95% CI 0.93-3.70). When adjusted for baseline glycemic control, retinopathy grade, and length of follow-up, race was not a significant risk factor (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.30-1.78). African-Americans with type 1 diabetes may have a higher rate of developing PDR. The observed racial difference, however, is attributable to the presence of a worse risk factor profile, especially to poorer glycemic control. Efforts should be expanded to improve the care for all individuals with poor glycemic control.

  13. Counseling Older Japanese American Clients: An Overview and Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Goro; McRae, Cynthia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses important aspects of providing counseling to older Japanese American clients, including ethical issues based on cultural differences and nontraditional approaches to counseling. Examines unique historical and cultural characteristics of these clients. Includes 26 citations. (Author/CRR)

  14. Accelerometry cut points for physical activity in underserved African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trumpeter Nevelyn N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their increased use, no studies have examined the validity of Actical accelerometry cut points for moderate physical activity (PA in underserved (low-income, high-crime, minority populations. The high rates of chronic disease and physical inactivity in these populations likely impact the measurement of PA. There is growing concern that traditionally defined cut points may be too high for older or inactive adults. The present study aimed to determine the self-selected pace associated with instructions to “walk for exercise” and the corresponding accelerometry estimates (e.g., Actical counts/minute for underserved, African American adults. Method Fifty one participants (61% women had a mean age of 60.1 (SD = 9.9 and a mean body mass index of 30.5 kg/m2 (SD = 6.0. They performed one seated task, one standing task, and three walking tasks: “strolling”; “walking for exercise”; and “walking in an emergency.” Results The average pace for strolling, walking for exercise, and walking in an emergency were 1.62 miles per hour (mph; SD = .51, 2.51 mph (SD = .53, and 2.86 mph (SD = .58, respectively. The average Actical counts/minute for the five activities were: 4 (SD = 15, 16 (SD = 29, 751 (SD = 591, 2006 (SD = 1095, and 2617 (SD = 1169, respectively. Regression analyses showed that the predicted counts/minute for a pace of 2.0 mph (which is used as the criterion for moderate exercise in this study was 1075 counts/minute (SEM = 73. Conclusions The cut point associated with subjectively determined moderate PA is similar to those previously published for older adults and extends the use of adjusted cut points to African American populations. These results indicate that accurate cut points can be obtained using this innovative methodology.

  15. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  16. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  17. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  18. Gestational diabetes mellitus among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, J M; Go, R C; Perkins, L L; Barger, B D; Bell, D H; Goldenberg, R L; DuBard, M B; Huddleston, J F; Sedlacek, C M; Acton, R T

    1991-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of poor outcomes for the pregnancy. It is a strong risk factor for subsequent diabetes. The epidemiology of GDM in African-American women is not well known. It has not been demonstrated that their risk factors are similar in character and weight to those among White women. There is considerable multicollinearity among GDM risk factors such as age, parity, obesity, hypertension, and family history of diabetes, and this needs to be sorted out. This review is based on the results of a nested case-control study to evaluate the frequency of, and the relationships of the known risk factors with, the onset of GDM among African-American women. All cases of GDM within a cohort of women seen at any of the county health department clinics in Jefferson County, Alabama from 1981 to 1987 were identified. The cohort represents approximately 63% of all African-American pregnancies in the county during the period. With few exceptions (5.1% based on fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 120 mg/dl), potential GDM cases (7.1%) were selected on the basis of a 2 h post 100 g carbohydrate meal screening plasma glucose measure at their second prenatal visit and again at 28-32 weeks greater than or equal to 115 mg/dl and diagnosed on the basis of the results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) using the criteria of O'Sullivan and Mahan. Women with any prior history of diabetes (even in pregnancy), 1.6%, were excluded. The frequency of the new diagnosis of GDM among African-American women in this pregnancy in the cohort was 2.5% of pregnancies and 3.4% of women, which is similar to the values reported in the other studies. Controls were selected from women with negative screening tests who delivered after a GDM subject. The results reported in this paper reflect 358 cases (86% of all eligible GDM cases identified) and 273 controls. Cases were significantly older (28.3 vs. 21.7 years), of higher gravidity (2

  19. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  20. Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…

  1. An analysis of African American Vernacular English in Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chen-yang

    2014-01-01

    AAVE is a form of American English spoken primarily by African Americans. Although an AAVE speaker's dialect may exhibit regional variation, there are still many salient features. The relationship between Black Music and Standard American Eng-lish is a reflection of the special situation of the mutual influence and infiltration of the African-American sub-culture and the main-stream American culture. African-American sub-culture is shaped under pressure from the main-stream culture, and af-fected the latter to so great an extent that African-American sub-culture has been identified as one of the most important feature of American culture. The origin and development of Black Music are closely related to the cultural life of the Blacks. Because of its innate cultural connotation and the musical feature such as lively rhythm, fast talking, omission of pronunciation, full of ob-scene language and rhyme, all the features mentioned above help to have a great effect on the development of the AAVE.

  2. Vital Signs: The State of African Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in institutions of higher education in the United States. Statistics include trends in black enrollment, library resources in historically black colleges, leading foundation grants, blacks in business schools, and comparative analysis of Asian Americans and blacks in higher…

  3. Influence of Reading Ability on Neuropsychological Performance in African American Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brooke C.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Use of normative data stratified by education may result in misclassification of African American older adults because reading ability, an estimate of educational attainment, is lower than reported years of education for some African American elders. This study examined the contribution of reading ability versus education to neuropsychological test performance in 86 community-dwelling African American elders ages 56–91 with 8–18 years of education. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that reading ability, but not education, was significantly associated with performances on the Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Animal Naming, Digit Span, and the Stroop test. Reading ability was not significantly related to performances on measures of memory. Medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.58–1.41) were found when comparing mean performances on neuropsychological measures in groups with low versus high reading scores. Results indicate that reading ability contributes beyond educational attainment to performances on some neuropsychological measures among African American elders. These findings have implications for reducing misclassification among minority populations through the use of appropriate normative data. PMID:21835850

  4. Different types of distrust in clinical research among whites and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Raegan W; Legedza, Anna T; Marcantonio, Edward R; Freeman, Marcie B; Landon, Bruce E

    2011-02-01

    African Americans are thought to be more distrustful of clinical research compared to elderly whites, but it is unknown whether specific types of distrust in clinical research, such as interpersonal or societal distrust, vary according to race. The primary objective was to identify racial differences in interpersonal or societal distrust in clinical research among African Americans and whites. Seven hundred seventy-six older African Americans and whites were surveyed about their interpersonal and societal distrust using a 7-item index of distrust in clinical research. We combined the 2 societal distrust items into a societal distrust subscale. We also assessed trust in primary care physicians, access to care, health/functional status, previous exposure to clinical research, awareness of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, perceived discrimination in health care, and sociodemographic characteristics. High societal distrust was more common among African Americans compared to whites (21% vs 7% in the top quartile of the societal distrust, p type of distrust in clinical research may warrant assessing specific types of distrust separately among racially diverse populations in future studies.

  5. Prevalence rates of hypertension self-care activities among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the self-care activities that contribute to blood pressure control may explain health disparities experienced by African Americans with hypertension. This study assessed the prevalence of self-care activities among African Americans with high blood pressure and examined differences between adherers and nonadherers to self-care activities. Interviews were conducted with 186 African Americans. Self-care activities were measured using the H-SCALE (Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects), which was developed to assess the behavioral activities recommended for optimal management of high blood pressure. More than half of participants reported adhering to medication recommendations and prescribed physical activity levels (58.6% and 52.2%, respectively). Following practices related to weight management was less frequent, (30.1%) and adherence to low-salt diet recommendations was also low (22.0%). Three-fourths were nonsmokers and 65% abstained from alcohol. Across the self-care activities, adherers were more likely to be older and female. Nonadherers were more likely to be uninsured. Many African Americans still face challenges related to hypertension self-care, particularly with weight management and salt reduction. The H-SCALE was a valid and reliable measure of hypertension self-care activities. In addition to monitoring blood pressure, health care providers should assess patients' hypertension self-care activities using the H-SCALE.

  6. Racial Discrimination, John Henryism, and Depression Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darrell L; Neighbors, Harold W; Geronimus, Arline T; Jackson, James S

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from previous studies indicates that racial discrimination is significantly associated with depression and that African Americans with higher levels of socioeconomic status (SES) report greater exposure to racial discrimination compared to those with lower SES levels. Coping strategies could alter the relationship between racial discrimination and depression among African Americans. This study first examined whether greater levels of SES were associated with increased reports of racial discrimination and ratings of John Henryism, a measure of high-effort coping, among African Americans. Second, we examined whether high-effort coping moderated the relationship between racial discrimination and depression. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life Reinterview (n = 2,137). Analyses indicated that greater levels of education were positively associated with racial discrimination (p racial discrimination were positively related to depression (p discrimination and depression was altered by the effects of John Henryism.

  7. Mini-Mental State Exam performance of older African Americans: effect of age, gender, education, hypertension, diabetes, and the inclusion of serial 7s subtraction versus "world" backward on score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Keith A; Cromer, Jennifer R; Piotrowski, Andrea S; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2011-11-01

    The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) is a clinically ubiquitous yet incompletely standardized instrument. Though the test offers considerable examiner leeway, little data exist on the normative consequences of common administration variations. We sought to: (a) determine the effects of education, age, gender, health status, and a common administration variation (serial 7s subtraction vs. "world" spelled backward) on MMSE score within a minority sample, (b) provide normative data stratified on the most empirically relevant bases, and (c) briefly address item failure rates. African American citizens (N = 298) aged 55-87 living independently in the community were recruited by advertisement, community recruitment, and word of mouth. Total score with "world" spelled backward exceeded total score with serial 7s subtraction across all levels of education, replicating findings in Caucasian samples. Education is the primary source of variance on MMSE score, followed by age. In this cohort, women out-performed men when "world" spelled backward was included, but there was no gender effect when serial 7s subtraction was included in MMSE total score. To ensure an appropriate interpretation of MMSE scores, reports, whether clinical or in publications of research findings, should be explicit regarding the administration method. Stratified normative data are provided.

  8. Ageism and body esteem: associations with psychological well-being among late middle-aged African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Natalie J

    2015-03-01

    Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals' self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism's associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Ageism and Body Esteem: Associations With Psychological Well-Being Among Late Middle-Aged African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801

  10. What influences African American end-of-life preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Camille P; Meeker, Mary Ann

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. population is aging and increasingly culturally diverse. The challenges of an aging population desiring a good end to their lives combined with soaring costs for medical care serve as a mandate for providers to be aware of both patient preferences and other factors influencing decision-making at the end of life. Systematic review of published research studies examining African American preferences related to end-of-life care and decision-making. There are well documented differences in preferences for end-of-life care and utilization of services between non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. African Americans do not use advance care planning (ACP) documents or hospice to the same extent as non-Hispanic Whites, and, even after controlling for income and access, the difference is significant. Many African Americans choose aggressive life-sustaining treatment at the end of life, even if that treatment seems likely to confer great burden with little chance of benefit. The reasons for this are multi-faceted and include knowledge of and access to services, historical mistrust of the health care system, and spiritual beliefs. African American end-of-life choices are influenced by knowledge of and access to services as well as by shared cultural beliefs in the role of family and others in decision-making, mistrust toward the health care system, and the importance of spirituality.

  11. Psoriasis in African-Americans: a caregivers' survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Amy J; Vachiramon, Vasanop; Guzmán-Sánchez, Daniela Araucaria; Camacho, Fabian

    2012-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease in Caucasians but less common in African-Americans. Our aim is to evaluate caregiver opinions regarding the clinical presentations and treatment of psoriasis in African-Americans compared to Caucasians. A survey was sent to 29 dermatologists who are opinion leaders in the field of psoriasis. The survey included a number of questions regarding the characteristics of the patients seen in their practice. A total of 29 surveys were completed and returned. All of the dermatologists use the extent of disease as a criterion to determine the severity of the disease. Other criteria include scale, thickness, erythema, associated general symptoms, and dyspigmentation. About 66% of the respondents reported the different manifestations of disease, such as more dyspigmentation, thicker plaques, and less erythema in African-Americans. The most common first-line treatments for mild to moderate disease were highpotency topical steroids (68%) followed by topical vitamin D analogues (41%). For moderate to severe disease, the most commonly used first-line treatments were high-potency topical steroids (54%) and phototherapy (46%). The clinical manifestations of psoriasis in African-Americans are not exactly the same as in Caucasians. Physicians should be aware of the difference in clinical manifestations in African-Americans. Further research and large-scale studies are necessary to elucidate the differences in the clinical presentation, natural course of the disease, and the criteria used for the evaluation of severity among ethnic groups.

