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Sample records for older adolescent population

  1. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

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    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  2. Older Adolescent's Perceptions of Personal Internet Use

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    Koff, Rosalind N.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use is widespread among the older adolescent population. Given the pervasiveness and frequency of internet use, concerns have been raised regarding the impact of excess internet use on adolescent health. In order to understand the impact of internet use on health, we must have accurate and reliable measures of internet use. This study…

  3. Population Health Management for Older Adults

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    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  4. Depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults in Mexico City.

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    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; González-Forteza, Catalina; Jiménez-Tapia, Alberto; Gallo, Joseph J; Wagner, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA). The study is based on data from two independent samples collected in Mexico City (2,444 adolescents and 2,223 older adults) which included the revised version of the CES-D. The presence or absence of depressed mood (dysphoria), diminished pleasure (anhedonia), drastic change in weight, sleep problems, thinking and concentration difficulties, excessive or inappropriate guilt, fatigue, psychomotor agitation/retardation, and suicide ideation were used in LCA to determine the structure of depressive symptoms for adolescents and older adults. Adolescents reported higher excessive or inappropriate guilt compared to older adults, while older adults had higher proportions of anhedonia, sleep problems, fatigue, and psychomotor agitation/retardation. Similar proportions were found in other symptoms. The LCA analysis showed the best fit with four latent classes (LC): LC 1, "symptoms suggestive of major depressive episode (MDE)" with prevalence of 5.9 % (n = 144) and 10.3 % (n = 230) among adolescents and older adults, respectively; LC 2, "probable MDE symptoms" 18.2 % (n = 446) and 23.0 % (n = 512); LC 3, "possible MDE" 27.7 % (n = 676) and 21.8 % (n = 485); LC 4, "without significant depressive symptoms" 48.2 % (n = 1,178) and 44.8 % (n = 996). The differences in item thresholds between the two groups (adolescents vs. older adults) were statistically significant (Wald test = 255.684, df = 1, p depressive symptoms between adolescents and older adults that merit acknowledgment, further study, and consideration of their potential clinical and public health implications.

  5. A case study on the communication of older adolescents.

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    Davis, Lauren; Spencer, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Alison

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the communication of two older male adolescents (aged 17 and 19 years) with each other (peer interaction) and with a teacher (non-peer interaction) in three different types of activity (casual conversation, providing/listening to a recount and collaborative problem-solving). Conversation analysis, selected analyses from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics and social psychology (communication accommodation theory) were applied in data analysis. Peer interaction showed fewer questions, fewer challenging moves and the absence of divergent accommodation strategies. In the non-peer interaction, the teacher's higher number of turns, questions and interruptions appeared to influence the opportunity for adolescent contribution to the interactions. Some aspects of language use by each adolescent - mean turn length, use of one-word utterances and sarcasm - were consistent across communication partner and activity. The methodology is suggested to provide a suitable procedure for use in similar research with older adolescents who have traumatic brain injury.

  6. Dual Disorders in Adolescent Populations

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    van West, D.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents who abuse substances is the rule rather than the exception, and common comorbidities include depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Among adolescents, the presence of both mental

  7. Forearm diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population: treatment and management.

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    Truntzer, Jeremy; Vopat, Matthew L; Kane, Patrick M; Christino, Melissa A; Katarincic, Julia; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures are commonly treated in a variety of clinical settings. Most often, closed reduction followed by immobilization leads to satisfactory results. However, in the adolescent population (10-16 years of age), forearm fractures are more challenging due to less remodeling potential. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy, biomechanics, and treatment options relevant to adolescent patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed publications and abstracts related to the treatment for pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures in adolescents was carried out. Forearm fractures in the pediatric population are most common following indirect blows to the forearm. When treating these fractures using closed reduction, it is important to recognize the muscular attachments of the forearm. In roughly 70-90% of cases, closed reduction leads to adequate alignment. In all cases, return to function is the primary goal; however, exact alignment parameters remain controversial. In the adolescent population, surgical treatment has risen substantially in the last few decades. Intramedullary nailing and open reduction using plate fixation are the two most common operative techniques. Unfortunately, recent results have shown that nonunion, malunion, and overall complication rates are higher in older pediatric patients. Moreover, no consensus exists regarding one technique over another. Both-bone diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population present unique challenges regarding optimal treatment, especially when considering surgical intervention. Further research is necessary to better understand indications for specific surgical treatment.

  8. Sexual health, risky sexual behavior and condom use among adolescents young adults and older adults in Chiang Mai, Thailand: findings from a population based survey.

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    Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Thanamee, Sanhapan; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Thaikla, Kanittha; McDonald, Jessica; Aramrattana, Apinun; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri

    2017-12-04

    Sexual health is one of the key dimensions of health across all ages. Understanding risky sexual behaviors remains an important area of public health research. This study aimed to explore sexual health, risky sexual behaviors and factors associated with recent condom use as condom use is considered a main intervention proven to reduce negative health consequences of risky sexual behaviors, specifically related to sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique survey was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Information was obtained about age of first sexual intercourse, sexual activity, condom use, number of partners and history of drug/alcohol use prior to sexual activities within the past 3 months. A weighted analysis was performed to account for data clustering. It is estimated that most men (93%) and women (86%) in Chiang Mai have engaged in sexual intercourse. More than 70% of the people in Chiang Mai over age 30 remained sexually active in the past 3 months, even for populations over age 50. Eight percent of male teenagers reported having more than one sexual partner in the past 3 months. Regular condom use was reported in less than 5% of the population (6.6% men and 3.1% women). Our study demonstrated that sexual health is an important public health issue across all age groups. Condom use has been promoted as one way to minimize and prevent unintended consequences of sexual behavior but overall use remains low.

  9. A Case Study on the Communication of Older Adolescents

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    Davis, Lauren; Spencer, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the communication of two older male adolescents (aged 17 and 19 years) with each other (peer interaction) and with a teacher (non-peer interaction) in three different types of activity (casual conversation, providing/listening to a recount and collaborative problem-solving). Conversation analysis, selected analyses from the…

  10. Older adolescents' views regarding participation in Facebook research.

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    Moreno, Megan A; Grant, Alison; Kacvinsky, Lauren; Moreno, Peter; Fleming, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Facebook continues to grow in popularity among adolescents as well as adolescent researchers. Guidance on conducting research using Facebook with appropriate attention to privacy and ethics is scarce. To inform such research efforts, the purpose of this study was to determine older adolescents' responses after learning that they were participants in a research study that involved identification of participants using Facebook. Public Facebook profiles of older adolescents aged 18-19 years from a large state university were examined. Profile owners were then interviewed. During the interview, participants were informed that they were identified by examining publicly available Facebook profiles. Participants were asked to discuss their views on this research method. A total of 132 participants completed the interview (70% response rate); the average age was 18.4 years (SD = .5); and our sample included 64 male participants (48.5%). Participant responses included endorsement (19.7%), fine (36.4%), neutral (28.8%), uneasy (9.1%), and concerned (6.1%). Among participants who were uneasy or concerned, the majority voiced confusion regarding their current profile security settings (p = .00). The majority of adolescent participants viewed the use of Facebook for research positively. These findings are consistent with the approach taken by many U.S. courts. Researchers may consider these findings when developing research protocols involving Facebook. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population

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    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

  12. OLDER ADULTS: AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATION

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    The baby boom generation is quickly becoming the geriatric generation. The over-65 age bracket hit 13% of Americans in 1997, and is expected to reach 20% by 2030 accounting for 73 million Americans. World-wide the total number of older people (>60years) is expected to double from...

  13. Spiritual disclosure between older adolescents and their mothers.

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    Brelsford, Gina M; Mahoney, Annette

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the role of spiritual disclosure within older adolescent-mother relationships. Spiritual disclosure is defined as mutual disclosure of personal religious and spiritual beliefs and practices. Three hundred 18- to 20-year-old college students and 130 of their mothers reported on spiritual disclosure in their relationships. According to both parties, greater spiritual disclosure was related to higher relationship satisfaction, greater use of collaborative conflict resolution strategies, less dysfunctional communication patterns, less verbal aggression, and increased general disclosure in mother-adolescent relationships beyond global religiousness and demographics. Spiritual disclosure also predicted unique variance in collaborative conflict resolution strategies beyond these factors and general disclosure. The findings underscore the value of attending to the interpersonal dimension of religion/spirituality. More specifically, the results suggest that spiritual disclosure is an indicator of relationship quality, one that is tied to better relationship functioning, and one that merits further attention in studies of family dynamics.

  14. Adolescents' Perceptions of Relationships with Older Sibling in the Context of Other Close Relationships.

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    Seginer, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    Examined 11th graders' perceived relationships with older sibling in the context of adolescent-parent and adolescent-peer relationships. Found that relationships with older siblings were similar to relationships with parents and peers. Positive sibling relationships contributed to emotional and school-related support beyond the contribution of…

  15. Do Older Siblings Make a Difference? The Effects of Older Sibling Support and Older Sibling Adjustment on the Adjustment of Socially Disadvantaged Adolescents.

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    Widmer, Eric D.; Weiss, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    Examined role of support from a well-adjusted older sibling for positive adjustment of disadvantaged inner-city adolescents. Found that sibling support was nonsignificantly related to delinquency, academic success, and mental health for younger siblings. Only when accompanied by a positive image of their older sibling was support associated with…

  16. The relationship between parenting types and older adolescents' personality, academic achievement, adjustment, and substance use.

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    Weiss, L H; Schwarz, J C

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine Baumrind's T3 conceptual framework using a multiple informant design and an older adolescent population. With 178 college students and their families as participants, the present study found many of the predicted relations between parents' child-rearing style (Authoritative, Democratic, Nondirective, Nonauthoritarian-Directive, Authoritarian-Directive, and Unengaged) and their adolescent children's behavior in the 4 domains assessed: personality, adjustment, academic achievement, and substance use. The differences between parenting types on the criterion measures were not as large as reported in Baumrind's study, and significant effects were predominantly due to the poor scores from children with Unengaged and Authoritarian-Directive parents. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the Authoritative parenting type, the utility of using a typology, and areas for future research.

  17. The Growth of Older Inmate Populations: How Population Aging Explains Rising Age at Admission.

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    Luallen, Jeremy; Cutler, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Older inmates are the fastest growing segment of the prison population; however, the reasons for this are not well understood. One explanation is that the general population is aging, driving prison age distributions to change. For this article, we study the role of population aging in prison growth by investigating how the baby boom phenomenon of post-World War II has contributed to the growth of older inmate populations. We identify the impact of population aging using simulation methods that explain prison growth as the combination of criminal justice processes. Overall, we find evidence that population aging has played a significant role in explaining the growth of older inmate populations, in particular among inmates aged between 50 and 64 years, contributing to as much as half of the observed increase in these groups since 2000. This finding stands in contrast to the notion that population aging has little explanatory power in describing the growth of prison populations and implies that older inmate groups are more sensitive to compositional changes in the general population. We argue that prediction-based modeling of prison growth should more seriously consider the impacts and consequences of demographic shifts among older prisoner populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings’ Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

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    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka, Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework, and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings’ concordance for delinquency. Older sibling delinquency significantly predicted younger sibling delinquency. Older sibling popularity was not important in predicting boys’ delinquency. However, perceptions of older sibling popularity directly predicted reduced delinquency for girls with older sisters. A significant interaction effect was found for girls with older brothers. Older brother delinquency predicted girls’ delinquency for girls who perceived their older brother to be relatively popular. There was no delinquency concordance for girls who perceived their older brothers to be less popular. PMID:20305731

  19. Primary hypertension and special aspects of hypertension in older children and adolescents

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    Ellis D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Demetrius Ellis, Yosuke MiyashitaChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USAAbstract: The prevalence of hypertension has increased at an accelerated rate in older children and adolescents. This has raised great concern about premature development of cardiovascular disease, which has major long-term health and financial implications. While obesity and sedentary habits largely explain this phenomenon, there are other social and cultural influences that may unmask genetic susceptibility to hypertension in the pediatric population. While it is essential to exclude numerous causes of secondary hypertension in every child, these disorders are not discussed in this review. Rather, the aim of this review is to familiarize pediatricians with casual and ambulatory blood pressure measurement, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of several common conditions that play a role in the development of hypertension in children and adolescents. Besides primary hypertension and obesity-related hypertension, emphasis is given to epidemiology, measurement of blood pressure, including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, hypertension associated with drug use, teenage pregnancy, and video and computer games. Lastly, because pediatricians are increasingly confronted with special issues concerning the management of the hypertensive athlete, this topic is also addressed.Keywords: hypertension, adolescents, obesity, drugs, pregnancy, athletes

  20. Attitudinal and Normative Predictors of Alcohol Use by Older Adolescents and Young Adults.

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    Kuther, Tara L.; Higgins-D'Alessandro, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Examines a model of alcohol use based on the theory of planned behavior, and expectancy theory on the influence of parents and peers with older adolescents and young adults. Results suggest that, during adolescence, decisions to consume alcohol are rational, based on the consideration of the positive consequences of alcohol use; however, the…

  1. Older and Newer Media: Patterns of Use and Effects on Adolescents' Health and Well-Being

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    Brown, Jane D.; Bobkowski, Piotr S.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental…

  2. Imaging after urinary tract infection in older children and adolescents.

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    Kurtz, Michael P; Chow, Jeanne S; Johnson, Emilie K; Rosoklija, Ilina; Logvinenko, Tanya; Nelson, Caleb P

    2015-05-01

    There are few guidelines and little data on imaging after urinary tract infections in older children. We determined the clinical yield of renal and bladder ultrasound, and voiding cystourethrogram in older children and adolescents after urinary tract infection. We analyzed findings on voiding cystourethrogram, and renal and bladder ultrasound as well as the clinical history of patients who underwent the 2 studies on the same day between January 2006 and December 2010. We selected for study patients 5 to 18 years old who underwent imaging for urinary tract infection. Those with prior postnatal genitourinary imaging or prenatal hydronephrosis were excluded from analysis. We identified a cohort of 153 patients, of whom 74% were 5 to 8 years old, 21% were 8 to 12 years old and 5% were 12 to 18 years old. Of the patients 77% were female, 78% had a febrile urinary tract infection history and 55% had a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. Renal and bladder ultrasound findings revealed hydronephrosis in 7.8% of patients, ureteral dilatation in 3.9%, renal parenchymal findings in 20% and bladder findings in 12%. No patient had moderate or greater hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrogram showed vesicoureteral reflux in 34% of cases and bladder or urethral anomalies in 12%. Reflux was grade I, II-III and greater than III in 5.9%, 26% and 2% of patients, respectively. For any voiding cystourethrogram abnormality the sensitivity and specificity of any renal and bladder ultrasound abnormality were 0.49 (95% CI 0.37-0.62) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.66-0.84), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 0.58 (95% CI 0.44-0.71) and 0.69 (0.59-0.77), respectively. In older children with a history of urinary tract infection the imaging yield is significant. However, imaging revealed high grade hydronephrosis or high grade vesicoureteral reflux in few patients. Renal ultrasound is not reliable for predicting voiding cystourethrogram findings such as vesicoureteral

  3. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings’ Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

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    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka, Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework, and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings’ concordance for delinquency. Older sibling delinquency significantly predicted younger sibling delinquency. Older sibling popularity was not important in predicting boys’...

  4. Incorporating Social Support in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa: Special Considerations for Older Adolescents and Young Adults

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    Pisetsky, Emily M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research support is strongest for family-based treatment (FBT) for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents. However, a strong evidence base for treatments for older adolescents and young adults with AN is lacking. Emphasizing social support in the treatment of AN may be beneficial for older adolescents and young adults with AN. This paper provides a brief review of the literature on FBT for adolescent AN and provides a case example of adolescent AN treated with FBT. We then discuss novel treatments that have incorporated social support for older adolescents and young adults with AN, such as modified FBT and couples-based interventions. We provide case studies of each of these novel treatment approaches as well. Additionally, this paper highlights and discusses developmental considerations and challenges in working with older adolescents and young adults with AN. PMID:27429544

  5. Internet Activities During Leisure: A Comparison Between Adolescents With ADHD and Adolescents From the General Population.

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    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2015-11-25

    Adolescents' leisure activities are increasingly focusing on Internet activities, and today, these coexist with traditional leisure activities such as sport and meeting friends. The purpose of the present study was to investigate leisure activities, particularly Internet activities, among boys and girls with ADHD, and compare these with boys and girls from the general population. The objective was also to explore how traditional leisure activities and Internet activities interrelate among adolescents with ADHD. Adolescents with ADHD (n = 102) were compared with adolescents from the general population on leisure activities and Internet use. Leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD tended to focus on Internet activities, particularly online games. Internet activities were broadening leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD, rather than being a substitute for traditional leisure activities. Internet activities may provide adolescents with ADHD accessible means of social interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Insomnia in an Adolescent Population

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    Siomos, Konstantinos E.; Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Floros, Georgios D.; Skenteris, Nikolaos; Mouzas, Odysseas D.; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between psychosocial factors and insomnia complaints in an adolescent non-clinical population. It is a cross-sectional study of a stratified sample of 2,195 Greek adolescent high-school students. Subjects were given the Athens insomnia scale, the Symptom Checklist scale (SCL-90-R) and a…

  7. Depression in an older adult rural population in India.

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    Sinha, Sati P; Shrivastava, Saurabh R; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-10-01

    With a rapidly aging society, geriatric mental health is emerging as an important public health concern. According to the WHO, prevalence of depression in adults aged ≥60 years in developed and developing countries was 0.5 million and 4.8 million respectively in 2004. In India, increased life expectancy led to a rise in the older adult population between 2001 and 2011, expected to reach 324 million by 2050. To estimate the prevalence of depression and assess association between sociodemographic parameters and depression among older adults in a rural Indian community. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in February and March 2012 in the rural village of Sembakkam, Kancheepuram District in the state of Tamil Nadu, India; the village has a population of 5948, 3.1% of whom are aged ≥60 years. Universal sampling technique was employed, in which every household in the community was visited and all elderly persons were selected. After obtaining written informed consent (a thumbprint was taken if the person was illiterate), participants were assessed face to face for depression using the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. The inclusion criterion was a score >24 on the mini-mental state examination. Final sample size was 103. Study variables included sociodemographic parameters such as age, sex, education, occupation, socioeconomic status, and marital status. Data entry and statistical analysis used SPSS version 17. Of 103 respondents interviewed, 73 (70.9%) were aged 60-69 years and 58 (56.3%) were male. Forty-four (42.7%) individuals (17 males, 27 females) were found to be depressed; 23 (22.3%) with mild depression, 14 (13.6%) moderate depression and 7 (6.8%) severe depression. Female sex and widowhood were significantly associated with depression. Depression, particularly mild depression, is common in this rural population of older adults, particularly among women and widowed elderly. These study findings can help program managers implement a more

  8. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

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    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  9. Longitudinal Study of Social-environmental Predictors of Behavior: Children of Adolescent and Older Mothers Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Letourneau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to older, more educated mothers, adolescent mothers are more prone to less than optimal parenting interactions with their children. Moreover, adolescents’ children are more likely to experience developmental challenges. In this study, effects of social-environmental factors in the first two years of life on children’s anxiety and hyperactivity from age 2 to 8 were examined by analyzing Canadian longitudinal data. Initial levels of anxiety and hyperactivity were higher for children of adolescent mothers, and anxiety increased with age for all children. Female children displayed lower initial levels of hyperactivity than males, and females of adolescent mothers showed a steeper decrease in hyperactivity while males of adolescent mothers showed a steeper increase in hyperactivity than their counterparts parented by older mothers. Parenting, social support and other demographic factors were controlled for and the effects of these predictor variables on trajectories of anxiety and hyperactivity are discussed.

  10. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population

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    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Curto, Vilsa

    2017-01-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications. PMID:28553191

  11. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population.

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    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S; Curto, Vilsa

    2014-10-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications.

  12. A qualitative examination of the relationships that serve a mentoring function for Mexican American older adolescents.

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    Sánchez, Bernadette; Reyes, Olga; Singh, Joshua

    2006-10-01

    This exploratory study was an in-depth examination of Mexican American adolescents' relationships with nonparental adults. Qualitative interviews with 10 Mexican American adolescents revealed 23 nonparental adults who served a mentoring function in their lives. Six of these nonparental adults were also interviewed. Data analyses were conducted using a grounded theory approach so that the relationships were described in participants' words and experiences. The nonparental adults identified by adolescents included siblings, extended family members, older peers, and institutional figures. The support provided took many different forms, from emotional to informational/experiential support, to modeling behavior, for example. Further, adolescents were supported in eight different areas of their lives. Participants also discussed the perceived benefits of these relationships for adolescents. Future research directions and implications for youth programming are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Longitudinal Links between Older Sibling Features and Younger Siblings' Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

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    Bouchey, Heather A.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated prospective relations between older siblings' support and academic engagement and younger siblings' academic adjustment from 7th to post-8th grade. The study was unique in that it incorporated a sample of both African American and European American adolescents. Also investigated was the extent to which the gender…

  14. Temporal Discounting of Hypothetical Monetary Rewards by Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults

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    Whelan, Robert; McHugh, Louise A.

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment examined temporal discounting across 3 different age bands: adolescents, adults, and older adults (mean ages 14, 46, and 73 years, respectively). A computerized task was employed in which participants were asked to choose between larger rewards available at a specified time in the future--either 100 British Pounds or 1,000…

  15. What Older Adolescents Expect from Physical Activity: Implicit Cognitions Regarding Health and Appearance Outcomes

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    McFadden, K.; Berry, T. R.; McHugh, T. F.; Rodgers, W. M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adolescents' reflective and impulsive thoughts about health- and social/appearance-related physical activity (PA) outcomes and investigate how those thoughts relate to their PA behavior. Participants: One hundred and forty-four undergraduate students (109 women; 35 men) aged 17-19 years (M = 18.11, SD = 0.65)…

  16. The Relationship between Parenting Types and Older Adolescents' Personality, Academic Achievement, Adjustment, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Laura H.; Schwarz, J. Conrad

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relations between parents' child-rearing style and their older adolescent children's behavior with a sample of 178 college students and their families. Found that students from Nondirective homes had significantly higher SAT scores than students from Authoritarian-Directive and Democratic homes. Students from Unengaged homes had the…

  17. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings' Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka,Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings' concordance for…

  18. Estimating the size of the homeless adolescent population across seven cities in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stark

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Cambodia has committed to supporting family care for vulnerable children, including homeless populations. Collecting baseline data on the numbers and characteristics of homeless adolescents was prioritized to illuminate the scope of the issue, mobilize resources and direct the response. Methods Administrative zones across seven cities were purposively selected to cover the main urban areas known to have homeless populations in Cambodia. A complete enumeration of homeless individuals between the ages of 13 and 17 was attempted in the selected areas. In addition, a second independent count was conducted to enable a statistical estimation of completeness based on overlap across counts. This technique is known as capture-recapture. Adolescents were also interviewed about their schooling, health and other circumstances. Results After adjustment by the capture-recapture corrective multipliers (range: 3.53 -27.08, the study yielded an estimate of 2,697 13–17 year old homeless adolescents across all seven cities. The total number of homeless boys counted was significantly greater than homeless girls, especially in older ages. Conclusions To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time capture-recapture methods have been applied to a homeless estimation of this scale in a resource-limited setting. Findings suggest the number of homeless adolescents in Cambodia is much greater than one would expect if relying on single count data alone and that this population faces many hardships.

  19. "Facebook depression?" social networking site use and depression in older adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenchick, Lauren A; Eickhoff, Jens C; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association between social networking site (SNS) use and depression in older adolescents using an experience sample method (ESM) approach. Older adolescent university students completed an online survey containing the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screen (PHQ) and a week-long ESM data collection period to assess SNS use. Participants (N = 190) included in the study were 58% female and 91% Caucasian. The mean age was 18.9 years (standard deviation = .8). Most used SNSs for either 2 hours (n = 16, 8%). The mean PHQ score was 5.4 (standard deviation = 4.2). No associations were seen between SNS use and either any depression (p = .519) or moderate to severe depression (p = .470). We did not find evidence supporting a relationship between SNS use and clinical depression. Counseling patients or parents regarding the risk of "Facebook Depression" may be premature. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Practitioner's Guide to Electronic Cigarettes in the Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Pesko, Michael F; Shearer, Lee; Hughes, Jenna M; Chang, Jane; Loughlin, Gerald M; Ipp, Lisa S

    2015-12-01

    We present guidance on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for health care professionals who care for adolescents. ENDS provide users with inhaled nicotine in an aerosolized mist. Popular forms of ENDS include e-cigarettes and vape-pens. ENDS range in disposability, customization, and price. Growth of ENDS usage has been particularly rapid in the adolescent population, surpassing that of conventional cigarettes in 2014. Despite surging use throughout the United States, little is known about the health risks posed by ENDS, especially in the vulnerable adolescent population. These products may potentiate nicotine addiction in adolescents and have been found to contain potentially harmful chemicals. The growth in these products may be driven by relaxed purchasing restrictions for minors, lack of advertising regulations, and youth friendly flavors. Taken together, ENDS represent a new and growing health risk to the adolescent population, one that health care professionals should address with their patients. We suggest a patient centered strategy to incorporate ENDS use into routine substance counseling. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Time Perspective and Indecision in Young and Older Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Career choices involve an orientation towards the future and the propensity to planning. The "mental picture" of the past, present and future was defined by Savickas as time perspective. The present paper reports the findings of two studies examining time perspective in Italian adolescents. The first study surveyed 498 students aged…

  2. My older sibling was drunk - younger siblings' drunkenness in relation to parental monitoring and the parent-adolescent relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossrau-Breen, Diana; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    This study explored the links between having older siblings who get drunk, satisfaction with the parent-adolescent relationship, parental monitoring, and adolescents' risky drinking. Regression models were conducted based on a national representative sample of 3725 8th to 10th graders in Switzerland (mean age 15.0, SD = .93) who indicated having older siblings. Results showed that both parental factors and older siblings' drinking behaviour shape younger siblings' frequency of risky drinking. Parental monitoring showed a linear dose-response relationship, and siblings' influence had an additive effect. There was a non-linear interaction effect between parent-adolescent relationship and older sibling's drunkenness. The findings suggest that, apart from avoiding an increasingly unsatisfactory relationship with their children, parental monitoring appears to be important in preventing risky drinking by their younger children, even if the older sibling drinks in such a way. However, a satisfying relationship with parents does not seem to be sufficient to counterbalance older siblings' influence.

  3. Socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities among the older population in India: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Singh, Lucky; Jain, Kshipra; Pou, Ladumai Maikho Apollo

    2014-12-01

    This study quantified and decomposed health inequalities among the older population in India and analyzes how health status varies for populations between 60 to 69 years and 70 years and above. Data from the 60th round of the National Sample Survey (NSS) was used for the analyses. Socioeconomic inequalities in health status were measured by using Concentration Index (CI) and further decomposed to find critical determinants and their relative contributions to total health inequality. Overall, CI estimates were negative for the older population as a whole (CI = -0.1156), as well as for two disaggregated groups, 60 to 69 years (CI = -0.0943) and 70 years and above (CI = -0.08198). This suggests that poor health status is more concentrated among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older population. Decomposition analyses revealed that poor economic status (54 %) is the dominant contributor to total health inequalities in the older population, followed by illiteracy (24 %) and rural place of residence (20 %). Other indicators, such as religion, gender and marital status were positive, while Caste was negatively associated with health inequality in the older populations. Finally, a comparative assessment of decomposition results suggest that critical contributors for health inequality vary for the older population of 60 to 69 years and 70 years and above. These findings provide important insights on health inequalities among the older population in India. Implications are advanced.

  4. Give consideration to financial abuse among the older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Amy

    2007-10-01

    This article, brought to you in association with Help the Aged, considers financial exclusion, low levels of financial capability, and cognitive impairment among older people, which can lead to them becoming reliant on significant others to manage their finances.

  5. Defining Alcohol-Specific Rules Among Parents of Older Adolescents: Moving Beyond No Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdeau, Beth; Miller, Brenda; Vanya, Magdalena; Duke, Michael; Ames, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Parental beliefs and rules regarding their teen’s use of alcohol influence teen decisions regarding alcohol use. However, measurement of parental rules regarding adolescent alcohol use has not been thoroughly studied. This study used qualitative interviews with 174 parents of older teens from 100 families. From open-ended questions, themes emerged that describe explicit rules tied to circumscribed use, no tolerance, and “call me.” There was some inconsistency in explicit rules with and betwee...

  6. Primary hypertension and special aspects of hypertension in older children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Demetrius; Miyashita, Yosuke

    2011-01-01

    Demetrius Ellis, Yosuke MiyashitaChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USAAbstract: The prevalence of hypertension has increased at an accelerated rate in older children and adolescents. This has raised great concern about premature development of cardiovascular disease, which has major long-term health and financial implications. While obesity and sedentary habits largely explain this phenomenon, there are other social and cultu...

  7. My older sibling was drunk - Younger siblings' drunkenness in relation to parental monitoring and the parent-adolescent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossrau-Breen, D.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Gmel, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the links between having older siblings who get drunk, satisfaction with the parent adolescent relationship, parental monitoring, and adolescents' risky drinking. Regression models were conducted based on a national representative sample of 3725 8th to 10th graders in Switzerland

  8. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Li, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Wu, S.; Wu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In China, the rapid socioeconomic transition and the consequential traditional culture change had significant influences on Chinese older-adult depression. In the present study, the prevalence, the potential risk, and the protective factors of depression in the Chinese older population

  9. Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

  10. Death Anxiety and Religiosity among an Older Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wendy; And Others

    One of the most significant factors in accounting for death attitudes is religious beliefs, yet this factor has been little studied or understood. This study examined the relationship between death anxiety, religiosity, and life satisfaction among a sample of retired older individuals. Sixty retired subjects between the ages of 60 and 84 years…

  11. Potentially inappropriate prescribing and cost outcomes for older people: a national population study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahir, Caitriona

    2010-05-01

    Optimization of drug prescribing in older populations is a priority due to the significant clinical and economic costs of drug-related illness. This study aimed to: (i) estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in a national Irish older population using European specific explicit prescribing criteria; (ii) investigate the association between PIP, number of drug classes, gender and age and; (iii) establish the total cost of PIP.

  12. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-12-29

    Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of men aged 71-92 years in 2010-2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978-1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had 5.5 mm) affecting 1-20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1-2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3-5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Goals, beliefs, and concerns of urban caregivers of middle and older adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Krouse, Helene J

    2013-04-01

    Caregiver goals, an integral part of a partnership for asthma management, have been found to influence asthma outcomes in children. These goals are likely to change during the transitional period of adolescence to address the needs of teenagers as they mature and assume greater responsibilities for their own care. Little is known about the goals, beliefs, and concerns of caregivers as they begin to shift responsibilities for asthma management to teens. This study sought to identify the asthma management goals, beliefs, and concerns of primarily African American caregivers of urban middle and older adolescents. Fourteen caregivers of urban African American adolescents aged 14-18 years with asthma participated in a focus group session. An iterative process was used to identify themes from the session related to asthma management goals, concerns, and beliefs of caregivers. Caregivers identified goals that related to supporting their teens' progress toward independent asthma self-management. They described significant concerns related to the teens' ability to implement asthma self-management, especially in school settings. Caregivers also revealed beliefs that represented knowledge deficits related to asthma medications and factors that improved or worsened asthma. Most caregivers identified grave concerns about school policies regarding asthma medication administration and the lack of knowledge and support provided by teachers and staff for their teen. Caregivers are an invaluable resource in the care of adolescents with asthma. An opportunity exists to improve caregiver understanding of asthma medications and to provide support through improvements in asthma care for adolescents in school-based settings.

  14. Spinal cord injury in older population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzelküçük, Ü; Demir, Y; Kesikburun, S; Yaşar, E; Yılmaz, B

    2014-11-01

    Retrospective, comparative 4-year study. To identify the clinical characteristics unique to older patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Turkish Armed Forces Rehabilitation Center, Ankara, Turkey. The study included 870 consecutive patients with SCI that were divided into two groups according to age. Patients aged ⩾60 years at the time of injury constituted the study group, and randomly selected patients aged 0.05). More patients in the study group had neuropathic pain (50.7 vs 34.7%, P=0.049) and abnormal urinary ultrasound findings (23.3 vs 9.3%, P=0.021). RESULTS revealed that older patients with SCI may have different demographic and clinical features compared with younger patients.

  15. Perspectives on Adolescent Sexual Relations With Older Persons: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tener, Dafna

    2018-01-01

    Relations between minors under the age of consent and older persons are legally prohibited in many countries. However, the nature of these relationships, their impact on the lives of minors involved, and how they should be dealt by law enforcement and welfare systems are highly controversial. The differences between the way these relations are perceived by the minors involved and the public are also unclear. This literature review examines them as perceived by youths or young adults who had experienced sexual relations with a person at least 2 years older during their adolescence as well as by students and other adult members of the public. A systematic search of 977 studies initially identified as relevant yielded 16 studies that fit the inclusion criteria. Most (13) research samples were located in the United States, and the remainder were in the United Kingdom (2) and Australia (1). All were published in English. Four main themes emerged from the analysis of these studies: adolescent motives for sexual relations with older persons (two studies); characteristics of sexual relations between adolescents and older persons (6); contextual factors affecting the way such relations are perceived, including the partners' ages and genders (11); and perspectives on the legal framing of such relations (6). The studies' findings are discussed and implications for future research, policy, and practice are suggested, highlighting the complexity and ambiguity of the phenomenon and calling on intervention programs to focus on strengthening the family unit and social network of these youth and for policies to address teen sexuality as defined both normatively and legally.

  16. Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Counseling and Use for Older Adolescents and Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah E; Rocca, Corinne H; Bednarek, Paula; Thompson, Kirsten M J; Darney, Philip D; Harper, Cynthia C

    2016-12-01

    The majority of pregnancies during adolescence are unintended, and few adolescents use long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) due in part to health care providers' misconceptions about nulliparous women's eligibility for the intrauterine device. We examined differences in LARC counseling, selection, and initiation by age and parity in a study with a provider's LARC training intervention. Sexually active women aged 18-25 years receiving contraceptive counseling (n = 1,500) were enrolled at 20 interventions and 20 control clinics and followed for 12 months. We assessed LARC counseling and selection, by age and parity, with generalized estimated equations with robust standard errors. We assessed LARC use over 1 year with Cox proportional hazards models with shared frailty for clustering. Women in the intervention had increased LARC counseling, selection, and initiation, with similar effects among older adolescent and nulliparous women, and among young adult and parous women. Across study arms, older adolescents were as likely as young adults to receive LARC counseling (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = .85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .63-1.15), select LARC (aOR = .86; 95% CI: .64-1.17), and use LARC methods (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = .94; 95% CI: .69-1.27). Nulliparous women were less likely to receive counseling (aOR = .57; 95% CI: .42-.79) and to select LARC (aOR = .53; 95% CI: .37-.75) than parous women, and they initiated LARC methods at lower rates (aHR = .65; 95% CI: .48-.90). Nulliparous women had similar rates of implant initiation but lower rates of intrauterine device initiation (aHR = .59; 95% CI: .41-.85). Continued efforts should be made to improve counseling and access to LARC methods for nulliparous women of all ages. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Periodontal disease and systemic diseases in an older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçaka, Özgün; Becerik, Sema; Bıçakcı, Nurgün; Kiyak, Asuman H

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between older adults' medical and oral conditions and their self-reports of periodontal conditions with clinically obtained data. Concerns about oral health of elders and its association with systemic diseases have been gaining more attention. A total of 201 older subjects were interviewed about their previous medical and dental histories and were asked to complete a health questionnaire. Each subject received full mouth exam, including counting number of natural teeth remaining, gingival (GI) and plaque index (PI), CPITN and denture status. Elders who completed health questionnaires had mean age of 62.5. Mean CPITN score was 1.62(± 1.12), PI was 1.57(± 1.48), and GI was 1.55(± 1.31). Women had higher prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis than men (p=0.008, p=0.0001, respectively). Subjects who reported bleeding upon brushing had higher PI and GI scores (p=0.03, p=0.05, respectively). Smokers were more likely to describe their periodontal tissues as unhealthy (72.3% vs. 27.7%, p=0.01), whereas self-reports of healthy vs. unhealthy gums did not differ between non-smokers. These findings suggest that a number of systemic conditions are associated with indicators of periodontal disease, and self-reports of oral conditions are independent of systemic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanisms influencing older adolescents' bedtimes during videogaming: the roles of game difficulty and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa J; King, Daniel L; Richardson, Cele; Roane, Brandy M; Gradisar, Michael

    2017-11-01

    A relationship between evening technology use and sleep has been established, and models suggest various mechanisms to explain this relationship. Recent updates to these models also suggest the influence of individual difference factors, such that the relationship between technology and sleep varies between young people. Flow is an experience of immersion and time distortion that could vary between adolescents when using technology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of flow on the self-selected bedtimes of adolescents when videogaming. Seventeen older adolescent, experienced videogamers (age = 15.9 ± 0.83 years), played a new videogame on two school-night evenings in a sleep laboratory. Game difficulty was set to "hard" one evening (flow condition) and "easy" on the other evening (disrupted flow). Trait and state flow were measured, along with heart rate during videogaming, and bedtime measured objectively with real-time cameras. An interaction effect for heart rate indicated an elevated heart rate in the easy condition after 150 min of gaming (p Adolescents high on trait flow played for longer and selected significantly later bedtimes than their low trait flow peers but only for the hard (flow) condition (12:22 AM vs. 10:53 PM, p = 0.004). Similarly, adolescents with high state flow went to bed significantly later than those low on state flow (12:24 PM vs. 10:52 PM, p = 0.001), again only in the hard condition. These findings suggest that individual and situational characteristics may amplify the effects of technology use on the "sleep" of adolescents and provides support for the displacement of bedtime hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J; Robertson, Mary M; Leckman, James F; Peterson, Bradley S

    2010-07-01

    Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning and high comorbidity rates in late adolescence.

  20. Inappropriate prescribing in the older population: need for new criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Denis

    2012-02-03

    Inappropriate prescribing (IP) is a common and serious global healthcare problem in elderly people, leading to increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), polypharmacy being the main risk factor for both IP and ADRs. IP in older people is highly prevalent but preventable; hence screening tools for IP have been devised, principally Beers\\' Criteria and the Inappropriate Prescribing in the Elderly Tool (IPET). Although Beers\\' Criteria have become the most widely cited IP criteria in the literature, nevertheless, they have serious deficiencies, including several drugs that are rarely prescribed nowadays, a lack of structure in the presentation of the criteria and omission of several important and common IP instances. New, more up-to-date, systems-based and easily applicable criteria are needed that can be applied in the routine clinical setting.

  1. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. METHOD: A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were......, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning...

  2. Cohort comparisons: emotional well-being among adolescents and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people’s attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents. Methods Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55) than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P≤0.001). The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587)=120.21; P≤0.001; η2=0.122] after controlling for sex. Conclusion Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people. PMID:24872683

  3. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Candice; Kress, Jeff; Schroeder, Jan; Donlin, Ayla; Rozenek, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level...

  4. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent population Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Chincholikar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For establishing effective intervention, it is important to identify major determinants in an early stage of life. Effective prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. Aims & Objectives: To study the epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent girls. Material & Methods: All adolescent school going boys and girls in the age group between 10 to 19 years were included as per definition of adolescent. 585 students were selected by systematic sample i.e. every 3rd student was included in the study sample. A pretested standardized questionnaire which consisted of questions related to sociodemographic data was used to screen the population for obesity. Results: When body mass index was correlated with various socioeconomic variables, it was found that prevalence of obesity was more in   males (overweight- 20.84%;obese-5.43% as compared to females (overweight- 16.92%; obese-3.14%,more  in the upper socioeconomic status (27.27% as compared to lower socioeconomic status(15%,more in  subjects with more frequency of junk food(30.97% as compared to having occasional junk food (20.93,more in  subjects with more frequency of eating sweets ( 25.73% as compared to occasional sweet eaters(13.59%. Conclusion: The dietary habits like more frequency of junk food, more sweet consumption, and socioeconomic status had a major impact on body mass index of children.

  6. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  7. Features of Social Dilemmas Solving in Older Adolescents with Different Levels of Intellectual Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belova S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss one of the aspects of social competence formation in older teens relevant in the light of the requirements of the second generation of Federal Educational Standards. The general hypothesis: Features of reasoning and decision-making in senior teenagers in social dilemmas are related to the level of their intellectual abilities and have sex specificity. The subject of the study was the relationship of intellectual abilities of students in grades 9-10 (N = 115, 65% were girls, 35% were boys and their activity and critical reasoning, categorical position in solving social dilemmas. We revealed that verbal intelligence in older adolescents is positively related to criticality argument. Verbal intelligence relationship with the activity of reasoning and categorical position on social dilemmas was gender-specific. Girls with higher verbal intelligence have higher activity and low categorical reasoning; boys have higher categorical position. We conclude that verbal intellectual abilities are the cognitive basis of the processes of social cognition in older teens

  8. Demographic profile and pregnancy outcomes of adolescents and older mothers in Saudi Arabia: analysis from Riyadh Mother (RAHMA) and Baby cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Amel A; Wahabi, Hayfaa; Mamdouh, Heba; Kotb, Reham; Esmaeil, Samia

    2017-09-11

    To investigate the impact of maternal age on pregnancy outcomes with special emphasis on adolescents and older mothers and to investigate the differences in demographic profile between adolescents and older mothers. This study is a secondary analysis of pregnancy outcomes of women in Riyadh Mother and Baby cohort study according to maternal age. The study population was grouped according to maternal age into five subgroups; mothers were married when conceived with the index pregnancy. Young mothers were less likely to be illiterate, more likely to achieve higher education and be employed compared with mothers ≥ 40 years. Compared with the reference group, adolescents were more likely to have vaginal delivery (and least likely to deliver by caesarean section (CS); OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9, while women ≥40 years, were more likely to deliver by CS; OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3 to 3.7. Maternal age was a risk factor for gestational diabetes in women ≥40 years; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.1. Adolescents had increased risk of preterm delivery; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1 and women ≥40 years had similar risk; OR, 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6. Adverse pregnancy outcomes show a continuum with the advancement of maternal age. Adolescents mother are more likely to have vaginal delivery; however, they are at increased risk of preterm delivery. Advanced maternal age is associated with increased risk of preterm delivery, gestational diabetes and CS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. The Rise of Concussions in the Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alan L; Sing, David C; Rugg, Caitlin M; Feeley, Brian T; Senter, Carlin

    2016-08-01

    Concussion injuries have been highlighted to the American public through media and research. While recent studies have shown increased traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) diagnosed in emergency departments across the United States, no studies have evaluated trends in concussion diagnoses across the general US population in various age groups. To evaluate the current incidence and trends in concussions diagnosed across varying age groups and health care settings in a large cross-sectional population. Descriptive epidemiological study. Administrative health records of 8,828,248 members of a large private-payer insurance group in the United States were queried. Patients diagnosed with concussion from years 2007 through 2014 were stratified by year of diagnosis, age group, sex, classification of concussion, and health care setting of diagnosis (eg, emergency department vs physician's office). Chi-square testing was used for statistical analysis. From a cohort of 8,828,248 patients, 43,884 patients were diagnosed with a concussion. Of these patients, 55% were male and over 32% were in the adolescent age group (10-19 years old). The highest incidence of concussion was seen in patients aged 15 to 19 years (16.5/1000 patients), followed by those aged 10 to 14 years (10.5/1000 patients), 20 to 24 years (5.2/1000 patients), and 5 to 9 years (3.5/1000 patients). Overall, there was a 60% increase in concussion incidence from 2007 to 2014. The largest increases were in the 10- to 14-year (143%) and 15- to 19-year (87%) age groups. Based on International Classification of Disease-9th Revision classification, 29% of concussions were associated with some form of loss of consciousness. Finally, 56% of concussions were diagnosed in the emergency department and 29% in a physician's office, with the remainder in urgent care clinics or inpatient settings. The incidence of concussion diagnosed in the general US population is increasing, driven largely by a substantial rise in the adolescent

  10. Cohort comparisons: emotional well-being among adolescents and older adults

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    Momtaz YA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz,1 Tengku Aizan Hamid,1,2 Rahimah Ibrahim1,21Institute of Gerontology, 2Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people's attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents.Methods: Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA.Results: Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55 than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P≤0.001. The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587=120.21; P≤0.001; η2=0.122] after controlling for sex.Conclusion: Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people.Keywords: aged, ageism, emotional well-being, positive aging

  11. Biomarkers of Presbycusis and Tinnitus in a Portuguese Older Population

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    Haúla F. Haider

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss (ARHL is a ubiquitous health problem. It is estimated that it will affect up to 1.5 billion people by 2025. In addition, tinnitus occurs in a large majority of cases with presbycusis. Glutamate metabotropic receptor 7 (GRM7 and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 are some of the genetic markers for presbycusis.Objectives: To explore patterns of hearing loss and the role of GRM7 and NAT2 as possible markers of presbycusis and tinnitus in a Portuguese population sample.Materials and Methods: Tonal and speech audiometry, tinnitus assessment, clinical interview, and DNA samples were obtained from patients aged from 55 to 75 with or without tinnitus. GRM7 analysis was performed by qPCR. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in NAT2 was performed by PCR amplification followed by Sanger sequencing or by qPCR.Results: We screened samples from 78 individuals (33 men and 45 women. T allele at GRM7 gene was the most observed (60.3% T/T and 33.3% A/T. Individuals with a T/T genotype have a higher risk for ARHL and 33% lower risk for tinnitus, compared to individuals with A/A and A/T genotype, respectively. Being a slow acetylator (53% was the most common NAT2 phenotype, more common in men (55.8%. Intermediate acetylator was the second most common phenotype (35.9% also more frequent in men (82.6%. Noise exposed individuals and individuals with ‘high frequency’ hearing loss seem to have a higher risk for tinnitus. Our data suggests that allele AT of GRM7 can have a statistically significant influence toward the severity of tinnitus.Conclusion: For each increasing year of age the chance of HL increases by 9%. The risk for ARHL was not significantly associated with GRM7 neither NAT2. However, we cannot conclude from our data whether the presence of T allele at GRM7 increases the odds for ARHL or whether the A allele has a protective effect. Genotype A/T at GRM7 could potentially be considered a

  12. Biomarkers of Presbycusis and Tinnitus in a Portuguese Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Haúla F; Flook, Marisa; Aparicio, Mariana; Ribeiro, Diogo; Antunes, Marilia; Szczepek, Agnieszka J; Hoare, Derek J; Fialho, Graça; Paço, João C; Caria, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a ubiquitous health problem. It is estimated that it will affect up to 1.5 billion people by 2025. In addition, tinnitus occurs in a large majority of cases with presbycusis. Glutamate metabotropic receptor 7 ( GRM7 ) and N -acetyltransferase 2 ( NAT2 ) are some of the genetic markers for presbycusis. Objectives: To explore patterns of hearing loss and the role of GRM7 and NAT2 as possible markers of presbycusis and tinnitus in a Portuguese population sample. Materials and Methods: Tonal and speech audiometry, tinnitus assessment, clinical interview, and DNA samples were obtained from patients aged from 55 to 75 with or without tinnitus. GRM7 analysis was performed by qPCR. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NAT2 was performed by PCR amplification followed by Sanger sequencing or by qPCR. Results: We screened samples from 78 individuals (33 men and 45 women). T allele at GRM7 gene was the most observed (60.3% T/T and 33.3% A/T). Individuals with a T/T genotype have a higher risk for ARHL and 33% lower risk for tinnitus, compared to individuals with A/A and A/T genotype, respectively. Being a slow acetylator (53%) was the most common NAT2 phenotype, more common in men (55.8%). Intermediate acetylator was the second most common phenotype (35.9%) also more frequent in men (82.6%). Noise exposed individuals and individuals with 'high frequency' hearing loss seem to have a higher risk for tinnitus. Our data suggests that allele AT of GRM7 c an have a statistically significant influence toward the severity of tinnitus. Conclusion: For each increasing year of age the chance of HL increases by 9%. The risk for ARHL was not significantly associated with GRM7 neither NAT2 . However, we cannot conclude from our data whether the presence of T allele at GRM7 increases the odds for ARHL or whether the A allele has a protective effect. Genotype A/T at GRM7 could potentially be considered a

  13. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison SA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sophomore college students, the influence of parental autonomy support on overall adolescents self-determination was examined to determine whether self-determination influences adolescents' motivation to engage in healthy diet and exercise behaviors. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression analyses, parental autonomy support was not predictive of older adolescents' motivation for diet and exercise; however, study results did indicate that parental autonomy support remains highly influential in adolescent self-determination (F[2, 130] = 22.21; P = 0.001 during early college years and that in this sample, adolescent self-determination is predictive of motivation for diet (t = 2.21; P < 0.05, but not exercise. Findings suggest that parental autonomy support continues to influence adolescent internalization of attitudes and behaviors during latter adolescence, but may play a lessor role in motivation for specific health-related behaviors as the adolescent nears adulthood. A better understanding of health motivation antecedents of adolescents may facilitate nurses develop new approaches to health-promotion strategies. Keywords: parental autonomy support, self-determination, adolescent health behaviors, motivation

  14. [Frailty in older population: a brief position paper from the French society of geriatrics and gerontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Yves; Benetos, Athanase; Gentric, Armelle; Ankri, Joël; Blanchard, François; Bonnefoy, Marc; de Decker, Laure; Ferry, Monique; Gonthier, Régis; Hanon, Olivier; Jeandel, Claude; Nourhashemi, Fathi; Perret-Guillaume, Christine; Retornaz, Frédérique; Bouvier, Hélène; Ruault, Geneviève; Berrut, Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Frailty in the older population is a clinical syndrome which evaluate a risk level. The Frailty syndrome defines a reduction of the adaptation capacity to a stress. It can be modulated by physical, psychological and social factors. The screening of the frailty syndrome is relevant for older people without disability for basic activities of daily living. The clinical criteria of frailty must be predictive of the risk of functional decline and adverse outcomes, consensual at the international level, and easy to perform in primary care as well as in the clinical researches.

  15. Musculoskeletal health conditions among older populations in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboderin, Isabella; Nanyonjo, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Debate on the burden of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in lower and middle income countries is intensifying; yet, little knowledge so far exists on patterns and impacts of such conditions among general or older adult populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence, potential predictors, and sequelae of MSK among older adults residing in two low resource informal urban settlements or "slums" in Nairobi Kenya. Data on older adults aged 60 years and over from two unrelated cross-sectional surveys on the older slum populations are used: a 2006/7 survey on the social, health, and overall well-being of older people (sample N = 831), and a 2016 survey on realities and impacts of long-term care and social protection for older adults (sample n = 1026). Uni and multivariate regressions on the 2006/7 data are employed to examine relationships of back pain and symptoms of arthritis with sex, age, wealth, unemployment, diagnoses of hypertension, and diabetes; and with indicators of subjective well-being and functional ability. Descriptive frequencies and chi-squared tests of association are used on 2016 data to identify the overall prevalence and locations of activity limiting MSK pain, and sex differences in these. Prevalence of past month back pain and past 2 week symptoms of arthritis was 44% and 42.6%, respectively. Respective prevalence of past month activity limiting back pain and joint pain was 13.9% and 22.7%. A total of 42.6% of slum residents with a current health problem report MSK as the most severe problem. In multivariate regressions, female sex, unemployment, and diagnosis of hypertension are predictive of back pain and symptoms of arthritis. Both conditions are associated with raised odds of having lower quality of life, poorer life satisfaction, and depressive symptoms, and with mobility impairments and self-care difficulties. MSK conditions are salient, and a likely key cause of impaired subjective well

  16. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    or potential behavioural change in terms of healthier eating, discussing pre-selected healthy and unhealthy food categories. The revised Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical framework. Results: The study suggests that the main obstacles to change can be grouped into motivational and implementation......), "liking" remains the main food choice criterion, including the healthy foods. Conclusion: The study presented a number of barriers to healthy eating identified by older people and children/adolescents. Based on the results of the study, further investigations should be undertaken in this area...... barriers. The motivational barriers are unwillingness to change eating habits, satisfaction with current diets and misconception about their healthiness; relatively low health consciousness and unwillingness to become excessively health-oriented. Implementation barriers include remembering the change...

  17. Defining Alcohol-Specific Rules Among Parents of Older Adolescents: Moving Beyond No Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, Beth; Miller, Brenda; Vanya, Magdalena; Duke, Michael; Ames, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Parental beliefs and rules regarding their teen's use of alcohol influence teen decisions regarding alcohol use. However, measurement of parental rules regarding adolescent alcohol use has not been thoroughly studied. This study used qualitative interviews with 174 parents of older teens from 100 families. From open-ended questions, themes emerged that describe explicit rules tied to circumscribed use, no tolerance, and "call me." There was some inconsistency in explicit rules with and between parents. Responses also generated themes relating to implicit rules such as expectations and preferences. Parents described their methods of communicating their position via conversational methods, role modeling their own behavior, teaching socially appropriate use of alcohol by offering their teen alcohol, and monitoring their teens' social activities. Findings indicate that alcohol rules are not adequately captured by current assessment measures.

  18. Epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent population Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Chincholikar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For establishing effective intervention, it is important to identify major determinants in an early stage of life. Effective prevention of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. Aims & Objectives: To study the epidemiological determinants of obesity in adolescent girls. Material & Methods: All adolescent school going boys and girls in the age group between 10 to 19 years were included as per definition of adolescent. 585 students were selected by systematic sample i.e. every 3rd student was included in the study sample. A pretested standardized questionnaire which consisted of questions related to sociodemographic data was used to screen the population for obesity. Results: When body mass index was correlated with various socioeconomic variables, it was found that prevalence of obesity was more in   males (overweight- 20.84%;obese-5.43% as compared to females (overweight- 16.92%; obese-3.14%,more  in the upper socioeconomic status (27.27% as compared to lower socioeconomic status(15%,more in  subjects with more frequency of junk food(30.97% as compared to having occasional junk food (20.93,more in  subjects with more frequency of eating sweets ( 25.73% as compared to occasional sweet eaters(13.59%. Conclusion: The dietary habits like more frequency of junk food, more sweet consumption, and socioeconomic status had a major impact on body mass index of children.

  19. Dental fear among children and adolescents in a multicultural population--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fägerstad, Anida; Lundgren, Jesper; Arnrup, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore dental fear in a multicultural population of child and adolescent dental patients, with background, gender, age, and socioeconomic status taken into account. A specific aim was to investigate whether the level of DF differed between patients with a non- Swedish background and patients with a Swedish background. In conjunction with a routine visit to the dental clinic, 301 patients (8-19 years old) assessed their dental fear on the Children's Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale, using self-ratings. Following an interview protocol, patients' and their parents' country of birth, and parents' education and occupation/employment were registered. An interpreter was present when needed. Self-rated dental fear was almost equal among patients coming from a non-Swedish background and patients with a Swedish background. Girls scored higher than boys and younger children scored slightly higher compared to older children, but the pattern of dental fear variation was inconsistent. Socioeconomic status differed between the groups with a non-Swedish vs. a Swedish background, but no impact on dental fear was revealed. When children and adolescents with a non-Swedish vs. a Swedish background were modelled separately, female gender and younger age had an impact on dental fear only in the group with a Swedish background. No differences in dental fear were found between children and adolescents from non-Swedish vs. Swedish backgrounds. Dental fear variations according to gender and age were more pronounced in the group with a Swedish background compared to the group with a non-Swedish background. No impact of socioeconomic status could be revealed.

  20. A cross-validation study of the TGMD-2: The case of an adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issartel, Johann; McGrane, Bronagh; Fletcher, Richard; O'Brien, Wesley; Powell, Danielle; Belton, Sarahjane

    2017-05-01

    This study proposes an extension of a widely used test evaluating fundamental movement skills proficiency to an adolescent population, with a specific emphasis on validity and reliability for this older age group. Cross-sectional observational study. A total of 844 participants (n=456 male, 12.03±0.49) participated in this study. The 12 fundamental movement skills of the TGMD-2 were assessed. Inter-rater reliability was examined to ensure a minimum of 95% consistency between coders. Confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken with a one-factor model (all 12 skills) and two-factor model (6 locomotor skills and 6 object-control skills) as proposed by Ulrich et al. (2000). The model fit was examined using χ 2 , TLI, CFI and RMSEA. Test-retest reliability was carried out with a subsample of 35 participants. The test-retest reliability reached Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.78 (locomotor), 0.76 (object related) and 0.91 (gross motor skill proficiency). The confirmatory factor analysis did not display a good fit for either the one-factor or two-factor model due to a really low contribution of several skills. A reduction in the number of skills to just seven (run, gallop, hop, horizontal jump, bounce, kick and roll) revealed an overall good fit by TLI, CFI and RMSEA measures. The proposed new model offers the possibility of longitudinal studies to track the maturation of fundamental movement skills across the child and adolescent spectrum, while also giving researchers a valid assessment to tool to evaluate adolescent fundamental movement skills proficiency level. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety from Crime and Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corseuil, M.W.; Schneider, I.J.C.; Orsi, E.; Hallal, P.C.; Corseuil, H.X.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years) took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walk ability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02-1.53); general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01-1.54). Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28-2.80). Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil

  2. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  3. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  4. Sensory Dysfunction and Sexuality in the U.S. Population of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Selena; Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; McClintock, Martha K

    2018-04-01

    first nationally representative study of sexuality and multisensory dysfunction in community-dwelling older adults. 4 of the 5 classic senses were measured with objective tests, and hearing was rated by interviewers in the context of their conversation. Medical and health care interventions that can reduce the burden of sensory dysfunction may improve older adults' sexual experience. Sensory dysfunction is associated with sexual inactivity, but not with sexual motivation. Among those who are sexually active, sensory dysfunction did not interfere with sexual expression. Improving the sexual experience of older adults requires a focus on sensory dysfunction as an impediment to sexual activity given that older adults remain sexually motivated. Zhong S, Pinto JM, Wroblewski KE, et al. Sensory Dysfunction and Sexuality in the U.S. Population of Older Adults. J Sex Med 2018;15:502-509. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A support network typology for application in older populations with a preponderance of multigenerational households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Dobbs, Christine

    2014-08-01

    This paper considers the support networks of older people in populations with a preponderance of multigenerational households and examines the most vulnerable network types in terms of loneliness and isolation. Current common typologies of support networks may not be sensitive to differences within and between different cultures. This paper uses cross-sectional data drawn from 590 elders (Gujaratis, Punjabis and Sylhetis) living in the United Kingdom and South Asia. Six variables were used in K-means cluster analysis to establish a new network typology. Two logistic regression models using loneliness and isolation as dependent variables assessed the contribution of the new network type to wellbeing. Four support networks were identified: 'Multigenerational Households: Older Integrated Networks', 'Multigenerational Households: Younger Family Networks', 'Family and Friends Integrated Networks' and 'Non-kin Restricted Networks'. Older South Asians with 'Non-kin Restricted Networks' were more likely to be lonely and isolated compared to others. Using network typologies developed with individualistically oriented cultures, distributions are skewed towards more robust network types and could underestimate the support needs of older people from familistic cultures, who may be isolated and lonely and with limited informal sources of help. The new typology identifies different network types within multigenerational households, identifies a greater proportion of older people with vulnerable networks and could positively contribute to service planning.

  6. Urinary and fecal incontinence in a community-residing older population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Naramura, H; Fujiwara, H; Takashima, Y; Fukuda, H

    1997-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence among a community-residing older population in Japan. Population-based cross-sectional study. A randomly selected sample of 1473 people aged 65 years and older living in the City of Settsu, Osaka, in 1992. Data collected via in-home visits were used to estimate the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and to provide information regarding potential risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence. Data were obtained from 1405 older adults, a response rate of 95.4%. The prevalence of any degree of urinary incontinence was 98/1000 in both sexes, and 87/ 1000 men and 66/1000 women admitted to some degree of fecal incontinence. Daily, 34/1000 and 20/1000 of the population were incontinent of urine and feces, respectively. There was an increasing prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence with age in both sexes, but the expected greater prevalence in women was not found. By univariate analyses, age older than 75 years, poor general health as measured by Activities of Daily Living, stroke, dementia, no participation in social activities, and lack of life worth living (Ikigai) were associated significantly with both urinary and fecal incontinence. In the multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age older than 75 years, poor general health, and stroke were independent risk factors for any type of incontinence. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for isolated fecal incontinence, and dementia and no participation in social activities were independent risk factors for double incontinence. Incontinence of urine and feces is a prevalent condition among very old people living in the community in Japan and is associated highly with health and psychosocial conditions.

  7. Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving (CAPS) Improves Behavioral Outcomes in Older Adolescents with Complicated Mild to Severe TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L.; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael; Brown, Tanya Maines; Rochester, Mayo Clinic; McMullen, Kendra M.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the efficacy of Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving (CAPS) versus an internet resources comparison (IRC) condition in reducing behavior problems in adolescents following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Randomized clinical trial with interviewers naïve to treatment condition. Setting Three large tertiary children's hospitals and two general hospitals with pediatric commitment. Participants 132 children ages 12-17 years hospitalized during the previous 6 months for moderate to severe TBI. Interventions Participants in CAPS (n = 65) completed 8-12 online modules providing training in problem solving, communication skills, and self-regulation and subsequent synchronous videoconferences with a therapist. Participants in the IRC group (n = 67) received links to internet resources about pediatric TBI. Main Outcome Measures Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) administered before and after completion of treatment (i.e., approximately six months after treatment initiation). Results Post hoc analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for pre-treatment scores, was used to examine group differences in behavior problems in the entire sample and among older (n=59) and younger adolescents (n=53). Among older but not younger adolescents, CAPS resulted in greater improvements on multiple dimensions of externalizing behavior problems than did IRC. Conclusion Online problem-solving therapy may be effective in reducing behavior problems in older adolescent survivors of moderate-severe TBI. PMID:23640543

  8. [Childhood Experiences of Adolescents in Boarding Schools. A Comparison with Adolescents in Residential Care and with the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Andresen, Sabine; Pohling, Andrea; Allroggen, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Childhood Experiences of Adolescents in Boarding Schools. A Comparison with Adolescents in Residential Care and with the General Population Various studies indicate that students in boarding schools experience a lot of violence during their accommodation. However, it is not proved whether adolescents in boarding schools are also a burdensome group regarding early childhood experiences such as neglect and abuse. The aim of the study was to find out more about the experiences of adolescents in boarding schools and to determine whether there are differences between adolescents in residential care and between the general population. Furthermore, it should be examined whether boys and girls differ in their experiences. In the study, adolescents of boarding schools and of residential care all over Germany, starting at the age of 15 (n = 322), were asked regarding physical and emotional neglect/abuse, light/severe parent violence, negative/positive educational behavior of the parents. The results show that students in boarding schools were less likely to be affected by childhood maltreatment and more likely to have experienced positive parental behavior compared to children in residential care. Compared to the general population, students in boarding schools were more often and more severely affected by parental violence. Moreover, girls had experienced parental violence more often than boys. The results indicate that in boarding schools there is a need for support offers for adolescents with a history of violent experiences and that the risk group should be identified directly at the admission to the school.

  9. Longitudinal Study of Social-environmental Predictors of Behavior: Children of Adolescent and Older Mothers Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letourneau, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishCompared to older, more educated mothers, adolescent mothers are more prone to less than optimal parenting interactions with their children. Moreover, adolescents' children are more likely to experience developmental challenges. In this study, effects of social-environmental factors in the first two years of life on children's anxiety and hyperactivity from age 2 to 8 were examined by analyzing Canadian longitudinal data. Initial levels of anxiety and hyperactivity were higher for children of adolescent mothers, and anxiety increased with age for all children. Female children displayed lower initial levels of hyperactivity than males, and females of adolescent mothers showed a steeper decrease in hyperactivity while males of adolescent mothers showed a steeper increase in hyperactivity than their counterparts parented by older mothers. Parenting,social support and other demographic factors were controlled for and the effects of these predictor variables on trajectories of anxiety and hyperactivity are discussed.FrenchEn comparaison aux mères plus âgées et ayant reçu une meilleure éducation, lesmères adolescentes ont tendance à avoir des interactions parentales moinsqu’idéales. De plus, les enfants d’adolescentes souffrent plus souvent detroubles de développement. Dans cette étude, les facteurs socioenvironnementauxpendant les deux premières années de vie ainsi que leurseffets sur l’anxiété et l’hyperactivité entre 2 et 8 ans ont été étudiés en analysantdes données longitudinales canadiennes. Il a été trouvé que les niveaux initiauxd’anxiété et d’hyperactivité sont plus élevés chez les enfants de mèresadolescentes et cette anxiété accroît avec l’âge pour tous les enfants. Le niveaud’hyperactivité chez les filles était moins élevé initialement que chez les garçonset il diminuait rapidement chez les filles de mères adolescentes alors qu’ilaugmentait rapidement avec l’âge chez les

  10. Depression in older people : meeting the challenges of an ageing population

    OpenAIRE

    Raeburn, Alison Somers

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has been conducted in part fulfilment of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology. It comprises two parts: a systematic review and an empirical research study. These are two distinct articles both aiming to provide insight into the challenges of late life depression. Firstly, the ageing population will mean that mental health services are likely to see an increase in older people with depression, many of whom will have neurological conditions common in late life, inc...

  11. Parent and adolescent reports in assessing adolescent sleep problems: results from a large population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2016-09-01

    To compare parent and adolescent reports in exploring adolescent sleep problems and to identify the factors associated with adolescent sleep problem disclosures. Parent (n = 5185) and adolescent reports (n = 5171, age=13.9 ± 0.3 years), from a birth cohort were used to explore adolescent sleep problems. Kappa coefficients were used to assess the agreement, whereas, conditional agreement and disagreement ratios were used to identify the optimal informant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors affecting adolescent sleep problem disclosure. Parental reports identified only about one-third of the sleep problems reported by adolescents. Whereas adolescent reports identified up to two-thirds of the sleep problems reported by parents. Combined reports of parents and adolescent did not show any considerable difference from the adolescent report. Adolescent and parent health, maternal depression, and family communication were significantly associated with adolescents sleep problem disclosures. Adolescent reports could be used as the preferred source to explore adolescent sleep problems. Parental reports should be used when parents as observers are more reliable reporters, or where adolescents are cognitively unable to report sleep problems. Additionally, the impact of poor health, maternal depression and family communication on sleep problems disclosure should be considered for adolescent sleep problem diagnosis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Statin Use and Self-Reported Hindering Muscle Complaints in Older Persons: A Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milly A van der Ploeg

    Full Text Available Statins are widely used by older persons in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although serious adverse events are rare, many statin users report mild muscle pain and/or muscle weakness. It's unclear what impact statins exert on a patient's daily life. Research on statin related side effects in older persons is relatively scarce. We therefore investigated the relation between statin use and self-reported hindering muscle complaints in older persons in the general population.The present research was performed within the Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons (ISCOPE study in the Netherlands (Netherlands trial register, NTR1946. All registered adults aged ≥ 75 years from 59 participating practices (n = 12,066 were targeted. Information about the medical history and statin use at baseline and after 9 months was available for 4355 participants from the Electronic Patient Records of the general practitioners. In the screening questionnaire at baseline we asked participants: 'At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?' Answers indicating muscle or musculoskeletal complaints were coded as such. No specific questions about muscle complaints were asked.The participants had a median age of 80.3 (IQR 77.6-84.4 years, 60.8% were female and 28.5% had a history of CVD. At baseline 29% used a statin. At follow-up, no difference was found in the prevalence of self-reported hindering muscle complaints in statin users compared to non-statin users (3.3% vs. 2.5%, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-2.05; P = 0.98. Discontinuation of statin use during follow-up was independent of self-reported hindering muscle complaints.Based on the present findings, prevalent statin use in this community-dwelling older population is not associated with self-reported hindering muscle complaints; however, the results might be different for incident users.

  13. Statin Use and Self-Reported Hindering Muscle Complaints in Older Persons: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Milly A; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E; van Blijswijk, Sophie C E; den Elzen, Wendy P J; van Peet, Petra G; de Ruijter, Wouter; Blom, Jeanet W; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    Statins are widely used by older persons in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although serious adverse events are rare, many statin users report mild muscle pain and/or muscle weakness. It's unclear what impact statins exert on a patient's daily life. Research on statin related side effects in older persons is relatively scarce. We therefore investigated the relation between statin use and self-reported hindering muscle complaints in older persons in the general population. The present research was performed within the Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons (ISCOPE) study in the Netherlands (Netherlands trial register, NTR1946). All registered adults aged ≥ 75 years from 59 participating practices (n = 12,066) were targeted. Information about the medical history and statin use at baseline and after 9 months was available for 4355 participants from the Electronic Patient Records of the general practitioners. In the screening questionnaire at baseline we asked participants: 'At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?' Answers indicating muscle or musculoskeletal complaints were coded as such. No specific questions about muscle complaints were asked. The participants had a median age of 80.3 (IQR 77.6-84.4) years, 60.8% were female and 28.5% had a history of CVD. At baseline 29% used a statin. At follow-up, no difference was found in the prevalence of self-reported hindering muscle complaints in statin users compared to non-statin users (3.3% vs. 2.5%, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-2.05; P = 0.98). Discontinuation of statin use during follow-up was independent of self-reported hindering muscle complaints. Based on the present findings, prevalent statin use in this community-dwelling older population is not associated with self-reported hindering muscle complaints; however, the results might be different for incident users.

  14. Article Title: Physical activity in adolescents. Is there scientific evidence of how physical exercise affects sleep in the adolescent population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Reverter-Masia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Insomnia is a very common pediatric condition that causes a serious impact on psychophysical performance. The present paper, based on the scientific literature, aims to analyze some questions about how physical activity affects sleep in the adolescent population. Finally, some general and useful recommendations are established for professionals working in this population group.

  15. Seasonality in mortality and its relationship to temperature among the older population in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Xuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have established a relationship between temperature and mortality. In particular, older populations have been shown to be vulnerable to temperature effects. However, little information exists on the temperature–mortality relationship in Vietnam. Objectives: This article aims to examine the monthly temperature–mortality relationship among older people in Hanoi, Vietnam, over the period between 2005 and 2010, and estimate seasonal patterns in mortality. Methods: We employed Generalized Additive Models, including smooth functions, to model the temperature–mortality relationships. A quasi-Poisson distribution was used to model overdispersion of death counts. Temporal trends, seasonality, and population size were adjusted for while estimating changes in monthly mortality over the study period. A cold month was defined as a month with a mean temperature below 19°C. Results: This study found that the high peak of mortality coincided with low temperatures in the month of February 2008, during which the mean temperature was the lowest in the whole study period. There was a significant relationship between mean monthly temperature and mortality among the older people (p<0.01. Overall, there was a significant decrease in the number of deaths in the year 2009 during the study period. There was a 21% increase in the number of deaths during the cold season compared to the warm season. The increase in mortality during the cold period was higher among females compared to males (female: IRR [incidence relative risk] =1.23; male: IRR=1.18. Conclusions: Cold temperatures substantially increased mortality among the older population in Hanoi, Vietnam, and there were gender differences. Necessary preventive measures are required to mitigate temperature effects with greater attention to vulnerable groups.

  16. Societal consequences of falls in the older population: Injuries, healthcare costs, and long-term reduced quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); S. Polinder (Suzanne); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); M.J.M. Panneman (Martien); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); P. Patka (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND:: Fall incidents are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, costs, and quality of life for fall-related injuries in the older Dutch population presenting at the emergency department. METHODS:: Data

  17. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Juan P; Latorre, José M; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. © Crown copyright 2014.

  18. Anticholinergic drugs and negative outcomes in the older population: from biological plausibility to clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collamati, Agnese; Martone, Anna Maria; Poscia, Andrea; Brandi, Vincenzo; Celi, Michela; Marzetti, Emanuele; Cherubini, Antonio; Landi, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The use of medication with anticholinergic properties is widespread among older subjects. Many drugs of common use such as antispasmodics, bronchodilators, antiarrhythmics, antihistamines, anti-hypertensive drugs, antiparkinson agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, and psychotropic drugs have been demonstrated to have an anticholinergic activity. The most frequent adverse effects are dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, urinary retention, blurred vision, tachycardia and neurologic impairment such as confusion, agitation and coma. A growing evidence from experimental studies and clinical observations suggests that drugs with anticholinergic properties can cause physical and mental impairment in the elderly population. However, the morbidity and management issues associated with unwanted anticholinergic activity are underestimated and frequently overlooked. Moreover, their possible relation with specific negative outcome in the elderly population is still not firmly established. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the relationship between the use of drugs with anticholinergic activity and negative outcomes in older persons. We searched PubMed and Cochrane combining the search terms "anticholinergic", "delirium", "cognitive impairment", "falls", "mortality" and "discontinuation". Medicines with anticholinergic properties may increase the risks of functional and cognitive decline, morbidity, institutionalization and mortality in older people. However, such evidences are still not conclusive probably due to possible confounding factors. In particular, more studies are needed to investigate the effects of discontinuation of drug with anticholinergic properties. Overall, minimizing anticholinergic burden should always be encouraged in clinical practice to improve short-term memory, confusion and delirium, quality of life and daily functioning.

  19. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B. W.; Nichols, M.; Allender, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods: D...

  20. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Candice; Kress, Jeff; Schroeder, Jan; Donlin, Ayla; Rozenek, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level activity participants (7,500 steps/day) in weight, age, and the number of medications reported. Males performed better than females on the two-footed jump test and reactive postural test FAB assessments. High-level activity participants performed significantly better than low-level activity participants on all FAB assessments except stand with feet together and eyes closed, reach forward to object, and walk with head turns.

  1. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Campbell MS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level activity participants (7,500 steps/day in weight, age, and the number of medications reported. Males performed better than females on the two-footed jump test and reactive postural test FAB assessments. High-level activity participants performed significantly better than low-level activity participants on all FAB assessments except stand with feet together and eyes closed, reach forward to object, and walk with head turns.

  2. The premonitory urge to tic: measurement, characteristics, and correlates in older adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hannah E; Scahill, Lawrence; Peterson, Alan L; Crowe, Katherine; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John T; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    In addition to motor and/or vocal tics, many individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) report frequent, uncomfortable sensory phenomena that immediately precede the tics. To date, examination of these premonitory sensations or urges has been limited by inconsistent assessment tools. In this paper, we examine the psychometric properties of a nine-item self-report measure, the Premonitory Urge to Tic Scale (PUTS) and examine the characteristics and correlates of the premonitory urge to tic in a clinical sample of 122 older adolescents and adults with TS or CTD. The PUTS demonstrated adequate internal consistency, temporal stability, and concurrent validity. Premonitory urges were endorsed by the majority of individuals. Most individuals reported some relief from the urges after completing a tic and being able to stop their tics even if only temporarily. Degree of premonitory urges was not significantly correlated with age, and we did not observe any gender differences. Degree of premonitory urges was significantly correlated with estimated IQ and tic severity, but not severity of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Also, it was not related to concomitant medication status. These findings represent another step forward in our understanding of the premonitory sensations associated with TS and CTD. © 2013.

  3. Toxoplasmosis Titers and past Suicide Attempts Among Older Adolescents Initiating SSRI Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.

  4. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-03-01

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  5. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  6. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  7. Methodological challenges in a study on falls in an older population of Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalula, Sebastiana Z; Ferreira, Monica; Swingler, George H; Badri, Motasim; Sayer, Avan A

    2017-09-01

    Falls are a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in older persons, but have been under researched in developing countries. To describe challenges encountered in a community-based study on falls in a multi-ethnic population aged ≥65 years in a low-income setting. The study was conducted in four stages: A pilot study (n=105) to establish a sample size for the survey. An equipment validation study (n=118) to use for fall risk determination. A cross-sectional baseline (n=837) and a 12-month follow-up survey (n=632) to establish prevalence and risk factors for falls. Prevalence rate of 26.4% (95% CI 23.5-29.5%) and risk factors for recurrent falls: previous falls, self-reported poor mobility and dizziness were established. Adaptations to the gold standard prospective fall research study design were employed: 1) to gain access to the study population in three selected suburbs, 2) to perform assessments in a non-standardised setting, 3) to address subjects' poverty and low literacy levels, and high attrition of subjects and field workers. Studies on falls in the older population of low- to middle-income countries have methodological challenges. Adaptive strategies used in the Cape Town study and the research experience reported may be instructive for investigators planning similar studies in such settings.

  8. Word class and context affect alpha-band oscillatory dynamics in an older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eMellem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the oscillatory EEG dynamics of reading open class and closed class words have previously been found (Bastiaansen et al., 2005 and are thought to reflect differences in lexical-semantic content between these word classes. In particular, the theta band (4–7 Hz seems to play a prominent role in lexical-semantic retrieval. We tested whether this theta effect is robust in an older population of subjects. Additionally, we examined how the context of a word can modulate the oscillatory dynamics underlying retrieval for the two different classes of words. Older participants (mean age 55 read words presented in either syntactically-correct sentences or in a scrambled order (scrambled sentence while their EEG was recorded. We performed time-frequency analysis to examine how power varied based on the context or class of the word. We observed larger power decreases in the alpha (8–12Hz band between 200–700 ms for the open class compared to closed class words, but this was true only for the scrambled sentence context. We did not observe differences in theta power between these conditions. Context exerted an effect on the alpha and low beta (13–18 Hz bands between 0–700 ms. These results suggest that the previously observed word class effects on theta power changes in a younger participant sample do not seem to be a robust effect in this older population. Though this is an indirect comparison between studies, it may suggest the existence of aging effects on word retrieval dynamics for different populations. Additionally, the interaction between word class and context suggests that word retrieval mechanisms interact with sentence-level comprehension mechanisms in the alpha band.

  9. Literacy as a leisure activity: free-time preferences of older children and young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Duthie, Jill K; Larsen, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Literacy plays an important role in the development of language in school-age children and adolescents. For example, by reading a variety of books, magazines, and newspapers, students gain exposure to complex vocabulary, and reading becomes a prime opportunity for learning new words. Despite the importance of reading for lexical development, little is known about the pleasure reading habits of today's youth. The first goal of this investigation was to examine the preferences of older children and young adolescents with respect to reading as a leisure-time activity and its relationship to other free-time options that are likely to compete for their attention. The second goal was to examine the amount of time that young people spend reading for pleasure each day and the types of materials they most enjoy reading. The third goal was to determine if preferences for free-time activities and reading materials would evince age- and gender-related differences during the period of development from late childhood through early adolescence (ages 11-15 years). The findings could serve as a reference point for understanding what is reasonable to expect of students during this age range. The participants were 100 sixth graders (mean age = 11;7 [years; months]) and 100 ninth graders (mean age = 14;8) attending public schools in western Oregon. Each group contained an equal number of boys and girls, all of whom spoke English as their primary language and were considered to be typical achievers. All participants completed a survey concerning their preferred free-time activities and reading materials. They also reported the average amount of time they spent reading for pleasure each day. The most popular free-time activities were listening to music/going to concerts, watching television or videos, playing sports, and playing computer or video games. Least preferred activities were cooking, running or walking, writing, and arts and crafts. Reading was moderately popular. The most

  10. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Walking, Cycling, Public Transport and Passive Transport to Various Destinations in Flemish Older Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Verhoeven

    Full Text Available Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents' daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped over short distances (maximum eight kilometres among older adolescents (17-18 years, to school and to other destinations.562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed.More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations.Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both older adolescents and their social

  11. Prevalence of Falls in an Urban Community-Dwelling Older Population of Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimba Kalula, S; Ferreira, M; Swingler, G; Badri, M; Aihie Sayer, A

    2015-12-01

    Falls are a major cause of disability and mortality in older adults. Studies on falls in this population have mainly been conducted in high income countries, and scant attention has been given to the problem in low and middle income countries, including South Africa. The aim of the study was to establish a rate for falls in older adults in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey with a 12-month follow-up survey. Three purposively selected suburbs of Cape Town: Plumstead, Wynberg Central and Gugulethu. Eight hundred and thirty seven randomly sampled ambulant community-dwelling subjects aged ≥ 65 years grouped according to ethnicity in three sub-samples: black Africans, coloureds (people of mixed ancestry) and whites. Data were collected on socio-demographic and health characteristics, and history of falls using a structured questionnaire and a protocol for physical assessments and measurements. Of the total baseline (n=837) and follow-up (n=632) survey participants, 76.5% and 77.2 % were females with a mean (S.D) age of 74 years (6.4) and 75 years (6.2), respectively. Rates of 26.4% and 21.9% for falls and of 11% and 6.3% for recurrent falls, respectively, were calculated at baseline and follow-up. Fall rates differed by ethnic sub-sample at baseline: whites 42 %, coloureds 34.4% and black Africans 6.4 % (p=0.0005). Rates of 236, 406 and 354 falls per 1000 person years were calculated for men, women and both genders, respectively. Recurrent falls were more common in women than in men. Falls are a significant problem in older adults in South Africa. Effective management of falls and falls prevention strategies for older people in South Africa, need to be developed and implemented.

  12. Sociocultural variability in the Latino population: Age patterns and differences in morbidity among older US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Garcia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The US Latino population is rapidly aging and becoming increasingly diverse with respect to nativity and national origin. Increased longevity along with medical advancements in treatment have resulted in a higher number of older Latinos living with morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to understand variability in Latino health among older adults. Objective: This paper documents mid- and late-life health differences in morbidity by race/ethnicity, nativity, and country of origin among adults aged 50 and older. Methods: We use data from the 2000-2015 National Health Interview Survey to calculate age- and gender-specific proportions based on reports of five morbidity measures: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes among non-Latino Whites and seven Latino subgroups. Results: The foreign-born from Mexico, Cuba, and Central/South America, regardless of gender, exhibit an immigrant advantage for heart disease and cancer in comparison to non-Latino Whites across all age categories. Conversely, island-born Puerto Ricans are generally characterized with higher levels of morbidity. Similarly, US-born Puerto Ricans and Mexicans exhibit morbidity patterns indicative of their minority status. Latinos, regardless of gender, were more likely to report diabetes than non-Latino Whites. Hypertension and stroke have significant variability in age patterns among US- and foreign-born Latinos. Conclusions: Recognizing the importance of within-Latino heterogeneity in health is imperative if researchers are to implement social services and health policies aimed at ameliorating the risk of disease. Contribution: Considering intersectional ethnic, nativity, and country-of-origin characteristics among older Latinos is important to better understand the underlying causes of racial/ethnic disparities in morbidity across the life course.

  13. Tender point count, pain, and mobility in the older population: the mobilize Boston study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Laura H P; Shmerling, Robert H; Leveille, Suzanne G

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of tender points (TP), and widespread pain and fibromyalgia, as well as the relationship between TP and widespread pain and mobility, was examined in 585 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 78.2 years, 63.4% female). Pain was based on location (none, single site, multisite, widespread). Mobility was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, and self-reported (S-R) mobility difficulty. Tender-point count and health characteristics (ie, BMI, chronic conditions, analgesic use, number of medications, depression, and blocks walked per week) were assessed. Several participants had 3 or more TP (22.1%) although prevalence of criteria-based fibromyalgia was low (.3%). Mobility was more limited in persons with higher tender-point counts. After adjustment for pain and other risk factors, higher tender-point count was associated with poorer SPPB performance (score < 10, aOR = 1.09 per TP, 95%CI, 1.01-1.17), and slow gait speed (< .784m/sec, aOR = 1.14 per TP, 95%CI, 1.05-1.24), but not with S-R mobility difficulty. S-R mobility difficulty was associated with more disseminated pain (multisite pain, aOR = 2.01, 95%CI, 1.21-3.34; widespread pain, aOR = 2.47, 95%CI, 1.09-5.62). These findings portray a significant mobility burden related to tender-point count and multisite and widespread pain in the older population. Future studies using longitudinal methods are warranted. Higher tender-point count, multisite pain, and widespread pain are common in community-dwelling older adults and associated with mobility problems. Both the manual tender-point exam and the McGill Pain Map may provide important yet different information about risks for mobility disability in older individuals. Copyright 2010 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Diagnostic Criteria in Older Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajewski, Amy J; Scheeringa, Michael S; Weems, Carl F

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have assessed how the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) apply to older children and adolescents. With the introduction of a new, developmentally sensitive set of criteria for very young children (age 6 years and younger) in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), this raises new questions about the validity of the criteria for older children and adolescents. The current study investigated how diagnostic changes in DSM-5 impact diagnosis rates in 7-18-year olds. PTSD, impairment, and comorbid psychopathology were assessed in 135 trauma-exposed, treatment-seeking participants. Children (ages 7-12) were examined separately from adolescents (ages 13-18) to assess for potential developmental differences. A significantly higher proportion of 7-12-year-old children met criteria for DSM-5 diagnosis (53%) compared to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) (37%). However, among 13-18-year-old adolescents, the proportions diagnosed with DSM-5 (73%) and DSM-IV (74%) did not differ. Participants who met criteria for DSM-5 only (17%) did not differ from those diagnosed with DSM-IV in terms impairment or comorbidity. Using the newly accepted age 6 years and younger criteria resulted in a significantly higher proportion of 7-12-year-old (but not 13-18-year olds) children meeting criteria compared to DSM-IV or DSM-5. However, these children showed less impairment and comorbidity than those diagnosed with DSM-IV. These findings suggest that DSM-5 criteria may be more developmentally sensitive than DSM-IV criteria, and may lead to higher prevalence rates of PTSD for 7-12-year-old children, but not for adolescents. Using the very young children criteria for 7-12-year-old children may further increase prevalence, but capture children with less severe psychopathology.

  15. Evaluating Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Diagnostic Criteria in Older Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeringa, Michael S.; Weems, Carl F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Few studies have assessed how the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) apply to older children and adolescents. With the introduction of a new, developmentally sensitive set of criteria for very young children (age 6 years and younger) in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), this raises new questions about the validity of the criteria for older children and adolescents. The current study investigated how diagnostic changes in DSM-5 impact diagnosis rates in 7–18-year olds. Methods: PTSD, impairment, and comorbid psychopathology were assessed in 135 trauma-exposed, treatment-seeking participants. Children (ages 7–12) were examined separately from adolescents (ages 13–18) to assess for potential developmental differences. Results: A significantly higher proportion of 7–12-year-old children met criteria for DSM-5 diagnosis (53%) compared to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) (37%). However, among 13–18-year-old adolescents, the proportions diagnosed with DSM-5 (73%) and DSM-IV (74%) did not differ. Participants who met criteria for DSM-5 only (17%) did not differ from those diagnosed with DSM-IV in terms impairment or comorbidity. Using the newly accepted age 6 years and younger criteria resulted in a significantly higher proportion of 7–12-year-old (but not 13–18-year olds) children meeting criteria compared to DSM-IV or DSM-5. However, these children showed less impairment and comorbidity than those diagnosed with DSM-IV. Conclusion: These findings suggest that DSM-5 criteria may be more developmentally sensitive than DSM-IV criteria, and may lead to higher prevalence rates of PTSD for 7–12-year-old children, but not for adolescents. Using the very young children criteria for 7–12-year-old children may further increase prevalence, but capture children with less severe psychopathology. PMID:28170306

  16. Frailty transitions and types of death in Chinese older adults: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-yan; Wang, Xiao-feng; Shi, Yan; Hai, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the adverse effects of frailty transitions. In this study, we aimed to characterize the transitions between frailty states and examine their associations with the type of death among older adults in China, a developing country with a rapidly growing aging population. Methods We used data of 11,165 older adults (aged 65–99 years) from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Overall, 44 health deficits were used to construct frailty index (FI; range: 0–1), which was then categorized into a three-level variable: nonfrail (FI ≤0.10), prefrail (0.100.21). Outcome was four types of death based on bedridden days and suffering state (assessed in the 2008 wave of CLHLS). Results During the 3-year period, 3,394 (30.4%) participants had transitioned between different frailty states (nonfrail, prefrail, and frail), one-third transitioned to death, and one-third remained in previous frailty states. Transitions to greater frailty (ie, “worsening”) were more common than transitions to lesser frailty (ie, “improvement”). Among four categories of frailty transitions, “worsening” and “remaining frail” had increased risks of painful death, eg, with odds ratios of 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.41, 2.62) and 4.75 (95% CI =3.32, 6.80), respectively, for type 4 death (ie, ≥30 bedridden days with suffering before death). Conclusion This large sample of older adults in China supports that frailty is a dynamic process, characterized by frequent types of transitions. Furthermore, those who remained frail had the highest likelihood of experiencing painful death, which raises concerns about the quality of life in frail populations. PMID:29805253

  17. Prevalence of depression: Comparisons of different depression definitions in population-based samples of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2017-10-15

    Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Systematic Literature Review of Studies Analyzing Inequalities in Health Expectancy among the Older Population.