  12. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  13. Why Is There an Overrepresentation of African Americans in Special Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, Jean E. van

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how cultural differences contribute to overrepresentation of African Americans in special education, examining European American cultural expectations that clash with those of African Americans. Factors contributing to overrepresentation include cultural discontinuity and prejudicial practices among African American students and European…

  14. Education in time: cohort differences in educational attainment in African-American twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Szanton

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Educational opportunities for African-Americans expanded throughout the 20(th century. Twin pairs are an informative population in which to examine changes in educational attainment because each twin has the same parents and childhood socioeconomic status. We hypothesized that correlation in educational attainment of older twin pairs would be higher compared to younger twin pairs reflecting changes in educational access over time and potentially reflecting a "ceiling effect" associated with Jim Crow laws and discrimination. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from 211 same-sex twin pairs (98 identical, 113 fraternal in the Carolina African-American Twin Study of Aging who were identified through birth records. Participants completed an in-person interview. The twins were predominantly female (61%, with a mean age of 50 years (SD = 0.5. We found that older age groups had a stronger intra-twin correlation of attained educational level. Further analysis across strata revealed a trend across zygosity, with identical twins demonstrating more similar educational attainment levels than did their fraternal twin counterparts, suggesting a genetic influence. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that as educational opportunities broadened in the 20th century, African-Americans gained access to educational opportunities that better matched their individual abilities.

  15. Selecting renal replacement therapies: what do African American and non-African American patients and their families think others should know? A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DePasquale Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans.

  16. Cognitive test performance among nondemented elderly African Americans and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, J J; Jacobs, D M; Sano, M; Bell, K; Merchant, C A; Small, S A; Stern, Y

    1998-05-01

    We examined the neuropsychological test performance of a randomly selected community sample of English-speaking non-Hispanic African American and white elders in northern Manhattan. All participants were diagnosed as nondemented by a neurologist, whose assessment was made independent of neuropsychological test scores. African American elders obtained significantly lower scores on measures of verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, abstract reasoning, language, and visuospatial skill than whites. After using a stratified random sampling technique to match groups on years of education, many of the discrepancies became nonsignificant; however, significant ethnic group differences on measures of figure memory, verbal abstraction, category fluency, and visuospatial skill remained. Discrepancies in test performance of education-matched African Americans and whites could not be accounted for by occupational attainment or history of medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. These findings emphasize the importance of using culturally appropriate norms when evaluating ethnically diverse elderly for dementia.

  17. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  18. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Assessment of religious and spiritual capital in African American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L

    2012-12-01

    African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.

  20. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  1. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  2. Promoting diabetes self-management among African Americans: an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eleanor A; Stevens, Karen A; Persaud, Sabita

    2010-08-01

    Diabetes is a major national health problem that affects African Americans more seriously than other population groups. The purpose of this project was to increase knowledge and self-management of diabetes among African American adults 40 years of age and older diagnosed with type II diabetes. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test comparison group design was used. Three educational sessions were provided to participants in the intervention group. Content included information about diabetes and its complications, risk factors, proper diet, recommendations for exercise, medications, and monitoring blood glucose. Teaching strategies included discussion, games, and demonstrations. Patient navigators provided follow-up by phone at the scheduled intervals. Preliminary results indicated significantly increased knowledge among intervention group participants between the pre- and post-test and the pre-test and follow-up. Findings for HbA1c values, body mass index, and weight were not significant.

  3. Retinopathy in African Americans and whites with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, C L; Salicrup, A E; Meuer, S M; Del Priore, L V; Klein, R; McGill, J B; Rucker, C S; White, N H; Santiago, J V

    1994-11-28

    The development and progression of diabetic retinopathy in African Americans with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is not known. Two hundred subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with duration of diabetes 16 years or less at first visit were studied; 58 were African Americans and 142 were whites. All had gradable stereoscopic color fundus photographs (seven standard fields) from at least two visits (mean time between first and second visit was 4.1 years). Subjects with hemoglobinopathy or proliferative retinopathy or subjects who had evidence of treatment for proliferative retinopathy at first visit were excluded. Masked grading of photographs was conducted using the modified Airlie House classification scheme. African Americans were older, heavier, had higher systolic blood pressure (all P < .05), and marginally higher hemoglobin A1 (HbA1) values (P = .06) than the whites at first visit. African Americans had a lower rate of two steps or more progression from preexistent retinopathy (19%) than whites (43%). Progression to proliferative retinopathy or treatment was similar by race. Multivariate analysis predicting development oe progression of retinopathy, while controlling for length of follow-up, found higher HbA1 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15), longer duration of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.69), higher serum creatinine concentration (OR = 1.59), and white race (OR = 2.62) to be independent risk factors. These data suggest a previously unsuspected reduction in the adjusted risk for development and progression of retinopathy in African Americans. The reason for this apparently reduced risk are not known.

  4. 76 FR 25523 - Older Americans Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Americans, celebrate their role in steering the course of our history, and recognize their valuable insights... kitchens. They mentor our children and stock the shelves at food pantries and libraries. Programs...

  5. 75 FR 23559 - Older Americans Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... prevention programs to help seniors remain healthy and close to their loved ones. The Administration on Aging..., while protecting Social Security, we help ensure all Americans can age with dignity. The...

  6. Recruiting African Americans into Research on Cognitive Aging

    OpenAIRE

    McDOUGALL, GRAHAM J.; Holston, Ezra C.; Wilke, Pat

    2001-01-01

    A total of 218 adults with an average age of seventy-eight years participated in a study of memory performance in community elders. A computer-generated random zip code list of adults ≥70 years of age was purchased and a four-phase telephone-screening plan was adopted. During the second year, the sampling plan had to be changed, with a convenience-sampling plan being adopted to recruit adequate numbers of African-American subjects. Fifty-seven percent of the African-American subjects (N = 55)...

  7. African American families' expectations and intentions for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Perry, Sylvia P; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2013-09-01

    A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans' engagement in mental health services.

  8. Volunteer work in the church among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith.

  9. Alexa Irene Canady: the first African-American woman neurosurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood

    2008-04-01

    The advances of the civil rights movement in the mid-20th century made it possible for many African Americans to have the opportunity to enter the distinguished field of neurosurgery, beginning in 1953 with Clarence S. Greene, Sr. This report details the career and exploits of the first African-American woman neurosurgeon, Alexa Irene Canady, MD. A comprehensive review of pertinent modern and historical records spanning the past century was performed. Born on November 7, 1950, in Lansing, MI, Canady received her MD from the University of Michigan in 1975, graduating with distinction and being elected into the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society. Training in neurosurgery under Dr. Shelley Chou from 1976-1981 at the University of Minnesota, she became the program's first female graduate. Following residency, she trained as a pediatric neurosurgery fellow at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. In 1984, Canady became the first African-American woman certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery. She subsequently continued a long, distinguished career in pediatric neurosurgery, first at Henry Ford and later as chief of neurosurgery at Children's Hospital of Michigan before retiring in 2001. Among her many accolades, she was named 1993 Woman of the Year by the American Woman's Medical Association. Canady's diligence, perseverance and commitment enabled her to overcome tremendous odds to become the first African-American woman neurosurgeon, trained at the University of Minnesota. A true pioneer, her achievements have inspired many, opening the door for subsequent women and African Americans to enhance the field of neurosurgery.

  10. Association of Substance Use Disorders With Childhood Trauma but not African Genetic Heritage in an African American Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuan, Nicole P; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, Lynn R; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Goldman, David; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    ... to environmental risk factors, including poverty and trauma. Method: The authors used 186 ancestry-informative markers to measure African ancestry in 407 addicts and 457 comparison subjects self-identified as African Americans...

  11. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  12. African American Women and Obesity Through the Prism of Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith

    2017-08-01

    There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between race and body mass index (BMI) for African American women. Previously collected data from the National Survey of American Life Self-Administered Questionnaire, 2001-2003 (NSAL-SAQ) was analyzed for this study. The NSAL-SAQ dedicated a section to the exploration of group and personal identity, along with having anthropometric data and health habit questions to be able to conduct analyses for associations between the racial identity dimensions and obesity. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the constructs of racial identity on BMI comparing standardized coefficients (β) and R(2)adj values. Results indicated participants ascribing more to the stereotype of "Blacks giving up easily" (β = 0.527, p = .000) showed an increased BMI. Additionally, the negative stereotype of "Blacks being violent" (β = 0.663, p = .000) and "Blacks being lazy" (β = 0.506, p = .001) was associated with an increased BMI. Based on these finds high negative racial regard is associated with increased weight. This study contributes uniquely to the scientific literature, focusing on the construct of racial identity and obesity in African American women.

  13. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  14. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  15. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  16. The prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Eschbach, Karl A; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans in the United States and Mexico. Stratified by sex, logistic regression models to predict physician-diagnosed hypertension were conducted by using the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (wave 3) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (age > or =70 years) datasets. Older Mexican and Mexican American women have a greater prevalence of hypertension than their male counterparts. Mexican women who have migrated to the United States and returned to Mexico have similarly high rates of hypertension as their female counterparts in the United States. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, diabetes, obesity, alcohol use, and smoking, older Mexican women who have migrated to the United States are at increased risk for hypertension. Conversely, immigrant older Mexican American men are at significantly lower odds of hypertension. Sex differences exist in hypertension risk for older Mexicans and Mexican Americans living in the United States and Mexico. Older women who migrate to the United States are at a particular risk for hypertension in Mexico.

  17. Psychodynamics of Coping and Survival of the African-American Female in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carlene

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)

  18. Slaves No More: The Caring Power of African-American Female Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernak, Kathleen S.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author examines the historical significance of the cultural aspect of race on African American females' leadership values and styles that encourage caring in schools. The author focuses her study by asking: What aspects of their (African American female leaders) cultural backgrounds as Africans and as African Americans…

  19. HIV Infection and Older Americans: The Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A.; Mermin, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    HIV disease is often perceived as a condition affecting young adults. However, approximately 11% of new infections occur in adults aged 50 years or older. Among persons living with HIV disease, it is estimated that more than half will be aged 50 years or older in the near future. In this review, we highlight issues related to HIV prevention and treatment for HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected older Americans, and outline unique considerations and emerging challenges for public health and patient management in these 2 populations. PMID:22698038

  20. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  1. Rationale and design of the Newer Versus Older Antihypertensive Agents in African Hypertensive Patients (NOAAH) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Augustine N; Richart, Tom; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kingue, Samuel; Boombhi, Hilaire J; Lemogoum, Daniel; Kaptue, Joseph; Kamdem, Marius K; Mipinda, Jean-Bruno; Omotoso, Babatunde A; Kolo, Philip M; Aderibigbe, Ademola; Ulasi, Ifeoma I; Anisiuba, Benedict C; Ijoma, Chinwuba K; Ba, Serigne A; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou B; Staessen, Jan A; M'buyamba-Kabangu, Jean-René

    2011-10-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa experiences an epidemic surge in hypertension. Studies in African Americans led to the recommendation to initiate antihypertensive treatment in Blacks with a diuretic or a low-dose fixed combination including a diuretic. We mounted the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive Agents in African Hypertensive Patients (NOAAH) trial to compare in native African patients a fixed combination of newer drugs, not involving a diuretic, with a combination of older drugs including a diuretic. Patients aged 30-69 years with uncomplicated hypertension (140-179/90-109 mmHg) and two or fewer associated risk factors are eligible. After a 4-week run-in period off treatment, 180 patients will be randomized to once daily bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide 5/6.25 mg or amlodipine/valsartan 5/160 mg. To attain and maintain blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg during 6 months of follow-up, the doses of bisoprolol and amlodipine in the combination tablets will be increased to 10 mg/day with the possible addition of α-methyldopa or hydralazine. NOAAH is powered to demonstrate a 5-mmHg between-group difference in sitting systolic pressure with a two-sided p-value of 0.01 and 90% power. NOAAH is investigator-led and complies with the Helsinki declaration. Six centers in four sub-Saharan countries started patient recruitment on September 1, 2010. On December 1, 195 patients were screened, 171 were enrolled, and 51 were randomized and followed up. The trial will be completed in the third quarter of 2011. NOAAH (NCT01030458) is the first randomized multicenter trial of antihypertensive medications in hypertensive patients born and living in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Understanding Facilitators and Barriers to the Selection of Dietetics as a major by African American students.