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    Benedetta Pongiglione

    Full Text Available To collect, organize and appraise evidence of socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in health and mortality among the older population using a summary measure of population health: Health Expectancy.A systematic literature review was conducted. Literature published in English before November 2014 was searched via two possible sources: three electronic databases (Web of Science, Medline and Embase, and references in selected articles. The search was developed combining terms referring to outcome, exposure and participants, consisting in health expectancy, socioeconomic and demographic groups, and older population, respectively.Of 256 references identified, 90 met the inclusion criteria. Six references were added after searching reference lists of included articles. Thirty-three studies were focused only on gender-based inequalities; the remaining sixty-three considered gender along with other exposures. Findings were organized according to two leading perspectives: the type of inequalities considered and the health indicators chosen to measure health expectancy. Evidence of gender-based differentials and a socioeconomic gradient were found in all studies. A remarkable heterogeneity in the choice of health indicators used to compute health expectancy emerged as well as a non-uniform way of defining same health conditions.Health expectancy is a useful and convenient measure to monitor and assess the quality of ageing and compare different groups and populations. This review showed a general agreement of results obtained in different studies with regard to the existence of inequalities associated with several factors, such as gender, education, behaviors, and race. However, the lack of a standardized definition of health expectancy limits its comparability across studies. The need of conceiving health expectancy as a comparable and repeatable measure was highlighted as fundamental to make it an informative instrument for policy makers.

  19. Long-term memory in older children/adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

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    Williams, Diane L; Minshew, Nancy J; Goldstein, Gerald; Mazefsky, Carla A

    2017-09-01

    This study extends prior memory reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by investigating memory for narratives after longer recall periods and by examining developmental aspects of narrative memory using a cross-sectional design. Forty-seven older children/adolescents with ASD and 31 youth with typical development (TD) and 39 adults with ASD and 45 TD adults were compared on memory for stories from standardized measures appropriate for each age group at three intervals (immediate, 30 min, and 2 day). Both the youth with and without ASD had difficulty with memory for story details with increasing time intervals. More of the youths with ASD performed in the range of impairment when recalling the stories 2 days later as compared to the TD group. The adults with ASD had more difficulty on memory for story details with increasing delay and were poorer at recall of thematic information (needed to create a gist) across the three delay conditions as compared to the TD group. Analyses of the individual results suggested that memory for details of most of the adults with ASD was not impaired when applying a clinical standard; however, a significant percentage of the adults with ASD did not make use of thematic information to organize the narrative information, which would have helped them to remember the stories. The youth with and without ASD performed similarly when both were at a stage of development when memory for details is the primary strategy. The adults with ASD had difficulty with use organizational strategies to support episodic memory. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1523-1532. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The safety of meperidine prescribing in older adults: A longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kevin J; Falk, Jamie; Bugden, Shawn

    2016-05-11

    Meperidine (pethidine) is an opioid analgesic that offers little advantage relative to other opioids and several disadvantages including limited potency, short duration of action, and the production of a neurotoxic metabolite (normeperidine) with a long half-life. Older adults are more sensitive to meperidine's side effects and may have diminished renal function which leads to the accumulation of normeperidine. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices has suggested avoiding meperidine in older adults, limiting its dose (≤600 mg/day) and duration of use (≤48 h). The objective of this study was to determine the level of meperidine use in older adults and assess the dosage and duration of meperidine with reference to these safety recommendations. A longitudinal study using administrative healthcare data was conducted to examine meperidine utilization and levels of high dose and extended duration prescribing among persons ≥65 years of age between April 1, 2001, and March 31, 2014 in Manitoba, Canada. The number of meperidine prescriptions, users, duration of treatment, defined daily doses (DDD) dispensed and number of prescribers were determined over the study period. In the Manitoba older adult population there was a marked decline in meperidine users and prescriptions from 2001 to 2014. There was an average use of 26.4 (95 % CI 24.0-28.8) DDDs of meperidine per user per year. While only 3.7 % of the prescriptions exceeded the 600 mg maximum daily dose, 96.7 % of prescriptions exceeded the recommended 2 days of therapy. For the remaining users of meperidine, the amount of meperidine used per person rose from 18.98 to 56.14 DDDs/user/year over the study period. The number of prescribers of meperidine declined throughout the study, but low DDD prescribers declined more quickly than high DDD prescribers. While meperidine use has declined, the remaining use appears to be decreasing in safety, with more meperidine prescribed per user. This seems to be driven by

  1. I don't want to come back down: Undoing versus maintaining of reward recovery in older adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kirsten E; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Gruber, June

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is characterized by heightened and sometimes impairing reward sensitivity, yet less is known about how adolescents recover from highly arousing positive states. This is particularly important given high onset rates of psychopathology associated with reward sensitivity during late adolescence and early adulthood. The current study thus utilized a novel reward sensitivity task in order to examine potential ways in which older adolescent females (ages 18-21; N = 83) might recover from high arousal positive reward sensitive states. Participants underwent a fixed incentive reward sensitivity task and subsequently watched a neutral, sad, or a low approach-motivated positive emotional film clip during which subjective and physiological recovery was assessed. Results indicated that the positive and negative film conditions were associated with maintained physiological arousal while the neutral condition facilitated faster physiological recovery from the reward sensitivity task. It is interesting to note that individual differences in self-reported positive emotion during the reward task were associated with faster recovery in the neutral condition. Findings suggest elicited emotion (regardless of valence) may serve to maintain reward sensitivity whereas self-reported positive emotional experience may be a key ingredient facilitating physiological recovery or undoing. Understanding the nuances of reward recovery provides a critical step in understanding the etiology and persistence of reward dysregulation more generally. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. I Don’t Want to Come Back Down: Undoing versus Maintaining of Reward Recovery in Older Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kirsten E.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Gruber, June

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by heightened and sometimes impairing reward sensitivity, yet less is known about how adolescents recover from highly arousing positive states. This is particularly important given high onset rates of psychopathology associated with reward sensitivity during late adolescence and early adulthood. The current study thus utilized a novel reward sensitivity task in order to examine potential ways in which older adolescent females (ages 18–21; N = 83) might recover from high arousal positive reward sensitive states. Participants underwent a fixed incentive reward sensitivity task and subsequently watched a neutral, sad, or a low approach-motivated positive emotional film clip during which subjective and physiological recovery was assessed. Results indicated that the positive and negative film conditions were associated with maintained physiological arousal while the neutral condition facilitated faster physiological recovery from the reward sensitivity task. Interestingly, individual differences in self-reported positive emotion during the reward task were associated with faster recovery in the neutral condition. Findings suggest elicited emotion (regardless of valence) may serve to maintain reward sensitivity while self-reported positive emotional experience may be a key ingredient facilitating physiological recovery or undoing. Understanding the nuances of reward recovery provides a critical step in understanding the etiology and persistence of reward dysregulation more generally. PMID:26595439

  3. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Parental separation anxiety and diabetes self-management of older adolescents: a pilot study.

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    Morrison, Shannon; Dashiff, Carol; Abdullatif, Hussein; Moreland, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Parents of high school seniors with type 1 diabetes mellitus are faced with many concerns and fears as their adolescent prepares to assume primary disease management responsibility and leave the parental residence. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between parental separation anxiety and adolescent self-management and glycemic control. A second aim was to assess the relationship between adolescent self-management and glycemic control. Twenty-three families who had adolescents 16 to 18 years of age in or entering in their senior year of high school were recruited. Adolescents from higher income families reported better self-management skills than those from poorer families (r = 0.410, p = 0.05). Length of time since diabetes diagnosis was inversely related to glycemic control (r = 0.448, p = 0.02), indicating that adolescents who had the disease longer had poorer control. Parental separation anxiety was not related to adolescent self-management. Adolescent self-management was negatively related to glycemic control (r = -0.370, p = 0.08), suggesting that adolescents who demonstrated better self-management skills had improved glycemic control in comparison to adolescents who did not demonstrate effective self-management skills. Paternal, not maternal, separation anxiety demonstrated a significant relationship with glycemic control (r = 0.639, p < 0.001).

  5. Incidence and related factors of traffic accidents among the older population in a rapidly aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kimyong; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Jang, Soong-nang

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of traffic accidents and find related factors among the older population. We used the cross-sectional data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS), which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 and completed by 680,202 adults aged 19 years or more. And we used individuals aged 60 years or above (n=210,914). The incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as number of traffic accidents experienced per thousand per year by a number of factors including age, sex, residential area, education, employment status, and diagnosis with chronic diseases. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each potential risk factor adjusted for the others. Incidence of traffic accidents was estimated as 11.74/1,000 per year for men, and 7.65/1,000 per year for women. It tended to decline as age increased among women; compared to the youngest old age group (60-64), the older old groups (70-74 and 80+) were at lower risk for traffic accidents. Depressive symptom was the strongest predictor for both men (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.28-2.61) and women (1.70, 1.23-2.35). Risk of traffic accident was greater in employed men (1.76, 1.40-2.22) and women diagnosis with arthritis (1.36, 1.06-1.75). Given that the incidence of and factors associated with traffic accidents differ between men and women, preventive strategies, such as driver education and traffic safety counseling for older adults, should be modified in accordance with these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining Contextual Influences on Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults for Population Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to assess the associations between fall-related injuries (FRIs) treated in the emergency department (ED) among older adults in California and contextual county-level physical, social, and economic characteristics, and to assess how county-level economic conditions are associated with FRIs when controlling for other county-level factors. Data from 2008 California ED discharge, Medicare Impact File, and County Health Rankings were used. Random effects logistic regression models estimated contextual associations between county-level factors representing economic conditions, the built environment, community safety, access to care, and obesity with patient-level FRI treatment among 1,712,409 older adults, controlling for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. Patient-level predictors of FRI treatment were consistent with previous studies not accounting for contextual associations. Larger and rural hospitals had higher odds of FRI treatment, while teaching and safety net hospitals had lower odds. Better county economic conditions were associated with greater odds (ß=0.73, P=0.001) and higher county-level obesity were associated with lower odds (ß=-0.37, P=0.004), but safer built environments (ß=-0.31, P=0.38) were not associated with FRI treatment. The magnitude of association between county-level economic conditions and FRI treatment attenuated with the inclusion of county-level obesity rates. FRI treatment was most strongly and consistently related to more favorable county economic conditions, suggesting differences in treatment or preferences for treatment for FRIs among older individuals in communities of varying resource levels. Using population health data on FRIs, policy makers may be able to remove barriers unique to local contexts when implementing falls prevention educational programs and built environment modifications.

  7. Incidence of loss of ability to walk 400 meters in a functionally limited older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Milan; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Ferrucci, Luigi; Leveille, Suzanne; Volpato, Stefano; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Guralnik, Jack M

    2004-12-01

    To assess the incidence of and factors related to nondisabled but functionally limited older adults aged 75 to 85 years losing the ability to walk 400 m. Observational study with average follow-up of 21 months. Community. At baseline, 101 persons with objective signs of functional limitations and intact cognitive function agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 81 were able to walk 400 m at baseline, and 62 participated in the follow-up examination. Mobility disability was defined as an inability to complete a 400-m walk test. At baseline, eligible participants (n=81) had the ability to walk 400 m, scored between 4 and 9 on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; range 0-12), and scored 18 or more on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Demographics, difficulty in daily activities, disease status, behavioral risk factors, and muscle strength were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Of 62 persons at follow-up, 21 (33.9%) developed incident mobility disability. The strongest predictors of loss of mobility were the time to complete the 400-m walk at baseline (odds ratio (OR)=1.6 per 1-minute difference, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-2.45), and decline in SPPB score over the follow-up (OR=1.4 per 1-point difference, 95% CI=1.01-1.92). Older persons with functional limitations have a high rate of loss of ability to walk 400 m. The 400-m walk test is a highly relevant, discrete outcome that is an ideal target for testing preventive interventions in vulnerable older populations.

  8. [Immunogenicity and safety of the influenza vaccine, in a population older than 55-years in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Montiel, Octavio; Mascareñas, César; García-Hernández, Delfino; Rendón-Muñiz, Jorge; López, Irma; Felipe Montaño, Luis; Zenteno, I; Franco-Paredes, C

    2005-01-01

    To confirm the immunogenicity and tolerance of the inactivated, fractionated, and purified influenza vaccine, in a Mexican adult population aged 55 and older, medically served at a Petróleos Mexicanos Hospital (Pemex, Mexican Oil Company). The study was conducted between November and December, 2000, among ninety adult subjects aged 55 years and older who were seen at the Hospital Central Sur Pemex. The primary endpoints regarding immunogenicity were the percentage of individuals with protective antibodies targeting hemagglutinins higher than or equal to 1:40, and the percentage of subjects who seroconverted as measured by a four-fold increase in protective antibody production. Secondary endpoints included the frequency of local and systemic reactions to the vaccine. An additional criterion that was evaluated included antigen-antibody affinity assays to measure the polyclonal antibody response to the vaccine and the specific generation of high-affinity antibodies to viral proteins, before and after vaccination. The antibody protection rate was 95.6% against the HINI strain, 98.9% against the H3N2 strain, and a 100% against the B/Yamanashi strain. Seroconversion to the HINI strain was elicited in 74.4% of subjects, to the H3N2 strain in 88.9%, and to the B/Yamanashi strain in 82.2%. Eighteen (20%) subjects developed local reactions; 17 (18.8%) developed a systemic reaction post vaccination at day 5 and nine subjects (10%) at day 28. Local reactions consisted of pain in 10 (11.1%) subjects, redness in 8 (8.8%), and induration in 6 (6.6%). General malaise, headache, and fever were identified in 10, 8.8, and 0% of subjects, respectively, at day 5, and in 4.4, 6.6, and 0%, respectively, at day 28. Influenza vaccine was highly immunogenic in a healthy Mexican adult population aged 55 years and older. The generation of high-affinity antibodies to the virus after vaccination was also demonstrated. Local and systemic adverse reactions to the vaccine identified in our study

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbuba, Sharmin; Mohsin, Fauzia; Rahat, Farhana; Nahar, Jebun; Begum, Tahmina; Nahar, Nazmun

    2018-05-01

    The study was done to assess the magnitude of problems of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents. It was a cross-sectional study done from January 2013 to June 2014 in paediatric endocrine outpatient department in BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 172 adolescents having exogenous obesity aged 10-18 years were included. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were defined as per WHO criteria.The adolescents having Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥95th centile were classified as obese.Waist circumference was measured at the level midway between the lower rib margin & the iliac crest, at the level of umbilicus with the person breathing out gently in centimeter. Hip circumference was measured at the maximum width over the buttocks at the level of the greater trochanters in centimeter. Among 172 obese adolescents, metabolic syndrome was found in 66 patients (38.4%). The commonest metabolic abnormality among those having metabolic syndrome was low HDL level (77.3%) followed by high triglyceride level(71.2%). Glucose intolerance (IFG and/or IGT) was found in 16.7%, Type 2 DM in 10.6%, systolic hypertension in 10.7% and diastolic hypertension in 12.1%. Triglyceride (p = 0.042) and Cholesterol level (p = 0.016) were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.000) was significantly lower among obese adolescents having metabolic syndrome. Less physical activity (p = 0.04) was significantly related to the development of metabolic syndrome. On logistic regression analysis male sex, family history of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol correlated to metabolic syndrome. The High rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents is alarming. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Romantic Relationship Experiences from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Older Siblings in Mexican-Origin Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Killoren, Sarah E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50 % female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51 % female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a 2-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth.

  11. Romantic Relationship Experiences from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Older Siblings in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2016-01-01

    Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50% female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51% female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a two-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth. PMID:26590830

  12. Population-based health promotion perspective for older driver safety: Conceptual framework to intervention plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Sherrilene; Lopez, Ellen DS; Winter, Sandra; Awadzi, Kezia D; Ferree, Nita; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2007-01-01

    The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-faceted requiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approach must be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted through community, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitative research), and views (qualitative research) of the older drivers and their stakeholders, does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining the interrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, and empirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from a national crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factors for safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underrated in the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness among many socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized the fundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediate and long-term outcomes. After completing the detailed plan we will test the effectiveness of this intervention on multiple levels. PMID:18225470

  13. Examining the efficacy of an mHealth media literacy education program for sexual health promotion in older adolescents attending community college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy Marie; Kupersmidt, Janis Beth; Malik, Christina Valerie; Keefe, Elyse Mallory

    2018-04-01

    To determine the feasibility of a mobile health (mHealth), media literacy education program, Media Aware, for improving sexual health outcomes in older adolescent community college students. 184 community college students (ages 18-19) participated in the study from April-December 2015. Eight community college campuses were randomly assigned to either the intervention or a wait-list control group. Student participants from each campus completed web-based pretest and posttest questionnaires. Intervention group students received Media Aware in between questionnaires. Several intervention effects of the Media Aware program were significant, including reducing older adolescents' self-reported risky sexual behaviors; positively affecting knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, and intentions related to sexual health; and increasing media skepticism. Some gender differences in the findings were revealed. The results from this study suggest that Media Aware is a promising means of delivering comprehensive sexual health education to older adolescents attending community college.

  14. Breast tumours of adolescents in an African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umanah Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumours of the breast are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. Patients in this age group often require a different approach to diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to highlight the clinicopathologic features of breast tumours in adolescents in a Nigerian city. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four breast tumour materials from patients aged 10-19 years were analyzed over a 10-year period at the Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City, Edo State, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: A majority of the breast tumours were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common tumour with 46 cases (54.8%, followed by fibrocystic changes with 15 cases (17%. Malignancy was extremely rare in this group, with only one case (1.2% of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Histologically, most tumours were indistinguishable from the adult types. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. Breast cancer and male breast tumours are rare in this age group. Routine complete physical examination of children and adolescents should include breast examination.

  15. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship.

  16. [Smoking among adolescents: population study on parental and school influences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, A M; López, R; Serra-Batlles, J; Roger, N; Arnau, A; Roura, P

    2006-01-01

    Smoking represents a public health problem, one which begins during adolescence. The main objective of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and parental and school factors. The study sample consisted of the students from the 20 secondary schools in the region of Osona, Barcelona, Spain. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on the following variables: smoking habit, age of initiation, frequency, type of school (state school or private-subsidized), sex, age, persons living in the home, town, whether the student had lunch at school, whether the student often had lunch or dinner alone at home. A total of 2280 students participated in the study (91%). Mean age was 15.5 years. Of the participants, 20% said they were smokers; 5%, ex-smokers; 34% had tried smoking at least once, and 41% had never smoked. Factors significantly associated with smoking in the multivariate analysis were age, rural town, state school, single parent family, eating alone, and not lunching at school. Smoking prevalence is high among adolescents in our society and there is no gender difference. Our results show that family structure and dynamics can influence smoking in adolescents. Smoking is less prevalent among adolescents who have lunch at school.

  17. A reliable measure of frailty for a community dwelling older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Astrid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty remains an elusive concept despite many efforts to define and measure it. The difficulty in translating the clinical profile of frail elderly people into a quantifiable assessment tool is due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of their health problems. Viewing frailty as a 'latent vulnerability' in older people this study aims to derive a model based measurement of frailty and examines its internal reliability in community dwelling elderly. Method The British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS cohort of 4286 women aged 60-79 years from 23 towns in Britain provided 35 frailty indicators expressed as binary categorical variables. These indicators were corrected for measurement error and assigned relative weights in its association with frailty. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA reduced the data to a smaller number of factors and was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFAwhich restricted the model by fitting the EFA-driven structure to observed data. Cox regression analysis compared the hazard ratios for adverse outcomes of the newly developed British frailty index (FI with a widely known FI. This process was replicated in the MRC Assessment study of older people, a larger cohort drawn from 106 general practices in Britain. Results Seven factors explained the association between frailty indicators: physical ability, cardiac symptoms/disease, respiratory symptoms/disease, physiological measures, psychological problems, co-morbidities and visual impairment. Based on existing concepts and statistical indices of fit, frailty was best described using a General Specific Model. The British FI would serve as a better population metric than the FI as it enables people with varying degrees of frailty to be better distinguished over a wider range of scores. The British FI was a better independent predictor of all-cause mortality, hospitalization and institutionalization than the FI in both cohorts. Conclusions

  18. Multimorbidity, dementia and health care in older people:a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Straus, Sharon; Fortin, Martin; Guthrie, Bruce; James, Matthew T; Klarenbach, Scott W; Tam-Tham, Helen; Lewanczuk, Richard; Manns, Braden J; Quan, Hude; Ronksley, Paul E; Sargious, Peter; Hemmelgarn, Brenda

    2017-08-14

    Little is known about how multimorbidity, dementia and increasing age combine to influence health outcomes or utilization. Our objective was to examine the joint associations between age, dementia and burden of morbidity with mortality and other clinical outcomes. We did a retrospective population-based cohort study of all adults aged 65 years and older residing in Alberta, Canada, between 2002 and 2013. We used validated algorithms applied to administrative and laboratory data from the provincial health ministry to assess the presence/absence of dementia and 29 other morbidities, and their associations with mortality (our primary outcome), other clinical outcomes (emergency department visits, all-cause hospital admissions) and a proxy for loss of independent living (discharge to long-term care). Cox and Poisson models were adjusted for year-varying covariates. A 3-way interaction was modelled for dementia, the number of comorbidities, and age. There were 610 457 adults aged 65 years and older living in Alberta over the study period. Over median follow-up of 6.8 years, 153 125 (25.1%) participants died and 5569 (0.9%) were discharged to long-term care. The prevalence of people with at least 3 morbidities was 33.7% in 2003 and 50.2% in 2012. The prevalence of dementia rose from 6.2% in fiscal year 2003 to 8.3% in fiscal year 2012, representing a net increase of approximately 13 700 people. The likelihood of all 4 outcomes increased with age and with greater burden of morbidity; the presence of dementia further increased these risks. For example, the risk of mortality increased by 1.54 to 6.38 in the presence of dementia, depending on age and morbidity burden. The risk associated with dementia was attenuated by increasing comorbidity. Older age, multimorbidity and dementia are all strongly correlated with adverse health outcomes as well as a proxy for loss of independent living. The increasing prevalences of dementia and multimorbidity over time suggest the

  19. The contribution of family history to hearing loss in an older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Catherine M; Kifley, Annette; Rochtchina, Elena; Newall, Philip; Mitchell, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Although it has been well established that the prevalence of and severity of hearing loss increase with age, the contribution of familial factors to age-related hearing loss cannot be quantified. This is largely because hearing loss in older people has both genetic and environmental contributions. As environmental factors play an increasing role with age, it is difficult to delineate the separate contribution of genetic factors to age-related hearing loss. In a population-based survey of hearing loss in a representative older Australian community, we attempted to overcome this using logistic regression analysis, accounting for known factors associated with hearing loss including age, sex, noise exposure at work, diabetes, and current smoking. We tested hearing thresholds using pure tone audiometry and used a forced choice questionnaire to determine the nature of family history in a population of individuals aged 50 yrs or older in a defined region, west of Sydney, Australia (N = 2669). We compared the characteristics of participants with and without family history of hearing loss. Of those reporting a positive family history, we compared subgroups for age, gender and severity of hearing loss, and trends by the severity of hearing loss. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that compared the chances of having hearing loss in participants with and without family history, after adjusting for other factors known associated with hearing loss. Our findings indicate that family history was most strongly associated with moderate to severe age-related hearing loss. We found a strong association between maternal family history of hearing loss and moderate to severe hearing loss in women (adjusted OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.6 in women with without a maternal history). Paternal family history of hearing loss was also significantly, though less strongly, associated with moderate-severe hearing loss in men (adjusted OR 2.0; CI 1

  20. [Spanish adaptation of the "Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale" for adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected.

  1. The role of anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes in predicting selection into an elite development programme in older adolescent rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredrea, Matthew; Dascombe, Ben; Sanctuary, Colin E; Scanlan, Aaron Terrence

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify attributes that discriminate selected from non-selected players and predict selection into a rugby league development programme in older adolescent players. Anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes were measured in under-16 (N = 100) and under-18 (N = 60) rugby league players trialling for selection into a development programme with a professional Australian club. Sprint times (P rugby league and indicate talent identification test batteries should be age-specific in older adolescent players.

  2. Older Adolescents and Parental Divorce: Adjustment Problems and Mediators of Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Stephanie S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Explores the problems associated with parental divorce for adolescents of college age. Analyses of the responses of 83 clinical directors of college mental health counseling centers revealed that adolescents of parental divorce seen for counseling displayed greater behavioral and affective difficulties than counterparts from intact families. (JAC)

  3. Adolescent school absenteeism and service use in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Haugland, Siren; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari

    2015-07-09

    School absenteeism is linked to a range of health concerns, health risk behaviors and school dropout. It is therefore important to evaluate the extent to which adolescents with absenteeism are in contact with health care and other services. The aim of the current study was to investigate service use of Norwegian adolescents with moderate and high absenteeism in comparison to students with lower rates of absence. The study employs data from a population-based study from 2012 targeting all pupils in upper secondary education in Hordaland County, Norway (the youth@hordaland-survey). A total of 8988 adolescents between the ages of 16 and 18 were included in the present study. Information on service use was based on adolescent self-report data collected in the youth@hordaland-survey. Absence data was collected using administrative data provided by the Hordaland County Council. High absence (defined as being absent 15% or more the past semester) was found among 10.1% of the adolescents. Compared to their peers with low absence (less than 3% absence the past semester), adolescents with high absence were more likely to be in contact with all the services studied, including mental health services (odds ratio (OR) 3.96), adolescent health clinics (OR 2.11) and their general practitioner (GP) (OR 1.94). Frequency of contact was higher among adolescents with moderate and high absence and there seems to be a gradient of service use corresponding to the level of absence. Still, 40% of the adolescents with high absence had not been in contact with any services. Adolescents with high absence had increased use of services, although a group of youth at risk seems to be without such contact. This finding suggests a potential to address school absenteeism through systematic collaboration between schools and health personnel.

  4. Evaluation of intelligence in an adolescent bariatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thao-Ly T; Curran, Jennifer L; Datto, George A

    2013-01-01

    The use of bariatric surgery as treatment for morbid obesity in adolescents has nearly tripled in recent years. Intelligence is an important component to a patient's assent of surgery and maintenance of a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this study was to describe the intelligence testing performance of a cohort of adolescents seeking laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Twenty-nine patients (93% female, 62% white) with a mean age of 16 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 49 kg/m(2) were enrolled in an adolescent bariatric program in the United States. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis, evaluating patient intelligence at a single preoperative time point using the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV or Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were analyzed descriptively and in relationship to patient anthropometric measurements and characteristics. Mean IQ was average for age (95, SD 16), although 21% of patients had an IQ120. There was no significant association between IQ and BMI, weight, or waist circumference. Mean IQ was lower in patients who had failed a grade compared with those who had not failed a grade (P<.01) and in patients whose parents had not graduated college compared with those whose parents had (P< .05). In our cohort of adolescents seeking LAGB, mean IQ was average for age, suggesting capability to understand the procedure and healthy lifestyle concepts. Patients who exhibit deficits in intellect prior to surgery may benefit from educational resources and clinician support tailored to their reasoning abilities. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

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    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  6. Are eating disorders and their symptoms increasing in prevalence among adolescent population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanen, Jessi; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2017-01-01

    A debate concerns whether eating disorders are increasing in prevalence. The role of socio-economic status (SES) for adolescent eating disorders (ED) is another matter of debate. To ascertain whether self-reported eating disorders or their symptoms have increased in prevalence in adolescent population from the early 2000s to early 2010s. A person-identifiable classroom survey, Adolescent Mental Health Cohort study, was carried out among the 9th graders in comprehensive schools in Tampere, Finland, during academic year 2002-2003, and replicated among then 9th graders during academic years 2012-2013. Eating disorders were elicited with questionnaires tailored according to DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No changes were observed between 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 in the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia, most of the symptoms of anorexia and bulimia, or the proportion of adolescents having received treatment due to eating disorders among the girls or the boys. Eating disorders, treatment contacts due to eating disorders, and eating disorder symptoms were not systematically associated with either low or high parental socio-economic status. Based on this dataset, eating disorders are not increasing in the adolescent population. Adolescent eating disorders are not associated with socio-economic status of their family.

  7. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Internet Use, Depression, and Anxiety in a Healthy Adolescent Population: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Robyn Pauline; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael

    2018-05-22

    Psychiatric disorders, including conduct disturbances, substance abuse, and affective disorders, emerge in approximately 20% of adolescents. In parallel with the rise in internet use, the prevalence of depression among adolescents has increased. It remains unclear whether and how internet use impacts mental health in adolescents. We assess the association between patterns of internet use and two mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety) in a healthy adolescent population. A total of 126 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years were recruited. Participants reported their typical computer and internet usage patterns. At baseline and one-year follow-up, they completed the Beck Depression Index for primary care (BDI-PC) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for Primary Care (BAI-PC). Individual linear regressions were completed to determine the association between markers of internet use at baseline and mental health outcomes at one-year follow-up. All models controlled for age, gender, and ethnicity. There was an inverse correlation between minutes spent on a favorite website per visit and BAI-PC score. No association was found between internet use and BDI-PC score. There is no relationship between internet use patterns and depression in adolescents, whereas internet use may mitigate anxiety in adolescents with higher levels of baseline anxiety. ©Robyn Pauline Thom, David S Bickham, Michael Rich. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 22.05.2018.

  10. Social phobia in Finnish general adolescent population: prevalence, comorbidity, individual and family correlates, and service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the epidemiology of social phobia (SP) among early to middle adolescents, at the time of suggested mean onset of the disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, comorbidity, individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP among Finnish 12-17-year-old adolescents in general population. A sample of 784 adolescents was screened with the Social Phobia Inventory, and a sub-sample (n=350) was interviewed with a semi-structured clinical interview to identify SP, sub-clinical SP (SSP), and a range of other axis I DSM-IV disorders. Individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP were also inquired. We found a 12-month prevalence of 3.2% for SP, and 4.6% for SSP. The prevalence rose and the gender ratio shifted to female preponderance as age increased. SP was frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders (41%) and depressive disorders (41%). Adolescents with SP/SSP were impaired in their academic and global functioning, and reported more parental psychiatric treatment contacts. Two thirds (68%) of adolescents with SP reported having been bullied by peers. Only one fifth of adolescents with non-comorbid SP had been in contact with a mental health professional. We conclude that adolescent SP is a relatively frequent, undertreated and highly comorbid condition, associated with educational impairment, depression and anxiety in parents, and peer victimization. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Frailty transitions and types of death in Chinese older adults: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu ZY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zu-yun Liu,1,* Yin-zhi Wei,2,* Li-qing Wei,3,* Xiao-yan Jiang,4 Xiao-feng Wang,5 Yan Shi,6 Hua Hai7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Geriatrics, Huangshi Central Hospital, Edong Healthcare Group, Huangshi, China; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; 4Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias of the Ministry of Education of China, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; 5Unit of Epidemiology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 6Department of Emergency, Huai’an Second People’s Hospital and the Affiliated Huai’an Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Huai’an, China; 7Department of Intensive Care Unit, Xuyi People’s Hospital, Xuyi, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Little is known about the adverse effects of frailty transitions. In this study, we aimed to characterize the transitions between frailty states and examine their associations with the type of death among older adults in China, a developing country with a rapidly growing aging population. Methods: We used data of 11,165 older adults (aged 65–99 years from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS. Overall, 44 health deficits were used to construct frailty index (FI; range: 0–1, which was then categorized into a three-level variable: nonfrail (FI ≤0.10, prefrail (0.10< FI ≤0.21, and frail (FI >0.21. Outcome was four types of death based on bedridden days and suffering state (assessed in the 2008 wave of CLHLS. Results: During the 3-year period, 3,394 (30.4% participants had transitioned between different frailty states (nonfrail, prefrail, and frail, one-third transitioned to death, and one-third remained in previous frailty states

  12. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  13. Population-based health promotion perspective for older driver safety: Conceptual framework to intervention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherrilene Classen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sherrilene Classen1,2, Ellen DS Lopez3, Sandra Winter2, Kezia D Awadzi4, Nita Ferree5, Cynthia W Garvan61Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Public Health and Health Professions (CPHHP, University of Florida (UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2PhD Program in Rehabilitation Science, CPHHP, UF Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 4Department of Health Services Research, Management, and Policy, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Health Science Center Libraries, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, UF, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-faceted requiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approach must be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted through community, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitative research, and views (qualitative research of the older drivers and their stakeholders, does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining the interrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, and empirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from a national crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factors for safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underrated in the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness among many socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized the fundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediate and long

  14. Statin Safety in Chinese: A Population-Based Study of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel Q; Kim, Richard B; McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L; Hegele, Robert A; Shah, Baiju R; Weir, Matthew A; Molnar, Amber O; Dixon, Stephanie; Tu, Jack V; Anand, Sonia; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years) newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm) were matched (1:3) by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases. The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years) was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation). Forty-seven percent (47%) of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34), incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30), acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13), or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05)]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose. We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted.

  15. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viscogliosi Chantal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada: older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities, nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships. The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better

  16. Atypical Antipsychotic Medications and Hyponatremia in Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Gandhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of case reports have suggested a possible association between atypical antipsychotic medications and hyponatremia. Currently, there are no reliable estimates of hyponatremia risk from atypical antipsychotic drugs. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia in older adults dispensed an atypical antipsychotic drug relative to no antipsychotic use. Design: The design of this study was a retrospective, population-based cohort study. Setting: The setting of this study was in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2012. Patients: Adults 65 years or older with an identified psychiatric condition who were newly dispensed risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine in the community setting compared to adults with similar indicators of baseline health who were not dispensed such a prescription. Measurements: The primary outcome was the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia. The tracer outcome (an outcome that is not expected to be influenced by the study drugs was the 30-day risk of hospitalization with bowel obstruction. These outcomes were assessed using hospital diagnosis codes. Methods: Using health administrative data, we applied a propensity score technique to match antipsychotic users 1:1 to non-users of antipsychotic drugs (58,008 patients in each group. We used conditional logistic regression to compare outcomes among the matched users and non-users. Results: A total of 104 baseline characteristics were well-balanced between the two matched groups. Atypical antipsychotic use compared to non-use was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia within 30 days (86/58,008 (0.15 % versus 53/58,008 (0.09 %; relative risk 1.62 (95 % confidence interval (CI 1.15 to 2.29; absolute risk increase 0.06 % (95 % CI 0.02 to 0.10. The limited number of events precluded some additional analyses to confirm if the association was robust. Atypical

  17. Self-Reported Loss of Consciousness After Head Trauma Does Not Predispose to Hypopituitarism in an Older Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabelink, N.M.; Peeters, G.M.E.E.; van Schoor, N.M.; Drent, M.L.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This population study examines the prevalence of hypopituitarism and low bone mineral density (BMD) in older persons reporting loss of consciousness after head trauma (HT). Methods: Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used pertaining to 630 women (53 HT) and 533 men (63

  18. Health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia: a systematic synthesis of population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Peter S; Sawyer, Susan M; Carlin, John B; Degenhardt, Louisa; Brown, Ngiare; Brown, Alex D; Patton, George C

    2018-02-24

    Indigenous populations have high rates of disease and premature mortality. Most Indigenous communities are young, and adolescence (age 10-24 years) provides great opportunities for population health gain. However, the absence of a comprehensive account of Indigenous adolescents' health has been a barrier to effective policy. We aimed to report a national health profile for Indigenous adolescents in Australia. We undertook a systematic synthesis of population data to report the health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia. A reporting framework for Indigenous adolescent health in Australia was defined to measure health outcomes, health risks, and sociocultural determinants. Available data (primary data from national surveys and administrative datasets, and available published data) were mapped against the defined reporting framework, and the quality graded, with the highest quality data selected to report a health profile for Indigenous adolescents. Comparison with non-Indigenous adolescents was made where possible, and estimates (disaggregated by age, sex, and remoteness) were reported as relative risks. A national advisory group (six Indigenous young people, three Indigenous adult community members, three researchers, three policy makers, and two service providers, all aged ≥16 years) provided input about the reporting framework, interpretation of findings, and policy recommendations. Data were available for 184 (79%) of 234 elements of the reporting framework. All-cause mortality for Indigenous adolescents (70 per 100 000) was more than twice that of non-Indigenous adolescents, with about 60% of deaths due to intentional self-harm and road traffic injury. 80% of all deaths among Indigenous adolescents were considered as potentially avoidable in the current health system. Communicable diseases (particularly sexually transmitted infections) were leading contributors to morbidity. Almost a third of Indigenous adolescents aged 18-24 years reported

  19. [How educating students in depression among older people can affect their motivation to work with this population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, S; Izaute, M; Teissèdre, F

    2017-04-01

    Negative representations of ageing are conveyed in our society. We see that people frequently avoid working with older people, due to a lack of motivation. Depressive signs in older people are more frequently associated with normal ageing, rather than a pathology, giving health professionals the feeling that therapeutic efforts are likely to be unproductive. Yet, depression is a major public health problem, particularly among older people. It is a real pathology, affecting 20% of people aged 65 and older. In retirement homes the percentage can be as high as 45%. To study and evaluate how theoretical knowledge about older people and depression affects the motivation of 2nd year psychology students to work with this population. The study involves two groups. One of the groups (experimental group) followed an 8hour course on depression in older people, whereas the other (control group) followed an 8hour course on a different topic. The study was conducted in two parts. First, the two groups answered an initial questionnaire which measured how motivated they were to work with older people and what they knew about depression in older people. Then, after the experimental phase, all of the students answered the same questionnaire a second time. The comparison shows a significant decline in knowledge between T1 and T2 for the control group (Pdepression, students are more motivated to work with older people. Moreover, we observe that the more knowledge students have in this field, the more motivated they will be to work with older people. Whereas there were no differences in knowledge before the course, we observed that the knowledge of the group who took part in the course about older people improved. Also, the evaluation showed that students who took the course were significantly more knowledgeable. Regarding motivation, our results vary according to the type of motivation. Overall, as regards intrinsic motivation, we observed an increase in motivation, insofar as the

  20. Exercise prescription for the older population: The interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and adequate nutrition in maintaining musculoskeletal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Brandon J; Wallis, Gareth; van Loon, Luc J C; Thompson, Janice L

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, the majority of older individuals do not meet current PA guidelines and are also highly sedentary. Emerging evidence indicates that large amounts of sedentary time accelerate the loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and physical function with advancing age. However, current PA recommendations for sedentary time are non-specific (i.e., keep sedentary time to a minimum). Research indicates that physical inactivity and large amounts of sedentary time accelerate sarcopenic muscle loss by inducing skeletal muscle 'anabolic resistance'. These findings suggest a critical interaction between engaging in 'sufficient' levels of PA, minimising sedentary time, and consuming 'adequate' nutrition to promote optimal musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, current PA recommendations do not take into account the important role that nutrition plays in ensuring older adults can maximise the benefits from the PA in which they engage. The aim of this narrative review is: (1) to briefly summarise the evidence used to inform current public health recommendations for PA and sedentary time in older adults; and (2) to discuss the presence of 'anabolic resistance' in older adults, highlighting the importance of regular PA and minimising sedentary behaviour. It is imperative that the synergy between PA, minimising sedentary behaviour and adequate nutrition is integrated into future PA guidelines to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and metabolic responses in the growing ageing population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex differences in goal orientation in adolescents aged 10-19: The older boys adopt work-avoidant goals twice as often as girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Lee, Nikki; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Dekker, S. J., Krabbendam, L., Lee, N. C., Boschloo, A. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Jolles, J. (2013). Sex differences in goal orientation in adolescents aged 10-19: The older boys adopt work-avoidant goals twice as often as girls. Learning and Individual Differences, 26, 196-200.

  2. Examining the Efficacy of an mHealth Media Literacy Education Program for Sexual Health Promotion in Older Adolescents Attending Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy Marie; Kupersmidt, Janis Beth; Malik, Christina Valerie; Keefe, Elyse Mallory

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of a mobile health (mHealth), media literacy education program, "Media Aware", for improving sexual health outcomes in older adolescent community college students. Participants: 184 community college students (ages 18-19) participated in the study from April-December 2015. Methods: Eight community…

  3. Population attributable risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes related to smoking in adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, A.; Kelly, Y.; Rizwan, S.; Attia, E.; Drammond, S.; Brabin, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how population-attributable risks (PAR) for adverse birth outcomes due to smoking differ in adolescent and adult pregnancies. METHODS: An analysis of community and hospital-based cross-sectional studies in Liverpool was undertaken to estimate the PAR values of low

  4. Promoting Active Transport in Older Adolescents Before They Obtain Their Driving Licence: A Matched Control Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Simons, Dorien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Geus, Bas; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17-18 years). Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport. A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium). A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course 'Driving Licence at School' in intervention schools (intervention group 1). Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course 'Driving Licence at School'. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week) and follow-up (after eight weeks). To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed. A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7) years) was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001) and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030) compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow-up measurement was found within intervention

  5. Promoting Active Transport in Older Adolescents Before They Obtain Their Driving Licence: A Matched Control Intervention Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Verhoeven

    Full Text Available Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17-18 years. Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport.A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium. A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course 'Driving Licence at School' in intervention schools (intervention group 1. Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course 'Driving Licence at School'. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week and follow-up (after eight weeks. To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed.A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7 years was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001 and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030 compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow-up measurement was found within

  6. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12?16?years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7?10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. Methods A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in...

  7. Measuring Resilience in the Adolescent Population: A Succinct Tool for Outpatient Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Jordan; Vitale, Patty; Gaughan, John P; Feldman-Winter, Lori

    2017-10-01

    To create a valid tool to measure adolescent resilience, and to determine if this tool correlates with current participation in risk behaviors and prior adverse childhood events. One hundred adolescents were recruited from primary care clinics in New Jersey for this cross-sectional study. A "7Cs tool" was developed to measure resilience using the 7Cs model of resilience. All participants completed the 7Cs tool, the Adverse Childhood Events Survey, and the Health Survey for Adolescents to identify current risk behaviors. Demographic and background data were also collected. To assess the validity of the 7Cs tool, Cronbach alpha, principal factor analysis, Spearman coefficients, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. The χ 2 test and ORs were used to determine if any relationships exist between resilience and prior adverse childhood events and risk taking behaviors. Participants ranged from 13 to 21 years old (65% female). Internal consistency was established using Cronbach alpha (0.7). Lower resilience correlated with higher adverse childhood events (P = .008) and Health Survey for Adolescents scores (P resilience was associated with increased problems in school (OR 2.6; P = .021), drug use (OR 4.0; P = .004), violent behavior (OR 3.7; P = .002), recent depression (OR 5.0; P resilience was associated with participation in exercise (P = .001) and activities (P = .01). The 7Cs tool is an internally validated tool that may be used to screen adolescent resilience and guide pediatricians' counseling against risk behaviors. Further studies will evaluate resilience-building interventions based on results from this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  9. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; p<0.001, have an infant with low birthweight (OR:1.1; CI:1.10-1.15; p<0.001 and low Apgar score at 5 minutes (OR:1.4; CI:1.34-1.45; p<0.001 than mothers ≥20 years, with the odds for adverse outcomes greater for those aged 10-14 years. Conclusion: this study provides evidence of fertility rates among adolescents remaining higher in regions of social and economic deprivation. Adolescent mothers and their infants more likely to experience adverse perinatal outcomes. Nurses, public health practitioners, health and social care professionals and educators need to work collaboratively to better target strategies for adolescents at greater risk; to help reduce fertility rates and improve outcomes.

  10. Depression and substance use in a middle aged and older Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Katherine; Robison, Julie; Fogel, Denise; Gruman, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on depression and substance use in Puerto Rican primary care patients, age 50 and older, recruited from five clinics in Hartford, CT (n = 303). One-third of the participants screened positive for depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and 16 percent either reported excessive alcohol use, prescription drug abuse, and/or illegal drug use in the past year. Correlates of depression include younger age, female gender, being separated or divorced, low perceived adequacy of income, poor health status, functional limitations, few emotional supports, and a history of an "ataque de nervios." Younger age, male gender, low perceived adequacy of income, few emotional supports, suicidal ideation, and a history of an "ataque de nervios" were associated with substance use. While the relationship between excessive alcohol use and a higher rate of depression did not reach statistical significance, drug use was a strong predictor of depression, particularly prescription drug abuse. However substance use did not significantly affect the likelihood of seeking treatment for depression. These findings underscore the need for appropriate interventions for those at risk for depression among the Puerto Rican population.

  11. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in twins: a population-based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel O; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in a twin cohort. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish a scoliosis twin cohort to provide data on the heritability of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of AIS is still...... environmental factors. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a questionnaire, which included questions about scoliosis. A total of 34,944 (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: A subgroup of 220 subjects considered...... of monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was significantly different (P scoliosis in 1 twin whose other twin has scoliosis is smaller than believed up until now....

  12. Does Playing Sports Video Games Predict Increased Involvement in Real-Life Sports Over Several Years Among Older Adolescents and Emerging Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-02-01

    Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among youth. Yet, this association has not been examined in the long-term among older adolescents and emerging adults, and thus represents an exciting new area for discovery. The primary goal of the current study, therefore, was to examine the long-term association between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports clubs among older adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, we examined whether self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this longitudinal association. We surveyed older adolescents and emerging adults (N = 1132; 70.6 % female; M age = 19.06 years, range of 17-25 years at the first assessment) annually over 3 years about their video game play, self-esteem, and involvement in real-life sports. We found a long-term predictive effect of sports video game play on increased involvement in real-life sports over the 3 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated that self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this long-term association. Our findings make an important contribution to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game play, as they suggest that sports video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults.

  13. Older adolescents' motivations for social network site use: the influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed motives for social network site (SNS) use, group belonging, collective self-esteem, and gender effects among older adolescents. Communication with peer group members was the most important motivation for SNS use. Participants high in positive collective self-esteem were strongly motivated to communicate with peer group via SNS. Females were more likely to report high positive collective self-esteem, greater overall use, and SNS use to communicate with peers. Females also posted higher means for group-in-self, passing time, and entertainment. Negative collective self-esteem correlated with social compensation, suggesting that those who felt negatively about their social group used SNS as an alternative to communicating with other group members. Males were more likely than females to report negative collective self-esteem and SNS use for social compensation and social identity gratifications.

  14. A trial of D-cycloserine to treat stereotypies in older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Maria; Okwara, Leonore; Manser, Paul; Hartmann, Kathrin; Herndon, Amy; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have core impairments in social communication as well as the presence of repetitive, stereotypic behaviors and restricted interests. Older adolescents and young adults are particularly impacted by these deficits. Preclinical data implicate glutamatergic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of ASDs. D-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial glycineB agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor site, has been shown to improve sociability in mouse models and a small human study. The sensitivity of the obligatory glycineB co-agonist binding site may change with daily administration of DCS as a result of agonist-induced desensitization. The efficacy of a "pulsed" once-weekly administration versus "daily" administration of DCS was compared. Males and females, ages 14 to 25 years, with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision diagnosis of an ASD were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized 10-week trial consisting of 8 weeks of active drug with either weekly or daily administration of 50 mg of DCS followed by a 2-week follow-up visit. For the purposes of this study, no statistical or clinical differences existed between the 2 dosage groups on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist subscale 3, which measures stereotypies/repetitive movements. When combining groups, a statistically significant decrease of 37% was found from baseline to week 8 when study drug was completed using a linear mixed effects model (P = 0.003). D-Cycloserine was shown to be effective in improving stereotypic symptoms in older adolescents and young adults with ASDs measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist subscale 3. In addition, DCS was safe and well tolerated.

  15. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 ye...

  16. Biofeedback for training balance and mobility tasks in older populations : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; Mancini, Martina; Chiari, Lorenzo; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2010-01-01

    Context: An effective application of biofeedback for interventions in older adults with balance and mobility disorders may be compromised due to co-morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of biofeedback-based training of balance and/or mobility in older adults. Data

  17. Falls and Drugs in the Older Population: medical and societal consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Hartholt (Klaas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFalls represent a major public health problem among older persons in western countries, since approximately a third of all persons aged 65 years and older experience at least one fall per year. This thesis provides insights in the epidemiology, injury patterns, healthcare costs,

  18. A population-based study examining injury among older adults with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Meuleners

    2017-04-01

    Older adults with dementia were at increased risk of an admission for an injury compared to those without dementia. Multifactorial injury prevention programs should target older people with dementia, those over 85 years, living alone and with a history of previous falls.

  19. Effects of 2G and 3G mobile phones on performance and electrophysiology in adolescents, young adults and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S; Croft, R J; McKenzie, R J; Iskra, S; Silber, B; Cooper, N R; O'Neill, B; Cropley, V; Diaz-Trujillo, A; Hamblin, D; Simpson, D

    2011-11-01

    This study examined sensory and cognitive processing in adolescents, young adults and older adults, when exposed to 2nd (2G) and 3rd (3G) generation mobile phone signals. Tests employed were the auditory 3-stimulus oddball and the N-back. Forty-one 13-15 year olds, forty-two 19-40 year olds and twenty 55-70 year olds were tested using a double-blind cross-over design, where each participant received Sham, 2G and 3G exposures, separated by at least 4 days. 3-Stimulus oddball task: Behavioural: accuracy and reaction time of responses to targets were not affected by exposure. Electrophysiological: augmented N1 was found in the 2G condition (independent of age group). N-back task: Behavioural: the combined groups performed less accurately during the 3G exposure (compared to Sham), with post hoc tests finding this effect separately in the adolescents only. Electrophysiological: delayed ERD/ERS responses of the alpha power were found in both 3G and 2G conditions (compared to Sham; independent of age group). Employing tasks tailored to each individual's ability level, this study provides support for an effect of acute 2G and 3G exposure on human cognitive function. The subtlety of mobile phone effect on cognition in our study suggests that it is important to account for individual differences in future mobile phone research. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  20. Links between Older and Younger Adolescent Siblings' Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Shared Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2008-01-01

    Siblings' constructive and unstructured shared activities were examined as moderators of the links between first- and second-born siblings' adjustment across a two-year period in adolescence. Siblings (N = 189 dyads) reported on their depression, peer competency, self worth during home interviews, and their time together in constructive (e.g.,…

  1. Factorial Validity and Gender Invariance of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in Older Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Tscherne, James; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Documented gender differences in physical activity rates during adolescence (Grunbaum et al., 2004) pose the question of whether physical activity enjoyment similarly differs between boys and girls. However, a necessary precursor to research on this topic is that the factor structure of the PACES be equivalent across gender. Although gender…

  2. Literacy as a Leisure Activity: Free-Time Preferences of Older Children and Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Duthie, Jill K.; Larsen, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Literacy plays an important role in the development of language in school-age children and adolescents. For example, by reading a variety of books, magazines, and newspapers, students gain exposure to complex vocabulary, and reading becomes a prime opportunity for learning new words. Despite the importance of reading for lexical …

  3. Dysmenorrhea in a multiethnic population of adolescent Asian girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2010-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, and the treatment-seeking behavior of adolescent Asian girls. A cross-sectional study with 1092 girls from 15 public secondary schools and 3 ethnic groups in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overall, 74.5% of the girls who had reached menarche had dysmenorrhea; 51.7% of these girls reported that it affected their concentration in class; 50.2% that it restricted their social activities; 21.5% that it caused them to miss school; and 12.0% that it caused poor school performance. Ethnicity and form at school were significantly associated with the poor concentration, absenteeism, and restriction of social and recreational activities attributed to dysmenorrhea. Only 12.0% had consulted a physician, and 53.3% did nothing about their conditions. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence, impact, and management of dysmenorrhea. There is a need for culture-specific education regarding menstruation-related conditions in the school curriculum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modified Ponseti method of treatment for correction of neglected clubfoot in older children and adolescents--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Ramin Haj Zargar; Baghdadi, Taghi; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Abdi, Reza; Aslani, Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Congenital talipes equinovarus may be the most common congenital orthopedic condition requiring treatment. Nonoperative treatment including different methods is generally accepted as the first step in the deformity correction. Ignacio Ponseti introduced his nonsurgical approach to the treatment of clubfoot in the early 1940s. The method is reportedly successful in treating clubfoot in patients up to 9 years of age. However, whether age at the beginning of treatment affects the rate of effective correction and relapse is unknown. We have applied the Ponseti method successfully with some modifications for 11 patients with a mean age of 11.2 years (range, 6 to 19 years) with neglected and untreated clubbed feet. The mean follow-up was 15 months (12 to 36 months). Correction was achieved with a mean of nine casts (six to 13). Clinically, 17 out of 18 feet (94.4%) were considered to achieve a good result with no need for further surgery. The application of this method of treatment is very simple and also cheap in developing countries with limited financial and social resources for health service. To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a modified method as a correction method for clubfoot in older children and adolescents has not been applied previously for neglected clubfeet in older children in the literature.

  5. Measurement of overgeneral autobiographical memory: Psychometric properties of the autobiographical memory test in young and older populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Laura; Romero, Dulce; Ricarte, Jorge J; Serrano, Juan P; Nieto, Marta; Latorre, Jose M

    2018-01-01

    The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is the most widely used measure of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The AMT appears to have good psychometric properties, but more research is needed on the influence and applicability of individual cue words in different languages and populations. To date, no studies have evaluated its usefulness as a measure of OMG in Spanish or older populations. This work aims to analyze the applicability of the AMT in young and older Spanish samples. We administered a Spanish version of the AMT to samples of young (N = 520) and older adults (N = 155). We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), item response theory-based analysis (IRT) and differential item functioning (DIF). Results confirm the one-factor structure for the AMT. IRT analysis suggests that both groups find the AMT easy given that they generally perform well, and that it is more precise in individuals who score low on memory specificity. DIF analysis finds three items differ in their functioning depending on age group. This differential functioning of these items affects the overall AMT scores and, thus, they should be excluded from the AMT in studies comparing young and older samples. We discuss the possible implications of the samples and cue words used.

  6. Cognitive lifestyle in older persons: the population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Michael J; Leon, Irene; Suo, Chao; Piamba, Diana Martinez; Kochan, Nicole; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive lifestyle may be an important modifiable risk factor for dementia but has not yet been comprehensively studied in healthy elderly. To examine gender- and lifespan-related differences in cognitive lifestyle in a population-based cohort. 872 individuals from the second wave of the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (MAS) cohort were invited to complete the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ), a validated measure of cognitive lifestyle. Of 555 questionnaires returned (64%), 253 were excluded due to prior diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, leaving n = 302 cognitively-intact elders (mean age 80.1 years, ±SD 4.7, 40.1% men). Total LEQ was significantly higher in men (97.9 ± 20.0) than women (90.0 ± 24.5), resulting mainly from midlife LEQ differences. Men were more likely to have worked in managerial or professional jobs (73.8% versus 39.5% women), and twice as likely to have supervised large groups of workers. In late life, women were significantly more likely to be living alone (68.1% versus 25.4% men), but otherwise significantly more engaged in specific cognitive activities, including reading novels (72.3% versus 52.0% men) and incorporating volunteer work (31.9% versus 19.7% men) and socializing (59.0% versus 37.0% men) into their typical day. Over the adult lifespan, it was more common for men and women to transition between LEQ tertiles than remain the same. Cognitive lifestyle changes over the adult lifespan and exhibits a range of gender-based differences. While older women are more likely to be living alone they generally lead a more active current cognitive lifestyle.

  7. Validating an electronic health literacy scale in an older hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Judith; Nokes, Kathleen M

    2017-09-01

    To examine the validity of the Spanish version of an instrument used to measure electronic health literacy (eHEALS) with an older Hispanic population from a number of Spanish-language countries living in New York City in the United States (US). Although the Internet is available globally, complex skills are needed to use this source of valuable health-related information effectively. Electronic health literacy is a multifactorial concept that includes health literacy but also requires technology skills. Cross-sectional. Recruitment occurred at a Senior Organization located in a largely Hispanic neighbourhood in New York City (N = 100). Participants completed eHEALS and selected items from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) which assesses how adults use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information. Data from the US HINTS sample (N = 162) were matched to the Senior Organization sample on age range and Hispanic ethnicity. The average Senior Organization participant was 68 years old, female, born in one of six different Spanish-language countries, and completed high school while the average HINTS participant was 67 years old, female and had high school or less education. Although there was no relationship with the two HINTS subscales and electronic health literacy, there were significant relationships between electronic health literacy and health status and confidence in self-care. Inadequate electronic health literacy is a barrier to positive health outcomes. The Spanish version of eHEALS could be used as a screening instrument to identify gaps and tailored interventions could be developed to increase consumer confidence in using the Internet for reliable health-related information. Knowledge in self-management is related to positive health outcomes; all persons irrespective of their electronic health literacy should be able to use all sources of health information to enhance their self-care.

  8. The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory: psychometric properties in an adolescent general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2012-07-01

    Onset of social phobia (SP) typically occurs in adolescence. Short screening instruments for its assessment are needed for use in primary health and school settings. The 3-item Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) has demonstrated effectiveness in screening for generalized SP (GSP) in adults. This study examined the psychometrics of the Mini-SPIN in an adolescent general population sample. Three hundred fifty adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were clinically interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version for identification of SP and other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I disorders, blind to their Mini-SPIN status. Associations between SP; subclinical SP; other anxiety, depressive, and disruptive disorders; and Mini-SPIN scores were examined, and diagnostic efficiency statistics were calculated. The association between Mini-SPIN scores and the generalized subtype of SP was also examined. As in adults, the Mini-SPIN items differentiated subjects with SP from those without. A score of 6 points or greater was found optimal in predicting SP with a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 84%, and positive and negative predictive values of 26% and 99%. The Mini-SPIN also possessed discriminative validity, as scores were higher for adolescents with SP than they were for those with depressive, disruptive, and other anxiety disorders. The Mini-SPIN was also able to differentiate adolescents with GSP from the rest of the sample. The Mini-SPIN has good psychometrics for screening SP in adolescents from general population and may have value in screening for GSP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The adolescent child health and illness profile. A population-based measure of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfield, B; Riley, A W; Green, B F; Ensminger, M E; Ryan, S A; Kelleher, K; Kim-Harris, S; Johnston, D; Vogel, K

    1995-05-01

    This study was designed to test the reliability and validity of an instrument to assess adolescent health status. Reliability and validity were examined by administration to adolescents (ages 11-17 years) in eight schools in two urban areas, one area in Appalachia, and one area in the rural South. Integrity of the domains and subdomains and construct validity were tested in all areas. Test/retest stability, criterion validity, and convergent and discriminant validity were tested in the two urban areas. Iterative testing has resulted in the final form of the CHIP-AE (Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition) having 6 domains with 20 subdomains. The domains are Discomfort, Disorders, Satisfaction with Health, Achievement (of age-appropriate social roles), Risks, and Resilience. Tested aspects of reliability and validity have achieved acceptable levels for all retained subdomains. The CHIP-AE in its current form is suitable for assessing the health status of populations and subpopulations of adolescents. Evidence from test-retest stability analyses suggests that the CHIP-AE also can be used to assess changes occurring over time or in response to health services interventions targeted at groups of adolescents.

  10. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Albers, Lucia; Straube, Andreas; Gerstl, Lucia; Blum, Bernhard; Langhagen, Thyra; Jahn, Klaus; Heinen, Florian; von Kries, Rüdiger; Landgraf, Mirjam N

    2017-01-01

    To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies. The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking. Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively. Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  12. Teenage pregnancy: the impact of maternal adolescent childbearing and older sister's teenage pregnancy on a younger sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C

    2016-05-25

    Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is

  13. Health behaviour in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to a representative reference population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kummer

    Full Text Available We provide a population-based overview of health behaviours of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison to the general population, and analyse their relevance for glycaemic control and self-rated health status.Data from questionnaires of 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with diabetes (n = 629 were compared to a representative sample (n = 6,813.Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a significantly increased odds of infrequent physical activity (adjusted OR 1.56, short overall duration of physical activity per week (OR 1.55, difference -1.3 hours/week, and high daily computer use (OR 2.51. They had a lower odds of active and passive smoking (OR 0.31 and OR 0.29, and high daily television time (OR 0.68. The odds of an at least good and excellent self-rated health status was increased with intense physical activity, and decreased with active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer and television. Active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer were associated with higher HbA1c.Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed a different profile of health behaviour. Their overall health may improve if their education stresses specifically frequent physical activity with longer overall duration and less frequent television or computer use.

  14. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  15. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Iannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  16. Fall risk and prevention needs assessment in an older adult Latino population: a model community global health partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlin, Erin R; Delgado-Rendón, Angélica; Lerner, E Brooke; Hargarten, Stephen; Farías, René

    2013-01-01

    The impact of falls in older adults presents a significant public health burden. Fall risk is not well-described in Latino populations nor have fall prevention programs considered the needs of this population. The objectives of this study were to develop a needs assessment of falls in older adult Latinos at a community center (CC), determine fall prevention barriers and strengths in this population, determine the level of interest in various fall prevention methods, and provide medical students an opportunity for participation in a culturally diverse community project. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of older adult program participants. The survey was developed in collaboration with both partners. CC participants were approached by the interviewer and asked to participate. They were read the survey in their preferred language and their answers were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. We conducted 103 interviews. We found that 54% of participants had fallen in the last year, and of those 21% required medical care, 81% were afraid of falling again, and 66% considered themselves at risk for falling again. Of all respondents, 52% had 5 or more of the 10 surveyed risk factors for falling; 4% had no risk factors. Of all respondents, 75% were afraid of falling. Talking with health care providers and participating in an exercise class were the preferred methods of health information delivery (78% and 65%, respectively). Older adult Latinos in this selected population frequently fall and are worried about falling. Risk factors are prevalent. A fall prevention program is warranted and should include exercise classes and a connection with local primary care providers. A partnership between an academic organization and a CC is an ideal collaboration for the future development of prevention program.

  17. Gotta survey somebody : Methodological challenges in population studies of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Kelfve, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Conducting representative surveys of older people is challenging. This thesis aims to analyze a) the characteristics of individuals at risk of being underrepresented in surveys of older people, b) the systematic errors likely to occur as a result of these selections, and c) whether these systematic errors can be minimized by weighting adjustments.   In Study I, we investigated a) who would be missing from a survey that excluded those living in institutions and that did not use indirect interv...

  18. Characteristics associated with older adolescents who have a television in their bedrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; van den Berg, Patricia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    The goals were to examine the prevalence of adolescents having a television in their bedroom and to describe associated personal, social, and behavioral characteristics. Participants included 781 adolescents (mean age: 17.2 years) who completed a mailed Project Eating Among Teens II questionnaire. The relationships between adolescents having a television in their bedroom and sociodemographic, behavioral, and personal characteristics were examined. Nearly two thirds (62%) of participants had a bedroom television. Gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and age were associated with the presence of a bedroom television. Compared with girls without a bedroom television, girls with a bedroom television reported less time spent in vigorous activity (1.8 vs 2.5 hours/week), more time spent watching television (20.7 vs 15.2 hours/week), lower vegetable intake (1.7 vs 2.0 servings per day), greater sweetened beverage consumption (1.2 vs 1.0 servings per day), and fewer family meals (2.9 vs 3.7 meals per week). Compared with boys without a bedroom television, boys with a bedroom television reported more time spent watching television (22.2 vs 18.2 hours/week), lower fruit intake (1.7 vs 2.2 servings per day), fewer family meals (2.9 vs 3.6 meals per week), and lower grade point average (2.6 vs 2.9). Twice as many youths with a television in their bedroom were heavy television users (watched >5 hours/day), compared with youths without a television in their bedroom (16% vs 8%). Adolescents with a bedroom television reported more television viewing time, less physical activity, poorer dietary habits, fewer family meals, and poorer school performance. Refraining from placing a television in teenagers' rooms may be a first step in helping to decrease screen time and subsequent poor behaviors associated with increased television watching.

  19. Non-right-handedness and mental health problems among adolescents from the general population : The Trails Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Bruggeman, R; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Burger, Huib

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the association between non-right-handedness and mental problems among adolescents is specific for psychotic symptoms, we included a group of 2096 adolescents with a mean age of 14 years from the general population. Mental health problems were assessed using the parent,

  20. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results.

  1. Female fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent cancer patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarroba, Gabriela N; Sanfilippo, Joseph S; Valli-Pulaski, Hanna

    2018-04-01

    The 5-year survival rate for childhood cancer is over 80%, thereby increasing the number of young women facing infertility in the future because of the gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation. The gonadotoxic effects of childhood cancer treatment vary by the radiation regimen and the chemotherapeutic drugs utilized. Although the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines recommend fertility preservation for all patients, there are several barriers and ethical considerations to fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent female population. Additionally, the fertility preservation methods for pre- and postpubertal females differ, with only experimental methods available for prepubertal females. We will review the risk of chemotherapy and radiation on female fertility, the approach to fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent female population, methods of fertility preservation for both pre- and postpubertal females, barriers to fertility preservation, cost, and psychological and ethical considerations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Allergy from infancy to adolescence. A population-based 18-year follow-up cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Minna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxious parents have many concerns about the future health of their atopic infants. Paediatricians and primary care practitioners need to seek knowledge on long-term outcomes in order to cope with the increasing caseload of suspected allergy and the concerns of parents. The aim of the study was to assess suspected and diagnosed allergy in infancy as predictors of allergy and asthma in adolescence. Methods Families expecting their first baby and making their first visit to a maternity health care clinic in 1986 were selected as the study population in a random sample. There were 1278 eligible study families. The data were provided of the children at the ages of 9 and 18 months and 3, 5, 12, 15 and 18 years by health care professionals, parents, and adolescents (themselves. Results At the age of 9 months, the prevalence of allergy suspicions was distinctly higher than that of allergy diagnoses. At the age of five years suspected allergy approaches were nil, and the prevalence of diagnosed allergy was about 9%. During the adolescence, the prevalence of self-reported allergy increases steadily up to the age of 18 years, and that of asthma remains at approximately 5%. Suspected allergy at the age of 9 or 18 months and at the 5 years of age does not predict allergy at adolescence. Compared with non-allergic children, children with definite allergy at the age of 5 were over 8 times more likely to have allergy and nearly 7 times more likely to have asthma in adolescence. Conclusion An early ascertained diagnosis of allergy, but not suspicions of allergy, predicts prevailing allergy in adolescence. Efforts need to be focused on accurate diagnosis of early childhood allergies.

  3. Properties of the DASS-21 in an Australian Community Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T; Campbell, M A; Runions, K C; Zubrick, S R

    2017-07-01

    Although developed for adults, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-Short Version (DASS-21) has been used in many research studies with adolescent samples. Evidence as to the applicability of the DASS subscale scores to represent the distinct states of depression, anxiety, and stress as experienced by adolescents is mixed, and the age at which it may be possible to differentiate these 3 states using the DASS-21 has not yet been determined. This study evaluated evidence for a multifactor structure in the DASS-21 in adolescents and the specificity of the 3 subscales for adolescents in general and at different ages. Data were from a large cross-sectional survey of 2,873 school students in Grades 6-12 (aged 12-18 years) in Australia. We conducted confirmatory bifactor analyses testing a general mental health distress factor and 3 domain-specific factors for anxiety, depression, and stress for the whole sample and across gender by age groups. The internal consistency reliability of the DASS total and subscale scores was determined using omega coefficients. Analyses identified that most of the variation in the items was explained by the dominance of a single, general factor and the subscales lacked specificity across all age groups. The DASS-21 can be reliably used to measure general distress in adolescents, but the subscales fail to discriminate between the 3 states. Our results indicate that this lack of discrimination does not reduce with increasing age. These findings caution against the use of adult theoretical models and measures within adolescent populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Self-perceived coping resources of middle-aged and older adults - results of a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlen, Friederike H; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Maatouk, Imad; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Brenner, Hermann; Wild, Beate

    2017-12-01

    Psychosocial resources (personal resources, social resources, and other) are important for coping with aging and impairment. The aim of this study was to describe the resources of older adults and to compare subgroups with frailty, complex health care needs, and/or mental disorders. At the third follow-up of the large population-based German ESTHER study, 3124 elderly persons (aged 55-85) were included. Psychosocial resources were assessed during a home visit by trained study doctors by using a list of 26 different items. Resources were described for the total group, separated by sex, and for the three subgroups of persons with frailty, complex health care needs, and mental disorders. Family, self-efficacy, and financial security were the most frequently reported resources of older adults. Women and men showed significant differences in their self-perceived resources. Personal resources (self-efficacy, optimism, mastery), social resources, and financial security were reported significantly less frequently by frail persons, persons with complex health care needs, and mentally ill older adults compared to non-impaired participants. Apart from external support, patients who experienced complex health care needs reported resources less frequently compared to frail and mentally ill patients. Coping resources in older adults are associated with sex and impairment. Evaluation and support of personal resources of frail or mentally ill persons or individuals with complex health care needs should be integrated in the therapeutic process.

  6. Transitional Care for Older Adults with Chronic Illnesses as a Vulnerable Population: Theoretical Framework and Future Directions in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn Jung; You, Mi Ae

    2015-12-01

    Effective transitional care is needed to improve the quality of life in older adult patients with chronic illness and avoid discontinuity of care and adverse events. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the key features, broader implications, and the utility of Meleis' transition theory intended for the transitional care of older adults with chronic illnesses. We present the role of nurse in the context of transitional care and propose future directions to increase the quality of nursing care. The online databases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, and Science Direct were searched for relevant literature published since 1970 along with textbooks regarding nursing theory. An evaluation of the usefulness of transition theory based on transitional care in older adult patients with chronic illnesses is provided. Healthy transition should be the expected standard of nursing care for older adults across all healthcare settings. Nurses need to contribute to the development of transitional care for vulnerable populations; however, transition theory needs to be enhanced through additional theoretical work and repeated evaluations of the applicability in areas of transitional care.

  7. Characteristics Associated with Hallux Valgus in a Population-Based Study of Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Alyssa B.; Casey, Virginia A.; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) is common in older adults, but limited studies of risk factors have reported conflicting results. This cross-sectional analysis examined the association of HV with foot pain and other characteristics in older adults. Methods HV, foot pain, foot structure (planus, rectus, cavus), current and past high heel use, age, and body mass index were assessed in the population-based Framingham Foot Study. Sex-specific logistic and multinomial logistic regression examined the association of HV and HV with pain with study variables. Results Of 1352 men and 1725 women (mean age 66 ± 10.5 years), 22% of men and 44% of women had HV and 3% of men and 11% of women had HV with pain. Foot pain increased odds of HV in both sexes (p 30 kg/m2 decreased odds of HV by 33% in men and 45% in women (p<0.05). In women only, odds of Pain & HV vs. No Pain & No HV were greater with older age and planus foot structure. Conclusions Our work showed different associations in participants who had HV with pain compared to those without foot pain. In both men and women, strong relations were observed between HV and foot pain and inversely with BMI. Older age was associated with HV in women only, as were protective associations with cavus foot structure. PMID:24965070

  8. Acute Myocardial Infarction Population Incidence and Mortality Rates, and 28-day Case-fatality in Older Adults. The REGICOR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Oliva, Gabriel; Zamora, Alberto; Ramos, Rafel; Marti, Ruth; Subirana, Isaac; Grau, María; Dégano, Irene R; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2017-11-22

    Our aims were to determine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence and mortality rates, and population and in-hospital case-fatality in the population older than 74 years; variability in clinical characteristics and AMI management of hospitalized patients, and changes in the incidence and mortality rates, case-fatality, and management by age groups from 1996 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008. A population-based AMI registry in Girona (Catalonia, Spain) including individuals with suspected AMI older than 34 years. The incidence rate increased with age from 169 and 28 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 2306 and 1384 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 85 to 94 years, in men and women, respectively. Population case-fatality also increased with age, from 19% in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 84% in the group aged 85 to 94 years. A lower population case-fatality was observed in the second period, mainly explained by a lower in-hospital case-fatality. The use of invasive procedures and effective drugs decreased with age but increased in the second period in all ages up to 84 years. Acute myocardial infarction incidence, mortality, and case-fatality increased exponentially with age. There is still a gap in the use of invasive procedures and effective drugs between younger and older patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-perception of oral health in older adults from an urban population in Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Catarina; Manso, Ana Cristina; Escoval, Ana; Salvado, Francisco; Nunes, Carla

    2016-08-22

    To analyze if the self-perception of oral health in the urban context is associated with sociodemographic factors that interfere in the life quality of oral health. Cross-sectional study with convenience sample of older individuals (65 years old or more) enrolled in the Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Norte (ACES Lisboa Norte - Health Centers Groupings North Lisbon). The self-perception of oral health and associated life quality was evaluated by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and the individuals were classified according to sociodemographic characteristics. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha (α). Later, we used binary logistic regression models to characterize the factors associated with the self-perception of oral health, considering the sociodemographic variables and the older adults' clinical conditions of oral health and establishing the crude and adjusted (to age) odds ratios and their 90% confidence intervals. A total of 369 older adults participated in this study, with an average age of 74.2 years (SD = 6.75); 62.9% were female. On average, the index was moderated, with tendency to be high: 32.9 (SD = 3.6; 12-36 interval). The Cronbach's alpha was high: 0.805. Age, marital status, and the last dental appointment were the factors significantly associated with self-perception of oral health. The study shows that these individuals have a moderate, with tendency to high, self-perception of oral health. The self-perception of oral health assessment allowed us to identify the main associated sociodemographic factors. This instrument can help guiding planning strategies and oral health promotion directed toward a better life quality for this population group. Analisar se a autopercepção de saúde bucal em contexto urbano está associada aos factores sociodemográficos que interferem na qualidade de vida da saúde bucal. Estudo transversal com amostra de conveniência de indivíduos idosos (65

  10. Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Results Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. Conclusions The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan.

  11. Depression and its association with self-esteem, family, peer and school factors in a population of 9586 adolescents in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huang-Chi; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chin-Hung; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the prevalence of depression and its association with self-esteem, family, peer and school factors in a large-scale representative Taiwanese adolescent population. A total of 12,210 adolescent students were recruited into the present study. Subjects with a score >28 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale were defined as having significant depression; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Adolescent Family and Social Life Questionnaire and Family C-APGAR Index were applied to assess subjects' self-esteem, family, peer and school factors. The association between depression and correlates were examined on t-test and chi(2) test. The significant factors were further included in logistic regression analysis. Among 9586 participants (response rate: 86.3%), the prevalence of depression was 12.3%. The risk factors associated with depression in univariate analysis included female gender, older age, residency in urban areas, lower self-esteem, disruptive parental marriage, low family income, family conflict, poorer family function, less satisfaction with peer relationships, less connectedness to school, and poor academic performance. After adjusting the effects of sex, age and location, only subjects with lower self-esteem, higher family conflict, poorer family function, lower rank and decreased satisfaction in their peer group, and less connectedness to school were prone to depression on logistic regression. The prevalence of depression is high in Taiwanese adolescents, and the multiple factors of family, peer, school and individuals are associated with adolescent depression. The factors identified in the present study may be helpful when designing and implementing preventive intervention programs.

  12. Neuropathic pain is not adequately treated in the older general population: Results from the KORA F4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Christa; Bongaerts, Brenda W C; Heier, Margit; Amann, Ute; Kowall, Bernd; Herder, Christian; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Ziegler, Dan

    2018-05-24

    We evaluated the pharmacological treatment of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) among older subjects from the general population. The study included subjects aged 61 to 82 years from the KORA F4 survey (2006-2008). DSPN was defined as the presence of bilaterally impaired foot-vibration perception and/or bilaterally impaired foot-pressure sensation. Pain intensity was assessed with the painDETECT questionnaire. From the included 1076 older persons, 172 (16%) persons reported pain in the lower extremities and DSPN was present in 150 (14%) subjects. Forty-eight people with pain in the lower extremities reported DSPN. Only 38% of the subjects with DSPN reporting an average pain level of ≥4 during the past 4 weeks received medical treatment, predominantly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs 20% and opioids 12%). The medication of choice for neuropathic pain, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids was relatively being underused. However, opioids and neuropathy preparations were prescribed preferably for subjects with painful DSPN. In the older general population, only a small proportion of subjects with painful DSPN receive analgesic pharmacotherapy. Although not recommended by guidelines for the treatment of neuropathic pain, NSAIDs were the most frequently used class of analgesic drugs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12) in an older Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lisa F; Vafaei, Afshin; Guerra, Ricardo; Freire, Aline; Phillips, Susan P

    2013-01-01

    Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution) for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women) were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women). Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22). A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12) previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66) loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51) loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  14. Sibling analysis of adolescent intelligence and chronic diseases in older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J; Silventoinen, Karri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-07-01

    We examined whether associations of adolescent intelligence with chronic diseases in adulthood are explained by socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, or common sources of variance in intelligence and chronic disease risk. A prospective cohort study (Wisconsin Longitudinal Study) of high school graduates and their siblings with intelligence assessed in adolescence and chronic diseases reported in adulthood (n = 10,168; mean age 53.9 and n = 9051; mean age 64.8 in two follow-ups). After adjustment for age and sex, greater intelligence was associated with lower risk of heart disease (odds ratio per 1 SD advantage in intelligence 0.93; 95% confidence interval 0.87-0.99), circulation problems (0.85; 0.79-0.92), stroke (0.80; 0.70-0.91), and diabetes (0.88; 0.81-0.95). Participants' risk of stroke and circulation problems also was predicted by their sibling's intelligence, suggesting potential common causes for intelligence and cerebrovascular diseases. Sibling analysis provided no support for shared family environment in explaining associations between intelligence and disease outcomes because between-families and within-siblings regression models were not different. Adjusting for common risk factors had little impact on these associations. In contrast, adjusting for adult socioeconomic status attenuated the associations by 25%-100% (66% on average). Multiple mechanisms may link intelligence with occurrence of chronic diseases of major public health importance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The association between paternal and adolescent depressive symptoms: evidence from two population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Neary, Martha; Polek, Ela; Flouri, Eirini; Lewis, Glyn

    2017-12-01

    Incidence of depression increases markedly around age 13 years, and nearly three-quarters of adults report that their mental health problems started in adolescence. Although maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression, evidence about the association between paternal and adolescent depression is inconclusive, and many studies have methodological limitations. We aimed to assess the association between paternal and adolescent depressive symptoms in two large population-based cohort studies. We used data for two-parent families from two representative prospective cohorts in Ireland (Growing up in Ireland [GUI]) and the UK (Millennium Cohort Study [MCS]). Parental depressive symptoms were measured with the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in the GUI cohort when children were 9 years old, and the Kessler six-item psychological distress scale in the MCS cohort when children were 7 years old. Adolescent depressive symptoms were measured with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at age 13 years in the GUI cohort and age 14 years in the MCS cohort. We analysed data using linear regression models, before and after adjustment for confounders, in both multiply imputed and complete case samples. There were 6070 families in GUI and 7768 in MCS. After all adjustments, a 1 SD (three-point) increase in paternal depressive symptoms was associated with an increase of 0·24 SMFQ points (95% CI 0·03-0·45; p=0·023) in the GUI cohort and 0·18 SMFQ points (0·01-0·36; p=0·041) in the MCS cohort. This association was independent of, and not different in magnitude to, the association between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms (Wald test p=0·435 in the GUI cohort and 0·470 in the MCS cohort). Our results show an association between depressive symptoms in fathers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent offspring. These findings support the involvement of fathers as well as mothers in early interventions to reduce the

  16. Influence of Perceived Parent and Peer Endorsement on Adolescent Smoking Intentions: Parents Have More Say, But Their Influence Wanes as Kids Get Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' perception of parents' and peers' smoking approval influences adolescent smoking intention, and how age affects this influence in a Swiss sample of adolescents. To know the influence of age can help to develop specific prevention programs tailored to the age groups needs. Method in a cross sectional survey, students aged between 11 and 14 from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) answered questions on smoking habits, parents' and peers' approval and intention to smoke. Results peers' and parents' approval significantly influence students' smoking intention, and students' age significantly moderates this relation: the effect of parents' approval decreases for older adolescents, while the effect of peers' approval increases with age. No difference is found between girls and boys, while non-Swiss are more likely to smoke than Swiss students. Conclusions as literature suggests, results evidence the role parents play during early adolescence. Prevention programs targeting parent-child communication in early adolescence for preventing children's tobacco consumption are strongly supported. PMID:24991921

  17. The influence of maternal vulnerability and parenting stress on chronic pain in adolescents in a general population sample: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, J.; Darlington, A.S.; Verhulst, F.C.; De Winter, A.F.; Ormel, J.; Hunfeld, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal

  18. The influence of maternal vulnerability and parenting stress on chronic pain in adolescents in a general population sample : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darlington, A-S. E.; Verhulst, F. C.; De Winter, A. F.; Ormel, J.; Passchier, J.; Hunfeld, J. A. M.

    Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal

  19. Behavioural and psychological symptoms in the older population without dementia - relationship with socio-demographics, health and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayne Carol

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural and psychological symptoms are associated with dementia, but are also present in a significant number of the older population without dementia. Here we explore the distribution of behavioural and psychological symptoms in the population without dementia, and their relationship with domains and severity of health and cognitive impairment. Methods The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study is a two-phase longitudinal study of ageing representative of the population aged 65 and over of England and Wales. A subsample of 1781 participants without a study diagnosis of dementia was included in this study. Information on symptoms including depression, apathy, anxiety, feelings of persecution, hallucination, agitated behaviour, elation, irritability, sleep problems, wandering, confabulation and misidentification, cognitive function, health related factors and socio-demographic information was extracted from interviews with participants and knowledgeable informants. Participants were classified according to the Mini-Mental State Examination and by criteria for subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The prevalence of behavioural and psychological symptoms and associations with cognitive function, health and socio-demographics was examined. Co-occurrence of symptoms was tested using factor analysis. Results Most symptoms were reported more frequently in those with more severe cognitive impairment. Subjective memory complaints were the strongest independent predictor of reported symptoms, and most were reported more often in those classified as having MCI than in those with cognitive impairments that did not meet the MCI criteria. The pattern of co-occurrence of symptoms is similar to that seen in dementia. Conclusions Our results highlight that behavioural and psychological symptoms are prevalent in the cognitively impaired older population, and partly explain the variation observed in previous

  20. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  1. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly S; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X; Rohr, Julia K; Houle, Brian C; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Wagner, Ryan G; Salomon, Joshua A; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F; Tollman, Stephen M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age-sex standardization. HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age-sex standardization. Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Oral health care behavior and frailty-related factors in a care-dependent older population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, D.J.M.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess, in older people with different levels of care-dependency 1) which frailty- and non-frailty related predisposing, enabling and need factors are associated with a) dental service use (DSU) frequency, b) changed DSU after the onset of care-dependency, c) brushing frequency, and

  3. Tracking an Elusive Population: Family Carers of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Romandy (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker-Parvex, Maurice; Breitenbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long-standing tradition of institutional placement in Switzerland, many older adults with intellectual disabilities continue to be supported by aging parents and siblings. For various reasons, these carers and the adults concerned have been overlooked up to now. To find out how many such families are providing housing and care of this…

  4. Physical and Leisure Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Canadians Who Use Wheelchairs: A Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L. Best

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical and leisure activities are proven health promotion modalities and have not been examined in older wheelchair users. Main Objectives. Examine physical and leisure activity in older wheelchair users and explore associations between wheelchair use and participation in physical and leisure activity, and wheelchair use, physical and leisure activity, and perceived health. Methods. 8301 Canadians ≥60 years of age were selected from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Sociodemographic, health-related, mobility-related, and physical and leisure activity variables were analysed using logistic regression to determine, the likelihood of participation in physical and leisure activity, and whether participation in physical and leisure activities mediates the relationship between wheelchair use and perceived health. Results. 8.3% and 41.3% older wheelchair users were physically and leisurely active. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for reduced participation in physical (OR=44.71 and leisure activity (OR=10.83. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for poor perceived health (OR=10.56 and physical and leisure activity negatively mediated the relationship between wheelchair user and perceived health. Conclusion. There is a need for the development of suitable physical and leisure activity interventions for older wheelchair users. Participation in such interventions may have associations with health benefits.

  5. Physical and leisure activity in older community-dwelling canadians who use wheelchairs: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Krista L; Miller, William C

    2011-04-13

    Background. Physical and leisure activities are proven health promotion modalities and have not been examined in older wheelchair users. Main Objectives. Examine physical and leisure activity in older wheelchair users and explore associations between wheelchair use and participation in physical and leisure activity, and wheelchair use, physical and leisure activity, and perceived health. Methods. 8301 Canadians ≥60 years of age were selected from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Sociodemographic, health-related, mobility-related, and physical and leisure activity variables were analysed using logistic regression to determine, the likelihood of participation in physical and leisure activity, and whether participation in physical and leisure activities mediates the relationship between wheelchair use and perceived health. Results. 8.3% and 41.3% older wheelchair users were physically and leisurely active. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for reduced participation in physical (OR = 44.71) and leisure activity (OR = 10.83). Wheelchair use was a risk factor for poor perceived health (OR = 10.56) and physical and leisure activity negatively mediated the relationship between wheelchair user and perceived health. Conclusion. There is a need for the development of suitable physical and leisure activity interventions for older wheelchair users. Participation in such interventions may have associations with health benefits.

  6. Self-management of older adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study of behavior and knowledge as prelude to transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Laurie N; Barendse, Renée M; Hait, Elizabeth; Burdick, Cynthia; Arnold, Janis

    2010-12-01

    Patients gradually assume responsibility for self-management. This study sought to determine whether adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have developed key skills of self-management prior to the age at which many transfer to adult care. Adolescents aged 16 to 18 years old in the Children's Hospital Boston IBD database (94 total) received a mailed survey assessing knowledge and confidence of their own health information and behaviors. Respondents (43%) could name medication and dose with confidence but had very poor knowledge of important side effects. Most patients deferred responsibility mostly or completely to parents for scheduling appointments (85%), requesting refills (75%), or contacting provider between visits (74%). Older adolescents with IBD have good recall of medications but not of side effects. Parents remain responsible for the majority of tasks related to clinic visits and the acquisition of medications.

  7. [Para-phenylenediamine allergic contact dermatitis due to henna tattoos in a child and adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Salvador, José María; Esteve Martínez, Altea; Subiabre Ferrer, Daniela; Victoria Martínez, Ana Mercedes; de la Cuadra Oyanguren, Jesús; Zaragoza Ninet, Violeta

    2017-03-01

    Henna tattoos are a very common practice in the adolescent population. Henna is very often admixed with para-phenylenediamine (PPDA) to improve the appearance of the tattoo. PPDA is a potent allergen, and is a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A study was conducted on the results of 726 consecutive children who had been patch tested in the University General Hospital Consortium of Valencia between 1980 and 2015. Almost half (49.7%; (361 cases) of the children had one or more positive patch test findings, with 4.7% (34) being allergic to PPDA. Mean age of patients allergic to PPDA was 12.4 years, and 44.2% were male. There were 2 cases (5.9%) of atopic dermatitis. Of the positive reactions, 73.5% were considered to be current clinically relevant. The sensitisation origin was a Henna tattoo in 50% of cases. PPDA sensitisation is relatively common in the child and adolescent population. The most frequent origin is the performing of Henna tattoos adulterated with PPDA. Adolescents are at the higher risk of developing ACD due to Henna tattoos. Henna tattooing should be strongly discouraged in children. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN AND LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTIONS IN INDIAN ADOLESCENT POPULATION

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    Riddhi Shroff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose - Anterior knee pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complain seen in Indian adolescent population with high incidence among those who are active in sports and recreation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the age of onset of anterior knee pain, to find its effect on sports participation and also to find the activities which are maximally affected due to anterior knee pain in Indian population. Method- A questionnaire based survey was conducted among 50 subjects using three outcome measures namely self made demographic questionnaire, anterior knee pain scale and lower extremity functional scale. Result- Maximally affected activities are running, jumping & squatting and maximally affected functions are squatting, running on uneven ground, making sharp turns while running and hopping with increase incidence of anterior knee pain among those who participate daily in sports. Conclusion- The study concluded, that in adolescent age group of 11-17 years, anterior knee pain is more prevalent in adolescent girls with the age of onset being around 13 years for girls & 14.5 years in boys and it also showed moderate positive correlation between anterior knee pain and lower extremity functions.

  9. Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, Andre; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Ikonen, Maria; Lindroos, Jarna; Luntamo, Terhi; Koskelainen, Merja; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans

    2010-07-01

    To our knowledge, no population study examining psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents exists. To study cross-sectional associations between cyberbullying and psychiatric and psychosomatic problems among adolescents. Population-based cross-sectional study. Finland. The sample consists of 2215 Finnish adolescents aged 13 to 16 years with complete information about cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Self-reports of cyberbullying and cybervictimization during the past 6 months. In the total sample, 4.8% were cybervictims only, 7.4% were cyberbullies only, and 5.4% were cyberbully-victims. Cybervictim-only status was associated with living in a family with other than 2 biological parents, perceived difficulties, emotional and peer problems, headache, recurrent abdominal pain, sleeping difficulties, and not feeling safe at school. Cyberbully-only status was associated with perceived difficulties, hyperactivity, conduct problems, low prosocial behavior, frequent smoking and drunkenness, headache, and not feeling safe at school. Cyberbully-victim status was associated with all of these risk factors. Among cybervictims, being cyberbullied by a same-sex or opposite-sex adult, by an unknown person, and by a group of people were associated with fear for safety, indicating possible trauma. Both cyberbullying and cybervictimization are associated with psychiatric and psychosomatic problems. The most troubled are those who are both cyberbullies and cybervictims. This indicates the need for new strategies for cyberbullying prevention and intervention.