    OpenAIRE

    Felton, Teena M

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Facilitators And Barriers To The Selection of Dietetics As A Major By African-American Students Teena M. Felton (ABSTRACT) Less than 5% of registered dietitians are African-American individuals. Little has been done to investigate reasons for the paucity of African-American professionals in the dietetics field. The specific aim of this study was, therefore, to explore facilitators and barriers to the selection of dietetics as a major by African-American students. ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs–African American Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  4. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English

    OpenAIRE

    Rickford, JR; Duncan, GJ; Gennetian, LA; Gou, RY; Greene, R.; Katz, LF; Kessler, RC; Kling, JR; Sanbonmatsu, L; Sanchez-Ordoñez, AE; Sciandra, M; Thomas, E.; Ludwig, J.; McLanahan, SS

    2015-01-01

    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. T...

  5. Influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shadi S; Trask, Jacqueline; Peterson, Tina; Martin, Bryan C; Baldwin, Josh; Knapp, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans was explored. This was a qualitative phenomenological study that involved in-depth interviews with 15 African American men and women aged 60 and older in Alabama. The sample size of 15 was adequate for the phenomenological method of this study. While this was a small exploratory study and was not intended for any generalizations, it did provide a unique opportunity to hear the voices, the concerns, and the stories of elderly African Americans, which have often been overlooked in the literature. The following themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) perception of health as ability to be active, (2) reluctance toward prescription medicine use, (3) lack of trust in doctors, (4) avoidance of bad news, (5) race of doctors, (6) use of home remedies, and (7) importance of God and spirituality on health, illness, and healing.

  6. W.E.B. Du Bois: Role Model and Mentor for African American Undergraduate Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Larry L.

    2001-01-01

    With the dearth of African American men in academe, African American college men have few opportunities to be mentored by those who can best help them make sense of their experience. Du Bois' writings give voice to much of the African American college experience and provide concrete examples of how to think, act, and persevere in the U.S.…

  7. What's So "Powerful" about African American Children's Literature?: Let's Ask the Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefflin, Bena R.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines what educators and academics describe as the "power" of children's literature and multicultural children's literature, which includes African American children's literature. Explores what four African American third-graders have to say about the "power" of six African American children's books. Concludes with the patterns and implications…

  8. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  9. Aspects of the Student Engagement of African American Men in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Paulette B.

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…

  10. "Eyes in the back of Your Head": Moral Themes in African American Narratives of Racial Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janie Victoria

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes African-Americans narratives of interracial conflict. Concludes that issues of power and authority are imbedded in interracial interpersonal relationships. Explores themes of justice and care in the psychological development of African Americans and in the transmission of race-related morals and values in African-American culture. (DK)

  11. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  12. Nuances of Error: Considerations Relevant to African American Vernacular English and Learning to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the presence of African American Vernacular English patterns in the reading of one child over a 20-week period. In this paper, I present insights from linguists about African American Vernacular English, list linguistic patterns characteristic of African American Vernacular English speakers, examine the relationship between the…

  13. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  14. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  15. Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im H.

    2011-01-01

    African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

  16. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Offspring of African American Mothers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…

  17. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  18. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  19. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  20. African American Families Under Fire: Ethnographic Views of Family Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Beth; Klingner, Janette K.; Hart, Juliet

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the discrepancy between school personnel's negative stereotyping of African American families and the family information gleaned by ethnographic research. Using findings from a 3-year ethnographic study of the special education placement process in a culturally diverse urban school district, we describe the general…

  1. Improving the Diets of African-Americans: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated African Americans' dietary patterns in light of national nutrition recommendations. Questionnaires and focus groups indicated that most respondents rated their diets good or excellent, but most had unhealthy eating habits. Most had recently tried to lower fat intake. Milk, whole grains, vegetables, and water were the most difficult…

  2. Factors in the Academic Success of African American College Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Edward

    The most prevalent factors in the academic success of African American male undergraduate students at the University of South Carolina were studied. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) mathematics and verbal scores and high school rank were the independent, cognitive variables; and self-esteem, academic self-concept, religiosity, African…

  3. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  4. Alternatives to Suspending African American High School Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. KIRIAKIDIS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research site was one high school in the southern United States where African American males were suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of high school administrators and teachers regarding alternatives to suspending African American males in one southern high school within a public school district. Guided by the social learning theory, the research question focused on the suspensions of these students. Data were collected through in-depth, semi structured, face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 6 high school teachers and 2 administrators, and coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The findings revealed that African American high school males might benefit from education programs such as character education programs to develop social, academic, and discipline skills. The findings of this study may be used for professional development for teachers and administrators regarding strategies to reduce suspensions of African American high school males, which might facilitate their graduation from high school and subsequent entry into higher education or the workforce.lications to display the level of psychological strain and workplace stressors among nurses as part of the postmodern organizational problems. Classification-JEL: A23

  5. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  6. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  7. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  8. NGOMA: Celebrate the Dream with African-American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Sabrina A.

    2008-01-01

    How can everyone celebrate the most powerful dream (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s) in America's history, which paved the way for civil rights, equality, and social justice? How can everyone heighten students' awareness of these civil and social issues? An increased use of African-American literature is one effective way. In this article,…

  9. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  10. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Format: ...

  11. African American Homeschooling and the Quest for a Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2015-01-01

    Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…

  12. Allostatic Load and Health Status of African Americans and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…

  13. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  14. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  15. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  16. Reasons for African American Student Attrition from School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…

  17. Family Influences on the Career Development of African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Elaine Roundtree

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how families influence the career education and career awareness of African American students in grades K-3. Existing literature indicated that scholars have focused their attention on the career education of college level students and counselors working with students in high schools; however, research…

  18. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  19. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  20. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  1. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  2. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  3. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  4. Madness or Elitism? African Americans Who Reject HBCUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Theodis E., II

    2005-01-01

    The author conducted focus groups with seven Black male college-aged students who either attend or attended predominantly White institutions (PWI) in the South. The author believes that it is important to pay close attention to the attitudes of African Americans enrolled in PWIs and HBCUs. Both students and educators should recognize the…

  5. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  6. Culturally Responsive Collegiate Mathematics Education: Implications for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…

  7. Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Suicidal Behavior among African American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Lane, Danielle Bradshaw; Kingree, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates how childhood maltreatment and current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) predict nonfatal suicide attempts among 335 African American women. PTSD in combination with any of the maltreatments of childhood increased the risk of suicide attempts. Suggests that interventions designed to reduce suicidal behavior should focus on women…

  8. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  9. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  10. Exploration of the Lived Experiences of Illiterate African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, LaTonya Michell

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the stories of illiterate African American adults to determine the factors that led to their illiteracy. Narrative techniques were utilized to discern themes from narrative accounts of eight participants. The participants were enrolled in one of two adult basic education programs referred to as ABE I and ABE…

  11. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  12. Developmental Origins of Perfectionism among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  14. Wellness and Coping Activities of African American Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy M.

    1997-01-01

    Examined physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual wellness activities of African American mental health counselors and behaviors they used to cope with racism. Counselors used a wide variety of wellness strategies, although counselors in school settings were less likely to engage in occupational wellness activities. Confrontation was the most…

  15. African American Women's Self Esteem Workshop: Yalom Meets Karenga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Denise; Murry, Sherri

    Yalom's group theory and Karenga's Afrocentric paradigm are integrated in a workshop for African American women via the topical themes of each workshop session, the developmental approach from a semistructured group to a process-oriented group, and the process of training a practicum student. A six-week, semi-structured self-esteem workshop was…

  16. Teaching and Learning African American History in a Multiracial Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkatur, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The author explores the challenges of teaching and learning African American history, a history fraught with uncomfortable implications about contemporary race relations and race-based inequalities. Drawing on various theories of anti-oppressive education, and using data from an ethnographic study conducted in one history classroom, the author…

  17. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  18. Cultural Identification and Academic Achievement among African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…

  19. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  20. Factors Predicting Communal Attitudes among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Hearn, Kimberly D.; Jagers, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the direct effects of demographic variables, religiosity, psychosocial stress variables, and sociostructural variables on the communal attitudes of 171 African American adult men, aged 17 to 79 years. Age and educational attainment were not significantly associated with communalism. Relational stress, financial stress, and stress resulting…

  1. Meetings with Elaine, an African and Native American Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Melanie Merola

    2006-01-01

    The author, a Caucasian doctoral student of clinical psychology, examined her ongoing interaction with Elaine, an adult woman of African and Native American descent. Incidents of learning during the interaction process are reviewed and qualitative and quantitative assessments are provided to examine the effectiveness of such interactions in a…

  2. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  3. Strategies for Preventing Disproportionate Exclusions of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Tary J.; Vincent, Claudia G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied changes in disproportionate exclusion of African American students, compared with their White peers, in relation to implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support using data from 46 schools. They measured (a) exclusion through suspension and expulsion data collected with the Schoolwide Information System; (b) Schoolwide…

  4. Mnemopoetics. Memory and Slavery in African American Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Bada, Valérie

    2008-01-01

    Through the close reading and socio-historical analysis of 8 African American plays from 1939 to 1996, Bada seeks to unravel the fluctuating patterns in the shaping of the theatrical memory of slavery ("a mnemopoetics of slavery") long after its abolition.

  5. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  6. African American Vernacular English and Dialect Awareness in English Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Riki

    This paper examines the importance of teaching about non-standard dialect awareness in English departments, focusing on African American Vernacular English (AAVE). The paper asserts that it is the job of teachers to present students with appropriate knowledge about language and to raise awareness of nonstandard dialects, rather than perpetuate…

  7. Variability in Negation in African American Vernacular English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Tracey

    1994-01-01

    Provides a framework to describe the variability between negative auxiliaries in predicative constructions based on a quantitative analysis of data collected on African American vernacular English. Results indicate that, with the possible exception of the negative present variation, the alternations all belong to one underlying system. (56…

  8. Mathematics Achievement and African-American Students in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Corinna A.; Wilson, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Designed to examine the effect of various factors on the mathematics achievement of African-American students attending urban schools, this study analyzed the importance of seven constructs that are believed to either directly or indirectly impact student success. Based on factors identified by research as essential to mathematics achievement, all…

  9. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  10. Early Pregnancy and Academic Achievement of African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Loretta Pinkard

    1992-01-01

    Case studies of 10 unmarried, African-American adolescent mothers at risk of dropping out of school are presented, revealing the stressful situations created by competing demands of school and home. Educational deficits that existed prior to pregnancy and their influence on contraceptive behavior and pregnancy resolution are noted. Intervention…

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  12. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  13. Kin networks and poverty among African Americans: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Farber, Naomi B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in social welfare policy and programs place increasing expectations on families to provide members with various forms of material and socioemotional support. The historic ability of kin networks of many African Americans to provide such support has been compromised by long-term community and family poverty. The potential mismatch between the expectations of social welfare systems for kin support and the actual functional capacities of kin networks places African Americans living in poverty at great risk of chronic poverty and its long-term multiple consequences. This article reviews historical and contemporary research on the structure and function of African American kin networks. On the basis of evidence of functional decline, the authors argue that social workers must re-examine the a priori assumption of viable kin networks as a reliable source of resilience among African Americans living in poverty. Social workers must focus assessment at all levels of practice on a variety of aspects of kin networks to make accurate judgments about not only the availability of resources, but also the perceived costs and benefits of participation in exchange for resources.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  15. Albert Sidney Beckham: The First African American School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…

  16. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... generations of African Americans, free and slave, who risked everything to realize their God-given rights. We listen to the echoes of speeches and struggle that made our Nation stronger, and we hear again the... me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim February 2013...