  10. Antiretroviral therapy enrollment characteristics and outcomes among HIV-infected adolescents and young adults compared with older adults--seven African countries, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Andrew F; Agolory, Simon G; Shiraishi, Ray W; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mulenga, Modest; Hachizovu, Sebastian; Asadu, Emeka; Tuho, Moise Zanga; Ettiegne-Traore, Virginie; Mbofana, Francisco; Okello, Velephi; Azih, Charles; Denison, Julie A; Tsui, Sharon; Koole, Olivier; Kamiru, Harrison; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Alfredo, Charity; Jobarteh, Kebba; Odafe, Solomon; Onotu, Dennis; Ekra, Kunomboa A; Kouakou, Joseph S; Ehrenkranz, Peter; Bicego, George; Torpey, Kwasi; Mukadi, Ya Diul; van Praag, Eric; Menten, Joris; Mastro, Timothy; Dukes Hamilton, Carol; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Dokubo, E Kainne; Baughman, Andrew L; Spira, Thomas; Colebunders, Robert; Bangsberg, David; Marlink, Richard; Zee, Aaron; Kaplan, Jonathan; Ellerbrock, Tedd V

    2014-11-28

    Although scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2005 has contributed to declines of about 30% in the global annual number of human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related deaths and declines in global HIV incidence, estimated annual HIV-related deaths among adolescents have increased by about 50% and estimated adolescent HIV incidence has been relatively stable. In 2012, an estimated 2,500 (40%) of all 6,300 daily new HIV infections occurred among persons aged 15-24 years. Difficulty enrolling adolescents and young adults in ART and high rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) after ART initiation might be contributing to mortality and HIV incidence in this age group, but data are limited. To evaluate age-related ART retention challenges, data from retrospective cohort studies conducted in seven African countries among 16,421 patients, aged ≥15 years at enrollment, who initiated ART during 2004-2012 were analyzed. ART enrollment and outcome data were compared among three groups defined by age at enrollment: adolescents and young adults (aged 15-24 years), middle-aged adults (aged 25-49 years), and older adults (aged ≥50 years). Enrollees aged 15-24 years were predominantly female (81%-92%), commonly pregnant (3%-32% of females), unmarried (54%-73%), and, in four countries with employment data, unemployed (53%-86%). In comparison, older adults were more likely to be male (padults, adolescents and young adults had higher LTFU rates in all seven countries, reaching statistical significance in three countries in crude and multivariable analyses. Evidence-based interventions to reduce LTFU for adolescent and young adult ART enrollees could help reduce mortality and HIV incidence in this age group.

  11. Exercise-induced dyspnea is a problem among the general adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Norlander, K; Hedenström, H; Janson, C; Nordang, L; Nordvall, L; Emtner, M

    2014-06-01

    Respiratory symptoms during exercise are common and might limit adolescents' ability to take part in physical activity. To estimate the prevalence, determinants and consequences of exercise-induced dyspnea (EID) on daily life in a general population of 12-13 year old adolescents. A letter was sent to the parents of all 12-13 year old adolescents in the city of Uppsala (n = 3838). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire together with their child on EID, asthma and allergy, consequences for daily life (wheeze, day time- and nocturnal dyspnea) and physical activity. The response rate was 60% (n = 2309). Fourteen percent (n = 330) reported EID, i.e. had experienced an attack of shortness of breath that occurred after strenuous activity within the last 12 months. Female gender, ever-asthma and rhinitis were independently associated with an increased risk of EID. Ever-asthma was reported by 14.6% (n = 338), and 5.4% (n = 128) had both EID and ever-asthma. Sixty-one percent (n = 202) of the participants with EID did not have a diagnosis of asthma. In addition to rhinitis, participants with EID reported current wheeze and day-time as well as nocturnal dyspnea more often than the group without EID. No difference was found in the level of physical activity between participants with and without EID. Adolescents with undiagnosed exercise-induced dyspnea have respiratory symptoms and are affected in daily life but have the same level of physical activity as adolescents without exercise-induced respiratory symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipp M Filippopulos

    Full Text Available To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies.The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking.Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively.Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  13. Motivators, barriers, and beliefs regarding physical activity in an older adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Ellen; Kafchinski, Marcia; Vrazel, JoEllen; Sullivan, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in improving and maintaining one's health, especially as one ages. Although many older Americans are aware of the benefits of regular PA, the majority do not participate in regular PA that meets recommended guidelines. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the motivators, barriers, and beliefs regarding PA of independent-living older adults with easy access to fitness facilities. In this qualitative design, focus group interviews were used to explore the individual perceptions of physically active and inactive older adults regarding PA and exercise. Thirty-one older adults, over age 60 participated in focus group discussions regarding PA beliefs and behaviors. Groups were homogenous based on current PA behaviors. Demographic information was collected. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and deidentified. Two researchers independently coded for emergent themes. Interrater reliability was established (κ = 0.89). Peer review was used to further ensure trustworthiness and credibility. No significant differences were noted in age, body mass index, or educational levels between the physically active and inactive groups. Differences in perceptions were noted between the groups regarding the construct of PA, barriers to participation in regular PA, and the components of an ideal PA program. Physically inactive persons had much lower fitness expectations of a physically active older adult, more perceived barriers to regular PA, and required individual tailoring of a PA program if they were going to participate. In addition, inactive persons were intimidated by the fitness facilities and concerned about slowing others down in a group exercise setting. Both groups shared similar motivators to participate in PA, such as maintaining health and socialization; however, inactive persons also described PA as needing to be purposeful and fun. Physically inactive persons perceived themselves to be

  14. A GIS Approach to Identifying Socially and Medically Vulnerable Older Adult Populations in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Elizabeth; Stoler, Justin; Emrich, Christopher T; Tewary, Sweta; Pandya, Naushira

    2017-11-10

    We define, map, and analyze geodemographic patterns of socially and medically vulnerable older adults within the tri-county region of South Florida. We apply principal components analysis (PCA) to a set of previously identified indicators of social and medical vulnerability at the census tract level. We create and map age-stratified vulnerability scores using a geographic information system (GIS), and use spatial analysis techniques to identify patterns and interactions between social and medical vulnerability. Key factors contributing to social vulnerability in areas with higher numbers of older adults include age, large household size, and Hispanic ethnicity. Medical vulnerability in these same areas is driven by disease burden, access to emergency cardiac services, availability of nursing home and hospice beds, access to home health care, and available mental health services. Age-dependent areas of social vulnerability emerge in Broward County, whereas age-dependent areas of medical vulnerability emerge in Palm Beach County. Older-adult social and medical vulnerability interact differently throughout the study area. Spatial analysis of older adult social and medical vulnerability using PCA and GIS can help identify age-dependent pockets of vulnerability that are not easily identifiable in a populationwide analysis; improve our understanding of the dynamic spatial organization of health care, health care needs, access to care, and outcomes; and ultimately serve as a tool for health care planning. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Oral health matters for the nutritional status of older persons-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, Ulrika; Jansson, Henrik; Lannering, Christina; Johansson, Linda

    2018-03-01

    To explore the association between oral health and nutritional status in the context of daily care for older people. Oral problems often increase with age and affect a person's ability to chew and swallow. They might also influence the ability to maintain a satisfactory nutritional status. Oral health awareness is therefore of great importance in nursing care for older people. A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from the Swedish quality register, Senior Alert, were used, including structured assessments of both oral and nutritional status using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide-Jönköping and the Mini Nutritional Assessment. In total, 1,156 persons (mean age: 82.8 ± 7.9) had both oral and nutritional assessments registered by the nursing staff in daily care. Approximately 29% of participants had moderate oral health problems. Another 12% had severe problems. Over 60% of the persons were considered at risk of malnutrition or were malnourished. There was a weak correlation between poor nutritional status and poor oral health, and approximately one-third of the persons who were at risk or malnourished had simultaneous oral problems. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that when problems involving voice and swallowing were present, there was also a greater possibility of being assessed as at risk of malnourishment or being malnourished. There is a relationship between oral health problems and nutritional status, indicating the importance of evaluating oral health status in older persons with nutritional problems. Nursing staff involved in care for older people should be aware of the importance of including regular oral health check-ups in their work. There is also a need for nursing staff members and oral health professionals to exchange knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Analysis of blood parameters in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease for older population in Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabela, Z.; Ramzun, M. R.; Hana, M. M.; Zahirah, N. Z. N.; Ashikin, N. A. R. N. N.; Nursakinah, S.; Azhar, A. R.; Iskandar, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is known to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its complication is increasing among older people. Blood parameters including blood pressure (BP), glucose (BG), cholesterol (CHL) and uric acid (UA) are important aspects in maintaining a good condition of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study is to determine the reference values of blood parameters among older population as well as to assess the association of CVD risk factors with the factors of age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Blood samples were collected from 400 older respondents (≥50 years) in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. The findings showed that respondents aged ≥60 years had significantly higher levels of BP and UA, but lower CHL than 50-59 years respondents (p<0.05). The males had significantly higher BP and lower CHL than the females (p<0.05). The respondents with BMI of ≥25 kgm-2 had significantly higher BP and BG than the respondents with BMI of <25 kgm-2 (p<0.05). There were significant associations between BP-BG, BG-UA and CHL-UA. It can be concluded that the levels of blood parameters are affected by the factors of age, gender and BMI.

  17. Risk factors, incidence, consequences and prevention strategies for falls and fall-injury within older indigenous populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara; Sherrington, Cathie; Keay, Lisa; Tiedemann, Anne; Coombes, Julieann; Clemson, Lindy; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    To examine the risk factors, incidence, consequences and existing prevention strategies for falls and fall-related injury in older indigenous people. Relevant literature was identified through searching 14 electronic databases, a range of institutional websites, online search engines and government databases, using search terms pertaining to indigenous status, injury and ageing. Thirteen studies from Australia, the United States, Central America and Canada were identified. Few studies reported on fall rates but two reported that around 30% of indigenous people aged 45 years and above experienced at least one fall during the past year. The most common hospitalised fall injuries among older indigenous people were hip fracture and head injury. Risk factors significantly associated with falls within indigenous populations included poor mobility, a history of stroke, epilepsy, head injury, poor hearing and urinary incontinence. No formally evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention interventions were identified. Falls are a significant and growing health issue for older indigenous people worldwide that can lead to severe health consequences and even death. No fully-evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention programs were identified. Implications for Public Health: Research into fall patterns and fall-related injury among indigenous people is necessary for the development of appropriate fall prevention interventions. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Disability, social functioning and school inclusion among older children and adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukuni, Ruramayi; McHugh, Grace; Majonga, Edith; Kranzer, Katharina; Mujuru, Hilda; Munyati, Shungu; Nathoo, Kusum; Gregson, Celia L; Kuper, Hannah; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2018-02-01

    Increasing numbers of children with HIV are surviving to adolescence and encountering multiple clinical and social consequences of long-standing HIV infection. We aimed to investigate the association between HIV and disability, social functioning and school inclusion among 6- to 16-year-olds in Zimbabwe. HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy from a public-sector HIV clinic and HIV-uninfected children attending primary care clinics in the same catchment area were recruited. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, social functioning and disability data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between HIV status and disability and functioning. We recruited 202 HIV-infected and 285 HIV-uninfected children. There was no difference in age and gender between the two groups, but a higher proportion of HIV-infected children were orphaned. The prevalence of any disability was higher in HIV-infected than uninfected children (37.6% vs. 18.5%, P disability to those with HIV but no disabilities. Children with HIV commonly experience disabilities, and this is associated with social and educational exclusion. Rehabilitation and support services are needed to facilitate educational attainment and social participation in this group. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people in a rural Ugandan population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Mugisha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies conducted in high income countries have shown that anaemia is a common medical condition among older people, but such data are scarce in Africa. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people. METHODS: Participants were aged (≥ 50 years recruited from a general population cohort from January 2012 to January 2013. Blood samples were collected for assessing hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum vitamin B12, serum folate, C-reactive protein, malaria infection and stool samples for assessment of hookworm infection. HIV status was assessed using an algorithm for HIV rapid testing. Questionnaires were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and other risk factors for anaemia. RESULTS: In total, 1449 people participated (response rate 72.3%. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 20.3 % (95% CI 18.2-22.3%, and this was higher for males (24.1%, 95% CI=20.7-27.7% than females (17.5%, 95% CI=15.0-20.1%. In males, the prevalence of anaemia increased rapidly with age almost doubling between 50 and 65 years (p-trend<0.001. Unexplained anaemia was responsible for more than half of all cases (59.7%. Anaemia was independently associated with infections including malaria (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.78-6.82, HIV (OR 2.17, 1.32-3.57 heavy hookworm infection (OR 3.45, 1.73-6.91, low fruit consumption (OR 1.55, 1.05-2.29 and being unmarried (OR 1.37 , 95% CI 1.01-1.89. However, the odds of anaemia were lower among older people with elevated blood pressure (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.77. CONCLUSION: Anaemia control programmes in Uganda should target older people and should include interventions to treat and control hookworms and educational programs on diets that enhance iron absorption. Clinicians should consider screening older people with HIV or malaria for anaemia. Further studies should be done on unexplained anaemia and serum ferritin levels that predict

  20. Blunt splenic injuries in the adolescent trauma population: the role of angiography and embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayglothling, Julie A; Haan, James M; Scalea, Thomas M

    2011-07-01

    Splenic artery embolization (SAE) improves non-operative splenic salvage rates in adults, but its utility and safety in the pediatric population is less well defined. Because adolescent trauma patients are often triaged to adult trauma centers, we were interested in evaluating SAE in this particular population. We hypothesize that angiography and embolization is a safe and effective adjunct to non-operative management in the adolescent population. A retrospective review of all patients aged 13-17 years admitted to our Level I Trauma Center with blunt splenic injury from 1997-2005 was performed. We reviewed patient demographics, operative reports, admission, and follow-up abdominal computed tomography (ACT) results, angiographic reports, and patient outcomes. A total of 97 patients were reviewed. Eighteen patients underwent immediate surgery, and 79 of the remaining patients had planned non-operative management. Of those participating in non-operative management, 35/79 (44%) were initially observed and 44/79 (56%) underwent initial angiography, 23/44 having embolization. Patients in the embolization group had an overall high grade of injury (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma mean grade 3.3, SD 0.6). The overall splenic salvage rate was 96% (76/79) in the non-operative management group; 100% splenic salvage was seen in the observational group; 100% salvage was also seen in patients with negative angiography, and 87% salvage (20/23) in the splenic artery embolization group. Splenic artery embolization may be a valuable adjunct in adolescent blunt splenic injury, especially in higher grade injuries or with evidence of splenic vascular injury on ACT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A systematic review of the Ayurvedic medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, James D; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians utilise critical research to advance their knowledge when prescribing standard and alternative therapies for developmental disorders. Recent research has reported that the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri may improve cognitive outcomes in adult populations; however, few studies have investigated its benefits in younger cohorts. The aim of the current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trial outcomes and safety of Bacopa and its effects on the cognition and behaviour in children and adolescents. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google and CINAHL were searched up to August 2015 for trials investigating Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations. There were no restrictions in study design. Cognitive and behavioural outcomes were grouped into validated constructs and effect sizes were calculated for all significant data to allow for direct comparisons. Five studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The results demonstrated significant consistent improvements in the language behaviour cognitive domain and in a number of the memory sub-domains. Significant improvements were also seen in hyperactivity and attention-deficit domains. Overall outcome data demonstrated small to medium effect sizes (mean d=0.42). Safety and tolerability data was well reported for 80% of studies with only 2.3% of all participants reporting mild side-effects. This review highlights the safe use of Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations for improving elements of cognition as well as behaviour and attention-deficit domains. However, there is a significant need for replicated study designs and stringent statistical analysis to validate these outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurobehavioural correlates in older children and adolescents with obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Evan; Healey, Dione; Schaughency, Elizabeth; Dawes, Patrick; Galland, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and poorer neurobehavioural outcomes in school-age children is well established, but the relationship in obese children and adolescents, in whom OSA is more common, is not so well established. We aimed to investigate this relationship in 10-18-year-olds. Thirty-one participants with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 32.3 ± 4.9 enrolled. BMI-for-age cut-offs were used to define obesity. Participants underwent polysomnography and were classified into OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) > 2 per hour) and non-OSA (AHI ≤ 2) groups. Intelligence, memory and learning, academic achievement, behaviour and executive functioning were assessed using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT-II), Behavioural Assessment System for Children 2 and Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function, respectively. Forty-eight per cent (15/31) were classified as having OSA, and 52% (16/31) as non-OSA. The obese cohort performed below the average of normative data on several neurobehavioural measures. WIAT-II maths scores were significantly lower (P = 0.034) in the OSA group than in the non-OSA group (means 84.5 vs. 94.6, respectively), losing significance after adjustment for IQ, age and gender. Self-reported school problems were significantly worse in the OSA group before and after multivariate adjustment (P = 0.010, Cohen's d = 1.02). No other significant differences were found. Results suggest that OSA may increase risk for some poorer educational and behavioural outcomes. The findings are reasonably consistent with and add to the evidence base of the few studies that have explored this relationship. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic steatosis in a school population of overweight and obese adolescents.

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    Lira, Ana R F; Oliveira, Fernanda L C; Escrivão, Maria A M S; Colugnati, Fernando A B; Taddei, José A A C

    2010-01-01

    To assess hepatic steatosis by ultrasound method as a concomitant risk factor among overweight adolescents. A case-control study including 83 cases (47 overweight and 36 obese) and 89 controls (normal weight), frequency matched by gender, year of birth, pubertal stage (Tanner 4/5), and income. Cases and controls were selected from 1,420 students enrolled in a Vila Mariana public high school, in São Paulo, Brazil. Must et al. criteria were used for nutritional status classification. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed through hepatic ultrasonography performed and analyzed by one radiologist. Hepatic enzymatic activities (alanine and aspartate transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) and direct bilirubin were measured. Eight covariables were fitted into logistic regression models; criterion for inclusion of variables was the association with overweight in the bivariate analyses (p 24 U/L were 10.77 (2.45-47.22) and 4.18 (1.46-11.94), respectively. This is the first population-based study showing that hepatic steatosis is strongly associated with overweight/obesity among adolescents attending a Brazilian public school. The diagnostic tool used in this investigation is a non-invasive method that might be applied to monitor overweight and obese adolescents and to propose actions for preventing more severe hepatic diseases in adulthood.

  5. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José

    2017-04-06

    analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; ppobreza social y económica. Madres adolescentes y sus bebés tienen mayor probabilidad de efectos perinatales adversos. Enfermeros, trabajadores de salud pública, profesionales de salud y asistencia social y educadores deben colaborar para mejor dirigir estrategias a adolescentes con riesgo superior; para fines de ayudar a reducir las tasas de fertilidad y mejorar los resultados.

  6. Impact of actions of food and nutrition education program in a population of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garcia BALDASSO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate changes in food intake after adolescents attended a food and nutrition education program at a non-profit institution. Methods: Fifty-four adolescents aged 16 to 19 years, of low socioeconomic level, enrolled in an non-governmental organization in São Paulo, underwent a nutritional intervention of six months consisting of six meetings with dieticians, as well as strategic communication and relationship actions. Body weight, height, body mass index, questionnaire on knowledge on nutrition and feeding practices, 24-hour recall, and diet quality assessment using the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Dietary pattern improvement was defined as an increase of at least 5 points in Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide. Results: Understanding of food labels increased, and the dietary patterns on weekdays and weekends improved by 33 and 37%, respectively. The intake of legumes, milk, dairy products, fruits, and vegetables increased (adequacy components. However, intakes of nuts and whole grains were low, and intake of moderation components was high. Conclusion: The program improved the dietary patterns of adolescents, making it a viable and inexpensive method to prevent disease and improve health and quality of life. In addition, the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide has proven to be a good nutritional tool for assessing changes in food intake and for guiding future counseling and nutritional intervention actions for this population.

  7. PREVALENCE OF ASTHMA-LIKE SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSED ASTHMA IN THE POPULATION OF ADOLESCENTS

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    L.S. Namazova-Baranova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years, standardised epidemiological studies of asthma and asthma'like symptoms in the population of children have been conducted. ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire has been predominantly used as a tool to assess the prevalence of clinical implications and diagnosed conditions in children. However, this technique has limitations in terms of subject age (children aged 6–7 and 13–14. We have conducted a study on the prevalence of Asthma and allergy in adolescents (children aged 15–17 using the standardised GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network questionnaire in two Russian cities from central region and Siberia (Moscow and Tomsk. It has been found that the prevalence of asthma'like symptoms in adolescents was three times the level of clinically diagnosed asthma, which accounted for no more than 7%, with this indicator having no variance depending on the region of residence.Key words: asthma, GA2LEN, prevalence, epidemiology, adolescents.

  8. Prevalence and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among older adults with intellectual disability in comparison with the general population.

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    Axmon, Anna; Ahlström, Gerd; Höglund, Peter

    2017-11-23

    Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world. People with intellectual disability (ID) have been reported to have high rates of both these disorders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare prevalence ratios of diabetes mellitus and hypertension between older adults with ID and their age peers in the general population, and to describe and compare treatment patterns in these two groups. This is a Swedish register-based study, in which we established a cohort of people aged 55+ years and who had received support for those with ID in 2012 (n = 7936). We also established a same-sized referent cohort from the general population matched by sex and year of birth. Information on diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and prescription of drugs for these disorders, were collected from national registers for the period 2006-2012. The two cohorts were compared using generalized linear models (GLM). People with ID were 20% more likely than the general population to have a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 26% more likely to have prescription of drugs for diabetes mellitus. People in the general population were 81% more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension, and 9% more likely to have a prescription of drugs for hypertension. Among those with diabetes, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of insulin combination drugs and sulfonylureas, but lower occurrence of prescription of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4-inhibitors and exenatide/liraglutide. Among those with hypertension, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of diuretics, but lower occurrence of prescription of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II antagonists. Treatment regimens among people with ID tended to include older types of medication compared with what was prescribed in the general population. To ensure that this is medically appropriate and not due to

  9. Prevalence and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among older adults with intellectual disability in comparison with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Axmon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world. People with intellectual disability (ID have been reported to have high rates of both these disorders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare prevalence ratios of diabetes mellitus and hypertension between older adults with ID and their age peers in the general population, and to describe and compare treatment patterns in these two groups. Methods This is a Swedish register-based study, in which we established a cohort of people aged 55+ years and who had received support for those with ID in 2012 (n = 7936. We also established a same-sized referent cohort from the general population matched by sex and year of birth. Information on diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and prescription of drugs for these disorders, were collected from national registers for the period 2006–2012. The two cohorts were compared using generalized linear models (GLM. Results People with ID were 20% more likely than the general population to have a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 26% more likely to have prescription of drugs for diabetes mellitus. People in the general population were 81% more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension, and 9% more likely to have a prescription of drugs for hypertension. Among those with diabetes, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of insulin combination drugs and sulfonylureas, but lower occurrence of prescription of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP 4-inhibitors and exenatide/liraglutide. Among those with hypertension, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of diuretics, but lower occurrence of prescription of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II antagonists. Conclusions Treatment regimens among people with ID tended to include older types of medication compared with what was prescribed in the general

  10. Sexting Leads to "Risky" Sex? An Analysis of Sexting Behaviors in a Nonuniversity-Based, Older Adult Population.

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    Currin, Joseph M; Hubach, Randolph D; Sanders, Carissa; Hammer, Tonya R

    2017-10-03

    Since few researchers have analyzed sexting behaviors in nonuniversity-based adult samples, we sought to determine if sexting is associated with negative psychological correlates and risky sexual behaviors in this population. Analysis of individuals who indicated having vaginal or anal sex in the past 12 months and who identified as single (n = 377) showed that condomless sex is independent of sexting behaviors. Results for those in committed relationships (n = 374) and having had vaginal or anal sex in the past 12 months also demonstrated condomless sex and sexting behaviors were not related. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and relational health were predictive of sexting behaviors in adults in committed relationships. These findings demonstrate that while risky sexual behavior and negative psychological correlates are associated with sexting and younger populations, the same might not be true for a nonuniversity-based, older adult sample.

  11. Bereavement-related depression in the older adult population: a distinct disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Natalia; Preville, Michel; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria

    2013-12-01

    Bereavement is a phenomenon that shares many symptoms with depression, and that a great number of older adults experience following the loss of a close relative. The objectives of the present study were to (1) determine whether the symptoms of depression reported by bereaved individuals differ from those with non-bereavement minor/major depression (NBRD), (2) assess whether BRD is as persistent during a one year follow-up as compared to NBRD, and (3) identify factors and consequences associated with BRD. The data used for this study came from the Longitudinal Study ESA (Study Health of Elders), conducted between 2005 and 2008, using a representative sample (n=2811) of community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 and over. To test our hypothesis, an exploratory latent class analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used. BRD prevalence among older adults suffering from depression was 39%. BRD individuals report all symptoms of depression, but in lower probabilities, and BRD is as persistent as MDD over 12 months, suggesting that it does not differ from NBRD. The principal factors associated with BRD were widowhood and lower level of education. Individuals with BRD are less likely to consult medical services and be dispensed an antidepressant, compared to NBRD. We have to be cautious when generalizing our findings to individuals with major depression alone, since our results included both minor and major depressions in the same group. No evidence was found that BRD differed from non BRD in terms of depressive symptoms and persistence. The bereavement exclusion criterion in the DSM-IV should be reconsidered. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12 in an older Brazilian population.

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    Lisa F Carver

    Full Text Available Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population.The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil.The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women. Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22. A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12 previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66 loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51 loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent.Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  13. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and frailty: A population-based, cross-sectional study of Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Pérez, Roberto Carlos; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Cesari, Matteo; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2017-06-01

    Chronic diseases are frequent in older adults, particularly hypertension and diabetes. The relationship between frailty and these two conditions is still unclear. The aim of the present analyses was to explore the association between frailty with diabetes and hypertension in Mexican older adults. Analyses of the Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey, a cross-sectional survey, are presented. Data on diabetes and hypertension were acquired along with associated conditions (time since diagnosis, pharmacological treatment, among others). A 36-item frailty index was constructed and rescaled to z-values (individual scores minus population mean divided by one standard deviation). Multiple linear regression models were carried out, adjusted for age and sex. From 7164 older adults, 54.8% were women, and their mean age was 70.6 years with a mean frailty index score of 0.175. The prevalence of diabetes was of 22.2%, and 37.3% for hypertension. An independent association between diabetes, hypertension or both conditions (coefficients 0.28, 0.4 and 0.63, respectively, P diabetic complication was significantly associated with frailty with a coefficient of 0.55 (95% CI 0.45-0.65, P Diabetes and hypertension are associated with frailty. In addition, an incremental association was found when both conditions were present or with worse associated features (any complication, more time since diagnosis). Frailty should be of particular concern in populations with a high prevalence of these conditions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 925-930. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Periodontal inflammation in relation to cognitive function in an older adult danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamer, Angela R; Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation plays a significant role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Studies have shown that systemic, peripheral infections affect AD patients. Cognitive dysfunction is a consistent finding in AD and periodontal disease is a chronic, peripheral infection often resulting in tooth loss....... We hypothesized that older adults with periodontal inflammation (PI) or many missing teeth would show impaired cognition compared to subjects without PI or with few missing teeth, and among subjects with PI, those with many missing teeth would show impaired cognition compared to those with few...

  15. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender - a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Maria; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt; Ohman, Ann; Bergström, Erik; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2012-11-16

    Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16-18 year olds (n = 1027), boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71) and anxiety (r = 0.71). The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the school environment, in order to prevent negative strain and stress

  16. Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Katherine H M; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin possesses many properties which may prevent or ameliorate pathological processes underlying age-related cognitive decline, dementia or mood disorders. These benefits in preclinical studies have not been established in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the effects of curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population or to examine any acute behavioral effects in humans. Results highlight the need for further investigation of the potential psychological and cognitive benefits of curcumin in an older population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Disparity in Dental Attendance Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093

  18. Mobility impairment, social engagement, and life satisfaction among the older population in China: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linna; Loo, Becky P Y

    2017-05-01

    Revealing the relationship between mobility impairment and life satisfaction can help to propose effective interventions to secure mobility and life satisfaction. However, the relationship remains unclear and lacks quantitative evidence in China. This study therefore assesses the association of mobility impairment, social engagement, and life satisfaction among the older population in China. Based on the sample of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey database in 2013, a structural equation modeling is established. The sample size is 4245 with 55.9% with mobility impairment. The model shows that the length of suffering from disability is significantly related to mobility impairment (β = 0.058, p life satisfaction (β = -0.311, p life satisfaction (β = 0.211, p life satisfaction partly because they usually participate less in social activities. Different strategies are suggested to be adopted to improve the life satisfaction of the older population from the aspects of promoting mobility and social engagement, including improving the design of transport facilitates, providing assistive facilities for the seniors with severe mobility impairment, promoting the accessibility of community leisure and healthcare services, and constructing more community senior activity centers.

  19. Why Are Native Hawaiians Underrepresented in Hawai‘i's Older Adult Population? Exploring Social and Behavioral Factors of Longevity

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    Lana Sue Ka‘opua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Native Hawaiians comprise 24.3% of Hawai‘i's population, but only 12.6% of the state's older adults. Few published studies have compared health indicators across ethnicities for the state's older adult population or focused on disparities of Native Hawaiian elders. The current study examines data from two state surveillance programs, with attention to cause of death and social-behavioral factors relevant to elders. Findings reveal that Native Hawaiians have the largest years of productive life lost and the lowest life expectancy, when compared to the state's other major ethnic groups. Heart disease and cancer are leading causes of premature mortality. Native Hawaiian elders are more likely to report behavioral health risks such as smoking and obesity, live within/below 100–199% of the poverty level, and find cost a barrier to seeking care. Indicated is the need for affordable care across the lifespan and health services continuum. Future research might explain behavioral factors as influenced by social determinants, including historical trauma on Native Hawaiian longevity.

  20. Dietary intake, physical activities and nutritional status of adolescent girls in an urban population of Bangladesh

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    Ali Abbas Mohammad Kurshed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, under-nutrition is a common health problem, but for socio-cultural background, it is most predominant among the female population starting from their early life to motherhood. For the adolescent girls, there has been no such study though they will be the future mothers. Therefore, this study is designed to address the lifestyle and nutrition of the Bangladeshi female adolescents. The study was conducted purposively in Dhaka selecting randomly 15 of 95 City corporation wards of Dhaka City. All adolescent girls aged 10–18 years were considered eligible participants of an urban population of Bangladesh. The study included socio-demographic information, clinical examination, dietary intake, physical activities and body mass index (BMI = weight in kg / height in m. sq.. Overall, 352 adolescent girls volunteered. Socio-economically, 51% of them had monthly family income ³ 20,000 BDT and 11.4% had <10,000 BDT. Of the participants, 14.8% had BMI <18.5, 80.7% had 18.5 – 24.9, and 4.6% had ³ 25. BMI was found not to have significant association with physical activities. No clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency were observed. On clinical examination 75% of the participants were found healthy, 15.9% had anemia and 5.7% had diarrhea. Compared with the national dietary intake, the cereal intake was lower but protein containing foods like pulse and nuts, meat, egg, fish, milk and milk products were found very much close to the national intake. On the average, 95 % of calorie, 93.5 % of protein and 96.5 % of fat requirement were met. For micronutrient requirement, very low intake was observed with calcium (62 % and iron (63 %. In conclusion, the participants consumed rice daily with frequent consumption of vegetables. Although the study subjects were mostly from higher class of urban dwellers their dietary intake was found not healthy as evidenced by daily rice intake and very low intake of fruits, calcium and iron indicating lack of

  1. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aryati; Zulaily, Nurzaime; Abdul Manan, Nor Saidah; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa; Mohd Amin, Rahmah; Syed Abdullah, Engku Fadzli Hasan; Ahmed, Amran

    2017-01-05

    Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK) assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS). From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p < 0.001). There were also significant differences in BMI between boys and girls in all districts in Terengganu, except Kemaman and Kuala Terengganu, for all age groups (p < 0.001). Overall, the prevalence of thinness, normal, overweight and obesity were 8.4, 64.6, 15.0 and 12.0%, respectively. There were significant differences between BMI categories and genders in total participants, and within rural and urban school locations (p < 0.05). In all districts except Marang and Dungun, significant difference was also found between BMI categories and genders. The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in Terengganu were substantial. In this study, BMI category was associated with gender, age, school location and district. However, the actual effects of these factors on the

  2. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS. Results From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p < 0.001. There were also significant differences in BMI between boys and girls in all districts in Terengganu, except Kemaman and Kuala Terengganu, for all age groups (p < 0.001. Overall, the prevalence of thinness, normal, overweight and obesity were 8.4, 64.6, 15.0 and 12.0%, respectively. There were significant differences between BMI categories and genders in total participants, and within rural and urban school locations (p < 0.05. In all districts except Marang and Dungun, significant difference was also found between BMI categories and genders. Conclusion The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in Terengganu were substantial. In this study, BMI category was associated with gender, age, school location and

  3. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

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    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  4. The Intersectionality of Stigmas among Key Populations of Older Adults Affected by HIV: a Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Shen, Megan; Freeman, Ryann; Karpiak, Stephen; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Siegler, Eugenia L

    2018-03-26

    The present study examined the intersectionality of stigma across varying groups of older persons living with HIV (PWH). Four focus groups of older PWH (gay/bisexual men, heterosexual men, heterosexual and bisexualwomen, and Spanish-speaking) were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive thematic text analysis was used to identify qualitative themes. Five major themes emerged from the data: 1) disclosure of HIV status; 2) types of stigma experienced; 3) discrimination experienced; 4) other outcomes associated with experiencing stigma; and 5) influence of aging on social isolation experienced due to stigma. Findings indicate women did not suffer from the intersection of stigmas. Other groups suffered from the intersection of stigma due to HIV status and age (gay/bisexual males); HIV status and perceived stigma of sexual orientation or drug use (heterosexual males); and HIV status and culture/ethnicity (Spanish-speaking). Results indicate that many at-risk groups, including heterosexual men, homosexual men, and Spanish-speaking individuals, experience an intersection of stigma between aging and their sexuality, HIV status, or real or perceived drug use. Results highlight the need for HIV support, especially social support, to address intersection of stigmas for unique groups of individuals disproportionately affected by HIV.

  5. The economic impact of wasted prescription medication in an outpatient population of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T M

    2001-09-01

    The causes and costs of outpatient medication waste are not known. We report the results of a cross-sectional pilot survey of medication waste in a convenience sample of 73 New Hampshire retirement community residents aged 65 years or older. We used questionnaires and in-home pill counts to determine the annual occurrence of medication waste, defined as no intention to take leftover medicines prescribed within the past year. Mean individual annual cost of wasted medication was $30.47 (range = $0-$131.56). Waste represented 2.3% of total medication costs. The main causes for waste included: resolution of the condition for which the medication was prescribed (37.4%), patient-perceived ineffectiveness (22.6%), prescription change by the physician (15.8%), and patient-perceived adverse effects (14.4%). Individual costs were modest, but if $30 per person represents a low estimate of average annual waste, the US national cost for adults older than 65 years would top $1 billion per year.

  6. Application of PACE Principles for Population Health Management of Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanacci, Richard G; Reich, Shelley; Casiano, Alex

    2015-10-01

    To determine which practices would have the most impact on reducing hospital and emergency department admissions and nursing home placement among older adults with multiple comorbid conditions, a literature search and survey were conducted to identify and prioritize comprehensive care principles as practiced in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). PACE medical directors and members of the PACE interdisciplinary team (IDT) were surveyed to gain their insights on the most impactful practices, which were identified as: End-of-Life Management, Caregiver Support, Management of Red Flags, Medication Management, Participant and Caregiver Health Care System Literacy, and Care Coordination. In addition, this research evaluated measures that could be used to assess an organization's level of success with regard to each of the 6 PACE practices identified. The results reported in this article, found through a survey with PACE medical directors and IDT members concerning effective interventions, can be viewed as strategies to improve care for older adults, enabling them to maintain their independence in the community, avoid the expense of facility-based care, and enhance their quality of life.

  7. Do socio-economic factors, elderly population size and service development factors influence the development of specialist mental health programs for older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-12-01

    Despite the increase in the proportion of older people in the population, little is known about factors that facilitate the development of specialist mental health services for older people. The relationship between the presence of specialist mental health programs for older people and elderly population size, proportion of older people in the population, gross national domestic product (GDP), and various parameters of health funding, mental health funding and mental health service provision was examined in an ecological study using data from the World Health Organization. The presence of specialist mental health programs for older people was significantly associated with higher GDP, higher expenditure on healthcare and mental healthcare, the presence of a national mental health policy and a national mental health program, the availability of mental health care in primary care and the community, and higher density of psychiatric beds, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, psychologists and social workers. The challenge will be to persuade policy-makers in low and medium income countries, where the increase in the elderly population is most rapid, to develop specialist mental health services for older people.

  8. Body Mass Index Percentile Curves for 7 To 18 Year Old Children and Adolescents; are the Sample Populations from Tehran Nationally Representative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The children’s body composition status is an important indicator of health condition evaluated through their body mass index (BMI. We aimed to provide standardized percentile curves of BMI in a population of Iranian children and adolescents. We assessed the nationally representative of sample populations from Tehran. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 14,865 children aged 7-18 years was gathered. The Lambda-Mu-Sigma method was used to derive sex-specific smoothed centiles for age via the Lambda-Mu-Sigma Chart Maker Program. Finally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity with 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated. Results: BMI percentiles obtained from Tehran’s population, except for the 10th percentile, seem to be very slightly greater than the urban boys from all over Iran. BMI percentiles have an increasing trend by age that is S-shaped with a slight slope. Only in the 90th and 97th percentiles of BMI for girls, this rising trend seems to stop. Boys generally have higher BMIs than girls. The exceptions are younger ages of 90th and 97th percentiles and older ages of 3rd and 10th percentiles. A total number of 1,008 (13.20%; 95% CI: 12.46-13.98 boys and 603 (8.34%; 95% CI: 7.72-9.00 girls were categorized as overweight and obese. Obesity were observed in 402 (5.27%; 95% CI: 4.79-5.79 boys and 274 (3.76%; 95% CI: 3.35-4.22 girls. Conclusion: We construct BMI percentile curves by age and gender for 7 to 18 years Iranian children and adolescents. It can be concluded that sample populations from Tehran are nationally representative.

  9. Decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer among individuals 50 years or older following recommendations for population-based screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Sandler, Robert S.; Sanoff, Hanna K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Lund, Jennifer L.; Baron, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the U.S. is increasing among adults younger than age 50 years, but incidence has decreased among older populations after population-based screening was recommended in the late 1980s. Blacks have higher incidence than whites. These patterns have prompted suggestions to lower the screening age for average-risk populations or in blacks. At the same time, there has been controversy over whether reductions in CRC incidence can be attributed to screening. We examined age- and race-related differences in CRC incidence over a 40-year time period. Methods We determined the age-standardized incidence of CRC, from 1975 through 2013, using the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of cancer registries. We calculated incidence for 5-year age categories (20—24 years through 80—84 years and 85 years or older) for different time periods (1975—1979, 1980—1984, 1985—1989, 1990—1994, 1995—1999, 2000—2004, 2005—2009, and 2010—2013), tumor subsite (proximal colon, descending colon, and rectum), and stages at diagnosis (localized, regional, and distant). Analyses were stratified by race (white vs. black). Results There were 450,682 incident cases of CRC reported to the SEER registries over the entire period (1975—2013). Overall incidence was 75.5/100,000 white persons and 83.6/100,000 black persons. CRC incidence peaked during 1980 through 1989 and began to decrease in 1990. In whites and blacks, the decreases in incidence between the time periods of 1980—1984 and 2010—2013 were limited to the screening-age population (ages 50 years or older). Between these time periods, there was a 40% decrease in incidence among whites compared with a 26% decrease in incidence among blacks. Decreases in incidence were greater for cancers of the distal colon and rectum, and reductions in these cancers were greater among whites than blacks. CRC incidence among persons younger

  10. Home healthcare services in Taiwan: a nationwide study among the older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Hsiu-Yun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home healthcare services are important in aging societies worldwide. The present nationwide study of health insurance data examined the utilization and delivery patterns, including diagnostic indications, for home healthcare services used by seniors in Taiwan. Methods Patients ≥65 years of age who received home healthcare services during 2004 under the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Program were identified and reimbursement claims were analyzed. Age, gender, disease diagnoses, distribution of facilities providing home healthcare services, and patterns of professional visits, including physician and skilled nursing visits, were also explored. Results Among 2,104,978 beneficiaries ≥65 years of age, 19,483 (0.9% patients received 127,753 home healthcare visits during 2004 with a mean number of 6.0 ± 4.8 visits per person. The highest prevalence of home healthcare services was in the 75-84 year age group in both sexes. Females received more home healthcare services than males in all age groups. Cerebrovascular disease was the most frequent diagnosis in these patients (50.7%. More than half of home healthcare visits and around half of the professional home visits were provided by community home nursing care institutions. The majority of the home skilled nursing services were tube replacements, including nasogastric tubes, Foley catheter, tracheostomy, nephrostomy or cystostomy tubes (95%. Conclusions Nine out of 1,000 older patients in Taiwan received home healthcare services during 2004, which was much lower than the rate of disabled older people in Taiwan. Females used home healthcare services more frequently than males and the majority of skilled nursing services were tube replacements. The rate of tube replacement of home healthcare patients in Taiwan deserves to be paid more attention.

  11. Quality of life and physical activity in an older working-age population

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    Puciato D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Puciato,1 Zbigniew Borysiuk,1 Michał Rozpara2 1Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, Opole, 2Faculty of Physical Education, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland Objective: Physical activity can be an effective means of prevention and therapy of many psychosomatic disorders. It can also have a significant impact on the quality of life of older working-age people. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationships between quality of life and physical activity in older working-age people from Wroclaw, Poland.Materials and methods: The study group comprised 1,013 people, including 565 women and 448 men, aged 55–64 years (59.1±2.9 years. The study took form of a questionnaire survey. The participants assessed their physical activity and quality of life using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version (IPAQ-SF and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF, respectively.Results: The highest mean indices of general quality of life, perceived health status, and quality of life in the physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains were shown by respondents whose intensity of physical activity was the highest. Moreover, the odds of high assessment of overall quality of life increased with respondents’ higher levels of physical activity.Conclusion: Quality of life improvement programs should also involve increased physical activity components. Keywords: physical activity, IPAQ-SF, quality of life, WHOQOL-BREF, big city environment

  12. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O

    2016-01-01

    To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.

  13. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Vafaei

    Full Text Available To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression.International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967. Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions.Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16 were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93. In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated.Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus carriage in older populations in community residential care homes: Prevalence and molecular characterization of MRSA isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; Pérez-Eslava, Maria; Machuca, Jesús; Trujillo-Soto, Teresa; Arca-Suarez, Jorge; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2018-06-20

    The epidemiology of S. aureus depends on conditions in specific populations. Few studies of S. aureus colonization in the older population have been performed in Spain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization and its molecular epidemiological characteristics in an institutionalized population in community residential care homes in Cadiz, Spain. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in three residential care homes for older people. Axilla and nostril samples were tested. Identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were by MALDI-TOF and MicroScan panels. MRSA strains were subjected to SCCmec typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes was determined by PCR in all S. aureus strains. A total of 293 residents were included. Fifty-one residents (17.4%) were colonized with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 11 (3.8%) with MRSA. Resistance to at least two aminoglycosides was observed in 25.4% of MSSA and 90.9% and of MRSA isolates, and resistance to levofloxacin in 80.3% of MSSA and 100% of MRSA isolates. SCCmecIV was detected in all isolates and all except one (ST-125) were ST-8. None of the S. aureus isolates were positive for PVL. A low rate of S. aureus carriage was detected and the prevalence of MRSA was very low. ST8-MRSA-IVc was the dominant clone, and only one strain belonged to ST125-MRSA-IVc. We found MRSA transmission within the residential care homes and a very high rate of quinolone resistance in MSSA and MRSA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Plutchik´s Violence Risk Scale on adolescent sample of Spanish-speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Á; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bouso-Sáiz, José C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the validation and scaling of the Plutchik's Violence Risk Scale (EV) in adolescent Spanish-speaking population. For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico and Spain was obtained. The sample consisted of 1035 participants with a mean age of 16.2. There were 450 adolescents from forensic population (those who committed crime) and 585 adolescents from normal population (no crime committed). The internal consistency of the EV was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and with a value of 0.782. As for validity, the factorial structures found explain a large proportion of the variance (53.385%); the convergent validity was estimated by the correlation between the dimensions found, the EV and sociodemographic, criminological and personality variables. The developed scales are presented, for the first time in a cross-cultural sample, differentiating between gender and continent. Consequently, the obtained results suggest that the EV is a valid and reliable instrument within adolescent Spanish-speaking population. Furthermore, it is a quick scale, easy to apply, which is something valuable in forensic assessment.

  16. Comparison of Obstetric Outcome in Terms of the Risk of Low Birth Weight, Preterm Delivery, Cesarean Section Rate and Anemia in Primigravid Adolescents and Older Primigravida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the obstetric outcome in terms of risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, cesarean section rate and anemia in primigravid adolescents and older primigravida. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Three hundred primigravid women presenting to department of obstetrics and gynecology of Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, having live singleton pregnancy, including 150 adolescents (A/sup 2/ 19 years) and 150 adults (A/sup 3/ 20 years) were studied. Obstetric outcome in terms of gestational age at delivery, infant's birth weight, presence of anemia and cesarean section rate was compared between two groups. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Chi-square test was applied with 0.05 as level of significance. Results: The mean age of adolescent subjects was 17.3 + 1.5 years and of adults 25.6 + 3.4 years. Mean gestational age at delivery was similar in two groups (39.2 weeks and 39.4 weeks, p = 0.37). Adolescents were more likely to have a preterm delivery (11.2% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.04) and low birth weight infants (19.3% vs. 8.2%, p = 0.005) than adults. Adolescents were more likely to be anemic (46% vs. 32%, p = 0.01) than adults. However, cesarean section rate was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusion: This study showed that primiparous adolescents have significantly higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery, low birth weight infants and anemia as compared to adult primiparas. (author)

  17. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellar, Rachael C; Dlamini, Sarah; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2015-01-01

    At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5-7 years earlier than their male peers. This age-sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim

  18. Sexual health and function in later life: a population-based study of 606 older adults with a partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Vicki; Depp, Colin A; Ceglowski, Jennifer; Thompson, Wesley K; Rock, David; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-03-01

    Sexual health and function is an important yet understudied aspect of overall health and well-being in older adults. There are limited data on the relative strength of associations between various aspects of sexual health with the physical, emotional, and cognitive function in older adults. Additionally, there is little information on how these associations differ by age and sex. In this Successful Aging Evaluation (SAGE) study, 606 community-dwelling adults in San Diego County, aged 50-99 years and who had a partner, were included in the analysis. Evaluations included a phone-based cognitive screening followed by a comprehensive mail-in survey including rating scales of sexual health, depression, anxiety, and physical function. The mean age of the sample was 75.2 years. Over 80% of respondents had engaged in sexual activity in the past year, over 70% engaged in sexual activity weekly or more than once a week, and over 60% were somewhat or very satisfied with their sex lives. No sex differences were evident on dimensions of sexual health except for a higher rate of rejection of sexual overtures by women. Depressive symptoms were negatively associated with all assessed aspects of sexual health, even after adjusting for age, physical functioning, anxiety, cognitive ability, or perceived stress in both men and women. In this population-based study older men and women who had a partner reported frequent engagement in and satisfaction with sexual activity. Depressive symptoms were broadly associated with worse sexual health, more so than physical function, anxiety or stress, or age itself. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Trends in disability of instrumental activities of daily living among older Chinese adults, 1997-2006: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Möller, Jette; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2017-08-28

    Data on trends for disability in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) are sparse in older Chinese adults. To assess trends in prevalence and incidence of IADL disability among older Chinese adults and to explore contributing factors. Population based study. 15 provinces and municipalities in China. Participants (age ≥60) were from four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, conducted in 1997 (n=1533), 2000 (n=1581), 2004 (n=2028) and 2006 (n=2256), and from two cohorts constructed within the national survey: cohort 1997-2004 (n=712) and cohort 2000-2006 (n=823). IADL disability was defined as inability to perform one or more of the following: shopping, cooking, using transportation, financing and telephoning. Data were analysed with logistic regression and generalised estimating equation models. The prevalence of IADL disability significantly decreased from 1997 to 2006 in the total sample and in all of the subgroups by age, sex, living region and IADL items (all p trend 0.10). The recovery rate from IADL disability significantly increased over time in those aged 60-69 years (p=0.03). Living in a rural area or access to local clinics for healthcare was less disabling over time (p trend <0.02). The prevalence of IADL disability decreased among older Chinese adults during 1997-2006, whereas the incidence remained stable. The declining prevalence of IADL disability might be partly due to the decreased duration of IADL disability, and to improvements in living conditions and healthcare facilities over time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. The Partners in Health scale for older adults: design and examination of its psychometric properties in a Dutch population of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Lahr, Maarten M H; Uittenbroek, Ronald J; Wynia, Klaske

    2017-08-01

    Self-management is an important asset in helping older adults remain independent and in control for as long as possible. There is no reliable and valid measurement instrument to evaluate self-management behaviour of older adults. This study aims to design a measurement instrument, that is the Partners in Health scale for older adults (PIH-OA), to assess self-management knowledge and behaviour of community-living older adults and to examine its psychometric properties in a Dutch context. The original PIH scale was translated into Dutch and adapted to the context of community-living older adults, resulting in the PIH-OA. Data for 1127 participants (mean age 81.7, SD=4.5) from the Embrace study were used to assess the psychometric properties. Data fitted a three-factor model, covering the constructs Knowledge, Management and Coping, with good internal consistencies (Cronbach's alphas ranging from .77 to .84). Known groups validity was confirmed: no differences were found between gender, age and marital status groups, and differences were found between the education level and health status groups. Discriminant validity was confirmed by weak correlations between PIH-OA scales and scales evaluating "Perceived integrated care" and "Activities of daily living (ADL)" (rknowledge and behaviour of older adults. This could help professionals provide tailored support to improve the well-being and independence of older adults. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Childhood and adolescent predictors of leisure time physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Kim A; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terry; McKercher, Charlotte; Venn, Alison J

    2011-06-01

    Few studies have investigated factors that influence physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study explores the associations of sociodemographic, behavioral, sociocultural, attitudinal and physical factors measured in childhood and adolescence with physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Childhood and adolescent data (at ages 7-15 years) were collected as part of the 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey and subdivided into sociodemographics (socioeconomic status, parental education), behavioral (smoking, alcohol, sports diversity, outside school sports), sociocultural (active father, active mother, any older siblings, any younger siblings, language spoken at home), attitudinal (sports/recreational competency, self-rated health, enjoyment physical education/physical activity, not enjoying school sports) and physical (BMI, time taken to run 1.6 km, long jump) factors. Physical activity between the ages 15 and 29 years was reported retrospectively using the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire at follow-up in 2004-2006 by 2,048 participants in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH). Australia's physical activity recommendations for children and adults were used to categorize participants as persistently active, variably active or persistently inactive during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. For females, perceived sports competency in childhood and adolescence was significantly associated with being persistently active (RR=1.88, 95% CI=1.39, 2.55). Smoking (RR=0.31 CI=0.12, 0.82) and having younger siblings (RR=0.69 CI=0.52, 0.93) were inversely associated with being persistently active after taking physical and attitudinal factors into account. For males, playing sport outside school (RR=1.47 CI=1.05, 2.08), having active fathers (RR=1.25 CI=1.01, 1.54) and not enjoying school sport (RR=4.07 CI=2.31, 7.17) were associated with being persistently

  2. Parent-adolescent interaction and risk of adolescent internet addiction: a population-based study in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Shen, Li-Xiao; Yan, Chong-Huai; Hu, Howard; Yang, Fang; Wang, Lu; Kotha, Sudha Rani; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Zhang, Li-Na; Liao, Xiang-Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Jin-Song; Shen, Xiao-Ming

    2014-04-15

    Family-based intervention is essential for adolescents with behavioral problems. However, limited data are available on the relationship between family-based factors and adolescent internet addiction (AIA). We aimed to examine this relationship using a representative sample of Shanghai adolescents. In October 2007, a total of 5122 adolescents were investigated from 16 high schools via stratified-random sampling in Shanghai. Self-reported and anonymous questionnaires were used to assess parent-adolescent interaction and family environments. AIA was assessed by DRM-52 Scale, developed from Young's Internet-addiction Scale, using seven subscales to evaluate psychological symptoms of AIA. Adjusting for adolescents' ages, genders, socio-economic status, school performances and levels of the consumption expenditure, strong parental disapproval of internet-use was associated with AIA (vs. parental approval, OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.24-3.91). Worse mother-adolescent relationships were more significantly associated with AIA (OR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.22-6.48) than worse father-adolescent relationships (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.10-2.80). Marital status of "married-but-separated" and family structure of "left-behind adolescents" were associated with symptoms of some subscales. When having high monthly allowance, resident students tended to develop AIA but commuter students did not. Family social-economic status was not associated with the development of AIA. The quality of parent-adolescent relationship/communication was closely associated with the development of AIA, and maternal factors were more significantly associated with development of AIA than paternal factors. Family social-economic status moderated adolescent internet-use levels but not the development of AIA.

  3. Echocardiographic reference ranges in older children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majonga, Edith D; Rehman, Andrea M; McHugh, Grace; Mujuru, Hilda A; Nathoo, Kusum; Patel, Mohammad S; Munyati, Shungu; Odland, Jon O; Kranzer, Katharina; Kaski, Juan P; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2017-12-01

    Echocardiographic reference ranges are important to identify abnormalities of cardiac dimensions. Reference ranges for children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been established. The aim of this study was to establish echocardiographic z-score references for Black children in sub-Saharan Africa. 282 healthy subjects aged 6-16years (143 [51%] males) with no known history of cardiac disease were enrolled in the study in Harare, Zimbabwe between 2014 and 2016. Standard M-mode echocardiography was performed and nine cardiac chamber dimensions were obtained. Two non-linear statistical models (gamma weighted model and cubic polynomial model) were tested on the data and the best fitting model was used to calculate z-scores of these cardiac chamber measures. The reference ranges are presented on scatter plots against BSA. Normative data for the following cardiac measures were obtained and z-scores calculated: right ventricular diameter at end diastole (RVEDD); left ventricular diameter at end diastole (LVEDD) and systole (LVESD); interventricular septal wall thickness at end diastole (IVSd) and systole (IVSs); left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastole (LVPWd) and systole (LVPWs); left atrium diameter at end systole (LA) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Girls had higher values for BMI and heart rate than boys (p=0.048 and p=0.001, respectively). Mean interventricular septal and left ventricular posterior walls thickness was higher than published normal values in predominantly Caucasian populations. These are the first echocardiographic reference ranges for children from sub Saharan Africa and will allow accurate assessment of cardiac dimensions in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese adults living in a rural area: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; Liang, Y; Shi, J; Cai, C; Jiang, H; Song, A; Qiu, C

    2016-01-01

    The possible association between carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment in the Chinese population has been rarely investigated. The association between the severity of carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese people living in a rural area was assessed. This cross-sectional study included 1375 participants (age ≥60 years) from the Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong. In 2010-2011, data were collected through interviews and clinical examinations. Carotid stenosis was assessed using ultrasonography. Cognitive impairment was defined according to the education-specific cutoff scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic models. The overall prevalence was 7.0% for moderate carotid stenosis, 2.0% for severe stenosis and 6.0% for cognitive impairment. The multi-adjusted odds ratio of cognitive impairment was 1.43 (95% confidence interval 0.63-3.22) for moderate carotid stenosis and 3.75 (1.24-11.40) for severe carotid stenosis (P(trend) = 0.023). Similar results were obtained in people without a history of cerebrovascular disease. Severe carotid stenosis, even asymptomatic, is associated with cognitive impairment independent of atherosclerotic risk factors and disorders amongst older Chinese people. © 2015 EAN.

  5. Social support and mental health status of older people: a population-based study in Iran-Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajvar, Maryam; Grundy, Emily; Fletcher, Astrid

    2018-03-01

    To investigate direct and stress-buffering associations between social support from family and the mental health of older people in Iran, a country which has recently undergone an exceptionally fast fertility transition and is consequently experiencing rapid population ageing. A cross-sectional stratified random survey of 800 people aged 60+ years resident in Tehran was conducted. In total, 644 people responded. The Social Provisions Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used to measure perceived social support and mental health, respectively. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to examine the hypotheses. The findings supported the hypothesis of a direct association between perceived and received social support and mental health. However, we did not find strong evidence to suggest that social support buffered the effects of stress arising from limitations of physical functioning. Lack of help doing paperwork was associated with worse mental health for women but not men. Source of support did not seem to be important. Our results indicated that in Tehran, as in Western settings, social support is important for the mental well-being of older people. Recommendations for policy and further research priorities based on the study findings were provided.

  6. White-matter microstructure and hearing acuity in older adults: a population-based cross-sectional DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigters, Stephanie C; Cremers, Lotte G M; Ikram, M Arfan; van der Schroeff, Marc P; de Groot, Marius; Roshchupkin, Gennady V; Niessen, Wiro J N; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Goedegebure, André; Vernooij, Meike W

    2018-01-01

    To study the relation between the microstructure of white matter in the brain and hearing function in older adults we carried out a population-based, cross-sectional study. In 2562 participants of the Rotterdam Study, we conducted diffusion tensor imaging to determine the microstructure of the white-matter tracts. We performed pure-tone audiogram and digit-in-noise tests to quantify hearing acuity. Poorer white-matter microstructure, especially in the association tracts, was related to poorer hearing acuity. After differentiating the separate white-matter tracts in the left and right hemisphere, poorer white-matter microstructure in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus and the right uncinate fasciculus remained significantly associated with worse hearing. These associations did not significantly differ between middle-aged (51-69 years old) and older (70-100 years old) participants. Progressing age was thus not found to be an effect modifier. In a voxel-based analysis no voxels in the white matter were significantly associated with hearing impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular risk profile and frailty in a population-based study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, S E; Arianayagam, D S; Whincup, P H; Lennon, L T; Cryer, J; Papacosta, A O; Iliffe, S; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-04-01

    Frailty in older age is known to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, the extent to which frailty is associated with the CVD risk profile has been little studied. Our aim was to examine the associations of a range of cardiovascular risk factors with frailty and to assess whether these are independent of established CVD. Cross-sectional study of a socially representative sample of 1622 surviving men aged 71-92 examined in 2010-2012 across 24 British towns, from a prospective study initiated in 1978-1980. Frailty was defined using the Fried phenotype, including weight loss, grip strength, exhaustion, slowness and low physical activity. Among 1622 men, 303 (19%) were frail and 876 (54%) were pre-frail. Compared with non-frail, those with frailty had a higher odds of obesity (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.99), high waist circumference (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.67 to 3.17), low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.47 to 3.54) and hypertension (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.54). Prevalence of these factors was also higher in those with frailty (prevalence in frail vs non-frail groups was 46% vs 31% for high waist circumference, 20% vs 11% for low HDL and 78% vs 65% for hypertension). Frail individuals had a worse cardiovascular risk profile with an increased risk of high heart rate, poor lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)), raised white cell count (WCC), poor renal function (low estimated glomerular filtration rate), low alanine transaminase and low serum sodium. Some risk factors (HDL-C, hypertension, WCC, FEV1, renal function and albumin) were also associated with being pre-frail. These associations remained when men with prevalent CVD were excluded. Frailty was associated with increased risk of a range of cardiovascular factors (including obesity, HDL-C, hypertension, heart rate, lung function, renal function) in older people; these associations were independent of established CVD. Published by the BMJ

  8. Physical Activity, Adiposity, and Diabetes Risk in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Li; Corpeleijn, Eva; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Thomas, G. Neil; Schooling, C. Mary; Zhang, Weisen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Lam, Tai Hing

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE- Physical activity may modify the association of adiposity with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the independent and joint association of adiposity and physical activity with fasting plasma glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with geographical latitude and solar radiation in the older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Sebastián; Benavente, David; Alvo, Miriam; de Pablo, Paola; Ferro, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency are common in the older and are associated with several conditions including anaemia, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and cancer. Evidence from in vitro studies suggests that solar radiation can degrade both vitamins in the skin. Chile is the longest country in the world running perfectly North-South making it an ideal place to study potential associations of latitude and solar radiation on vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. The objective was to examine the association between vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies and latitude. Plasma samples were collected from Chileans aged 65+ years (n=1013) living across the whole country and assayed for vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations as part of the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010, which is a national representative sample study. Overall, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 11.3%, with the prevalence in the North of the country being significantly greater than in the Central and South zones (19.1%,10.5%, and 5.7%, respectively; Psolar radiation (OR 1.203 [95% confidence intervals 1.119-1.294], Psolar radiation. Although degradation by solar radiation might explain this observation, further work is required to establish the potential mechanisms. In countries that routinely fortify food with folic acid, efforts to identify vitamin B12 deficiency might be more cost-efficiently targeted in areas closest to the Equator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optic Neuritis in the Older Chinese Population: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to describe the clinical manifestations and outcomes in a cohort of older Chinese patients. Method. A retrospective study of patients aged ≥ 45 years who had a first episode of optic neuritis (ON between May 2008 and November 2012. Clinical features at onset and last follow-up were analyzed within subgroups (age 45–65 years and age ≥ 65 years. Results. 76 patients (99 eyes were included, of which 58% were females. The mean age at presentation was 55.53 ± 8.29 years (range: 45–83 years. Vision loss was severe at presentation, with initial best corrected vision activity (BCVA < 20/200 in 93% and final BCVA < 20/200 in 53% of patients at 5-year follow-up. Final BCVA significantly correlated with the initial BCVA and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer. At last follow-up, 14.5% were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD, 1.3% were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS, 5.2% with chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, 1.3% with infectious ON, and 19.7% with autoimmune ON. None of the elderly group (≥65 years developed NMOSD or MS. Conclusion. Chinese patients in the age group ≥ 65 years with ON are less likely to develop NMOSD or MS. Notwithstanding, they had more severe visual loss at onset and poor recovery.

  11. Characterizing executive functioning in older special populations: from cognitively elite to cognitively impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Strauss, Esther

    2009-11-01

    The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LISREL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models ("Inhibition": Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; "Shifting": Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D'Elia et al., 1996]; and "Updating": Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability.

  12. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic patterns of chronic non-communicable disease among the older adult population in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Minicuci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ghana, the older adult population is projected to increase from 5.3% of the total population in 2015 to 8.9% by 2050. National and local governments will need information about non-communicable diseases (NCDs in this population in order to allocate health system resources and respond to the health needs of older adults. Design: The 2007/08 Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 in Ghana used face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus years. Individual respondents were asked about their overall health, diagnosis of 10 chronic non-communicable conditions, and common health risk factors. A number of anthropometric and health measurements were also taken in all respondents, including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure (BP. Results: This paper includes 4,724 adults aged 50-plus years. The highest prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was for hypertension [14.2% (95% CI 12.8–15.6] and osteoarthritis [13.8%, (95% CI 11.7–15.9]. The figure for hypertension reached 51.1% (95% CI 48.9–53.4 when based on BP measurement. The prevalence of current smokers was 8.1% (95% CI 7.0–9.2, while 2.0 (95% CI 1.5–2.5 were infrequent/frequent heavy drinkers, 67.9% (95% CI 65.2–70.5 consume insufficient fruits and vegetables, and 25.7% (95% CI 23.1–28.3 had a low level of physical activity. Almost 10% (95% CI 8.3–11.1 of adults were obese and 77.6% (95% CI 76.0–79.2 had a high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR. Risks from tobacco and alcohol consumption continued into older age, while insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity and obesity increased with increasing age. The patterns of risk factors varied by income quintile, with higher prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in wealthier respondents, and higher prevalence of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and smoking in lower-income respondents. The multivariate

  13. Living and dying to be counted: What we know about the epidemiology of the global adolescent HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slogrove, Amy L; Mahy, Mary; Armstrong, Alice; Davies, Mary-Ann

    2017-05-16

    With increasing survival of vertically HIV-infected children and ongoing new horizontal HIV infections, the population of adolescents (age 10-19 years) living with HIV is increasing. This review aims to describe the epidemiology of the adolescent HIV epidemic and the ability of national monitoring systems to measure outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents through the adolescent transition to adulthood. Differences in global trends between younger (age 10-14 years) and older (age 15-19 years) adolescents in key epidemic indicators are interrogated using 2016 UNAIDS estimates. National population-based survey data in the 15 highest adolescent HIV burden countries are evaluated and examples of national case-based surveillance systems described. Finally, we consider the potential impact of adolescent-specific recommendations in the 2016 WHO Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection. UNAIDS estimates indicate the population of adolescents living with HIV is increasing, new HIV infections in older adolescents are declining, and while AIDS-related deaths are beginning to decline in younger adolescents, they are still increasing in older adolescents. National population-based surveys provide valuable estimates of HIV prevalence in older adolescents and recent surveys include data on younger adolescents. Only a few countries have nationwide electronic case-based HIV surveillance, with the ability to provide population-level data on key HIV outcomes in the diagnosed population living with HIV. However, in the 15 highest adolescent HIV burden countries, there are no systems tracking adolescent transition to adulthood or healthcare transition. The strength of the 2016 WHO adolescent-specific recommendations on antiretroviral therapy and provision of HIV services to adolescents was hampered by the lack of evidence specific to this age group. Progress is being made in national surveillance and global monitoring systems

  14. Sexual activity in Brazilian women aged 50 years or older within the framework of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Santos Machado, Vanessa S; da Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Souza, Maria Helena; Osis, Maria José; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of sexual activity, factors associated with being sexually active, and sexual self-perception in women 50 years or older living in a Brazilian city. This population-based study applied a questionnaire to a random sample of 622 Brazilian women 50 years or older, representative of a population of 131,800 women, to obtain data on sexual activity and women's perception of their sexual life as part of a broader study that dealt with women's health. Associations between sexual activity, women's perception of their sexual life, and demographic, behavioral, and medical characteristics were determined. Overall, 36.7% of the participants reported being sexually active. Of these, 53.5% classified their sexual life as very good or good. Multiple regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with the absence of sexual activity were not having a partner (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.16; 95% CI, 0.12-0.23; P aging (PR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.94-0.96; P sexually active was associated with the practice of physical activity (PR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.41; P = 0.032). A woman's classification of her sexual life as very poor, poor, or fair was associated with current or past use of natural remedies to treat menopausal symptoms (PR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.81; P = 0.020). The main factors associated with the absence of sexual activity are not having a sexual partner, aging, and smoking, whereas weekly physical activity is associated with being sexually active. A poorer classification of a woman's sexual life is associated with her having used natural remedies to treat menopausal symptoms.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Moraes Suzana Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults, with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35, perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10, recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62 and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29. The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727 (p Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our

  16. Prospective Analysis of the Influence of Sport and Educational Factors on the Prevalence and Initiation of Smoking in Older Adolescents from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Zenic

    2017-04-01

    as a significant protective factor against initiating smoking in older adolescents. Results should be used in development of an anti-smoking preventive campaign in older adolescents.

  17. Prolonged QTc interval and risk of sudden cardiac death in a population of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, Sabine M J M; Kors, Jan A; De Bruin, Marie L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in the general population. BACKGROUND: In developed countries, sudden cardiac death is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Prolongation...... of the QTc interval has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias, but in most population-based studies no consistent association was found between QTc prolongation and total or cardiovascular mortality. Only very few of these studies specifically addressed sudden cardiac death. METHODS: This study......). The association between a prolonged QTc interval and sudden cardiac death was estimated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: During an average follow-up period of 6.7 years (standard deviation, 2.3 years) 125 patients died of sudden cardiac death. An abnormally prolonged QTc interval (>450 ms in men...

  18. Cognition, imagery and coping among adolescents with social anxiety and phobia: testing the Clark and Wells model in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Tuomisto, Martti T; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2014-01-01

    The Clark and Wells' cognitive model of social phobia suggests that self-focused attention, negative observer-perspective images of oneself and safety behaviours maintain anxiety in subjects with SP. Empirical research among adults supports the model, but limited evidence for it has been obtained in other age groups or in the general population. We examined automatic thoughts, imagery, safety behaviours and general coping of adolescents with social anxiety and phobia. These were elicited by a thought listing procedure in a recalled, distressing social situation. The target variables were compared between adolescents with high versus normal self-reported social anxiety (HSA/NSA) and between adolescents with clinical/subclinical SP (SP/SSP) versus no diagnosis. Adolescents with HSA reported overall negative thoughts, negative observer-perspective images and safety behaviours more frequently than adolescents with NSA. The SP/SSP group displayed the same difference, and clearer, relative to the no diagnosis group, but additionally reported negative thoughts focused more often on self. Minor differences in coping were found between the groups. The study suggests that adolescents with SP already display the negative self-focused cognitions, observer-perspective imagery and behavioural pattern found among adults with SP. Social anxiety associates with observer-perspective imagery and safety behaviours in adolescence. Adolescents with clinical social phobia report frequent negative self-focused thoughts. However, such negative cognitions focused on self do not associate to self-reported social anxiety. The cognitive model of social phobia (Clark & Wells, 1995) is applicable to adolescents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Leisure activities, education, and cognitive impairment in Chinese older adults: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyi; Qiu, Chengxuan; Zeng, Yi; Li, Juan

    2017-05-01

    We examine the association between leisure-time activities and the risk of developing cognitive impairment among Chinese older people, and further investigate whether the association varies by educational level. This follow-up study included 6,586 participants (aged 79.5 ± 9.8 years, range 65-105 years, 51.7% female) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey who were aged ≥65 years and were free of cognitive impairment in 2002. Incident cognitive impairment was defined at the 2005 or 2008/2009 survey following an education-based cut-off on the adapted Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Participation in cognitive activities (e.g. reading) and non-exercise physical activity (e.g. housework) was assessed by a self-reported scale. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to examine the association of leisure activities with incident cognitive impairment while controlling for age, gender, education, occupation, residence, physical exercise, smoking, drinking, cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, negative well-being, and physical functioning, and baseline MMSE score. During a five-year follow-up, 1,448 participants developed incident cognitive impairment. Overall, a high level of participation in leisure activities was associated with a 41% decreased risk of cognitive impairment compared to low-level engagement in leisure activities after controlling for age, gender, education, and other confounders. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between leisure activity and educational level, such that the beneficial effect of leisure activities on cognitive function was larger in educated elderly than their uneducated counterparts, and only educated elderly benefited from cognitive activities. Late-life leisure activities protect against cognitive impairment among elderly Chinese people, and the protective effects are more profound for educated elderly.

  20. Reliability and validity of the modifiable activity questionnaire for an Iranian urban adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Delshad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability on the Persian translation of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ in a sample of Tehranian adolescents. Methods: Of a total of 52 subjects, a sub-sample of 40 participations (55.0% boys was used to assess the reliability and the validity of the physical activity questionnaire. The reliability of the two MAQs was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficients, and validation was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients to compare data between mean of the two MAQs and mean of four physical activity records. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the reliability between two MAQs and the results of leisure time physical activity over the past year were 0.97. Pearson correlation coefficients between mean of two MAQs and mean of four physical activity records were 0.49 (P < 0.001, for leisure time physical activities. Conclusions: High reliability and relatively moderate validity were found for the Persian translation of the MAQ in a Tehranian adolescent population. Further studies with large sample size are suggested to assess the validity more precisely.

  1. Constipation and Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children and Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Clara; Sousa, Ariane Sampaio; Fraga, Luis Gustavo A; Veiga, Maria Luiza; Bastos Netto, José Murillo; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and nocturnal enuresis in a population-based study. This is a cross-sectional study. The criteria for inclusion were children and adolescents of between 5 and 17 years and who agreed to sign the informed consent form. The study excluded students with neurological problems or who had documented abnormalities of the urinary tract. To identify the presence and severity of LUTD, we used the Voiding Dysfunction Symptom Score (DVSS). To evaluate the presence of constipation, Rome III questionnaire was used. We interviewed 829 children and adolescents, of which 416 (50.18%) were male. The mean (SD) age was 9.1 (±2.9) years. The overall prevalence of LUTD was 9.1%, predominantly in girls (15 versus 3.1%, p  urinary symptoms that are independent predictors of the presence of constipation. The presence of infrequent urination ( p  = 0.004) and holding maneuvers ( p  urinary symptoms, infrequent voiding and holding maneuvers are independent factors of urinary expressions in constipated children. Children with more severe constipation have more prominent urinary symptoms. The presence of enuresis was not associated with constipation.

  2. Resident and parental perceptions of adolescent problems and family communications in a low socioeconomic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, L E; Shear, C L; Stark, A M; Goodman, P R

    1984-11-01

    This cross-sectional survey of a low socioeconomic patient group was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of parentally perceived behavioral problems in adolescents as well as to investigate the correlation between such problems and single parenting, family communications, and medical care delivered. The sample population consisted of 79 parents and 121 teenagers selected from a family practice center. The medical record and telephone interview were the sources of information. Results include a parental perception of a high prevalence of problems with school grades (48 percent), school attendance (38 percent), and household problems (chores and sibling rivalry). Of low prevalence but high severity were perceived problems related to suicidal ideation, running away, sexual activity, and gang membership. Single-parent homes had a threefold higher incidence of behavioral problems, a greater degree of communication, and a lower use of community resources than two-parent families. None of the approximately 400 perceived behavioral problems listed by parents was found in the family physicians' master problem list. The results indicate the need for physician education of low socioeconomic and single-parent patients with regard to communication and coping style. In addition, it appears that training programs should provide more education in the care of adolescents.

  3. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depression were evaluated. Methods Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally in a U.K. population-based sample of 676 twins aged 5–17 at baseline. At baseline, anxiety and depression were assessed by parental questionnaire. Depression was assessed three years later by parental and adolescent questionnaire. Results Shared genetic effects between early anxiety and later depression were found. A model of a phenotypic risk effect from early anxiety on later depression provided a poor fit to the data. However, there were significant genetic effects specific to later depression, showing that early anxiety and later depression do not index entirely the same genetic risk. Conclusions Anxiety and depression are associated over time because they share a partly common genetic aetiology rather than because the anxiety phenotype leads to later depression.

  4. Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa

    2017-04-01

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Teasing as a risk factor for abnormal eating behaviours: A prospective study in an adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; Barberá, María; Ruiz, Elías; Conesa, Llanos; Rojo-Bofill, Luis Miguel; Livianos, Lorenzo; Rojo, Luis

    2017-08-14

    There are discrepancies in the literature about the role of teasing in the onset of eating pathology. This article aims to establish the influence of teasing in abnormal eating behaviors and attitudes in the adolescent population. This is a two-year prospective study conducted in 7,167 adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In a first assessment, teasing about weight and teasing about abilities were measured by means of the POTS.questionnaire. Its association with eating psychopathology after two years was analyzed controlling nutritional status (BMI), body dissatisfaction, drive to thinness, perfectionism (EDI), emotional symptoms and hyperactivity (SDQ) which had also been measured in the first assessment. The analysis was carried out independently for both genders. The multivariant analysis found no significant or independent effect of teasing about weight or teasing about abilities in the onset of later eating psychopathology. The obtained models were similar for both genders although in girls, but not in boys, controlling BMI was enough to make any effect of teasing disappear. Teasing about weight or abilities has no direct effect, neither in boys nor in girls of 13 to 15 years old, in the development of eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Thapar, Anita

    2004-12-13

    Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depression were evaluated. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally in a U.K. population-based sample of 676 twins aged 5-17 at baseline. At baseline, anxiety and depression were assessed by parental questionnaire. Depression was assessed three years later by parental and adolescent questionnaire. Shared genetic effects between early anxiety and later depression were found. A model of a phenotypic risk effect from early anxiety on later depression provided a poor fit to the data. However, there were significant genetic effects specific to later depression, showing that early anxiety and later depression do not index entirely the same genetic risk. Anxiety and depression are associated over time because they share a partly common genetic aetiology rather than because the anxiety phenotype leads to later depression.

  7. Parent-adolescent interaction and risk of adolescent internet addiction: a population-based study in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Family-based intervention is essential for adolescents with behavioral problems. However, limited data are available on the relationship between family-based factors and adolescent internet addiction (AIA). We aimed to examine this relationship using a representative sample of Shanghai adolescents. Methods In October 2007, a total of 5122 adolescents were investigated from 16 high schools via stratified-random sampling in Shanghai. Self-reported and anonymous questionnaires were used to assess parent-adolescent interaction and family environments. AIA was assessed by DRM-52 Scale, developed from Young’s Internet-addiction Scale, using seven subscales to evaluate psychological symptoms of AIA. Results Adjusting for adolescents’ ages, genders, socio-economic status, school performances and levels of the consumption expenditure, strong parental disapproval of internet-use was associated with AIA (vs. parental approval, OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.24-3.91). Worse mother-adolescent relationships were more significantly associated with AIA (OR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.22-6.48) than worse father-adolescent relationships (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.10-2.80). Marital status of “married-but-separated” and family structure of “left-behind adolescents” were associated with symptoms of some subscales. When having high monthly allowance, resident students tended to develop AIA but commuter students did not. Family social-economic status was not associated with the development of AIA. Conclusions The quality of parent-adolescent relationship/communication was closely associated with the development of AIA, and maternal factors were more significantly associated with development of AIA than paternal factors. Family social-economic status moderated adolescent internet-use levels but not the development of AIA. PMID:24731648

  8. Evaluation of water balance in a population of older adults. A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Kolyzoi, Kleoniki; Lysandropoulos, Athanasios; Sfendouraki, Kalliopi; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2018-04-01

    Older adults are at risk for dehydration and its' potentially life-threatening consequences. Unrecognized dehydration can complicate chronic medical problems and increase morbidity. The objective of the study was to estimate water balance, intake and loss in elderly people living in Greece using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ). WBQ was administered in winter to 108 independents (65-81yrs) (Group A), 94 independents (82-92yrs) (Group B) and 51 hospitalized (65-92yrs) (Group C). A database from previous study of 335 adults (18-65yrs) (Control Group) used for comparison. Mean estimates of water balance, intake and loss were, respectively, for Group A -749 ± 1386 mL/day, 2571 ± 739 mL/day and 3320 ± 1216 mL/day, for Group B -38 ± 933 mL/day, 2571 ± 739 mL/day and 3320 ± 1216 mL/day, for Group C 64 ± 1399 mL/day, 2586 ± 1071 mL/day and 2522 ± 1048 mL/day and for Control Group -253 ± 1495 mL/day, 2912 ± 1025 mL/day and 3492 ± 2099 mL/day. Significant differences were detected in water balance, intake and loss (p < 0.01). Water balance and water intake in Group A was the lowest. For Groups A, B, C and Control, contribution of solid foods to water intake was 36%, 29%, 32%, 25%, of drinking water was 32%, 48%, 45%, 47%, of beverages was 32%, 23%, 23% and 28% respectively. Significant differences observed in the contribution of drinking water and beverages (p < 0.01). Group A had lower water balance and water intake. Groups B and C had lower water intake from beverages. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DSM-IV and DSM-5 Prevalence of Social Anxiety Disorder in a Population Sample of Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Björn; Sigström, Robert; Östling, Svante; Waern, Margda; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of social anxiety disorders (SAD) with (DSM-IV) and without (DSM-5) the person's own assessment that the fear was unreasonable, in a population sample of older adults. Further, to determine whether clinical and sociodemographic correlates of SAD differ depending on the criteria applied. Cross-sectional. General population in Gothenburg, Sweden. A random population-based sample of 75- and 85-year olds (N = 1200) without dementia. Psychiatric research nurses carried out a semi-structured psychiatric examination including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. DSM-IV SAD was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. SAD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. The 6-month duration criterion in DSM-5 was not applied because of lack of information. Other assessments included the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA), and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The 1-month prevalence of SAD was 2.5% (N = 30) when the unreasonable fear criterion was defined in accordance with DSM-IV and 5.1% (N = 61) when the DSM-5 criterion was applied. Clinical correlates (GAF, MADRS, and BSA) were worse in SAD cases identified by either procedure compared with all others, and ratings for those reporting unreasonable fear suggested greater (albeit nonsignificant) overall psychopathology. Shifting the judgment of how reasonable the fear was, from the individual to the clinician, doubled the prevalence of SAD. This indicates that the DSM-5 version might increase prevalence rates of SAD in the general population. Further studies strictly applying all DSM-5 criteria are needed in order to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Migraine and Mental Health in a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Serena L; Potter, Beth K; Ma, Jinhui; Colman, Ian

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between migraine and anxiety disorders, mood disorders and perceived mental health in a population-based sample of adolescents. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is a cross-sectional health survey sampling a nationally representative group of Canadians. In this observational study, data on all 61,375 participants aged 12-19 years from six survey cycles were analyzed. The relationships between self-reported migraine, perceived mental health, and mood/anxiety disorders were modeled using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The migraine-depression association was also explored in a subset of participants using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) depression scale. The odds of migraine were higher among those with mood disorders, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.59; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%]=3.44-6.12), and the weakest in 2009-10 (aOR=3.06, CI 95%=2.06-4.55). The migraine-mood disorders association was also significant throughout all cycles, other than 2011-2, when the CIDI-SF depression scale was employed. The odds of migraine were higher among those with anxiety disorders, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (aOR=4.21, CI 95%=3.31-5.35) and the weakest in 2010 (aOR=1.87, CI 95%=1.10-3.37). The inverse association between high perceived mental health and the odds of migraine was observed in all CCHS cycles, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (aOR=0.58, CI 95%=0.48-0.69) and the weakest in 2003-4 (aOR=0.75, CI 95%=0.62-0.91). This study provides evidence, derived from a large population-based sample of adolescents, for a link between migraine and mood/anxiety disorders.

  11. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2012-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.

  12. [Use of health services by a population of 60-year olds and older in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-Yáñez, S A; Gómez-Dantés, H

    1998-01-01

    To describe the sociodemographic characteristics and determinants of health services utilization by the Mexican population of 60 years of age or more. Information obtained from the National Health Survey II (ENSA-II) allowed analysis of 4,628 elderly people. Prevalence of chronic diseases was analyzed and the determinants of individuals who had used the health services in the two weeks prior to the interview. The chronic diseases most frequently reported were: hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. The utilization and hospitalization rates of that age group were 11.4 and 5.5%, respectively. The services most frequently used were: the private physician, social security (IMSS, ISSSTE) welfare services (Ministry of Health--SSA- and IMSS-Solidaridad). Interestingly, 25 to 45% of social security insurance holders did not use the services, instead they consulted a private physician. The most important explanatory variables for health services utilization were: the perceived illness, not having worked for the previous week and being a social security insurance holder. Gender, area of residence and level of education were not significant in the explanation of health services utilization. This study demonstrates the need to strengthen preventive and support programs for the elderly population, since they only demand health services when they feel sick.

  13. Isoniazid Toxicity among an Older Veteran Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnard, Christopher; Gopal, Anand; Linkin, Darren R; Maslow, Joel

    2013-01-01

    our objective was to determine the incidence of toxicity among veterans initiating isoniazid therapy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and determine whether advancing age was a risk factor for toxicity. we performed a retrospective cohort study among all adults initiating isoniazid treatment for LTBI at a Veterans Medical Center from 1999 to 2005. We collected data on patient demographics, co-morbidities, site of initiation, and treatment outcome. 219 patients initiated isoniazid therapy for LTBI during the period of observation, and the completion of therapy was confirmed in 100 patients (46%). Among 18/219 patients (8%) that discontinued therapy due to a documented suspected toxicity, the median time to onset was 3 months (IQR 1-5 months). In an adjusted Cox regression model, there was no association between discontinuation due to suspected toxicity and advancing age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99, 1.07). In contrast, hepatitis C infection was a significant predictor of cessation due to toxicity in the adjusted analysis (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.08, 8.52). cessation of isoniazid therapy due to suspected toxicity was infrequently observed among a veteran population and was not associated with advancing age. Alternative LTBI treatment approaches should be further examined in the veteran population.

  14. Isoniazid Toxicity among an Older Veteran Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vinnard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: our objective was to determine the incidence of toxicity among veterans initiating isoniazid therapy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI and determine whether advancing age was a risk factor for toxicity. Methods: we performed a retrospective cohort study among all adults initiating isoniazid treatment for LTBI at a Veterans Medical Center from 1999 to 2005. We collected data on patient demographics, co-morbidities, site of initiation, and treatment outcome. Results: 219 patients initiated isoniazid therapy for LTBI during the period of observation, and the completion of therapy was confirmed in 100 patients (46%. Among 18/219 patients (8% that discontinued therapy due to a documented suspected toxicity, the median time to onset was 3 months (IQR 1–5 months. In an adjusted Cox regression model, there was no association between discontinuation due to suspected toxicity and advancing age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99, 1.07. In contrast, hepatitis C infection was a significant predictor of cessation due to toxicity in the adjusted analysis (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.08, 8.52. Conclusions: cessation of isoniazid therapy due to suspected toxicity was infrequently observed among a veteran population and was not associated with advancing age. Alternative LTBI treatment approaches should be further examined in the veteran population.

  15. Bone Mineral Density Is Positively Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Findings From a Population-Based Study in Adolescents and Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysz, Monika; Deere, Kevin; Lawlor, Debbie A; Benfield, Li; Tobias, Jon H; Gregson, Celia L

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are both common causes of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies, mainly of people older than 60 years, suggest a relationship between these conditions. Our aim was to determine the association between bone characteristics and CVD markers in younger and middle-aged individuals. Women (n = 3366) and their adolescent offspring (n = 4368) from the UK population-based cohort study, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were investigated. We measured total body (TB) and hip bone mineral density (BMD), TB bone area (BA) and bone mineral content (BMC) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by high-resolution ultrasound. Arterial distensibility was calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic arterial diameters. Linear regression determined associations between bone exposures and cIMT (in adolescents) and both cIMT and arterial distensibility (in women), generating partial correlation coefficients. Mean (SD) age of women was 48 (4.2) years, body mass index (BMI) was 26.2 (5.0) kg/m 2 , and 71% were premenopausal. In confounder-adjusted analyses (age, height, lean mass, fat mass, menopause, smoking, estrogen replacement, calcium/vitamin D supplementation, and education) TB and hip BMD were both positively associated with cIMT (0.071 [0.030, 0.112], p = 0.001; 0.063 [0.025, 0.101], p = 0.001, respectively). Femoral neck BMD and TB BMD, BMC, and BA were positively associated with arterial distensibility. Mean (SD) age of adolescents was 17 (0.4) years, BMI was 23 (4.1) kg/m 2 , and 44.5% were male. Total hip and TB measurements were positively associated with cIMT, with similar magnitudes of association to those found in their mothers. In contrast to most published findings, we identified weak positive associations between BMD and cIMT in predominantly premenopausal women and their adolescent offspring. We found greater femoral neck

  16. Sexual behaviors among older adults in Spain: results from a population-based national sexual health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish National Sexual Health Survey (SNSHS) is designed to examine sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual health among the Spanish population. To describe sexual activity and behaviors of Spaniards aged ≥ 65 years old focusing on gender differences. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using individual data from the SNSHS. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included was 1,939 (1,118 women, 821 men). Sexual activity, frequency, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and reasons for lack of sexual activity were assessed from questions included in the survey. Subjects who reported having any sexual practice including giving or receiving kissing and hugging, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or masturbation, with at least one partner in the previous 12 months were considered as sexually active. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and sexual health, comorbid conditions, and medications using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, 62.3% of men and 37.4% of elderly women were sexually active (P practices were kissing, hugging, and vaginal intercourse. The most common reasons for sexual inactivity were: partner was physically ill (23%), lack of interest (21%), and the man was a widower (23%). This study provided data on sexual activity in older Spanish adults and has identified potential factors that appear to influence sexuality in the elderly with some gender differences. Current results can have implications for healthcare providers for addressing these concerns in an effective manner. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Comparison of Well-being of Older Adult Choir Singers and the General Population in Finland: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Louhivuori, Jukka; Siljander, Eero

    2017-06-01

    Previous research suggests that singing in a choir as an older adult is associated with better quality of life (QOL). However, the degree to which sociodemographic variables and level of engagement in hobbies contribute to this relationship is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to compare quality of life (QOL) of older adult choir singers with a matched sample of older adults from the general population in Finland, taking into consideration sociodemographic, satisfaction with health, and level of engagement in hobbies (active, inactive). Case-control methods were used to match a sample of 109 older adult singers with a sample of 307 older adults from the general population. Tobit regression analysis with sociodemographic covariates was used to explore observed group differences in QOL as measured by two WHOQOL-Bref domains (psychological and physical). Probit regression analysis was used to examine the effect of sociodemographic variables and engagement in hobbies and on overall QOL and satisfaction with health. As expected, sociodemographic variables were strongly associated with physical and psychological QOL. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, the older choir singers reported significantly higher ratings on physical QOL, but not psychological QOL, compared to matched controls. Additional adjustment for satisfaction for health attenuated the results. When considering level of engagement in hobbies, older adult choir singers reported significantly higher overall QOL and satisfaction with health when compared to either controls who were either actively engaged in hobbies or not active in hobbies. These results suggest that singing in a choir as an older adult may promote well-being, even after accounting for sociodemographic and level of engagement in hobbies.