  17. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  18. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  19. Positive Parenting among African American Mothers with a Serious Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol T.; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Using a sample of African American mothers (N=202) diagnosed with mental illness, the effects of poverty; maternal education; social support; maternal and social stress; current mental health; and psychiatric history were examined for effects on positive parenting. Strongest predictors of parenting attitudes were stress and current mental health.…

  20. "Brown," Political Economy, and the Scientific Education of African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, William F., IV

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is to…

  1. Relationship of Pain and Ancestry in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, John A.; Qi, Lihong; Garcia, Lorena; Younger, Jarred W.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Methods 11,239 self-identified African American post menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, “Pain Construct” measurements and covariate information. They answered 5 questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache, and urinary. They also answered 2 questions which were used to derive a “Pain Construct”, a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1 to 100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighborhood socio-economic status, education, and depression. Results In the unadjusted model of the 5 specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [Beta = −0.132, 95% confidence interval (C I) = −099 – −0.164; r = −0.075, 95% CI −0.056 – −0.093] and the adjusted models (Beta = −0.069 95% CI = −0.04 – 0.10). Conclusions Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. PMID:25752262

  2. Relationship of pain and ancestry in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J A; Qi, L; Garcia, L; Younger, J W; Seldin, M F

    2015-05-01

    African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Exactly, 11,239 self-identified African American post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, "Pain Construct" measurements and covariate information. They answered five questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache and urinary. They also answered two questions which were used to derive a "Pain Construct", a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1-100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighbourhood socio-economic status, education and depression. In the unadjusted model of the five specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [β = -0.132, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -099 to -0.164; r = -0.075, 95% CI -0.056 to -0.093] and the adjusted models (β = -0.069 95% CI = -0.04 to -0.10). Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain, although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. Psychology's contribution to the well-being of older americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…

  5. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  6. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…

  7. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  8. Factors that Influence Career Choice among Native American and African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…

  9. Predictors of African American and European American Adolescents' Endorsement of Race-Conscious Social Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b)…

  10. Consequences of Learning about Historical Racism among European American and African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Levy, Sheri R.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about racism is a critical component of educational curricula and contemporary race relations. To examine children's responses to learning about racism, European American (Study 1; N = 48) and African American (Study 2; N = 69) elementary-aged children (ages 6-11) received history lessons that included information about racism…

  11. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  12. Older Korean-American Adults' Attitudes toward the Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuckhoon

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…

  13. The Older American: New Work, New Training, New Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Alan

    For the great number of Americans over 65 years of age, meaningful work is a central activity, whether or not an income support system is needed. Human services work, helping others, is particularly suited to many older persons. This type of work calls for education and training for those who had worked in different areas. College programs should…

  14. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  15. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  16. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gandy, M.D., a cardiologist and chief medical marketing officer with the Piedmont Heart Institute in Atlanta and a volunteer with the American Heart Association. High blood pressure , obesity and diabetes are the ...

  17. Diabetes risks and health literacy in southern African American and Latino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, L Louise; Wallace, Debra C; Hernández, Christina; Hyde, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Minority women experience health disparities, especially related to diabetes. The purpose of this article is to examine diabetes risk in minority women. A survey design was used to recruit 52 African Americans (AA) and 48 Latina women. Participants described their health, health behaviors, and health literacy. Blood pressure and body mass index were measured. AA women had more diabetes risks than Latinas, and older women had more risks than younger women. All of the women had low health literacy. Women with higher numbers of diabetes risks had lower health literacy. Findings can be used to develop diabetes prevention and education programs.

  18. Psychosocial Keys to African American Achievement? Examining the Relationship between Achievement and Psychosocial Variables in High Achieving African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Dante D.; Roberson, Cyrell C. B.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2017-01-01

    Grit, growth mindset, ethnic identity, and other group orientation are four psychosocial variables that have been associated with academic achievement in adolescent populations. In a sample of 105 high achieving African American high school students (cumulative grade point average [GPA] > 3.0), we examined whether these four psychosocial…

  19. Race consciousness and the health of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Rosalyn J

    2003-01-01

    The historical experience of African Americans in our country has been shaped by the institution of slavery, dehumanization of blacks, segregation, pursuit of civil rights, and racism in contemporary American society. Disparities in health care provide compelling evidence that issues of race or skin color for the descendants of slaves and other ethnic minorities persist in the 21st century. Nurses providing care for African Americans must bridge the racial divide and incorporate culturally relevant content in the health history. As an integral aspect of their professional growth as culturally competent health care providers, they must incorporate the idea of "race consciousness" which is described as an awareness of the historical journey of the group, knowledge of disparities in health care for the people, and a self appraisal of one's attitudes and biases toward the group.

  20. Extended family and friendship support and suicidality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.

  1. Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area (M age = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

  2. Differences Between African-American and European- American Women in the Association of Childhood Sexual Abuse With Initiation of Marijuana Use and Progression to Problem Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with elevated risk of early marijuana use and cannabis use disorder (CUD). Both the prevalence of CSA and the course of marijuana use differ between African Americans and European Americans. The current study aimed to determine whether these differences manifest in racial/ ethnic distinctions in the association of CSA with early and problem use of marijuana. Method: Data were derived from female participants in a female twin study and a high-risk family study of substance use (n = 4,193, 21% African-American). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses using CSA to predict initiation of marijuana use and progression to CUD symptom(s) were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Sibling status on the marijuana outcome was used to adjust for familial influences. Results: CSA was associated with both stages of marijuana use in African-American and European-American women. The association was consistent over the risk period (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.37, 1.79] for initiation; HR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.21, 1.88] for CUD symptom onset) in European-American women. In African-American women, the HRs for initiation were 2.52 (95% CI [1.52, 4.18]) before age 15, 1.82 (95% CI [1.36, 2.44]) at ages 15–17, and nonsignificant after age 17. In the CUD symptom model, CSA predicted onset only at age 21 and older (HR = 2.17, 95% CI [1.31, 3.59]). Conclusions: The association of CSA with initiation of marijuana use and progression to problem use is stable over time in European-American women, but in African-American women, it varies by developmental period. Findings suggest the importance of considering race/ethnicity in prevention efforts with this high-risk population. PMID:26098032

  3. Features of hepatocellular carcinoma in Hispanics differ from African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venepalli, Neeta K; Modayil, Mary V; Berg, Stephanie A; Nair, Tad D; Parepally, Mayur; Rajaram, Priyanka; Gaba, Ron C; Bui, James T; Huang, Yue; Cotler, Scott J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Hispanics to those of African Americans and Whites. METHODS Patients treated for HCC at an urban tertiary medical center from 2005 to 2011 were identified from a tumor registry. Data were collected retrospectively, including demographics, comorbidities, liver disease characteristics, tumor parameters, treatment, and survival (OS) outcomes. OS analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS One hundred and ninety-five patients with HCC were identified: 80.5% were male, and 22% were age 65 or older. Mean age at HCC diagnosis was 59.7 ± 9.8 years. Sixty-one point five percent of patients had Medicare or Medicaid; 4.1% were uninsured. Compared to African American (31.2%) and White (46.2%) patients, Hispanic patients (22.6%) were more likely to have diabetes (P = 0.0019), hyperlipidemia (P = 0.0001), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (P = 0.0021), end stage renal disease (P = 0.0057), and less likely to have hepatitis C virus (P encephalopathy (P = 0.0087). Hispanic patients with HCC had shorter OS than the other racial groups (P = 0.020), despite similarities in HCC parameters and treatment. CONCLUSION In conclusion, Hispanic patients with HCC have higher incidence of modifiable metabolic risk factors including NASH, and shorter OS than African American and White patients.

  4. Kinship foster care among African American youth: Interaction effects at multiple contextual levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufa, Anne K.; Fowler, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of kinship foster care on mental health outcomes among African American youth. Longitudinal data were used from a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents who were the subject of child protective services investigation from 1999 to 2000 (n=5,501). The secondary analyses focused on African American youth (n=225) placed into foster care. In structured interviews, current caregivers reported on youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors immediately following placement into out-of-home care and 18-months later. Path analysis tested a theoretical model that compared placements with kin to other formal out-of-home arrangements in context of setting characteristics, including aspects of caregiver and neighborhood disorder. Results suggested significant increases in internalizing symptoms over time for youth with more baseline mental health problems, as well as those placed in more distressed neighborhoods. Increased externalizing symptoms occurred among youth with greater baseline behavior problems, those placed in more problematic neighborhoods, and youth who experienced a placement change between assessments. Additionally, a combination of placement characteristics predicted increases in externalizing problems; youth placed in kinship foster care with older caregivers in poorer health exhibited greater increases in externalizing problems. Findings highlighted important contextual considerations for out-of-home placement among African American youth. PMID:26924865

  5. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment.

  6. The link between discrimination and telomere length in African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel B; Kim, Eric S; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-05-01

    Prior work shows that discrimination is associated with a wide array of negative health outcomes. However, the biological mechanisms through which this link occurs require more study. We evaluated the association between discrimination and leukocyte telomere length (LTL; a biological marker of systemic aging). Cross-sectional data were from the Health and Retirement study, a study of people aged 51+ in the United States, and included 595 African American males and females. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate whether discrimination was independently associated with LTL. We also considered the role of potential confounders including sociodemographic factors, health factors, depressive symptoms, and stress. High discrimination was associated with shorter LTL after controlling for sociodemographic factors (b = -.034, SE = 0.14, p = .017). This association persisted in analyses that further adjusted for health factors, depressive symptoms, and stress. Results suggest that discrimination experiences accelerate biological aging in older African American males and females, alike. This finding helps advance our understanding of how discrimination generates greater disease vulnerability and premature death in African Americans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. African-Americans and Clinical Trials Research: Recommendations for Client Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Moore

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available African-Americans have, without their knowledge and consent, been used as human guinea pigs in scientific and medical experiments by private and governmental organizations. As a result many African-Americans approach the health care industry with caution and apprehension. African-Americans are admonished to remember the atrocities they once experienced and to approach participation in clinical studies with skepticism. This paper presents an historical overview of conspiracy theories, discusses various health issues that affect African-Americans, identifies for whom participation in clinical trials could prove beneficial, and recommends methods that can be used to attract African-American clients as active participants in clinical studies.

  8. Attrition biases in a study of Euro-American and African-American marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, Jean

    2004-06-01

    Based on survey data from 174 Euro-American and 199 African-American newlywed couples, this study analyzed attrition biases by comparing first-year responses of couples who stayed in the study into its third year (133 Euro-American and 115 African-American couples) with responses from the initial sample. Stayers--who were more likely than leavers to be better educated, wealthier, and Euro-American--tended to report happier, more affirming, more communicative marriages. For stayers, compared to a random subsample of the original sample, first-year marital happiness also correlated significantly less strongly with first-year reports of receiving affirmation from a spouse, having an unsupportive spouse, and engaging in marital conflict. Further, race differences in predictors of happiness for the initial sample were not evident among stayers, perhaps due to smaller variances in reported marital happiness and frequency of conflict for African-American stayers compared to African Americans in the original sample. Methodological implications for cross-cultural longitudinal studies are discussed.

  9. Masculinity, medical mistrust, and preventive health services delays among community-dwelling African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Matthews, Derrick; Mohottige, Dinushika; Agyemang, Amma; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2010-12-01

    The contribution of masculinity to men's healthcare use has gained increased public health interest; however, few studies have examined this association among African-American men, who delay healthcare more often, define masculinity differently, and report higher levels of medical mistrust than non-Hispanic White men. To examine associations between traditional masculinity norms, medical mistrust, and preventive health services delays. A cross-sectional analysis using data from 610 African-American men age 20 and older recruited primarily from barbershops in the North, South, Midwest, and West regions of the U.S. (2003-2009). Independent variables were endorsement of traditional masculinity norms around self-reliance, salience of traditional masculinity norms, and medical mistrust. Dependent variables were self-reported delays in three preventive health services: routine check-ups, blood pressure screenings, and cholesterol screenings. We controlled for socio-demography, healthcare access, and health status. After final adjustment, men with a greater endorsement of traditional masculinity norms around self-reliance (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.60-0.98) were significantly less likely to delay blood pressure screening. This relationship became non-significant when a longer BP screening delay interval was used. Higher levels of traditional masculinity identity salience were associated with a decreased likelihood of delaying cholesterol screening (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.45-0.86). African-American men with higher medical mistrust were significantly more likely to delay routine check-ups (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.34-5.20), blood pressure (OR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.45-6.32), and cholesterol screenings (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.03-4.23). Contrary to previous research, higher traditional masculinity is associated with decreased delays in African-American men's blood pressure and cholesterol screening. Routine check-up delays are more attributable to medical mistrust. Building on African-American men

  10. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wanda Lott Collins; Moore, Sharon E.

    2004-01-01

    Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the profess...