  18. C-reactive protein, APOE genotype and longitudinal cognitive change in an older population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thomas A. S.; Adler, Amanda L.; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; Marioni, Riccardo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: circulating measures of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with an increased risk of future cognitive decline. However, the nature of the relationship among the very old (>75 years) is unclear. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that elevated CRP may even be protective in this age group. This study examines these associations longitudinally. Methods: logistic regression was used to investigate the association between CRP and drop in cognitive performance (≥3 point change on the Mini-Mental State Examination) over a 4-year period in a population of 266 people, mean age 77 years. Results: increased levels of CRP were associated with a decreased risk of a drop in cognitive performance; however, this association was only seen in those without an APOE e4 allele [odds ratio of decline per unit increase in ln(CRP) 0.57, P = 0.04]. The magnitude of the finding remained consistent after adjustment for cardiovascular confounders (smoking, drinking, MI, stroke, diabetes, education, medication and blood pressure). For those with an e4 allele, the relationship with longitudinal cognitive decline was neither statistically significant nor in a consistent direction after controlling for acute inflammation. Conclusions: this study strengthens previous cross-sectional findings and shows elevated levels of CRP to be linked to a decreased risk of longitudinal cognitive decline in the very old. However, as with prior analyses, this was only observed in those not carrying an APOE e4 allele. Future work on larger APOE e4 allele carrying samples is required to determine the nature of the association in this population. PMID:24305621

  19. Hypertension management in a population of older adults in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Reiger, Sheridan; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Wagner, Ryan G; Wade, Alisha; Bärnighausen, Till W; Salomon, Joshua; Tollman, Stephen; Gaziano, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Assess awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, as an indication of its management, in rural South Africa, especially regarding modifiers of these variables. A population-representative sample of adults aged at least 40 years residing in the rural Agincourt subdistrict (Mpumalanga Province) covered by a long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance system was recruited. In-person interviews, physical exams, and dried blood spots were collected. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates were assessed. A regression model was built to identify predictors of those outcomes. The mean age of the 2884 hypertensive participants was 64.1 ± 12.7 years. Hypertension awareness rate was 64.4%, treatment among those aware was 89.3 and 45.8% of those treated were controlled. Considering aware and unaware hypertensives, treatment rate was 49.7% and control 22.8%. In the multivariable regression model, awareness was predicted by female sex, age at least 60 years, higher social economic status, prior cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonimmigrant status, literacy, and physical limitation. Improved control among those treated was predicted by age at least 60 years. Blood pressure control among all hypertensive study participants was predicted by female sex, being HIV-negative, age at least 60 years, nonimmigrant status, and prior CVD. High rates of awareness and treatment of hypertension as well as good levels of control were found in this population, probably explained by the long-term surveillance program conducted in the area. Considering the predictors of hypertension management, particular attention should be given to men, residents younger than 60 years, immigrants, and study participants without CVD as these characteristics were predictors of poor outcome.

  20. Gender differences of suicides in children and adolescents: Analysis of 167 suicides in a Mexican population from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Velázquez, Daniela Georgina; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; López-Narváez, Maria Lilia; Frésan, Ana; Hernández-Díaz, Yazmin; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe

    2017-12-01

    Suicide is the second cause of death in youth population. The aim of the present study was to analyze demographic characteristics and suicide methods used, as well as to identify gender differences among Mexican children and adolescents (aged 10-17 years) that committed suicide. Between January 2003 and December 2013, 167 suicides of children and adolescents between 10 and 17 years of age were documented by the Secretary of Health of the state of Tabasco, Mexico. All sociodemographic characteristics were compared according to gender. Our sample included 67.7% males and 32.3% females (male to female 2.1:1). The predominant marital status was single (89.6%) and hanging (93.7%) was the principal method of suicide used. Both female and male adolescents were predominantly students (50%); however, female adolescents were more frequently married (17%) and were housewives (26.4%). Our results identified that hanging is the principal suicide method used by children and adolescents in Mexican population; we also detected main gender differences in terms of poisoning/drug toxicity as the method used, occupation and marital status. These results should be taken into consideration when designing suicide prevention programs due to the differences found by gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between social functioning and subjective memory complaints in older persons: a population-based longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Jisca S; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Zuidema, Sytse U; Stolk, Ronald P; Zuidersma, Marij; Smidt, Nynke

    2017-10-01

    Poor social functioning is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. It is unclear whether social functioning is also associated with subjective memory complaints (SMC). We investigated the association between social functioning and incident SMC and SMC recovery. A population-based sample of 8762 older adults (aged ≥65 years) with good objective cognitive functioning at baseline (MMSE ≥26) from the LifeLines Cohort Study were followed for 1.5 years. Self-reported SMC were measured at baseline and after 1.5 years follow-up. Aspects of social functioning included marital status, household composition, social network size, social activity, quality of social relationships, social support, affection, behavioral confirmation, and status. Thirteen percent (513/3963) developed SMC during follow-up (incident SMC). Multivariate logistic regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender, education level, physical activity, alcohol use, smoking status, depression, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke) showed that participants with better feelings of affection, behavioral confirmation and stable good social support had a lower risk of incident SMC. Thirty-four percent (1632/4799) reported recovery. Participants with good social functioning at baseline on all determinants reported more SMC recovery. People who remained stable in a relationship, stable in good quality of social relationships or increased in quality of social relationships more often report SMC recovery. Good social functioning is associated with less incident SMC and more SMC recovery over a follow-up period of 1.5 years. Albeit future confirmative studies are needed, we argue for targeting also social functioning when designing multidomain interventions to prevent or slow down cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Population-Based Study of Cerebral Microbleeds in Stroke-Free Older Adults Living in Rural Ecuador: The Atahualpa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; Mera, Robertino M; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in white and Asian populations range from 4% to 15%. However, there is no information from indigenous Latin American people. We aimed to assess prevalence and cerebrovascular correlates of CMB in stroke-free older adults living in rural Ecuador. Of 311 Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years identified during a door-to-door survey, 258 (83%) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one were further excluded for a diagnosis of overt stroke. Using multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, we evaluated whether CMB were independently associated with silent strokes, white matter hyperintensities, and global cortical atrophy. Twenty-six (11%) of 237 participants had CMB, which were single in 54% of cases. CMB were deep in 11 patients, cortical in 9, and located both deep and cortical in 6. In univariate analyses, CMB were associated with age, systolic blood pressure, moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities, silent lacunar infarcts, and cortical atrophy. Mean (±SD) values for systolic blood pressure were 155±27 mm Hg in patients who had CMB versus 142±26 mm Hg in those who did not (P=0.017). In the adjusted models, moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities (P=0.009), silent lacunar infarcts (P=0.003), and global cortical atrophy (P=0.04) were independently associated with CMB. Prevalence of CMB in stroke-free older adults living in Atahualpa is comparable with those reported from other ethnic groups. There is a strong relationship between CMB and increased age, high systolic blood pressure, silent markers of cerebral small vessel disease, and cortical atrophy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Use of Information and Communication Technologies Among Older People With and Without Frailty: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, Niina Susanna; Kangas, Maarit; Immonen, Milla; Similä, Heidi; Enwald, Heidi; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2017-02-14

    Use of information and communication technologies (ICT) among seniors is increasing; however, studies on the use of ICT by seniors at the highest risk of health impairment are lacking. Frail and prefrail seniors are a group that would likely benefit from preventive nutrition and exercise interventions, both of which can take advantage of ICT. The objective of the study was to quantify the differences in ICT use, attitudes, and reasons for nonuse among physically frail, prefrail, and nonfrail home-dwelling seniors. This was a population-based questionnaire study on people aged 65-98 years living in Northern Finland. A total of 794 eligible individuals responded out of a contacted random sample of 1500. In this study, 29.8% (237/794) of the respondents were classified as frail or prefrail. The ICT use of frail persons was lower than that of the nonfrail ones. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age and education level were associated with both the use of Internet and advanced mobile ICT such as smartphones or tablets. Controlling for age and education, frailty or prefrailty was independently related to the nonuse of advanced mobile ICT (odds ratio, OR=0.61, P=.01), and frailty with use of the Internet (OR=0.45, P=.03). The frail or prefrail ICT nonusers also held the most negative opinions on the usefulness or usability of mobile ICT. When opinion variables were included in the model, frailty status remained a significant predictor of ICT use. Physical frailty status is associated with older peoples' ICT use independent of age, education, and opinions on ICT use. This should be taken into consideration when designing preventive and assistive technologies and interventions for older people at risk of health impairment. ©Niina Susanna Keränen, Maarit Kangas, Milla Immonen, Heidi Similä, Heidi Enwald, Raija Korpelainen, Timo Jämsä. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 14.02.2017.

  4. The validity of the 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory in older Spanish population: an examination of the androgyny model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Afshin; Alvarado, Beatriz; Tomás, Concepcion; Muro, Carmen; Martinez, Beatriz; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) is the most commonly used and validated gender role measurement tool across countries and age groups. However, it has been rarely validated in older adults and sporadically used in aging and health studies. Perceived gender role is a crucial part of a person's identity and an established determinant of health. Androgyny model suggests that those with high levels of both masculinity and femininity (androgynous) are more adaptive and hence have better health. Our objectives were to explore the validity of BSRI in an older Spanish population, to compare different standard methods of measuring gender roles, and to examine their impact on health indicators. The BSRI and health indicator questions were completed by 120 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Aragon, Spain. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine psychometric properties of the BSRI. Androgyny was measured by three approaches: geometric mean, t-ratio, and traditional four-gender groups classification. Relationships between health indicators and gender roles were explored. Factor analysis resulted in two-factor solution consistent with the original masculine and feminine items with high loadings and good reliability. There were no associations between biological sex and gender roles. Different gender role measurement approaches classified participants differently into gender role groups. Overall, androgyny was associated with better mobility and physical and mental health. The traditional four groups approach showed higher compatibility with the androgyny model and was better able to disentangle the differential impact of gender roles on health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among older adult populations in urban and suburban communities in Shanghai, China

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    Qun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in China, particularly among older adults. Factors associated with suboptimal vitamin D levels are not well defined. The present study was a population-based study that included 10 urban and suburban communities in Shanghai, to evaluate vitamin D status and its correlates among older adults. Method This cross-sectional study was based on study data for 3924 healthy men and women aged 65−95 years. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were collected in June−July 2014. Serum 25(OHD levels were detected using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. The following socioeconomic data were obtained through self-administered questionnaires: education level, lifestyle, residency, and dietary habits. A logistic regression model was used to assess associations between anthropometric factors, socioeconomic factors and serum 25(OHD levels. Results Median levels of serum 25(OHD in men and women were 22.73 and 19.99 ng/mL, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was common in subjects, even though data collection was conducted during summer. The general prevalence of serum 25(OHD levels <20 ng/mL were 35.4% and 50.5% for men and women respectively. The general prevalence of serum 25(OHD levels <10 ng/mL were 2.73% and 5.9% for men and women respectively. A multivariable model indicated serum 25(OHD levels ≥20 ng/mL were significantly and positively correlated with male sex, calcium or vitamin D supplementation, and residency in suburban communities. The model also indicated that high level of physical activity was protective factors of vitamin D deficiency for men and milk consumption for women, respectively. By contrast, deficient serum 25(OHD levels were significantly correlated with education level (lower than primary school or obesity [body mass index (BMI ≥ 26.06 kg/m2] for men or women, respectively. Conclusion This cross-sectional study of older adults in communities in Shanghai demonstrates that

  6. [Trends in educational inequalities in smoking among adolescents in Germany : Evidence from four population-based studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Benjamin; Waldhauer, Julia; Moor, Irene; Rathmann, Katharina; Richter, Matthias; Orth, Boris; Piontek, Daniela; Kraus, Ludwig; Zeiher, Johannes; Lampert, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In Germany, smoking prevalence among adolescents has significantly declined since the early 2000s. However, data show that adolescent smoking rates considerably differ between different types of secondary schools. The aim of our study was to examine how educational inequalities in adolescent smoking behaviour have developed over time. Data were used from four population-based studies (each consisting of repeated cross-sectional surveys from 2001-2015): the representative surveys of the Federal Centre for Health Education, the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents, the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, and the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Each study comprised different age groups (within the age range of 11-17 years) and used different smoking measures. Adolescents' educational status was based on the attended type of secondary school. Absolute and relative educational inequalities were presented as prevalence differences and prevalence ratios, respectively. Despite methodical differences, all four studies similarly reveal that adolescent smoking rates have significantly declined in all educational groups. However, lower smoking rates among secondary school students attending higher educational tracks could be observed. While absolute educational inequalities tended to decrease over time, relative inequalities between educational groups remained rather stable or even increased. Declining adolescent smoking rates suggest that smoking may have lost some of its attractiveness for young people. Our findings further emphasize the importance of tobacco control measures such as raising cigarette taxes, smoking bans, and increasing minimum legal age for tobacco purchase. As relative educational inequalities in adolescent smoking rates did not diminish over time, setting- and target group-specific interventions should focus more on students in middle and lower secondary school tracks.

  7. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  8. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender – a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

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    Wiklund Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18 year olds (n = 1027, boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71 and anxiety (r = 0.71. Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the

  9. A Comparison of the Self-Image of Talented Teenagers with a Normal Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Samuel; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    1989-01-01

    Self-images of 76 male/101 female adolescents talented in mathematics, science, music, athletics, or art were compared to those of 112 male/106 female average teenagers, using the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire for Adolescents. Talented adolescents had self-images generally similar to their average peers. Implications for the development of talent…

  10. Attempted suicide in the elderly: characteristics of suicide attempters 70 years and older and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Runeson, Bo; Skoog, Ingmar; Ostling, Svante; Waern, Margda

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors associated with attempted suicide in the elderly. Social, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics were compared in suicide attempters (70 years and older) and a representative population sample. Emergency departments at five hospitals in western Sweden and a representative sample of the elderly population. Persons with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score age 80 years). Comparison subjects matched for gender and age group (N = 408) were randomly selected among participants in our general population studies. Symptoms were rated with identical instruments in cases and comparison subjects. The examination included the MMSE and tests of short- and long-term memory, abstract thinking, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and major and minor depressions were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, using symptom algorithms. Factors associated with attempted suicide included being unmarried, living alone, low education level, history of psychiatric treatment, and previous suicide attempt. There was no association with dementia. Odds ratios were increased for both major (odds ratio [OR]: 47.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1-117.7) and minor (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) depressions. An association was observed between perceived loneliness and attempted suicide; this relationship was independent of depression (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). Observed associations mirrored those previously shown for completed suicide. Results may help to inform clinical decisions regarding suicide risk evaluation in this vulnerable and growing age group.

  11. “Gateway hypothesis” and early drug use: Additional findings from tracking a population-based sample of adolescents to adulthood

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    Stephen Nkansah-Amankra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the consistency of the relationship between early drug use in adolescence and illegal drug use in adulthood as proposed in the “gateway theory” and to determine whether pre-existing depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. We used contractual data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult health data spanning a 14 year period. We assessed the relationship between gateway drugs at baseline (age 11–20 years and drug use in adulthood using generalized estimating equation (GEE regression models. Gateways drugs used in early adolescence were significantly associated with marijuana use, illegal drugs and cocaine in older adolescence, but over time these relationships were not consistent in adulthood. Changes in the pattern of psychoactive drug use were important predictors of drug use in adulthood. A history of higher depressive symptoms was associated with higher frequencies of psychoactive drug use over time. Users of mental health services in adolescence were less likely to use drugs in older adolescence and in adulthood. Relationships between early drug use and later drug use in adulthood cannot be solely explained by the gateway hypothesis. Collectively, adolescent drug prevention and treatment programs should apply theory-based and evidence-proven multisectoral intervention strategies rather than providing a brief counseling on individual's behaviors. This evidence should include understanding that changes in behavior should involve broader analyses of the underlying social context for drug use and in particular the role of the community social norms in driving a group's behaviors.

  12. Levels of disability in the older population of England: Comparing binary and ordinal classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongiglione, Benedetta; Ploubidis, George B; De Stavola, Bianca L

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies suggest the importance of distinguishing severity levels of disability. Nevertheless, there is not yet a consensus with regards to an optimal classification. Our study seeks to advance the existing binary definitions towards categorical/ordinal manifestations of disability. We define disability according to the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) using data collected at the baseline wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging, a longitudinal study of the non-institutionalized population, living in England. First, we identify cut-off points in the continuous disability score derived from ICF to distinguish disabled from no-disabled participants. Then, we fit latent class models to the same data to find the optimal number of disability classes according to: (i) model fit indicators; (ii) estimated probabilities of each disability item; (iii) association of the predicted disability classes with observed health and mortality. According to the binary classification criteria, about 32% of both men and women are classified disabled. No optimal number of classes emerged from the latent class models according to model fit indicators. However, the other two criteria suggest that the best-fitting model of disability severity has four classes. Our findings contribute to the debate on the usefulness and relevance of adopting a finer categorization of disability, by showing that binary indicators of disability averaged the burden of disability and masked the very strong effect experienced by individuals having severe disability, and were not informative for low levels of disability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A population based eye survey of older adults in Tirunelveli district of south India: blindness, cataract surgery, and visual outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalan, P K; Thulasiraj, R D; Maneksha, V; Rahmathullah, R; Ramakrishnan, R; Padmavathi, A; Munoz, S R; Ellwein, L B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess the prevalence of vision impairment, blindness, and cataract surgery and to evaluate visual acuity outcomes after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to randomly select a cross sectional sample of people ≥50 years of age living in the Tirunelveli district of south India. Eligible subjects in 28 clusters were enumerated through a door to door household survey. Visual acuity measurements and ocular examinations were performed at a selected site within each of the clusters in early 2000. The principal cause of visual impairment was identified for eyes with presenting visual acuity India) was found in 11.0%, and in 4.6% with best correction. Presenting blindness was associated with older age, female sex, and illiteracy. Cataract was the principal cause of blindness in at least one eye in 70.6% of blind people. The prevalence of cataract surgery was 11.8%—with an estimated 56.5% of the cataract blind already operated on. Surgical coverage was inversely associated with illiteracy and with female sex in rural areas. Within the cataract operated sample, 31.7% had presenting visual acuity ≥6/18 in both eyes and 11.8% were <6/60; 40% were bilaterally operated on, with 63% pseudophakic. Presenting vision was <6/60 in 40.7% of aphakic eyes and in 5.1% of pseudophakic eyes; with best correction the percentages were 17.6% and 3.7%, respectively. Refractive error, including uncorrected aphakia, was the main cause of visual impairment in cataract operated eyes. Vision <6/18 was associated with cataract surgery in government, as opposed to that in non-governmental/private facilities. Age, sex, literacy, and area of residence were not predictors of visual outcomes. Conclusion: Treatable blindness, particularly that associated with cataract and refractive error, remains a significant problem among older adults in south Indian populations, especially in females, the illiterate, and those living in rural areas. Further

  14. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison SA; Dashiff CJ; Vance DE

    2013-01-01

    Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sop...

  15. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossige, Svein; Huang, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years). Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531) to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma. Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization. Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  16. [Validation of an HIV and other sexually transmitted infections knowledge scale in an adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José Pedro; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to specifically assess the knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a Spanish adolescent population. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. A total of 17 schools in five Spanish provinces. A total of 1,570 adolescent schoolchildren between 13 and 17 years old. A pool of 40 items relating to knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections was established. This pool was analyzed by an expert panel. It was then administered to a pilot group with the same demographic characteristics of the sample, to ensure comprehension. Item analysis, internal consistency, test/retest and exploratory factorial analysis. A factor analysis was performed, in which five factors that explained 46% of the total variance were retained: general knowledge about HIV, condom as a protective method, routes of HIV transmission, the prevention of HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Reliability measures ranged from 0.66 to 0.88. The test-retest correlation was 0.59. There were gender differences in the knowledge of infections. These factors have adequate internal consistency and acceptable test-retest correlation. Theoretically, these factors fit properly with the content of the items. The factors have a moderate relationship, indicating that a high degree of knowledge about an aspect, but not a guarantee of general knowledge. The availability of a questionnaire to assess knowledge of sexually transmitted infections is helpful to evaluate prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary dysmenorrhea: prevalence in adolescent population of Tbilisi, Georgia and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagua, Tinatin; Tkeshelashvili, Besarion; Gagua, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in female adolescents living in Tbilisi, Georgia; find possible risk factors and establish an association, if any, with nutrition and sleep hygiene. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was used. A retrospective case control study was used to identify risk factors. Participants: A total of 2561 women consented to participate in the research. 431 participants were included in the case-control study. Interventions: Detailed questionnaire included: reproductive history, demographic features, menstrual pattern, severity of dysmenorrhea and associated symptoms; information about nutrition and sleep hygiene. Results The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 52.07%. Due to pain, 69.78% reported frequent school absenteeism. The risk of dysmenorrhea in students who had a family history of dysmenorrhea was approximately 6 times higher than in students with no prior history. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was significantly higher among smokers compared with non-smokers 3.99% vs. 0.68% (p=.0.05 OR:6.102). Those women reporting an increased intake of sugar reported a marked increase of dysmenorrhea compared to women reporting no daily sugar intake (55.61% vs. 44.39%, p=.0023 LR:0.0002). However, alcohol, family atmosphere and nationality showed no correlation with dysmenorrhea. Our study revealed two most important risk factors of dysmenorrhea: meal skipping 59.78% vs. 27.03%, p=.00000 LR: 0.00000 OR:4.014 and sleep hygiene-receiving less sleep 38.77% vs. 19.59%, p=0.000055 LR: 0.000036 OR:2.598. Conclusion Primary dysmenorrhea is a common problem in the adolescent population of Tbilisi Geogia. It adversely affects their educational performance. Meal skipping and sleep quantity are associated with dysmenorrhea and may cause other reproductive dysfunctions. PMID:24592031

  18. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Mossige

    Full Text Available This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years.Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531 to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma.Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization.Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  19. Is parenting a determinant of adolescent mental health? - A population based study in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Asha; Kamath, Asha; Roy, Kallol

    2015-11-10

    The transitional phase encompassing the physiological and psychological changes during our lifespan is termed as adolescence. Adolescents get mislead to substance use, violence related activities, dating relationships, unhealthy lifestyle. Minimal studies are conducted in India to identify the parenting factors that affect an adolescent's mind. The aim of our study was to explore the role of parenting and social surroundings on - adolescent's mental health and involvement in violence related activities. Cross sectional study design was adopted. Semi structured questionnaire was used. Data obtained was entered and analyzed using SPSS 15. Proportions were used to report the findings. Chi-square test was used to find associations between mental health issues, involvement in violence related activities and Interpersonal Relationship (IPR) Status. Multiple logistic regressions were done to identify independent predictors of mental health. A total of 1770 adolescents participated. Proportion of adolescents with good IPR with parents reported to be having a better mental health status and low involvement in violent related activities. Schools also displayed similar effects. Neighborhood, peers did not display any significant effect on adolescent's mental health. Most significant predictor for adolescent mental health was IPR with parents and at school. The study highlights the need of a cordial environment at places which does influence the adolescent's mental health. Interventions enhancing the relationship status of adolescents with parents, at school must be carried out to observe the change in adolescent behavior.

  20. Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction in a general adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Norlander, Katarina; Berglund, Lars; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif; Emtner, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms are common among adolescents. Exercise is a known stimulus for transient narrowing of the airways, such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of EIB and EILO in a general population of adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire on exercise-induced dyspnoea was sent to all adolescents born in 1997 and 1998 in Uppsala, Sweden (n=3838). A random subsample of 146 adolescents (99 with self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea and 47 without this condition) underwent standardised treadmill exercise tests for EIB and EILO. The exercise test for EIB was performed while breathing dry air; a positive test was defined as a decrease of ≥10% in FEV1 from baseline. EILO was investigated using continuous laryngoscopy during exercise. The estimated prevalence of EIB and EILO in the total population was 19.2% and 5.7%, respectively. No gender differences were found. In adolescents with exercise-induced dyspnoea, 39.8% had EIB, 6% had EILO and 4.8% had both conditions. In this group, significantly more boys than girls had neither EIB nor EILO (64.7% vs 38.8%; p=0.026). There were no significant differences in body mass index, lung function, diagnosed asthma or medication between the participants with exercise-induced dyspnoea who had or did not have a positive EIB or EILO test result. Both EIB and EILO are common causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea in adolescents. EILO is equally common among girls and boys and can coexist with EIB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The psychometric properties of the German version of the WHOQOL-OLD in the German population aged 60 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Ines; Matschinger, Herbert; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; von Gottberg, Carolin; Kilian, Reinhold

    2014-09-05

    The WHOQOL-OLD is an instrument for the assessment of subjective quality of life in elderly people. It is based on the WHO definition of quality of life and is available in more than 20 languages. However, in most countries, the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD have been assessed only on the basis of small local samples and not in representative studies. In this study, the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD are evaluated based on a representative sample of Germany's elderly population. Face-to-face interviews with 1133 respondents from the German population aged 60 years and older were conducted. Quality of life was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF, the WHOQOL-OLD and the SF12. Moreover, the GDS, the DemTect and the IADL were applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms, cognitive capacities and capacity for carrying out daily activities. Psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD were evaluated by means of classical and probabilistic test theory, confirmatory factor analysis and multivariate regression model. Cronbach's alpha was found to be above 0.85 for four and above .75 for two of the six facets of the WHOQOL-OLD. IRT analyses indicated that all items of the WHOQOL-OLD contribute considerably to the measurement of the associated facets. While the six-facet structure of the WHOQOL-OLD was well supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis, a common latent factor for the WHOQOL-OLD total scale could not be identified. Correlations with other quality of life measures and multivariate regression models with GDS, IADL and the DemTect indicate a good criterion validity of all six WHOQOL-OLD facets. Study results confirm that the good psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD that have been found in international studies could be replicated in a representative study of the German population. These results suggest that the WHOQOL-OLD is an instrument that is well suited to identify the needs and the wishes of an aging population.

  2. Relationships of inflammatory and haemostatic markers with social class: results from a population-based study of older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Sheena; Lowe, Gordon D O; Whincup, Peter H; Rumley, Ann; Morris, Richard W; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2008-04-01

    Haemostatic and inflammatory markers have been hypothesised to mediate the relationship of social class and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether a range of inflammatory/haemostatic markers are associated with social class independent of chronic diseases and behavioural risk factors in a population-based sample of 2682 British men aged 60-79 without a physician diagnosis of CVD, diabetes or musculoskeletal disease requiring anti-inflammatory medications. Men in lower social classes had higher mean levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, white blood cell count, von Willebrand factor (vWF), factor VIII, activated protein C (APC) resistance, plasma viscosity, fibrin D-dimer and platelet count, compared to higher social class groups; but not of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, haematocrit or activated partial prothrombin time. After adjustment for behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol, physical activity and body mass), the associations of social class with vWF, factor VIII, APC resistance, plasma viscosity, and platelet count though weakened, remained statistically significant, while those of other markers were considerably attenuated. In this study of older men without CVD, the social gradient in inflammatory and haemostatic markers was substantially explained by behavioural risk factors. The effect of socio-economic gradient on the factor VIII-vWF complex, APC resistance, plasma viscosity and platelet count merits further study.

  3. A population-based longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile infection-related hospitalization in mid-age and older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Glass, K; Liu, B; Riley, T V; Korda, R; Kirk, M D

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for hospitalization due to C. difficile infection (CDI) in older Australians. We linked data from a population-based prospective cohort study (the 45 and Up Study) of 266 922 adults aged ⩾45 years recruited in New South Wales, Australia to hospitalization and death records for 2006-2012. We estimated the incidence of CDI hospitalization and calculated days in hospital and costs per hospitalization. We also estimated hazard ratios (HR) for CDI hospitalization using Cox regression with age as the underlying time variable. Over a total follow-up of 1 126 708 person-years, 187 adults had an incident CDI hospitalization. The crude incidence of CDI hospitalization was 16·6/100 000 person-years, with a median hospital stay of 6 days, and a median cost of AUD 6102 per admission. Incidence increased with age and year of follow-up, with a threefold increase for 2009-2012. After adjustment, CDI hospitalization rates were significantly lower in males than females (adjusted HR 0·6, 95% confidence interval 0·4-0·7). CDI hospitalization rates increased significantly over 2009-2012. There is a need to better understand the increasing risk of CDI hospitalization in women.

  4. [Medication use among community-dwelling older Icelanders. Population-based study in urban and rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Arnadottir, Solveig Asa; Gunnarsdottir, Elín Díanna

    2011-12-01

    To describe medication use among older community-dwelling Icelanders by collecting information on number of medicine, polypharmacy (>5 medications), and medications by ATC categories. Moreover, to explore the relationship between medication use and various influential factors emphasizing residency in urban and rural areas. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants were randomly selected from the National registry in one urban (n=118) and two rural (n=68) areas. 1) ≥ 65 years old, 2) community-dwelling, 3) able to communicate verbally. Information on medication use was obtained from each person's medication list and interviews. A questionnaire and five standardized instruments were used to assess the potential influencing factors. On average, participants used 3.9 medications and prevalence of polypharmacy was 41%. Men used 3.5 medications on average and women 4.4 (p=0.018). Compared to rural residents, urban residents had fewer medical diagnoses, better mobility, less pain, and fewer depressive symptoms. By controlling for the effects of these variables, more medications were associated with urban living (pbetter scores on health assessments.

  5. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  6. Disparity in dental attendance among older adult populations: a comparative analysis across selected European countries and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the USA and selected European countries. The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004-2006 data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the USA for respondents≥51 years of age. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental-care coverage, and of oral and general health status, on dental-care use. We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified according to social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified according to welfare state regime or according to the presence or absence of social health insurance. The findings of this study suggest that income and education have a stronger, and more persistent, correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that: (i) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared with relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding; and that (ii) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. "I Am Becoming More and More Like My Eldest Brother!": The Relationship Between Older Siblings, Adolescent Gambling Severity, and the Attenuating Role of Parents in a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D; Siciliano, Valeria; Cutilli, Arianna; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the association between having older siblings who gamble and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and how parents (i.e., parental knowledge of their whereabouts) and peers might moderate such effects. Data were drawn from the ESPAD ® Italia2012 survey (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) comprising a nationally representative Italian sample of adolescents. The analysis was carried out on a subsample of 10,063 Italian students aged 15-19 years (average age = 17.10; 55 % girls) who had at least one older sibling and who had gambled at some point in their lives. Respondents' problem gambling severity, older gambler sibling, gambler peers, parental knowledge, and socio-demographic characteristics were individually assessed. Multinomial logistic regression analyses including two- and three-way interactions were conducted. The odds of being an at-risk/problem gambler were higher among high school students with older siblings that gambled and those with peers who gambled. Higher parental knowledge (of who the adolescent was with and where they were in their leisure time) was associated with lower rates of at-risk/problem gambling. There was also an interaction between gamblers with older siblings and parental knowledge. The combination of having siblings who gambled and a greater level of parental knowledge was associated with lower levels of problem gambling. The present study confirmed the occurrence of social risk processes (older siblings and peers who gambled) and demonstrated that gambling among older siblings and peers represents an important contextual factor for increased at-risk/problem gambling. However, parental knowledge appears to be sufficient to counterbalance the influence of older siblings.

  8. Development of a coping with stress scale for a non-western population of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökler DanIşman, Ilgın; Yıldız, Nejla; Yiğit, İbrahim

    2017-11-01

    In the related literature numerous instruments have been developed to measure children and adolescents' coping with stress. Considering the cultural differences in individuals' choice for coping strategies, along with the limitations of the existing measures of coping for children and adolescents (e.g., being derived from coping measures developed for adults; unrepresentative samples with limited age range, etc.), the current study aimed to construct a self-report coping scale for a non-western population of children and adolescents. The study design included both qualitative and quantitative methodology. Three consecutive studies were conducted for the development and validation of the Children and Adolescents' Coping with Stress Scale (CACSS), a self-report measure assessing coping strategies of children and adolescents aged from 9 to 18 in response to self-identified stressors. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a 61-item CACSS with 10 factors. The scale appears to have a clear factor structure; sufficient temporal stability; and good convergent, discriminant, and construct validity. By addressing limitations of existing coping scales, CACSS is believed to contribute to the literature as a developmentally appropriate and multidimensional tool.

  9. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Association between socioeconomic and health factors and edentulism in people aged 65 and older - a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Hanna; Ulander, Eva Lena; Gustafson, Yngve; Hörnsten, Carl

    2017-08-01

    To study edentulism and use of dental services in a population-based sample of people aged 65 years and older from northern Sweden and western Finland. In 2010, people aged 65, 70, 75 and 80 years who were living in one of 32 municipalities in northern Sweden and western Finland were invited to answer a questionnaire as part of the Gerontological Regional Database (GERDA) study ( n = 6099). The questionnaire contained items related to socioeconomic status, general health and edentulism. The prevalence of edentulism was 34.9% in Finland, compared with 20.6% in Sweden ( p < 0.001), 31.9% in rural areas, compared with 20.9% in urban areas ( p < 0.001), and 25% overall. The prevalence of edentulism rose from 17.8% in 65-year-olds, 23.8% in 70-year-olds, 33.5% in 75-year-olds and 37.3% in 80-year-olds ( p < 0.001), and was 23.8% in women, compared with 27% in men ( p < 0.001). In multivariate models, edentulism was associated with lower educational level (odds ratio (OR) 2.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31-3.58), low income level (OR 1.7, CI 1.09-1.47), residence in a rural area (OR 1.43, CI 1.23-1.66), male sex (OR 1.30, CI 1.12-1.52), dependence in instrumental activities of daily living (OR 1.48, CI 1.25-1.74), social isolation (OR 1.52, CI 1.17-1.98) and poor self-experienced health (OR 1.38, CI 1.17-1.62). One-quarter of the total sample was edentulous, with a higher prevalence of edentulism in Finland than in Sweden and in rural than in urban areas. Edentulism was associated with socioeconomic, psychological and health-related factors. These findings could be used to inform preventive measures and identify people aged 65 years and older who are in need of oral care.

  11. Childhood deprivation and later-life cognitive function in a population-based study of older rural South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Glymour, M Maria; Kahn, Kathleen; Payne, Collin F; Wagner, Ryan G; Montana, Livia; Mateen, Farrah J; Tollman, Stephen M; Berkman, Lisa F

    2017-10-01

    Little research has evaluated the life course drivers of cognitive aging in South Africa. We investigated the relationships of self-rated childhood health and father's occupation during childhood with later-life cognitive function score and whether educational attainment mediated these relationships among older South Africans living in a former region of Apartheid-era racial segregation. Data were from baseline assessments of "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community" (HAALSI), a population-based study of 5059 men and women aged ≥40 years in 2015 in rural Agincourt sub-district, South Africa. Childhood health, father's occupation during childhood, and years of education were self-reported in study interviews. Cognitive measures assessed time orientation, numeracy, and word recall, which were included in a z-standardized latent cognitive function score variable. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and country of birth were used to estimate the total and direct effects of each childhood risk factor, and the indirect effects mediated by years of education. Poor childhood health predicted lower cognitive scores (total effect = -0.28; 95% CI = -0.35, -0.21, versus good); this effect was not mediated by educational attainment. Having a father in a professional job during childhood, while rare (3% of sample), predicted better cognitive scores (total effect = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.10, 0.40, versus unskilled manual labor, 29% of sample). Half of this effect was mediated by educational attainment. Education was linearly associated with later-life cognitive function score (0.09; 95% CI = 0.09, 0.10 per year achieved). In this post-Apartheid, rural South African context, older adults with poor self-reported childhood health or whose father worked in unskilled manual labor had relatively poor cognitive outcomes. Educational attainment strongly predicted cognitive outcomes, and appeared to be, in part, a mechanism of social

  12. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  13. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  14. Oral health status of intellectually disabled school children and adolescents, in a Chilean population, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcés

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the oral health status of intellectually disabled (ID children and adolescents from state schools, Valdivia, Chile, 2012. Design: Descriptive study. A sample of students from state schools was assessed for caries history (Decayed, Missing, Filled permanent Teeth (DMFT/decayed, extracted, filled temporal teeth (deft, quality of oral hygiene (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, OHI-S and gingival health (Gingival Index, GI. In addition, questions were asked about dental care habits, degree of ID, presence of systemic disease and medicine use. Results: 195 students with slight to moderate ID and aged from 6 to 21 years were assessed. The average DMFT/deft was 2.19/1.33 for female students and 1.59/1.93 for male students. The OHI-S in 75.9% of participants was moderate, with poorer oral hygiene found in participants with moderate ID. Only 2.6% showed code 0 for GI, reflecting poor oral hygiene. Most participants possessed their own toothbrush (88.2% and could clean their teeth unaided (96.4%.Conclusion: The state of oral health in the assessed population is deficient. The quality of oral hygiene is normal or poor, which leads to poor gingival health.

  15. Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption in adolescents from a multicultural population (Burela, Lugo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Geada, Ainara; Busto Miramontes, Alicia; Caamaño Isorna, Francisco

    2018-01-15

    Social inequalities have been associated with morbidity and mortality. Gender, ethnic group and inequalities were studied in an adolescent population to analyze alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption. We carried out a cross-sectional study of pupils from high schools in Burela (northern Spain) (n=238). We used the "Factors de Risc en Estudiants de Secundária" questionnaire designed by Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona. nationality and weekly pocket money. Dependent variables: expectations and consumption of alcohol, tobacco and marihuana. Logistic regression was used. Participation in the study reached 91%. The proportion of pupils that have tried alcohol on occasion increases with age (27.3%, 47.7%, 75.9%), as with tobacco (1.8%, 7.6%, 17.0%), and cannabis (0%, 3.1%, 7.0%). Higher levels of spending money constitute a risk factor for tasting alcohol (OR=3.01), for high-risk consumption (OR=3.35), for getting drunk (OR=6.45) and for trying marijuana (OR=15.30). Sex and nationality were not shown to be associated with the use of any of these three drugs. The results of our study show that consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis increases with age and with increased spending money. The data do not support the argument that foreign pupils are a risk group for alcohol consumption, so they should not be stigmatized.

  16. Suicide ideation and attempts and bullying in children and adolescents: psychiatric and general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.

  17. Feminization of the fat distribution pattern of children and adolescents in a recent German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Christiane; Dammhahn, Melanie

    2017-09-10

    During the early 1990s, the economic and political situation in eastern Germany changed overnight. Here, we use the rare chance of an experiment-like setting in humans and aim to test whether the rapid change of environmental conditions in eastern Germany in the 1990s led to a change in the sex-specific fat distribution pattern, an endocrine-influenced phenotypic marker. Based on a cross-sectional data set of 6- to 18-year-old girls and boys measured between 1982-1991 and 1997-2012, we calculated a skinfold ratio of triceps to subscapular and percentage of body fat. Using linear regressions, we tested for differences in percentage of body fat and skinfold ratio between these two time periods. We found that the percentage of body fat increased in boys and girls, and they accumulated relatively more fat on extremities than on the trunk in all BMI groups measured after 1997 as compared to those measured between 1982 and 1991. Concurrent with drastic and rapid changes of environmental conditions, the body fat distribution of children and adolescents changed to a more feminized pattern during the early 1990s in an East German population. The changes in this endocrinologically mediated pattern might be associated with the increased exposure of individuals to endocrine-disrupting chemicals which are known to influence the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems in animals and humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analysis of the life-style and dietary habits of a population of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Cañadas, Gustavo R; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo Arturo

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to ascertain whether the nutritional status of a population of secondary school students had improved after an educational intervention; (ii) to analyze whether students had adopted healthier eating and exercise habits after participating in a health education intervention; (iii) to discover whether the students spent less time on sedentary leisure activities after the intervention. The population of the sample consisted of 138 adolescents, age range was between 14-19 years old: 67 males (48.6%) and 71 females (51.4%). They were students at two public secondary schools in the city of Almería (Spain). In the first phase (15-30 September 2011) of this three-phase study, the nutritional status of the students was assessed by means of anthropometry. In the second phase (1 October 2012-15 June 2012), the students participated in an educational intervention that fomented awareness of the benefits derived from healthy eating habits and physical exercise. In the third and final phase (16-31 June 2012), the effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated. After the intervention, statistically significant differences (p sedentary leisure activities, there was also a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.000) in the number of hours spent watching television for both male and female subjects. The results of this study show the effectiveness of the contents, activities, and duration of this health education intervention to encourage the subjects to modify their dietary and exercise habits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Social vulnerability from a social ecology perspective: a cohort study of older adults from the National Population Health Survey of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous social factors, generally studied in isolation, have been associated with older adults’ health. Even so, older people’s social circumstances are complex and an approach which embraces this complexity is desirable. Here we investigate many social factors in relation to one another and to survival among older adults using a social ecology perspective to measure social vulnerability among older adults. Methods 2740 adults aged 65 and older were followed for ten years in the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Twenty-three individual-level social variables were drawn from the 1994 NPHS and five Enumeration Area (EA)-level variables were abstracted from the 1996 Canadian Census using postal code linkage. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify dimensions of social vulnerability. All social variables were summed to create a social vulnerability index which was studied in relation to ten-year mortality. Results The PCA was limited by low variance (47%) explained by emergent factors. Seven dimensions of social vulnerability emerged in the most robust, yet limited, model: social support, engagement, living situation, self-esteem, sense of control, relations with others and contextual socio-economic status. These dimensions showed complex inter-relationships and were situated within a social ecology framework, considering spheres of influence from the individual through to group, neighbourhood and broader societal levels. Adjusting for age, sex, and frailty, increasing social vulnerability measured using the cumulative social vulnerability index was associated with increased risk of mortality over ten years in a Cox regression model (HR 1.04, 95% CI:1.01-1.07, p = 0.01). Conclusions Social vulnerability has important independent influence on older adults’ health though relationships between contributing variables are complex and do not lend themselves well to fragmentation into a small number of discrete factors. A

  20. Application of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) in a rural, Zulu speaking, adolescent population in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Christopher P; Allwood, Clifford W

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken as part of an exploration of the potential risk for future eating disorders in the black female population of South Africa. Previous research has documented eating attitudes suggesting that such a risk exists in urban populations. A translated version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied in a Zulu speaking, rural population (n=361). A prevalence of 3% for abnormal eating attitudes was established. In keeping with the hypothesis, the findings suggest that the risk for developing an eating disorder in a rural population is somewhat lower. In this regard, there does appear to be an urban-rural divide, which may have implications for the prevention of the emergence of eating disorders in black, South African adolescents. However, the validity of the EAT-26 in this population is a consideration in interpreting the data. PMID:16633489

  1. Association between plasma leptin and blood pressure in two population-based samples of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index...... in the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....

  2. Short-term Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in an Adolescent Population on 3D Knee Kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Guillaume; Fuentes, Alexandre; Therrien, Marc; Grimard, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Gait analysis is a proven method for assessing knee biomechanical adaptations in anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) patients and to quantify the impact of the reconstructive surgery (ACLR). In an adult population, ACLR has shown partial kinematic correction, as they remain in internal tibial rotation, putting them at risk of rotational instability and develop osteoartitis. ACLD adolescents likely adopt similar gait changes to reduce knee instability, but may show quicker ...

  3. IQ and obesity in adolescence: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S; Werbeloff, N; Fruchter, E; Portuguese, S; Davidson, M; Weiser, M

    2014-12-01

    Low IQ is associated with high BMI in childhood. There are inconsistent findings on the association between low SES and high BMI. Youth with low IQ have been reported to have poorer health behaviors, such as poor nutrition and less physical activity. Low IQ is significantly associated with obesity for both male and female adolescents, though more strongly for female adolescents. Physical activity has a mediating effect on the association between low IQ and obesity among both male and female adolescents, though more strongly for male adolescents. The association between low IQ and obesity is strongest among adolescents from high SES backgrounds. Previous studies have shown an association between low intelligence quotient (IQ), high body mass index and low socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined the cross-sectional association between IQ and obesity, exploring the roles of gender, SES and physical activity in this association. Subjects were 235,663 male and 169,259 female adolescents assessed by the Israeli military draft board. Low IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of obesity among male (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-1.52) and female adolescents (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.51-1.73); this association was significantly stronger among female adolescents. Sobel tests indicated that physical activity had a significant mediating effect on this association for male and female adolescents, although more strongly for male adolescents. Dividing the sample according to SES, the association between low IQ and obesity was strongest in the high SES group (male adolescents: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10-1.43, female adolescents: OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.38-1.89), even when controlling for physical activity. The findings suggest that low IQ is associated with increased odds of obesity, particularly in female adolescents and in adolescents with high SES. Physical activity has a mediating effect on this

  4. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  5. A systematic review of school-based interventions targeting physical activity and sedentary behaviour among older adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynynen, S-T; van Stralen, M M; Sniehotta, F F; Araújo-Soares, V; Hardeman, W; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Vasankari, T.; Hankonen, N.

    2016-01-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with health problems. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of school-based interventions to increase PA and decrease SB among 15-19-year-old adolescents, and examines whether intervention

  6. The Influence of Culture on Parenting Practices of East Asian Families and Emotional Intelligence of Older Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Helen Y.