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and inherited risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C.; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Falchi, Lorenzo; Slager, Susan L.; Strom, Sara S.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Weinberg, J. Brice; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is significantly lower in African Americans than whites, but overall survival is inferior. The biologic basis for these observations remains unexplored. We hypothesized that germline genetic predispositions differ between African Americans and whites with CLL and yield inferior clinical outcomes among African Americans. We examined a discovery cohort of 42 African American CLL patients ascertained at Duke University and found that the risk allele frequency of most single nucleotide polymorphisms known to confer risk of development for CLL is significantly lower among African Americans than whites. We then confirmed our results in a distinct cohort of 68 African American patients ascertained by the CLL Research Consortium. These results provide the first evidence supporting differential genetic risk for CLL between African Americans compared with whites. A fuller understanding of differential genetic risk may improve prognostication and therapeutic decision making for all CLL patients. PMID:22745306

  12. Exploring the Relationships between Racial/Cultural Identity and Ego Identity among African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville, Marie L.; Koonce, Danel; Darlington, Pat; Whitlock, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between collective identity and ego identity were examined among 229 African American and Mexican American university students. Participants completed scales measuring racial or cultural identity and ego identity. Regression analyses indicated that ego identity was significantly related to racial identity for African Americans and…

  13. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  14. Health literacy among insulin-taking African Americans: a need for tailored intervention in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, Gretchen A; Valerio, Melissa A; Nwankwo, Robin; Lucas, Stephanie M; Funnell, Martha M

    2014-01-01

    To determine the levels of functional health literacy (FHL) among insulin-taking African Americans with diabetes from an urban medical practice and to determine if associations exist between FHL levels and glycemic control. Seventy insulin-taking African Americans seen for diabetes management comprised the analysis cohort. Patients were 18 years or older, African American, had diabetes, and currently using insulin via syringe, pen, or insulin pump. All participants completed a one-time assessment of FHL levels, using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Scores ranged from 0 to 6 (0-1 = high likelihood of limited FHL; 2-3 = possibility of limited FHL; 4-6 = adequate FHL). A combination of t tests, Pearson's chi-square tests, and multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine associations between glycemic control and FHL. Average age was 58.7, 59.1% were female, 90.8% with type 2 diabetes, and 15.1% using an insulin pump. Glycemic control was: A1C < 7%: 22.9%, A1C < 8%: 47.1%. Of participants, 47.1% had adequate FHL, 31.4% had possible limited FHL, and 21.4% had a high likelihood of limited FHL. Also, 67.7% of participants with A1C ≥ 8% had a high likelihood of limited FHL. After adjusting for age and gender, participants with a high likelihood of limited FHL were 6.2 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-28.3) more likely to have A1C ≥ 8%. Insulin-taking African Americans with a high likelihood of limited FHL are approximately 6 times more likely to have an A1C ≥ 8% compared to patients with a possibility of limited FHL, or adequate FHL, demonstrating the need for focused interventions tailored to FHL needs.

  15. The utility of cancer-related cultural constructs to understand colorectal cancer screening among African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetta L. Sanders Thompson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS.Design and Methods. A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility crite ria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables. Results. Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS that addresses seven cultural con- structs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151 had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise. Conclusions. The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.

  16. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  17. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.

  18. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-09-15

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  19. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths' academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths' academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem.

  20. The business of preventing African-American infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Williams, J; Jackson, M N; Jenkins-Monroe, V; Williams, L R

    1992-09-01

    African-American women are twice as likely as women from other ethnic groups to have babies with low birth weights and to experience the loss of infant death. The problem is so endemic in black communities in Alameda County, California, that numerous programs have been developed over the past decade to reduce maternal risk factors and eliminate barriers to prenatal care. Despite these efforts, African-American ethnicity continues to be a major risk factor for infant mortality for reasons that are poorly understood. We take a critical look at 3 types of studies characteristic of infant mortality research: epidemiologic, studies that advocate prenatal care, and ethnomedical (cultural). We argue that the assumptions informing this research restrict the thinking about infant mortality and the political issues involved in how prevention programs are developed and structured. The persistent focus on maternal behavioral characteristics limits more in-depth analysis of the micropolitics of perinatal bureaucracies established in response to this ongoing crisis.

  1. Physicians' cultural competency as perceived by African American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Arfken, Cynthia; Rosenberg, David

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the association between African American patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency and patient satisfaction with the visit, independent of other factors, including physician and patient race concordance. African American participants were surveyed at urban clinics. Cultural competency (Perceived Cultural Competency scale) was based on the 3-factor model that includes patients' perception of (1) physicians' cultural knowledge, (2) physicians' cultural awareness, and (3) physicians' cultural skill. The results confirmed that patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency are independently associated with satisfaction with the visit. These results further validate use of the Perceived Cultural Competency scale as a tool to measure patients' perceptions of physicians' cultural competency.

  2. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  3. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  4. African-American Literature and "Post-Racial" America. Or, You Know, Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Jacqueline A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, when the author began graduate school at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville as the only black student in the Graduate English School, it offered no graduate-level African-American Literature course. Today an undergraduate student at the University of Virginia can major in African-American and African Studies and take courses…

  5. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  6. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African America...

  7. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  8. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  9. Untapped Talent and Unlimited Potential: African American Students and the Science Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melody L.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, lack of access to educational opportunities has been a constant and unfortunate reality for many African Americans. As a result of tracking and ability grouping many African American students lack the necessary accoutrement for persistence in the sciences. Some critical factors for the persistence and success of African American…

  10. The Underrepresentation of African Americans in Army Combat Arms Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Henry Barnard, Military Schools and Courses of Instruction in the Science and Art of War, in France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland ...problem exists, it hides that fact that African Americans are underrepresented in the flag officer ranks. Unfortunately, this issue requires significant...Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland , Sardinia, England, and the United States. Rev. Ed. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969. Berger, Peter L

  11. Mentorship: Strategically Leveling the Playing Field for African American Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-10

    voice2001/010608/survey.htm (accessed December 18, 2008). 2 Molefi Kete Asante, 100 Greatest African Americans (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002), 41-43. 3...Clinician-Scientist,” Clinical and Investigative Medicine 21, no. 6 (December 1998): 279-282, http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_medical_association/ cim/vol-21/issue-6/0279.htm (accessed December 29, 2008).

  12. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  13. Parental depression, family functioning and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  14. The "invisible caregiver": multicaregiving among diabetic African-American grandmothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Green education: Where are African American elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Debra T.

    Problems resulting from pollution and the destruction of Earth's natural environments have prompted initiatives to educate individuals on the importance of participating in environmental education related activities. These activities are generally constructed to help individuals become aware of how their activity, or the lack thereof, could affect the state of the natural environment in the near and distant futures. This knowledge and activity are especially critical for the nation's youth - as they are the future caretakers of Earth. Present efforts, however, depict that, even though there are visible efforts that cater to children, there is little presence of African American elementary school students. Some have assumed that the lack of role models was a contributing factor, while others have asserted that African Americans were too consumed with problems of everyday survival and have little time to be concerned with environmental issues. There was little research and evidence, though, to substantiate those suppositions. This study utilized qualitative case study interviews to gather authentic data from parents of African American elementary school-aged children (ages 6-10) regarding their views about the natural environment and participation in environmentally related activities. Results of this study helped to support and alleviate some assumptions and laid a foundation for further studies on the topic.

  16. Message Received: African American Women and Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Susan Racine; Williams-Parry, Kester F; Casper, Erica; Thomas, Stephen B

    2017-09-01

    African American women are more likely than other women to be diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age, to be diagnosed at a late stage, and to die from the disease. Yet we see evidence of irregular screening and follow-up. Previous research on psychosocial factors influencing decisions to screen reveals barriers: fear, fatalistic perceptions of cancer, inaccurate perceptions of risk, and associations with stigma. The current qualitative research with, largely, insured African American women ( n = 26), health navigators ( n = 6), and community stakeholders ( n = 24) indicates both positive and negative factors influencing decision making. The women in our sample believe in the value of early detection and are motivated to screen in response to encouragement from health providers. However, they also report several factors that contribute to their decisions to delay or not screen. These include (1) perceptions that the health community itself is confused about the need for screening, (2) perceptions that White women are the priority population for breast cancer, (3) family roles that prohibit self-care and encourage secrecy, and (4) fear of diagnosis. Participants report not feeling included in national-level health promotion campaigns. It is argued that African American women, in particular, may benefit from more nuanced health information about their risk.

  17. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E

    2010-05-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  18. Epigenetic Markers of Renal Function in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Bomotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.

  19. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

    2013-01-01

    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.

  20. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…

  1. Reading, Interpreting, and Teaching African American History: Examining How African American History Influences the Curricular and Pedagogical Decisions of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2012-01-01

    African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…

  2. Predictors of healthcare utilization among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ray, Laura A; Freeman, Jean L; Ostir, Glenn V; Goodwin, James S

    2006-01-01

    To examine the effects of predisposing, enabling, and need factors on physician and hospital use among older Mexican Americans. A two-year prospective cohort study. Five Southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. A population-based sample of 1987 non-institutionalized Mexican American men and women age > or =65 years. Physician and hospital utilization. Predictor variables included predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Ordinary least square and logistic regression analysis were used to model the effects of predictor factors specified in the Andersen model of health service use on physician and hospital use. After two years of follow-up, predisposing and enabling factors accounted for diabetes, heart attack, hypertension, stroke, or cancer; and number of medications were factors associated with higher physician utilization. Subjects with arthritis, diabetes, hip fracture, high depressive symptoms, activities of daily living (ADL) disability, or high number of medications increased the odds of having any hospitalization. Subjects with diabetes, heart attack, hip fracture, ADL disabled, and high number of medications had a greater number of hospital nights than their counterparts. Older age, female sex, insurance coverage, and prevalent medical conditions are determinants of healthcare use among older Mexican Americans.

  3. Prostate cancer in African-American men and polymorphism in the calcium-sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Rowland, Glovioell; Ingles, Sue A

    2010-06-15

    Prospective epidemiologic studies indicate that the risk for advanced prostate cancer is increased among men with high levels of serum calcium. Because serum calcium levels are influenced by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), we examined prostate cancer in African-American men in relation to three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CaSR gene, A986S, R990G and Q1011E. This is the first study of CaSR polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer. The CaSR genotypes were not associated with prostate cancer overall. However, we observed significant heterogeneity by disease stage for the Q1011E polymorphism (p = 0.02). Advanced cases were significantly less likely than controls or localized cases to be homozygous for the minor allele of the Q1011E polymorphism (1 vs. 5%). Cases with advanced disease were six times less likely to carry two copies of the minor allele than were controls (OR = 0.16, p = 0.02) or localized cases (OR = 0.15, p = 0.01) and were significantly older at diagnosis (68.8 ± 5.7 vs. 64.0 ± 9.0 y for the QQ and EE genotypes, p = 0.004). We genotyped three CaSR SNPs for 458 African-American prostate cancer cases and 248 controls from a population-based case-control study, the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. The CaSR Q1011E minor allele, which is common in populations with African ancestry, may be associated with a less aggressive form of prostate cancer among African-American men.

  4. Stereotypes and ethnocentrism: diverging interethnic perceptions of African American and white American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, C M; Park, B; Ryan, C S; Brauer, M; Kraus, S

    1995-09-01

    Much recent work on stereotyping has dealt with groups that are either artificially created or that do not have an extensive history of conflict. The authors attempted to overcome this limitation by examining issues of perceived variability and ethnocentrism among samples of White American and African American youth. The goals were both to examine theoretical issues in stereotyping and to describe the current state of ethnic interrelations among young people. Four studies are reported. Throughout, the samples of African Americans demonstrate interethnic judgments that are consistent with existing work on stereotyping and ethnocentrism. White American students, however, reported judgements that replicate neither the out-group homogeneity effect nor ethnocentrism. Alternative explanations for this difference are considered, and the discussion focuses on differing views concerning the role of ethnic identity and diversity in our society.

  5. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: identifying interfering and facilitating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Panos, Stella E; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree A; Hinkin, Charles H; Arbid, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation.

  6. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  7. Cardiometabolic Risk among African-American Women: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations of the Homeostatic Model of Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-ir), acanthosis nigricans, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with two of the commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III {ATP III} and International Diabetes Federation {IDF}) among reproductive age healthy free living African-American women. Methods A pilot study with a cross-sectional design examined 33 African-American women aged 20 to 46 (mean 31.24, +/- 7.25), for the presence of metabolic syndrome determined by ATP III and IDF criteria, insulin resistance (HOMA-ir and/or acanthosis nigricans), degree of inflammation (hs-CRP) and presence of dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1). Results HOMA-ir identified insulin resistance in 27 (81.8%) of the women, whereas the presence of acanthosis nigricans indicated that 16 (48 %) of these women manifested insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome was found in 7 women (21.2 %) by ATP III or 9 (27.3 %) by IDF criteria. Bivariate correlations showed associations between HOMA-ir and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, the ATP III and IDF definitions for metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 was significantly correlated with waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-ir, and ATP III. Both HOMA-ir and PAI-1 were significantly and negatively correlated with HDL-C. hs-CRP was significantly correlated with BMI and 2-hour post glucose. Conclusion Both dysfibrinolysis (PAI-1 levels) and insulin resistance (HOMA-ir) when individually regressed on the ATP III definition of metabolic syndrome explained 32 % and 29% of the respective variance. The addition of HOMA-ir measurement may significantly improve early recognition of cardiometabolic risk among reproductive age African-American women who have not yet met the criteria for the ATP III or IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Likewise, acanthosis nigricans is potentially a

  8. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Volkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  9. Mentoring African American Expatriates: Providing The Bridge To Success Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria C. Crawley

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment predictions continue to forecast increasing racial diversity in the American workforce as firms face global competition and strive to grasp the challenges of a global business landscape.  As American multinational corporations use expatriate assignments; supplemented by flexipatriates and inpatriates to meet customer preferences in the global marketplace, growing racial diversity may generate more expatriates of color.  Global human resource management research has focused on issues such as adjustment and cross-cultural development and recently mentoring as critical factors for expatriate success.  A growing body of mentoring research details the career experiences of employees with diverse backgrounds, yet few studies center on the experiences of the African American expatriate.  This article aims to examine African Americans mentoring opportunities in a global environment, with a focus on understanding the role mentoring plays for this particular population group. This work is intended to contribute to the increasing literature on global mentoring and will help to influence the thinking of multinational corporations’ response to the increasing diversity of their global workforce.

  10. Fear of Crime among African-American Males in Two American Cities: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Keith D.; Wright, Earl II; Wingren, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examines the distribution of fear of crime and the influence of selected predictors of fear of crime among African American males from two large U.S. cities. Survey data indicated that about three-quarters of the respondents did not view fear of crime as problematic in their communities. Results supported a relationship between fear of crime, age,…

  11. “Keep it simple”: older African Americans’ preferences for a health literacy intervention in HIV management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakumo CA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrie Ann Gakumo,1 Comfort C Enah,1 David E Vance,1,2 Efe Sahinoglu,3 Jim L Raper1,3,4 1School of Nursing, 2Center for Nursing Research, 3School of Medicine, 41917 HIV/AIDS Outpatient Clinic, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: Health literacy is lower in minorities and older adults, and has been associated with nonadherence to medications, treatment, and care in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Likewise, African Americans with HIV are more likely to be nonadherent to their HIV medications, less likely to keep their clinic appointments related to HIV treatment and care, and more likely to die during hospitalizations than their ethnic counterparts. The present study explored the preferences of older African Americans with HIV for a health literacy intervention to promote HIV management.Patients and methods: In this qualitative study, 20 older adult African Americans living with HIV were recruited from an HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome outpatient clinic in the southeastern region of the US. Using patient-centered participatory design methods, semi-structured individual interviews were conducted to determine patient preferences for intervention development and design. Health literacy was also measured using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine – Revised (REALM-R.Results: Four major themes emerged related to intervention development and design: keep health information simple; use a team-based approach for health education; tailor teaching strategies to patients’ individual needs; and account for patients’ low experience, but high interest, in technology. Forty-five percent of the study population had low health literacy based on the revised Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine.Conclusion: Future interventions that target minorities and older adults living with HIV should consider patients’ learning needs, sex-specific and mental health needs, and delivery

  12. The African American Male Librarian: Motivational Factors in Choosing a Career in Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Kendrick, Kaetrena D.

    2009-01-01

    A recent American Library Association (ALA) report has shown that less than 1% of credentialed librarians are African American males. This article discusses possible reasons for this dearth; and, in an effort to inform future LIS recruiting and marketing campaigns, the included study attempted to discover which factors lead African American males…

  13. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  14. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  15. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  16. Predictors of Academic Achievement for African American Males at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jarvis M.

    2013-01-01

    African American male college students are graduating at rates lower than their White male college counterparts. This epidemic is a result of the historical implications of institutional racism within American society. Despite these barriers, there are African American males that achieve academically and graduate college. This phenomenological…

  17. Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health (FAITH!): An Application of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7™ among Midwestern African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, LaPrincess C; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Dean, Patrick; Lackore, Kandace; Jenkins, Sarah; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2017-04-01

    African-Americans have a strikingly low prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health metrics of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 (LS7). This study was conducted to assess the impact of a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention intervention on the knowledge and achievement of cardiovascular health metrics among a marginalized African-American community. Adult congregants (n = 37, 70 % women) from three African-American churches in Rochester, MN, participated in the Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health (FAITH!) program, a theory-based, culturally-tailored, 16-week education series incorporating the American Heart Association's LS7 framework. Feasibility testing included assessments of participant recruitment, program attendance, and retention. We classified participants according to definitions of ideal, intermediate, and poor cardiovascular health based on cardiac risk factors and health behaviors and calculated an LS7 score (range 0 to 14) at baseline and post-intervention. Knowledge of cardiac risk factors was assessed by questionnaire. Main outcome measures were changes in cardiovascular health knowledge and cardiovascular health components related to LS7 from baseline to post-intervention. Psychosocial measures included socioeconomic status, outlook on life, self-reported health, self-efficacy, and family support. Thirty-six out of 37 recruited participants completed the entire program including health assessments. Participants attended 63.5 % of the education series and attendance at each session was, on average, 62 % of those enrolled. There was a statistically significant improvement in cardiovascular health knowledge (p program is a feasible, community intervention promoting ideal cardiovascular health that has the potential to improve cardiovascular health literacy and LS7 among African-Americans.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the African American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek C; Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Makowsky, Robert; Kurundkar, Ashish; Wilson, Craig M; Aissani, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343) enrolled in a multicenter cohort. Sequencing of the hypervariable regions I and II of the D-loop control region showed that the most common mitochondrial variants are 73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 189G, 16278T, and 16311C. In agreement with the published data, we observed 17 common mtDNA haplogroups: L0, L1, L1b, L1c, L2, L2a, L2b, L2c, L2e, L3, L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3x, and L4. The most commonly observed haplogroup is L2a (19.8%), followed by L1b (10.2%). Overall, the observed mtDNA haplogroup distribution in our study is similar to those published for the African American and the African populations.

  19. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Investigate Meaningful Prenatal Care Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.

  1. Acculturation and acculturative stress as indicators for suicide risk among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L

    2007-07-01

    The literature on African American suicide and the acculturation literature were examined to derive a possible explanation for increases in suicide deaths for African American men and apparent resilience for African American women. Historically, African Americans were believed to be unaffected by suicide because of protective factors (e.g., strong religious values and cohesive familial support systems) embedded in the culture. However, minority mental health investigators have found that acculturation sometimes leads to negative consequences for individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Accordingly, acculturation and acculturative phenomena are proposed as a model to shed light on African American male suicide as African Americans increasingly engage mainstream values, beliefs, and practices in the absence of traditional protective factors.

  2. Why African American women leave the academy: barriers to and opportunities for retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, S T

    1994-01-01

    African American women have participated in higher education for well over a century. Although the journey has been difficult, significant achievements have been made. Today, fewer African American women doctoral recipients are choosing academic employment, and many of those who enter the academy later leave for employment in business, industry and the professions where salaries are often more attractive. Furthermore, the present decline of African American faculty women is expected to become more severe as the growth of the academic labor market levels off. If we are to successfully retain the pool of African American faculty women it is important to discover the reasons why an increasing number are voluntarily leaving the academy. This article is based on a cross-sectional study of 384 African American academic women which examines the primary barriers to faculty retention and offer suggestions to help prevent the further loss of African American women scholars.

  3. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  4. Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls’ Eating Disorder Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...

  5. Reaching an Underserved Wine Customer: Connecting with the African American Wine Consumer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Rhonda; Sydnor, Sandra; Kang, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Marketing strategies addressing underserved African American wine customers’ needs that also positively impact producers’ and retailers’ clientele was the impetus for this exploratory, qualitative paper. African Americans demonstrate a thirst to elevate their education about and be more involved in the wine industry as evidenced by the proliferation of African American wine-tasting groups designed to help educate and expose their membership to a variety of wines. Moreover, compared to the ave...

  6. African-Americans and Clinical Trials Research: Recommendations for Client Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Sharon E.; Wanda Lott Collins

    2002-01-01

    African-Americans have, without their knowledge and consent, been used as human guinea pigs in scientific and medical experiments by private and governmental organizations. As a result many African-Americans approach the health care industry with caution and apprehension. African-Americans are admonished to remember the atrocities they once experienced and to approach participation in clinical studies with skepticism. This paper presents an historical overview of conspiracy ...

  7. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  8. Pain and disability in older Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gayle D; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Raji, Mukaila A; Al Snih, Soham; Ray, Laura; Torres, Elizabeth; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2009-06-01

    To examine an association between pain severity and functional disability in older Mexican Americans. Cross-sectional study (2005/06), a subsample of the Hispanic Established Population for Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Community. One thousand thirteen Mexican American aged 74 to 100. Bilingual interviewers administered structured questionnaires and assessed physical measures of mobility and frailty (exhaustion, weight loss, walking speed, grip strength, and self-reported physical activity). Two items from the SF-36 questionnaire assessed pain experiences in the previous 4 weeks. Chi-square one-way analysis of variance and least square and negative binomial regressions were computed for 744 participants with complete data to investigate experience of pain and other dimensions of health and functioning. Close to two-thirds (64.7%) reported pain within 4 weeks of the interview, and 49.7% reported that pain interfered with performance of daily activities. Female sex; low education; frailty; reduced mobility; disability; and high comorbidity, body mass index, and depressive symptomatology were significantly associated with pain severity and interference. Regression coefficients revealed that pain severity was significantly related to disability in activities of daily living (0.22, PHigh pain rates were most prevalent in women and subjects with high comorbidity, high depressive symptomatology, poor mobility, and frailty. Pain also plays a significant role in disability status. In-depth research is needed to understand the pain experiences of older Mexican Americans and their effect on health and well-being.

  9. Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability among African-American Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert J. Sampson; Patrick Sharkey; Stephen W. Raudenbush

    2008-01-01

    .... African-American children are exposed in such disproportionate numbers to concentrated disadvantage that white and Latino children cannot be reliably compared, calling into question traditional...

  10. Relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in the African American female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D L; Barber, K R

    1997-01-01

    Increasing numbers of minorities are seeking mental health assistance. Inclusion of cultural considerations is important for increasing sensitivity to those whose life experiences differ. For African Americans, therapy is better facilitated if one operates from a cultural specific frame of reference. African American women attending a women's support group were surveyed. Questionnaires querying dimensions on family relationships, self-esteem and dependency were utilized. Results indicated a relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in African American females. Social support and self-esteem were inversely associated with codependency. This study provides insight for mental health professionals in counseling African American females.

  11. Media and cultural influences in african-american girls' eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lakaii A; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls.

  12. African American Vernacular English: a study of the representation of black speech in popular TV series

    OpenAIRE

    Costas Domínguez, Joana

    2016-01-01

    Traballo Fin de Grao en Lingua e Literatura Inglesas. Curso 2015-2016 African American Vernacular English or AAVE is a variety of American English often spoken by African Americans in urban or Southern regions. The fact that a large number of people speak this variety has led African American Vernacular English to before almost a half-century an important topic of discussion among both; linguists and the public. Linguists maintain that there is nothing “wrong” or “incorrect” about African ...

  13. Computer Use and Computer Anxiety in Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunwoo; Jang, Yuri; Xie, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Responding to the limited literature on computer use in ethnic minority older populations, the present study examined predictors of computer use and computer anxiety in older Korean Americans. Separate regression models were estimated for computer use and computer anxiety with the common sets of predictors: (a) demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, and education), (b) physical health indicators (chronic conditions, functional disability, and self-rated health), and (c) sociocultural factors (acculturation and attitudes toward aging). Approximately 60% of the participants were computer-users, and they had significantly lower levels of computer anxiety than non-users. A higher likelihood of computer use and lower levels of computer anxiety were commonly observed among individuals with younger age, male gender, advanced education, more positive ratings of health, and higher levels of acculturation. In addition, positive attitudes toward aging were found to reduce computer anxiety. Findings provide implications for developing computer training and education programs for the target population.

  14. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  15. Perceived racial discrimination, but not mistrust of medical researchers, predicts the heat pain tolerance of African Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; Pham, Quyen T; Glover, Toni L; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D; Sibille, Kimberly T; Herbert, Matthew S; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T; Bradley, Laurence A; Fillingim, Roger B

    2013-11-01

    Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli. One-hundred and 30 (52% African American, 48% non-Hispanic White) community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis completed two study sessions. In session one, individuals provided demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health information. They completed questionnaires related to perceived lifetime frequency of racial discrimination and mistrust of medical researchers. In session two, individuals underwent a series of controlled thermal stimulation procedures to assess heat pain sensitivity, particularly heat pain tolerance. African Americans were more sensitive to heat pain and reported greater perceived racial discrimination as well as greater mistrust of medical researchers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Greater perceived racial discrimination significantly predicted lower heat pain tolerance for African Americans but not non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers did not significantly predict heat pain tolerance for either racial group. These results lend support to the idea that perceived racial discrimination may influence the clinical pain severity of African Americans via the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli.

  16. Handgrip strength and mortality in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ray, Laura; Ostir, Glenn V; Goodwin, James S

    2002-07-01

    To examine the association between handgrip strength and mortality in older Mexican American men and women. A 5-year prospective cohort study. Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. A population-based sample of 2,488 noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older. Maximal handgrip strength, timed walk, and body mass index were assessed at baseline during 1993/94. Self-reports of functional disability, various medical conditions, and status at follow-up were obtained. Of the baseline sample with complete data, 507 persons were confirmed deceased 5 years later. Average handgrip strength +/- standard deviation was significantly higher in men (28.4 kg +/- 9.5) than in women (18.2g +/- 6.5). Of men who had a handgrip strength less than 22.01 kg and women who had a handgrip strength less than 14 kg, 38.2% and 41.5%, respectively, were dead 5 years later. In men in the lowest handgrip strength quartile, the hazard ratio of death was 2.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-3.38) compared with those in the highest handgrip strength quartile, after controlling for sociodemographic variables, functional disability, timed walk, medical conditions, body mass index, and smoking status at baseline. In women in the lowest handgrip strength quartile, the hazard ratio of death was 1.76 (95%I = 1.05-2.93) compared with those in the highest handgrip strength quartile. Poorer performance in the timed walk and the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cancer were also significant predictors of mortality 5 years later. Handgrip strength is a strong predictor of mortality in older Mexican Americans, after controlling for relevant risk factors.

  17. Quality of Life and Outcomes in African Americans with CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Greene, Tom; Lash, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Low health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been associated with increased risk for hospitalization and death in ESRD. However, the relationship of HRQOL with outcomes in predialysis CKD is not well understood. We evaluated the association between HRQOL and renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in 1091 African Americans with hypertensive CKD enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial and cohort studies. Outcomes included CKD progression (doubling of serum creatinine/ESRD), CV events/CV death, and a composite of CKD progression or death from any cause (CKD progression/death). We assessed HRQOL, including mental health composite (MHC) and physical health composite (PHC), using the Short Form-36 survey. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between outcomes and five-point decrements in MHC and PHC scores using measurements at baseline, at the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or averaged from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). During approximately 10 years of follow-up, lower mean PHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death and CKD progression/death across all analytic approaches, but only time-varying and cumulative decrements were associated with CKD progression. Similarly, lower mean MHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death regardless of analytic approach, while only time-varying and cumulative decrements in mean MHC score was associated with CKD progression and CKD progression or death. In conclusion, lower HRQOL is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. PMID:24700865

  18. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaker E Harmon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. STUDY DESIGN: The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. CONCLUSION: Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  19. Introduction to Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Dudziak

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Thurgood Marshall became a living icon of civil rights when he argued Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court in 1954. Six years later, he was at a crossroads. A rising generation of activists were making sit-ins and demonstrations rather than lawsuits the hallmark of the civil rights movement. What role, he wondered, could he now play? When in 1960 Kenyan independence leaders asked him to help write their constitution, Marshall threw himself into their cause. Here was a new arena in which law might serve as the tool with which to forge a just society. In Exporting American Dreams, Mary Dudziak recounts with poignancy and power the untold story of Marshall's journey to Africa. African Americans were enslaved when the U.S. constitution was written. In Kenya, Marshall could become something that had not existed in his own country: a black man helping to found a nation. He became friends with Kenyan leaders Tom Mboya and Jomo Kenyatta, serving as advisor to the Kenyans, who needed to demonstrate to Great Britain and to the world that they would treat minority races (whites and Asians fairly once Africans took power. He crafted a bill of rights, aiding constitutional negotiations that helped enable peaceful regime change, rather than violent resistance. Marshall's involvement with Kenya's foundation affirmed his faith in law, while also forcing him to understand how the struggle for justice could be compromised by the imperatives of sovereignty. Marshall's beliefs were most sorely tested later in the decade when he became a Supreme Court Justice, even as American cities erupted in flames and civil rights progress stalled. Kenya's first attempt at democracy faltered, but Marshall's African journey remained a cherished memory of a time and a place when all things seemed possible.

  20. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family suppor...

  1. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  2. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  3. Developing culturally competent marriage and family therapists: treatment guidelines for non-African-American therapists working with African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A; Perry, Benjamin J; Bedell, Tina M

    2002-04-01

    To serve African-American families effectively, marriage and family therapists need to develop a level of cultural competence. This content analysis of the relevant treatment literature was conducted to examine the most common expert recommendations for family therapy with African Americans. Fifteen specific guidelines were generated, including orient the family to therapy, do not assume familiarity, address issue of racism, intervene multi-systemically, do home visits, use problem-solving focus, involve religious leader, incorporate the father, and acknowledge strengths. Conceptual and empirical support for each guideline is discussed, and conclusions are made regarding culturally competent therapy with African-American families.

  4. Exaggerated insulin secretion in Pima Indians and African-Americans but higher insulin resistance in Pima Indians compared to African-Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, N; Stumvoll, M; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C; Tataranni, P A; Pratley, R E

    2004-10-01

    African-Americans have a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes than Caucasians, but a lower prevalence than Pima Indians. Studies suggest that both African-Americans and Pima Indians are more insulin resistant and have higher acute insulin secretory responses to glucose than Caucasians; however, a direct comparison between these three populations is lacking. We measured insulin secretory responses to intravenous glucose (acute insulin response, AIR, 25 g ivGTT); insulin action at physiological (M-low) and supra-physiological (M-high) levels of hyperinsulinaemia (2-step hyperinsulinaemic clamp); basal and insulin-suppressed endogenous glucose production in 30 African-Americans, 30 Pima Indians and 30 Caucasians with normal glucose tolerance who were carefully matched for age, sex, and body fat (hydrodensitometry or DEXA). A subgroup of 24 subjects from each group additionally underwent a standardized mixed meal test. M-low was lower in Pima Indians (0.50 +/- 0.03) compared to Caucasians (0.59 +/- 0.02, P = 0.02) and African-Americans [0.58 +/- 0.03 mg/kgEMBS/min, log10 (means +/- SE), P = 0.03] but was not different between African-Americans and Caucasians. Basal endogenous glucose production was lower in Pima Indians (2.43 +/- 0.06) compared to African-Americans (2.70 +/- 0.06, P = 0.02) and was not different between Pima Indians and Caucasians (2.59 +/- 0.09 mg/kgEMBS/min) or African-Americans and Caucasians (all P > 0.18). Insulin-suppressed endogenous glucose production during the clamp was not different among the groups (all P > 0.40). AIR was higher in both African-Americans (13.51 +/- 0.26) and Pima Indians (13.72 +/- 0.27) compared to Caucasians (12.33 +/- 0.25 pM, log10, both P < 0.01). The areas under the curve for glucose in response to the oral glucose tolerance test and mixed meal test were higher in Pima Indians compared to African-Americans (P = 0.03 and P = 0.03, respectively) and Caucasians (P = 0.01, mixed meal test), but not different between

  5. Bacterial vaginosis among African American women who have sex with women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Sunesara, Imran R; Austin, Erika L; Mena, Leandro A; Schwebke, Jane R

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a frequent cause of vaginal discharge that may be more common among women reporting sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of BV and predictors of infection among a sample of African American WSW. African American WSW aged 18 years or older presenting to the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic between 2009 and 2010 and reporting a history of sexual activity with a female partner during the preceding year were invited to participate. A survey on sexual history and sexual behavior characteristics was completed. Bacterial vaginosis was defined by Amsel criteria. Associations with participant characteristics were determined using logistic regression analysis. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 93 (47.4%) of 196 women. Bisexual identity (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.66; P = 0.04), douching within the past 30 days (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.09-3.43; P = 0.02), age 18 years or less at first sexual encounter with a female partner (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.16-8.71; P = 0.02), and report of more than 1 lifetime male sexual partners (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.74; P = 0.04) were significant predictors of BV in bivariate analysis. Bacterial vaginosis was less common among women who reported more than 1 lifetime female sexual partner (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76; P = 0.01). In multivariable analysis, age 18 years or less at first sex with a female partner approached significance, while report of 1 lifetime female sexual partner remained strongly associated with BV. Bacterial vaginosis was common in this sample of African American WSW and significantly associated with report of 1 lifetime female sexual partner.

  6. Exploring Leadership through Spiritual Practices and African Moral Virtues: Portraits of African American Women Principals in Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon Irene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the influences of spirituality on decisions made by African American women principals at the elementary school level in schools where children of color and poverty exist in significant numbers and to gain an understanding of how African moral virtues were evidenced in the day to day professional…

  7. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  8. Genetic and environmental contributions to initiation of cigarette smoking in young African-American and European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Carolyn E; Grant, Julia D; Agrawal, Arpana; Sadler, Brooke; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2015-12-01

    Distinctions in the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to initiation of cigarette smoking may explain, in part, the differences between African Americans and European Americans in the prevalence of smoking. The current investigation is the first to compare heritable and environmental influences on smoking initiation between African-American and European-American women. Data were drawn from Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study participants and female Missouri Family Study participants (n=4498; 21% African-American, the remainder European-American). Mean ages at first and last assessments were 17.0 (SD=3.5) and 24.0 (SD=3.2), respectively. Twin-sibling modeling was conducted to estimate the proportion of variance in smoking initiation (i.e., ever trying a cigarette) attributable to additive genetic, shared environmental, special twin environmental, and unique environmental factors. Additive genetic influences accounted for approximately half of the variance in smoking initiation in both African-American and European-American women. In the African-American subsample, the remaining variance was attributable primarily to unique environmental factors (46%; 95% CI: 28-71%). In the European-American subsample, only 12% (95% CI: 8-16%) of the variance was attributable to unique environmental factors, with the remainder accounted for by shared environmental (13%; 95% CI: 0-41%) and special twin environmental (24%; 95% CI: 0-52%) factors. The estimated heritability of smoking initiation is substantial and nearly identical for African-American and European-American women, but the type of environmental factors that contribute to risk differ by race/ethnicity. Whereas the primary environmental influences on European-American women's smoking initiation are at the family level, those that impact African-American women's smoking initiation are primarily individual-specific. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Promoting the interest of African American teenage girls in science: What can we learn from an exemplary African American science teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMath, Cynthia Stewart

    This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.

  10. Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups ofAmericans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, weight, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura 's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  11. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  12. Education and disability trends of older Americans, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuping

    2017-09-01

    Trends in disability among older Americans has declined since the 1980s. The study examines whether the trend continues to decline and whether educational disparities exist in the prevalence of functional limitations. I used the 2000-2014 National Health Interview Survey and included adults aged ≥65 years. Functional limitations was measured by three outcomes: the need for help with activities of daily living (ADLs) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and physical function limitations. I used a set of logistic models to estimate the average annual change rate of functional limitations. I examined whether the annual rate of change differed by education, age group and sex. During 2000-2014, the annual increase rate of ADL limitations was 1.7% (P high school education. The lower-educated group had a higher proportion and a higher annual rate of increase in all outcomes. Increasing trends in chronic conditions may contribute to the increasing trend in functional limitations. The study highlighted a large educational disparity in late-life disability among older Americans.

  13. Cognitive Function and Salivary DHEA Levels in Physically Active Elderly African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greggory R. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS concentration has been associated with several health parameters associated with aging including cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength. However, the effectiveness of salivary DHEA for the prediction of cognitive function, bone mineral density, and muscular strength in older adults is currently unknown. Thirty elderly African American females provided early morning salivary samples and DHEA levels were determined using a commercially available immunoassay. Participants completed testing for psychomotor and executive function via Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B, respectively. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA was used to bone density and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP was used to determine isometric strength. Age significantly correlated with time on TMT A (r=0.328 and B (r=0.615 but was not related to DHEA, BUA, or IMTP outcomes. Elevated DHEA was associated with longer time to completion for TMT A (χ2=5.14 but not to TMT B. DHEA levels were not associated with BUA or IMTP outcomes. While elevated levels of DHEA were correlated with impaired psychomotor function, salivary DHEA is not associated with executive function, bone mineral density, or isometric strength in elderly African American women.

  14. Young African-American multigenerational families in poverty: quality of mothering and grandmothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P L; Brooks-Gunn, J; Zamsky, E S

    1994-04-01

    Parenting practices (problem-solving and disciplinary styles) in a sample of 99 young, low-income, African-American multigenerational families were examined, using home-based observations of grandmothers and young mothers (mean age at first birth: 18.3; range = 13.3 to 25.5), interacting separately with 3-year-old children. A risk and resilience approach was applied in studying African-American families' behavior in harsh social contexts, and included a consideration of the role of kin, shared child rearing between mothers and grandmothers, coresidence, and adolescent parenthood. Mothers and grandmothers did not differ in the mean level of the quality of their parenting practices. Similarly, few significant correlations in parenting quality across generations were evident, and these primarily involved negative dimensions of parenting between younger childbearers and grandmothers. No main effect of mothers' age at first birth on mothers' parenting was found. In contrast, there was a main effect of grandmother coresidence on both mothers' and grandmothers' parenting, which was negative. Moreover, the interaction between coresidence and mothers' age at first birth indicated that multigenerational families most likely to provide positive parenting were those where older mothers did not reside with the grandmother. Yet, in families with very young mothers, coresiding grandmothers showed higher quality of parenting than did non-coresiding grandmothers.

  15. Refining the use of cancer-related cultural constructs with African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Lewis, Tanisha; Williams, Sha-Lai

    2013-01-01

    An important step in using culture to increase colorectal cancer screening is the development and use of a reliable and valid measure. Measurement items that work well are defined as those that use clear and simple language, do not result in significant missing data, do not yield unexpected frequencies or patterns of association, and capture an important component of the underlying construct. The authors' work to develop such a measure includes cognitive response testing. This article describes 41 African American participants' reactions to and processing of items that have been used in the public health literature to assess cultural attitudes believed to be relevant to colorectal cancer screening. Participants were asked to verbalize thoughts, feelings, interpretations, and ideas that came to mind while examining or responding to 10 to 11 survey items. The results of cognitive response testing suggest negative reactions to items addressing the fatalism construct, concerns about appearing racist when responding to discrimination and mistrust items, and resistance to phrasing or terminology that conveys negative attitudes or frames of reference. When items were framed in a positive way, participants reported less frustration, confusion, and concern for how they would be perceived by others. The responses of older African Americans in this sample were consistent with research previously completed by Pasick et al.; participants questioned the relevance of items related to cultural constructs to health and cancer preventive behaviors. Recommendations for the assessment and use of cultural constructs and items assessing constructs are provided.

  16. Determinants of Usual Source of Care Disparities among African American and Caribbean Black Men: Findings from the national Survey of american life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Mohottige, Dinushika; Chantala, Kim; Hastings, Julia F.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Snowden, Lonnie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Aday-Andersen model was used as a framework for investigating the contribution of immigration status (i.e., nativity and acculturation), socioeconomic factors, health care access, health status, and health insurance to usual source of health care (USOC) in a nationally representative sample of African American (n5551) and Caribbean Black men (n51,217). Methods We used the 2001–2003 National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized U.S. Blacks to conduct descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results Older age, more health conditions, neighborhood medical clinic access, and health insurance were associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC. Odds were lower for men with lower-middle incomes and poorer mental health status. Having health insurance was associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC for African American men but lower odds among Caribbean Black men. Odds were higher in the presence of more health conditions for African American men than for Caribbean Black men. Conclusions Health care reform policies aimed solely at increasing health insurance may not uniformly eliminate USOC disparities disfavoring U.S. and foreign-born non-Hispanic Black men. PMID:21317513

  17. Expenditure patterns of older Americans, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2012-02-01

    PRE- AND POSTRETIREMENT EXPENSES: Before retirement, people pay FICA taxes, incur work-related expenses, and set aside money for retirement. But after retirement, most people have different financial obligations, and, as a result, retirees may still be able to maintain their level of preretirement well-being with very different income levels. Studying income, expenditures, and wealth-holding patterns together provides a more complete idea of how people are doing in terms of being able to afford retirement than arbitrary estimates such as income replacement ratios. UNIQUE DATA: This Issue Brief examines the expenditure patterns of the older section of the population. It uses data from the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS), a supplement to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, contains detailed expenditure data on 32 categories, and follows the same group of individuals over eight years In addition, the income and wealth data available in the HRS are used to establish the financial standing of older households. DECLINING EXPENSES: Household expenses steadily decline with age. With the age 65 expenditure as a benchmark, household expenditure falls by 19 percent by age 75, 34 percent by age 85, and 52 percent by age 95. HOME EXPENSES: Home and home-related expenses remain the single largest spending category for older Americans. On average, those over age 50 spend around 40-45 percent of their budget on home and home-related items. RISING HEALTH CARE EXPENSES: Health-related expenses are the second-largest component in the budget of older Americans. It is the only component which steadily increases with age. Health care expenses capture around 10 percent of the budget for those between 50-64, but increase to about 20 percent for those age 85 and over. DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS: Singles, blacks, and high school dropouts do not have a sound financial standing in retirement. Their

  18. Predictors of unprotected sex among young sexually active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: the importance of ethnicity and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Fernández, M Isabel; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián

    2008-05-01

    Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth, few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15-22) from three racial/ethnic backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL and Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. For African American youth, being in a long-term relationship, having been kicked out of the home for having sex with men, and younger age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For Hispanic youth, higher ethnic identification and older age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For White youth, no predictors were associated with unprotected sex. Our findings point to the importance of understanding the varying predictors of unprotected sex and integrating them into tailored prevention interventions.

  19. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p racial identity (β = −.179, p racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  20. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  1. Depressive Symptomatology and College Persistence among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.

  2. Video telehealth for weight maintenance of African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ben S; Schiffer, Linda; Brown, Allison A; Berbaum, Michael L; Rimmer, James H; Braunschweig, Carol L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of home telehealth on weight maintenance after a group-based weight loss programme. The home telehealth intervention comprised telephone counselling and home Internet-enabled digital video recorders (DVRs) with three channels of video programmes. The video content provided reinforcement and support to promote problem solving, prevent relapse and sustain motivation. Eighty-eight obese or overweight African-American women were randomized to receive monthly telephone counselling (control) or the home telehealth intervention. The weight change during maintenance was not significant in either group (0.6 kg in the intervention group, 0.0 kg in the control group), and there was no significant difference between them. Changes in diet, physical activity, social support and self-efficacy during the maintenance period did not differ significantly between groups. DVR use was low: during the intervention, the number of valid DVR viewings ranged from zero to 42 per person. DVR use was positively associated with previous attendance at the weight loss classes. Home video-based telehealth is a new method of delivering a weight loss maintenance intervention to African-American women. It had no effect on weight maintenance in the present study.

  3. Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.

  4. Breastfeeding associated with higher lung function in African American youths with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sam S; Du, Randal; Zeiger, Andrew M; McGarry, Meghan E; Hu, Donglei; Thakur, Neeta; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Galanter, Joshua M; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine Keiko; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A; Ford, Jean G; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Williams, Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Burchard, Esteban G

    2016-12-08

    In the United States, Puerto Ricans and African Americans have lower prevalence of breastfeeding and worse clinical outcomes for asthma compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We hypothesize that the history of breastfeeding is associated with increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted and reduced asthma exacerbations in Latino and African American youths with asthma. As part of the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) Study and the Study of African Americans, asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE II), we conducted case-only analyses in children and adolescents aged 8-21 years with asthma from four different racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 426), Mexican Americans (n = 424), mixed/other Latinos (n = 255), and Puerto Ricans (n = 629). We investigated the association between any breastfeeding in infancy and FEV(1)% predicted using multivariable linear regression; Poisson regression was used to determine the association between breastfeeding and asthma exacerbations. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in African Americans (59.4%) and Puerto Ricans (54.9%) compared to Mexican Americans (76.2%) and mixed/other Latinos (66.9%; p breastfeeding was associated with a 3.58% point increase in FEV1% predicted (p = 0.01) and a 21% reduction in asthma exacerbations (p = 0.03) in African Americans only. Breastfeeding was associated with higher FEV1% predicted in asthma and reduced number of asthma exacerbations in African American youths, calling attention to continued support for breastfeeding.

  5. Beyond parenting practices: extended kinship support and the academic adjustment of African-American and European-American teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallock, Linda L; Lamborn, Susie D

    2006-10-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation. Higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of psychological control were associated with a stronger work orientation. After accounting for the demographic variables and the three parenting practices, higher levels of extended kinship support related to stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. For European-American teens, parental acceptance related to academic adjustment, including stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. European-American adolescents with stronger extended kinship networks reported higher teacher bonding and a stronger work orientation. Results indicate the importance of extended kinship support for both African-American and European-American adolescents.

  6. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Lott Collins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the professional realm. The vignettes include a scenario for a supervisor and a client.

  7. Adapting a program to inform African American and Hispanic American women about cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Gonzalez, Jenny; Mumman, Manpreet; Cullen, Lisa; Lahousse, Sheila F; Malcarne, Vanessa; Conde, Viridiana; Riley, Natasha

    2010-06-01

    The dearth of evidence-based clinical trial education programs may contribute to the under-representation of African American and Hispanic American women in cancer research studies. This study used focus group-derived data from 80 women distributed among eight Spanish- and English-language focus groups. These data guided the researchers' adaptation and refinement of the National Cancer Institute's various clinical trials education programs into a program that was specifically focused on meeting the information needs of minority women and addressing the barriers to study participation that they perceived. A "sisterhood" theme was adopted and woven throughout the presentation.

  8. Relationship between frailty and cognitive decline in older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Al Snih, Soham; Raji, Mukaila A; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2008-10-01

    To examine the association between frailty status and change in cognitive function over time in older Mexican Americans. Data used were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Five southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. One thousand three hundred seventy noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 and older with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 21 or higher at baseline (1995/96). Frailty, defined as three or more of the following components: unintentional weight loss of more than 10 pounds, weakness (lowest 20% in grip strength), self-reported exhaustion, slow walking speed (lowest 20% in 16-foot walk time in seconds), and low physical activity level (lowest 20% on Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score). Information about sociodemographic factors, MMSE score, medical conditions (stroke, heart attack, diabetes mellitus, arthritis, cancer, and hypertension), depressive symptoms, and visual impairment was obtained. Of the 1,370 subjects, 684 (49.9%) were not frail, 626 (45.7%) were prefrail (1-2 components), and 60 (4.4%) were frail (>/=3 components) in 1995/96. Using general linear mixed models, it was found that frail subjects had greater cognitive decline over 10 years than not frail subjects (estimate=-0.67, standard error=0.13; PMexican Americans with MMSE scores of 21 or higher at baseline is an independent predictor of MMSE score decline over a 10-year period. Future research is needed to establish pathophysiological components that can clarify the relationship between frailty and cognitive decline.

  9. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  10. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…

  11. Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

  12. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  13. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, LaToya L.

    2008-01-01

    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  14. Trends in Themes of African American Family Research 1939-1989: A Synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    Themes in research on African-American families between 1939 and 1989 are discussed, and the following recently developed themes are highlighted: (1) stress, (2) aging, (3) adoption, (4) prison, (5) polygamy, and (6) violence. Much more research is needed to provide better understanding of the African-American family. (SLD)

  15. Racial Identity Development and Academic Achievement of Academically Gifted African American Students: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2014-01-01

    Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…

  16. Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

  17. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  18. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  19. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  20. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.