    2010-01-01

    Academic success among East Asian students is well known and almost stereotypical. Yet the attention to emotional well-being continues to be minimal. The discrepancy between academic success and social/emotional difficulties appears to be a problem among East Asian adolescents. This qualitative grounded theory study examines how the cultural…

  7. The Drift toward Problem Behavior during the Transition to Adolescence: The Contributions of Youth Disclosure, Parenting, and Older Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2012-01-01

    Prospective associations of mothers' parenting processes, youth disclosure, and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a 3-year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and was negatively related to problem behavior, and…

  8. Association between Polyphenol Intake and Hypertension in Adults and Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Machado Miranda

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and diet has been identified as a modifiable factor for preventing and controlling hypertension. Besides, epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols and hypertension in a general population of Sao Paulo.Data came from the 'Health Survey of Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital' among 550 adults and older adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR. Usual intakes were calculated using the Multiple Source Method. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the Phenol-Explorer database. The associations between the hypertension and tertiles of the total and classes of polyphenols intake were tested by multivariate logistic regression analysis.After multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors the findings showed an inverse and linearly association between the hypertension and highest tertiles of tyrosols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.18, 0.64, alkylphenols (OR = 0.45; 95%CI 0.23, 0.87, lignans (OR = 0.49; 95%CI 0.25, 0.98, as well as stilbenes (OR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.36, 0.98, and other polyphenols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.14, 0.74. However, total polyphenol intake, and phenolic acids were significantly associated only in the middle tertile with hypertension and flavonoids were not significant associated.There is an inverse and linearly association between the highest tertile of some classes of polyphenols, such as, tyrosols, alkylphenols, lignans, stilbenes, other polyphenols and hypertension.

  9. The Associations of Parenting Factors with Adolescent Body Mass Index in an Underserved Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The current study examined parental factors related to risk of adolescent obesity within the context of a family systems framework. Methods. Seventy predominantly African American, low-income caregiver-adolescent dyads participated in the study. Validated measures of parental perceived child risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, parental limit setting for sedentary behavior, and parental nurturance were evaluated as predictors of adolescent body mass index. Results. In this cross-sectional study, multiple linear regression demonstrated that parents of adolescents with higher zBMI reported worrying more about their child's risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Parent limit setting was also a significant predictor of adolescent zBMI. Contrary to expectations, higher levels of nurturance were associated with higher adolescent zBMI. Post hoc analyses revealed a trend towards a significant interaction between nurturance and limit setting, such that high levels of both parental nurturance and limit setting were associated with lower adolescent zBMI. Conclusions. Current findings suggest the importance of authoritative parenting and monitoring of adolescent health behaviors in the treatment of obesity.

  10. Bidirectionality in the relationship between asthma and smoking in adolescents : A population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ven, Monique O. M. Van; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    Purpose: Several cross-sectional studies have showed higher smoking rates among adolescents with asthma, but hardly any study has investigated this relation longitudinally. This study examines whether these cross-sectional results are caused by higher smoking onset among adolescents with asthma, or

  11. Substance use in adulthood following adolescent self-harm: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P; Coffey, C; Romaniuk, H; Degenhardt, L; Borschmann, R; Patton, G C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of heavy and dependent substance use in adulthood. Method Fifteen-year prospective cohort study of a random sample of 1943 adolescents recruited from secondary schools across the state of Victoria, Australia. Data pertaining to self-harm and substance use was obtained at seven waves of follow-up, from mean age 15.9 years to mean age 29.1 years. Results Substance use and self-harm were strongly associated during the adolescent years (odds ratio (OR): 3.3, 95% CI 2.1–5.0). Moreover, adolescent self-harmers were at increased risk of substance use and dependence syndromes in young adulthood. Self-harm predicted a four-fold increase in the odds of multiple dependence syndromes (sex- and wave-adjusted OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.7–6.6). Adjustment for adolescent anxiety/depression attenuated but did not eliminate most associations. Adolescent substance use confounded all associations, with the exception of multiple dependence syndromes, which remained robustly associated with adolescent self-harm (fully adjusted odds ratio: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2–3.2). Conclusion Adolescent self-harm is an independent risk factor for multiple dependence syndromes in adulthood. This level of substance misuse is likely to contribute substantially to the premature mortality and disease burden experienced by individuals who self-harm. PMID:24954250

  12. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Rey de Castro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile. Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7), 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status). We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main outcomes were short- (Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0]) on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1]) during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%]) and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%]), respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%); both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment. Conclusions. In this nationally representative sample, the sociodemographic profile of short-sleep contrasts the long-sleep. These scenarios in Peru, as depicted by sleeping

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of early onset of sexual intercourse in a random sample of a multiethnic adolescent population in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Gülen; Martin, Loic; Levy-Loeb, Mathieu; Thomas, Stéphanie; Euzet, Géneviève; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    French Guiana, a French overseas department in South America, has been classified epidemic for HIV. This territory is consisting of a very young population with almost 45% of them being younger than 20 years of age. Delaying the onset of first sexual intercourse (SI) is one of the major objectives to fight HIV infection in adolescents. The objective of this study is to identify the age of first SI and the risk factors of early onset. A behavioural surveillance survey among students living on the coastline and alongside the Maroni River was conducted in 2011/2012. A total of 1603 students filled out the survey. While 60% had already SI, the mean age of first intercourse was 12.1 years for boys and 13.9 years for girls. Accordingly, over 90% had a premature onset of SI. Risk factors are age, male gender, living alongside the Maroni River, another language than the French being mother tongue, not being religious, alcohol and cannabis consumption and a bad attitude towards condom use. Risk factors for girls are an older first sexual partner, having more than three lifetime sexual partners and condom rupture. Evidence-based implementation with respect of local and socio-demographic aspects is necessary to improve youths' appreciation of SI and related risk of sexual transmitted diseases.

  14. Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection – a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravningen Kirsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years. Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%. Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0. Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4, ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3, and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7 increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42 decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0 increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6, and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8. Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia

  15. Does asthma affect school performance in adolescents? Results from the Swedish population-based birth cohort BAMSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sara; Ödling, Maria; Andersson, Niklas; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger

    2018-03-01

    Asthma is common among schoolchildren and may influence quality of life and school attendance. However, it is unclear if asthma affects school performance. The aim of this study was to examine whether different phenotypes of asthma affect school performance during adolescence. The study population consisted of 1715 adolescents from a population-based birth cohort, followed up to age 16 with questionnaires and clinical examinations. Asthma was defined as at least 4 wheeze episodes or at least 1 wheeze episode in combination with inhaled steroids in the last 12 months. School grades were obtained from Statistics Sweden, and logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between the final overall grade from secondary school and asthma phenotypes. Among the adolescents, 20.8% have had ever asthma; 24.2% early transient, 47.2% school-age onset, and 24.2% persistent asthma. At 16 years, 7.8% had asthma; 71.7% multimorbidity and 73.9% allergic asthma. A statistically significant association for performing less well was seen for ever asthma (OR adj  = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09-1.88). In analyses of asthma onset, an association was seen for school-age onset (OR adj  = 1.49, CI = 1.02-2.16) and a tendency for persistent asthma (OR adj  = 1.61, CI = 0.98-2.66), although with overlapping confidence intervals. Further, adolescents with uncontrolled asthma tended to perform less well (OR adj  = 2.60, CI = 0.87-7.80) compared to adolescents with partly controlled (OR adj  = 1.12, CI = 0.68-1.83) and fully controlled (OR adj  = 1.29, CI = 0.55-3.01) asthma. Our results indicate that asthma impairs school performance in adolescence. Moreover, some evidence suggests the adolescents with asthma during school age and with poorer asthma control to be more likely to perform less well. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  16. Association of Neck Circumference and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban and Rural Population in North Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Balaji, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Since a few studies exist on the association of neck circumference (NC) and obesity with blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in India, we found it highly relevant to measure the NC and body mass index (BMI) using them as indicators of upper body subcutaneous fat and obesity and relate them to BP in a rural and urban adolescent population in North Tamil Nadu. This is a community-based cross-sectional study of descriptive design where 500 students from urban and rural areas were selected, and their BMI, NC, and BP were measured using standardized instruments. Among urban and rural population high and normal NC positively correlated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), indicating that the data clearly reflects increase in BMI, SBP, and DBP values with increase in NC or vice versa. The correlation was statistically significant ( P < 0.001) significantly higher BMI ( P < 0.01), SBP ( P < 0.05), and NC ( P < 0.001) was observed in urban population than rural. DBP was not significantly different in rural and urban population. 95 th percentile values are significantly higher than rest in both urban and rural population. Only the 95 th percentile values correlate and reflect similar changes in BMI, SBP, and DBP. Our studies indicate a strong association of elevation in BP with high NC and increase in BMI. Overweight and obesity were positively correlated with increase in SBP and DBP.

  17. Relations of the Big-Five personality dimensions to autodestructive behavior in clinical and non-clinical adolescent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla Topic, Marina; Perkovic Kovacevic, Marina; Mlacic, Boris

    2012-10-01

    To examine the relationship between the Big-Five personality model and autodestructive behavior symptoms, namely Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression in two groups of participants: clinical and non-clinical adolescents. Two groups of participants, clinical (adolescents with diagnosis of psychiatric disorder based on clinical impression and according to valid diagnostic criteria, N=92) and non-clinical (high-school students, N=87), completed two sets of questionnaires: the Autodestructiveness Scale which provided data on Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression, and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), which provided data on the Big -Five personality dimensions. Clinical group showed significantly higher values on the Autodestructiveness scale in general, as well as on Suicidal Depression, Aggressiveness, and Borderline subscales than the non-clinical group. Some of the dimensions of the Big-Five personality model, ie, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness showed significant relationship (hierarchical regression analyses, P values for β coefficients from 0.000 to 0.021) with Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression, even after controlling for the sex and group effects or, when analyzing Suicidal Depression, after controlling the effect of other subscales. The results indicate that dimensions of the Big-Five model are important when evaluating adolescent psychiatric patients and adolescents from general population at risk of self-destructive behavior.

  18. Relations of the Big-Five personality dimensions to autodestructive behavior in clinical and non-clinical adolescent populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla Topić, Marina; Perković Kovačević, Marina; Mlačić, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Aim To examine the relationship between the Big-Five personality model and autodestructive behavior symptoms, namely Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression in two groups of participants: clinical and non-clinical adolescents. Methods Two groups of participants, clinical (adolescents with diagnosis of psychiatric disorder based on clinical impression and according to valid diagnostic criteria, N = 92) and non-clinical (high-school students, N = 87), completed two sets of questionnaires: the Autodestructiveness Scale which provided data on Autodestructiveness and Suicidal Depression, and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), which provided data on the Big -Five personality dimensions. Results Clinical group showed significantly higher values on the Autodestructiveness scale in general, as well as on Suicidal Depression, Aggressiveness, and Borderline subscales than the non-clinical group. Some of the dimensions of the Big-Five personality model, ie, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness showed significant relationship (hierarchical regression analyses, P values for β coefficients from Big-Five model are important when evaluating adolescent psychiatric patients and adolescents from general population at risk of self-destructive behavior. PMID:23100207

  19. The social and ecological integration of captive-raised adolescent male African elephants (Loxodonta africana into a wild population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be

  20. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Capra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...... corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results....

  1. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts.Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry.Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann–Whitney, p = 0.153, as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354. The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F(24, 264 = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer (p < 0.05 in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects.Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years. However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fitness.

  2. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Burton, Samantha; Gordon, Christopher; Mack, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts. Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old) participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry. Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann-Whitney, p = 0.153), as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively) and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354). The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F (24, 264) = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer ( p < 0.05) in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years). However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fitness.

  3. Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

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    Allegrante John P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact.

  4. The Drift toward Problem Behavior during the Transition to Adolescence: The Contributions of Youth Disclosure, Parenting, and Older Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2011-01-01

    Prospective associations of mothers’ parenting processes, youth disclosure and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a three year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and negatively related to problem behavior, and coercive parenting was negatively associated with youth disclosure and positively related to problem behavior. When the influence of olde...

  5. Negative social comparisons and psychosis proneness in a healthy adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotier, F A; Toulopoulou, T

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence of an association between negative social comparisons (NSC) and both psychosis, and psychosis proneness. The majority of the work thus far, however, has focused largely on one type of NSC, namely, social rank. Whilst social rank is clearly an important factor, an individual's perception of belonging is likely also of importance; particularly, when considering individuals from collectivistic cultures such as China, where greater emphasis is placed on fitting into the group. There is also limited research investigating what factors may contribute towards the relationship between NSC and psychosis proneness, and to what extent this relationship may be due to common familial factors. To address these issues, we examined whether (1) Social rank and perceived belonging predict negative, positive and depressive psychotic experiences in a Chinese, adolescent, twin and sibling population, (2) coping styles moderate the impact of these relationships and (3), there is a familial association between NSC and psychosis proneness. Both social rank and perceived belonging were found to predict the negative and depressive dimensions of psychosis. These relationships were moderated by problem-focused coping styles. Interestingly, the association between perception of belonging, and negative psychotic experiences was familial-and stronger in Monozygotic twins-indicating perhaps shared aetiology due to common genes. Our findings highlight NSC as potential vulnerability markers for negative and depressive psychotic experiences, and suggest potentially different aetiological pathways amongst different NSC and different psychotic experiences. On a clinical level, our findings emphasize the need to consider coping styles when treating at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative Skeletal Maturation and Population Ancestry in Nonobese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Shana E; Chesi, Alessandra; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Roy, Sani M; Cousminer, Diana L; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Mahboubi, Soroosh; Winer, Karen K; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2017-01-01

    More rapid skeletal maturation in African-American (AA) children is recognized and generally attributed to an increased prevalence of obesity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of population ancestry on relative skeletal maturation in healthy, non-obese children and adolescents, accounting for body composition and sexual maturation. To do this, we leveraged a multiethnic, mixed-longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 years (The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study and its ancillary cohort) conducted at five US clinical centers. Participants included 1592 children, skeletally immature (45% females, 19% AA) who were aged 5 to 17 years at study entry. The primary outcome measure was relative skeletal maturation as assessed by hand-wrist radiograph. Additional covariates measured included anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and Tanner stage of sexual maturation. Using mixed effects longitudinal models, without covariates, advancement in relative skeletal maturation was noted in self-reported AA girls (∼0.33 years, p ancestry groups showed independent positive associations of height, lean mass, fat mass, and puberty with relative skeletal maturation. The effect of ancestry was attenuated but persistent after accounting for covariates: for girls, 0.19 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.02) or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004); and for boys, 0.20 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.004), or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004). In summary, we conclude that advancement in relative skeletal maturation was associated with AA ancestry in healthy, non-obese children, independent of growth, body composition, and puberty. Further research into the mechanisms underlying this observation may provide insights into the regulation of skeletal maturation. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and

  7. Social and behavioral risk factors for maxillary incisor trauma in an adolescent Arab population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artun, Jon; Al-Azemi, Rashed

    2009-12-01

    The majority of dental traumas are due to falls or blows during regular activity, personal interaction and play inside or outside the home, suggesting that behaviors associated with certain social conditions are risk factors. Our purpose was to explore that hypothesis. We examined a population-based sample of 1583 13-14-year-old subjects in a classroom setting. Incisor trauma was scored according to the National Institute of Dental Research index, and overjet was measured to the nearest 0.5 mm. Presence of mesial migration and/or loss of first molars and/or open caries in permanent teeth were recorded and categorized as increased caries experience. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from standardized measurements of height and weight, as weight in kg height(-1) in m(2). Obesity was scored if BMI exceeded 30. Information on participation in physical activities, family income, and number of siblings was collected through subject and family interview. Univariate logistic regression detected reduced trauma risk among subjects of high income families (P = 0.009) and among subjects attending private schools (P = 0.026). Sports and physical activities were more prevalent in boys than in girls (P = 0.000) and associated with trauma in the sample as a whole (P = 0.001), but not separately in boys and girls. No effect was detected of obesity, number of siblings and increased caries experience. Univariate analyzes also detected increased trauma risk in boys (P = 0.000) and in subjects with increasing intervals of overjet (P = 0.000). Following use of multiple regressions with forward selection, only male gender, increasing overjet, and high family income were included in the final prediction model. Our findings suggest that behaviors associated with high family income and private school attendance reduce the risk of incisor trauma among adolescents in Kuwait, and that the gender difference in sports activities is an unlikely explanation for the gender difference in trauma.

  8. [Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and associated factors in Spanish population of school children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca-Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara; Moreno-Gónzalez, Paula; Malumbres-Chacón, María

    2017-08-08

    To analyse the prevalence of hypovitaminosisD and associated factors in school children and adolescents living in a region of northern Spain. Cross-sectional study (convenience sampling). Primary Health Care. A total of 602 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4years) were included in the study. Prevalence of hypovitaminosisD were calculated (dependent variable). HypovitaminosisD is defined according to the US Endocrine Society criteria: deficiency (calcidiol <20ng/mL), insufficiency (calcidiol: 20-29ng/mL), and sufficiency (calcidiol ≥30ng/mL). Gender, age, body mass index, residence, and season of the year were recorded (independent variables), and their association with hypovitaminosisD was analysed by multiple regression. The prevalence of hypovitaminosisD was 60.4% (insufficiency: 44.6%; deficiency: 15.8%). Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated to hypovitaminosisD were being female (OR: 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.3), pubertal age (OR: 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), autumn (OR: 9.5; 95%CI: 4.8-18.7), winter (OR: 8.8; 95%CI: 4.5-17.5) and spring time (OR: 13.2; 95%CI: 6.4-27.5), living in urban areas (OR:1.6; CI95%: 1.1-2.2), and severe obesity (OR: 4.4; 95%CI: 1.9-10.3). There is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosisD in juvenile populations. being female, pubertal age, autumn, winter and spring seasons, severe obesity, and living in urban areas are factors associated to hypovitaminosisD. Consideration should be given to the administration of vitamin supplements and/or the increase in the ingestion of natural vitaminD dietary sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlberg Michael

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6% and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate

  10. Symptoms of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties in the Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes – results of a national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lene Juel; Birkebæk, Niels; Mose, Anne

    2014-01-01

    AND METHOD: A total of 786 children and adolescents (8-17 years) recruited through the Danish Registry of Childhood Diabetes completed subscales of the Beck's Youth Inventories (BYI-Y), while 910 caregivers completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The participants also completed...... questionnaires assessing adherence and quality of life. BYI-Y and SDQ responses were compared with results from normative samples. RESULTS: Children with diabetes generally reported a lower level of symptoms of depression and anxiety, while older adolescents in most cases were comparable to the normative samples...

  11. Future trends in the prevalence of severe activity limitations among older adults in Europe: a cross-national population study using EU-SILC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbov, Sergei; Weber, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objective To project the proportion of population 65+ years with severe long-term activity limitations from 2017 to 2047. Design Large population study. Setting Population living in private households of the European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. Participants Participants from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions aged 55 years and older and living in one of 26 EU and neighbouring countries, who answered the health section of the questionnaire. Outcome measures Prevalence of severe long-term activity limitations of particular subpopulations (ie, 55+, 65+, 75+ and 85+ years) by sex and country. Results We find a huge variation in the prevalence of self-reported severe long-term limitations across Europe for both sexes. However, in 2017, about 20% of the female population aged 65 years and above and about 16% of their male counterparts are expected to report severe long-term activity limitations after accounting for differences in reporting. Accounting for cultural differences in reporting, we expect that European countries will have about 21% (decile 1: 19.5%; decile 9: 22.9%) of female and about 16.8% (decile 1: 15.4%; decile 9: 18.1%) of male 65+ years population with severe long-term activity limitations by 2047. Conclusions Overall, despite the expected increase of life expectancy in European countries, our results suggest almost constant shares of older adults with severe long-term activity limitations within the next 30 years. PMID:29061570

  12. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, Depression, Depressive Illness, and Correlates in a Child and Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Gulisano, Mariangela; Martino, Davide; Robertson, Mary May

    2017-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and depression are both common disorders. It has been suggested that depression occurs in 13%-76% GTS patients. Despite this, there are few studies into the specific relationships and correlates between the two disorders. There is only some consensus as to the precise relationship between the two disorders. We undertook the study to investigate the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the core clinical features of GTS in a well-characterized clinical population of youth with this disorder. Our aim was to verify the association between depression and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and explore further other potential associations highlighted in some, but not all, of the studies focused on this topic. Our results demonstrated that (1) the GTS patients were significantly older than the controls, (2) the GTS patients were significantly more depressed than controls, (3) depression was associated with tic severity, (4) the Diagnostic Confidence Index scores were higher in GTS patients without depression, (5) anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and behavioral problems were significantly associated with depression, and (6) finally, patients with GTS and depression have a positive family history of depression. However, obsessionality (CY-BOCS) did not differentiate between depressed and not depressed GTS patients. Depression is common in patients with GTS and occurs significantly more in GTS than in controls. Depression is significantly associated with GTS factors such as tic severity, comorbidity with ADHD, and the presence of coexistent anxiety, CDs, and behavior problems. Depression is importantly significantly associated with a positive family history of depression. Intriguingly, depression in our sample was not related to obsessionality.

  13. An Integrated Model of Suicidal Ideation in Transcultural Populations of Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cyrus L K; Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Ling, Chloe C Y

    2016-07-01

    This study tested the model of suicidal ideation, incorporating family and personal factors to predict suicidal ideation with hopelessness as a mediating factor in the Hong Kong sample, to a sample in Shanghai. Using MGSEM, the study aims to investigate the personal correlates and the family correlates of suicidal ideation in Hong Kong and Shanghai adolescents. We integrated the family ecological and diathesis-stress-hopelessness models of suicidal ideation in connecting the correlates. A cross-sectional design was used. The full model achieved metric invariance and partial path-loading invariance. Family functioning and social problem solving negatively predicted hopelessness or suicidal ideation in both the Hong Kong and Shanghai adolescents. The results supported an integrative approach in facilitating parent-adolescent communication and strengthening family functioning, and reducing the use of negative social problem-solving styles in adolescent suicide prevention.

  14. Axis I anxiety and mental health disorders among stuttering adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental

  15. Prevalence, comorbidity and heritability of hoarding symptoms in adolescence: a population based twin study in 15-year olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volen Z Ivanov

    Full Text Available Hoarding Disorder (HD is often assumed to be an 'old age' problem, but many individuals diagnosed with HD retrospectively report first experiencing symptoms in childhood or adolescence. We examined the prevalence, comorbidity and etiology of hoarding symptoms in adolescence.To determine the presence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms, a population-based sample of 15-year old twins (N = 3,974 completed the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self Report. Co-occurring Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD were estimated from parental report. Model-fitting analyses divided hoarding symptom scores into additive genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects.The prevalence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms was 2% (95% CI 1.6-2.5%, with a significantly higher prevalence in girls than boys. Exclusion of the clutter criterion (as adolescents do not have control over their environment increased the prevalence rate to 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.3%. Excessive acquisition was reported by 30-40% among those with clinically significant hoarding symptoms. The prevalence of co-occurring OCD (2.9%, ASD (2.9% and ADHD (10.0% was comparable in hoarding and non-hoarding teenagers. Model-fitting analyses suggested that, in boys, additive genetic (32%; 95% CI 13-44% and non-shared environmental effects accounted for most of the variance. In contrast, among girls, shared and non-shared environmental effects explained most of the variance, while additive genetic factors played a negligible role.Hoarding symptoms are relatively prevalent in adolescents, particularly in girls, and cause distress and/or impairment. Hoarding was rarely associated with other common neurodevelopmental disorders, supporting its DSM-5 status as an independent diagnosis. The relative importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for hoarding differed across sexes. The findings are suggestive of

  16. Perceived family functioning, adolescent psychopathology and quality of life in the general population: a 6-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefiak, Thomas; Wallander, Jan L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether perceived family functioning of adolescent is moderating or mediating the longitudinal association of adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology with quality of life (QoL) after 6 months in the general population. Using a cluster sampling technique in one Norwegian county 1331, 10- to 16-year-old students were included in the study (51 % girls). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for the assessment of adolescent psychopathology at Time 1. The students completed the General Functioning Scale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents at time 2 6 months later. Psychopathology, family functioning and QoL were treated as latent variables in a structural equation model adjusted for sex, age and parent education. The regression coefficients for paths from psychopathology decreased (β = .199 for the internalizing and β = .102 for the externalizing model) in each case when including the indirect path via family functioning compared with the direct path from psychopathology to QoL. The sum of indirect effects on QoL via family functioning was significant for internalizing β = 0.093 (95 % CI 0.054-0.133) and externalizing β = 0.119 (95 % CI 0.076-0.162) psychopathology. Family functioning significantly mediated the longitudinal association between psychopathology and QoL. Because the family remains an important social domain for adolescents, it must be an important consideration when attempting to reduce or alleviate psychopathology in youth and improve the quality of their life experience throughout this period.

  17. Predictors of short-term mortality, cognitive and physical decline in older adults in northwest Russia: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turusheva, Anna; Frolova, Elena; Hegendoerfer, Eralda; Degryse, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The classical phenotype, accumulated deficit model and self-report approach of frailty were found not useful in older adults in northwest Russia. More research is needed to identify predictors of adverse outcomes in this population. The aim of this study is to identify predictors of mortality, autonomy and cognitive decline in a population that is characterized by a high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rate. A population-based prospective cohort study of 611 community-dwelling individuals 65+. Anthropometry, medical history nutritional status were recorded. An evaluation of cognitive, physical and autonomy function, spirometry, and laboratory tests were performed. The total follow-up was 5 years. Multiple imputation, backward stepwise Cox regression analysis, C-statistic, risk reclassification analysis and the bootstrapping techniques were used to analyze the data. We found that the combination of increasing age, male sex, low physical function, low mid-arm muscle area, low forced expiratory volume in 1 s and anemia was associated with mortality for people 65+. The substitution of anemia with anemia + high level of C-reactive protein (hCRP) and the addition of high brain natriuretic peptide (hBNP) levels improved the classification of older persons at risk for mortality. The combination of low physical function, low mid-arm muscle area, low forced expiratory volume in 1 s, anemia with hCRP levels and hBNP identified older persons at a higher risk for mortality. These predictors may be used for the development of a prediction model to detect older people who are at risk for adverse health outcomes in northwest Russia.

  18. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study

    OpenAIRE

    Aryati Ahmad; Nurzaime Zulaily; Nor Saidah Abdul Manan; Mohd Razif Shahril; Sharifah Wajihah Wafa Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa; Rahmah Mohd Amin; Engku Fadzli Hasan Syed Abdullah; Amran Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body ...

  19. Association between perceived social stigma against mental disorders and use of health services for psychological distress symptoms in the older adult population: validity of the STIG scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    To document the reliability, construct and nomological validity of the perceived Social Stigmatisation (STIG) scale in the older adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Primary medical health services clinics. Probabilistic sample of older adults aged 65 years and over waiting for medical services in the general medical sector (n = 1765). Perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem was measured using the STIG scale composed of seven indicators. A second-order measurement model of perceived social stigma fitted adequately the observed data. The reliability of the STIG scale was 0.83. According to our results, 39.6% of older adults had a significant level of perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem. RESULTS showed that the perception of social stigma against mental health problems was not significantly associated with a respondent gender and age. RESULTS also showed that the perception of social stigma against the mental health problems was directly associated with the respondents' need for improved mental health (b = -0.10) and indirectly associated with their use of primary medical health services for psychological distress symptoms (b = -0.07). RESULTS lead us to conclude that social stigma against mental disorders perceived by older adults may limit help-seeking behaviours and warrants greater public health and public policy attention. Also, results lead us to conclude that physicians should pay greater attention to their patients' attitudes against mental disorders in order to identify possible hidden mental health problems.

  20. Association Between Depressive Symptoms, Multiple Dimensions of Depression, and Elder Abuse: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Analysis of Older Adults in Urban Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke-Buehler, Susan K; Simon, Melissa; Dong, XinQi

    2015-09-01

    Depression is conceptualized as both a risk factor for and a consequence of elder abuse; however, current research is equivocal. This study examined associations between elder abuse and dimensions of depressive symptoms in older adults. Participants were 10,419 older adults enrolled in theChicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), a population-based study of older adults. Regression was used to determine the relationships between depressive symptoms, depression dimensions, and abuse variables. Depressive symptoms were consistently associated with elder abuse. Participants in the highest tertile of depressive symptoms were twice as likely to have confirmed abuse with a perpetrator (odds ratio = 2.07, 95% confidence interval = [1.21, 3.52], p = .008). Elder abuse subtypes and depression dimensions were differentially associated. These findings highlight the importance of routine depression screening in older adults as a component of abuse prevention and intervention. They also provide profiles of depressive symptoms that may more accurately characterize risk for specific types of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder in adolescents: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analise de Souza Vivan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS and disorder (OCD among adolescents and to describe OCD characteristics according to gender. Methods: Participants were selected by cluster sampling at seven high-schools in southern Brazil. In the first stage, 2,323 students were screened for OCS; in the second stage, adolescents scoring ≥ 21 on the OCI-R scale were individually interviewed. OCD diagnosis was established using a semi-structured interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children: Present and Lifetime Version - K-SADS-PL. Results: The past-month estimated prevalence of OCS was 18.3%, and the point estimated prevalence of OCD, 3.3%. Girls showed higher scores (OCS: 24.8 vs. 14.4%; OCD: 4.9 vs. 1.4%; p < 0.001. Only 9.3% of OCD adolescents had been diagnosed and 6.7% received treatment. The most frequent/severe DY-BOCS dimensions were miscellaneous (86.7%; mean score 6.3±3.8 and symmetry (85.3%; 5.9±3.8. Female OCD adolescents predominantly showed depression (p = 0.032, and male adolescents, tic disorders (p = 0.006. Conclusions: OCD is underdiagnosed in adolescents, and few are treated. Future studies should investigate the relationship between OCS and the onset of OCD.

  2. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between echocardiographic LV mass and ECG based left ventricular voltages in an adolescent population: related or random?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czosek, Richard J; Cnota, James F; Knilans, Timothy K; Pratt, Jesse; Guerrier, Karine; Anderson, Jeffrey B

    2014-09-01

    In attempts to detect diseases that may place adolescents at risk for sudden death, some have advocated for population-based screening. Controversy exists over electrocardiography (ECG) screening due to the lack of specificity, cost, and detrimental effects of false positive or extraneous outcomes. Analyze the relationship between precordial lead voltage on ECG and left ventricle (LV) mass by echocardiogram in adolescent athletes. Retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively obtained population of self-identified adolescent athletes during sports screening with ECG and echocardiogram. Correlation between ECG LV voltages (R wave in V6 [RV6] and S wave in lead V1 [SV1]) was compared to echocardiogram-based measurements of left ventricular mass. Potential effects on ECG voltages by body anthropometrics, including weight, body mass index (BMI), and body surface area were analyzed, and ECG voltages indexed to BMI were compared to LV mass indices to analyze for improved correlation. A total of 659 adolescents enrolled in this study (64% male). The mean age was 15.4 years (14-18). The correlations between LV mass and RV6, SV1, and RV6 + SV1 were all less than 0.20. The false positive rate for abnormal voltages was relatively high (5.5%) but improved if abnormal voltages in both RV6 and SV1 were mandated simultaneously (0%). Indexing ECG voltages to BMI significantly improved correlation to LV mass, though false positive findings were increased (12.9%). There is poor correlation between ECG precordial voltages and echocardiographic LV mass. This relationship is modified by BMI. This finding may contribute to the poor ECG screening characteristics. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of a self-care program on oxidative stress and cognitive function in an older Mexican urban-dwelling population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, M A; Arronte-Rosales, A; Mendoza-Núñez, V M

    2009-11-01

    To determine the effect of a self-care program on oxidative stress (OxS) and cognitive function in an older, Mexican, urban-dwelling population. A longitudinal and pre-experimental study was carried out in a sample of 79 older healthy, urban-dwelling individuals residing in Mexico City, (62 females and 17 males), of which 71 of them (59 women and 12 males) complied with the entire self-care program. We measured OxS, cognitive function, the Nagi Disability Scale of physical task functioning, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) prior to and after 2 years of intervention with an active aging program. All older persons adopted healthy, self-care-based lifestyles according to the active aging program to which they were trained, which was associated with a statistically significant improvement of OxS and cognitive function markers on comparing pre- and post-community intervention data. Our findings suggest that self-care-based healthy lifestyles programs can improve the oxidative stress and cognitive function in urban-dwelling elderly population.

  5. Older drivers : a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. Sirén, A. & Davidse, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of senior citizens (aged 65+) will grow from about 15 per cent in the year 2000 to about 30 per cent in the year 2050. The share of older drivers in the driver population will grow even faster because of increasing licensing rates among the ageing population. Older drivers do not have

  6. Cross-sectional relationship between haemoglobin concentration and measures of physical and cognitive function in an older rural South African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F; Davies, Justine I; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Hands, Katherine J; Kahn, Kathleen; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Tipping, Brent; Tollman, Stephen M; Wade, Alisha; Witham, Miles D

    2018-04-21

    Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and middle-income countries have not previously been described. We examined the association between these factors among older men and women in rural South Africa. We analysed cross-sectional data from a population-based study of rural South African men and women aged 40 and over (n=4499), with data drawn from questionnaire responses, a cognitive battery, objective physical function tests and blood tests. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin concentration age, grip strength, walk speed and a latent cognitive function z-score for men and women separately. We used unadjusted correlations and linear models to adjust for comorbidities and inflammation. In total, 1042 (43.0%) women and 833 (40.1%) men were anaemic. Haemoglobin concentrations were inversely correlated with age for men but not for women; in adjusted analyses, haemoglobin was 0.3 g/dL lower per decade older for men (95% CI 0.2 to 0.4 g/dL). In adjusted analyses, haemoglobin concentration was independently associated with grip strength in women (B=0.391, 95% CI 0.177 to 0.605), but this did not reach significance in men (B=0.266, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.552); no associations were observed between haemoglobin levels and walk speed or cognitive score. Anaemia was prevalent in this study population of middle-aged and older, rural South African adults, but in contrast to high-income countries, it was not associated with poor physical or cognitive function. Our findings need to be replicated in other populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. The linear relationship between the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 score and mortality in an Asian population of community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jye; Lin, Wender; Chang, Ling-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) has been used as a screening tool to identify vulnerable community-dwelling older persons for more in-depth assessment and targeted interventions. Although many studies supported its use in different populations, few have addressed Asian populations. The optimal scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting health outcomes also has not been adequately tested. This study (1) assesses the applicability of the VES-13 to predict the mortality of community-dwelling older persons in Taiwan, (2) identifies the best scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting mortality using generalized additive models (GAMs), and (3) determines whether including covariates, such as socio-demographic factors and common geriatric syndromes, improves model fitting. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study analyzed the data of 2184 community-dwelling persons 65 years old or older from the 2003 wave of the national-wide Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Cox proportional hazards models and Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used. The VES-13 significantly predicted the mortality of Taiwan's community-dwelling elders. A one-point increase in the VES-13 score raised the risk of death by 26% (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32). The hazard ratio of death increased linearly with each additional VES-13 score point, suggesting that using a continuous scale is appropriate. Inclusion of socio-demographic factors and geriatric syndromes improved the model-fitting. The VES-13 is appropriate for an Asian population. VES-13 scores linearly predict the mortality of this population. Adjusting the weighting of the physical activity items may improve the performance of the VES-13. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Severe physical punishment and mental health problems in an economically disadvantaged population of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos; Paula, Cristiane Silvestre; do Nascimento, Rosimeire; Duarte, Cristiane Seixas

    2006-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of severe physical punishment of children/adolescents in a low-income community, and to examine child mental health problems as a potential correlate. This study is a Brazilian cross-sectional pilot study of the World Studies of Abuse in Family Environments. A probabilistic sample of clusters including all eligible households (women aged 15-49 years, son/daughter branding, beating, or threatening with weapon. Three groups of potential correlates were examined: child/adolescent (age, gender, physical/mental health); mother (education, unemployment, physical/mental health, harsh physical punishment in childhood, marital violence); father (unemployment, drunkenness). Severe marital violence was defined as kicking, hitting, beating or use of /threat to use a weapon. The following standardized questionnaires were applied by trained interviewers: World Studies of Abuse in Family Environments Core Questionnaire, Child Behavior Checklist, Self-Report Questionnaire. Outcome prevalence was 10.1%. Final logistic regression models identified two correlates: maternal harsh physical punishment in childhood (total sample, OR = 5.3, p = 0.047), and child/adolescent mental health problems (sub-sample aged 4-17 years, n = 67, OR = 9.1, p = 0.017). Severe physical punishment of children/adolescents is frequent in the studied community. The victims have a higher probability of becoming future perpetrators. When intrafamilial violence occurs, child/adolescent mental health may be compromised.

  9. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use...... and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The sample in this case-control study comprised 219 adolescents aged 13-18 years, including a case group of 117 adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 102 adolescents without ADHD. Participating subjects completed a questionnaire about their use of cigarettes...

  10. Where children and adolescents drown in Queensland: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Belinda A; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C; Nixon, James W; Kimble, Roy M

    2015-11-26

    This retrospective population-based study examined drowning location by the site of immersion for both fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Queensland. Drowning location is not routinely collected, and this study used data linkage to identify drowning sites. The resulting enhanced quality data quantify drowning incidence for specific locations by geographic region, age group and by severity for the first time. Linked data were accessed from the continuum of care (prehospital, emergency, hospital admission and death data) on fatal and non-fatal drowning episodes in children aged 0-19 years in Queensland for the years 2002-2008 inclusive. Drowning locations ranked in order of overall incidence were pools, inland water, coastal water, baths and other man-made water hazards. Swimming pools produced the highest incidence rates (7.31/100,000) for overall drowning events and were more often privately owned pools and in affluent neighbourhoods. Toddlers 0-4 years were most at risk around pools (23.94/100,000), and static water bodies such as dams and buckets-the fatality ratios were highest at these 2 locations for this age group. Children 5-14 years incurred the lowest incidence rates regardless of drowning location. Adolescents 15-19 years were more frequently involved in a drowning incident on the coast shoreline, followed by inland dynamic water bodies. Linked data have resulted in the most comprehensive data collection on drowning location and severity to date for children in the state of Queensland. Most mortality and morbidity could have been prevented by improving water safety through engaged supervision around pools and bath time, and a heightened awareness of buckets and man-made water hazards around the farm home for young children. These data provide a different approach to inform prevention strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. The relationship between social functioning and subjective memory complaints in older persons : a population-based longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Jisca S; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Zuidema, Sytse U; Stolk, Ronald P; Zuidersma, Marij; Smidt, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Poor social functioning is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. It is unclear whether social functioning is also associated with subjective memory complaints (SMC). We investigated the association between social functioning and incident SMC and SMC recovery. METHODS: A

  12. Exploring the aggregation of four functional measures in a population of older adults with joint pain and comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, L.A.H.; Leone, S.S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Knol, D.L.; van der Horst, H.E.; Dekker, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In clinical settings, it is important for health care providers to measure different aspects of functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. Besides the use of distinct measures, it could also be attractive to have one general measure of functioning that incorporates

  13. Prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing in an acutely ill population of older patients admitted to six European hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Potentially inappropriate prescribing is common in older people presenting to hospital with acute illness in Ireland. The aim of this study was to determine if this phenomenon is unique to Ireland or whether it is a more widespread problem in hospitals across Europe.

  14. Fractures as an independent predictor of functional decline in older people: a population-based study with an 8-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Löppönen, Minna; Vahlberg, Tero; Isoaho, Raimo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Räihä, Ismo

    2012-01-01

    Fractures among older people are common, but there is scant evidence about the impact of fractures on functional decline in an unselected older population. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of lower and upper body fractures on functional performance among older adults during an 8-year follow-up. A population-based cohort of 616 Finnish persons aged 65 and over was followed for up to 8 years, and the association between fractures and the risk of short-term (0-2 years) and long-term (up to 8 years) functional decline was analyzed. Fractures were categorized according their functional influence on mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) into lower and upper body fractures. Multivariate cumulative logistic regression model was used in the analyses. During the 8-year follow-up, 112 (18%) persons sustained at least one fracture. In the multivariate analyses, lower body fractures predicted both short-term and long-term decline in mobility [cumulative odds ratio (COR) 4.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.9-11.7 and COR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2, respectively] and in ADL performance (COR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3-7.6 and COR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-11.4, respectively). Upper body fractures predicted decline in ADL performance during the long-term follow-up (COR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.8). Pre-fracture functional decline and inactivity in leisure time physical exercise were independently associated with the risk of decline in extensive activities. Fractures have an independent influence on the development of functional decline in older persons regardless of the pre-fracture health. Prevention of falls and fractures and improvement of treatment, rehabilitation and follow-up process after fractures are needed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Anne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+) in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate). Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. RESULTS: Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia), hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%). Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache), with slurred speech (54%) as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland). CONCLUSION: Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  16. The longitudinal relationship between mental health disorders and chronic disease for older adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Min; Lee, I-Chen; Su, Yung-Yu; Mullan, Judy; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2017-09-01

    Although mental health disorders in older adults are common, their relationship with chronic disease and the influence of chronic disease on the development of mental health disorders over time is not well understood. This longitudinal study investigated the change in status of mental health disorders and chronic disease, as well as their interrelationships, over time. Participants included community-dwelling older adults living in Taiwan, aged 65 years or older, who completed six waves of survey interviews. Mental health disorders were scored using the Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule, and chronic disease(s) status was recorded during consecutive biennial data collection waves. The autoregressive latent trajectory model and parallel latent growth curve model were used for data analysis. The study findings suggest that in older people pre-existing mental health disorders and/or chronic disease(s) will predispose them to developing significantly more mental health disorders and/or chronic diseases respectively. The study findings also suggest that pre-existing mental health disorders can significantly contribute to the development of chronic disease over time, and that pre-existing chronic disease(s) significantly can contribute to the development of mental health disorders over time, indicating a reciprocal interrelationship. Our study findings suggest that it in addition to monitoring and treating chronic disease(s) in older people, it is also important to monitor and treat their mental health disorders. Doing so will result in overall better health outcomes and will facilitate a better quality of life as they age. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Predictors of Disordered Eating in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Population-Based, Longitudinal Study of Females and Males in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit Shawel; Torgersen, Leila; Lien, Lars; Hafstad, Gertrud S.; von Soest, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal predictors for disordered eating from early adolescence to young adulthood (12-34 years) across gender and different developmental phases among Norwegian young people. Survey data from a population-based sample were collected at four time points (T) over a 13-year time span. A population-based sample of 5,679 females…

  18. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M

    2017-01-01

    focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. Methods: We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four...... budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes...... and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs....

  19. Association between Dental Erosion and Diet in Brazilian Adolescents Aged from 15 to 19: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yêska Paola Costa Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa = 0.82. The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4% and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%. There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion.

  20. Association between dental erosion and diet in Brazilian adolescents aged from 15 to 19: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; dos Santos, Fábio Gomes; Moura, Eline Freitas de Farias; da Costa, Fernanda Clotilde Mariz; Auad, Sheyla Marcia; de Paiva, Saul Martins; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2014-01-01

    Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa = 0.82). The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4%) and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion.

  1. Epidemiology of uninvestigated gastrointestinal symptoms in adolescents: a population-based study applying the Rome II questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Sahand; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khademi, Hooman; Baghizadeh, Somayyeh; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2010-07-01

    : Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in early life contribute to a lower quality of life and more persistent GI symptoms during the rest of life. Epidemiologic data on adolescence GI disorders are scarce. We aimed to perform a population-based study to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms in adolescents and their relation to sex, age, and socioeconomic status. : A multistage random sample of Tehran middle and high school students (ages 14-19 years) was selected. A validated Persian version of the Rome II questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of different GI disorders as well as demographic socioeconomic variables. : A total of 1436 participants were enrolled in the study, 736 (51.3%) of whom were men. Mean (SD) age was 16.9 (1.8) years. The frequency of at least 1 GI symptom was 32.4%. The 4 most prevalent GI symptoms were bloating (16.9%), heartburn (4.9%), incontinence (4.3%), and irritable bowel syndrome (4.1%). Bloating, irritable bowel syndrome, and proctalgia fugax were significantly more common in girls (P < 0.05). Incontinence was significantly more prevalent in lower socioeconomic status levels (P = 0.01). In logistic regression, age was a risk factor for abdominal bloating and dysphagea and a protective factor for incontinence. : Our study indicates that GI symptoms are common among adolescents. Girls are more prone to these disorders. Special psychological and medical interventions are necessary for high-risk groups.

  2. Use of Social Networking Sites and Risk of Cyberbullying Victimization: A Population-Level Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained considerable popularity among youth in recent years; however, there is a noticeable paucity of research examining the association between the use of these web-based platforms and cyberbullying victimization at the population level. This study examines the association between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization using a large-scale survey of Canadian middle and high school students. Data on 5,329 students aged 11-20 years were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization while adjusting for covariates. Overall, 19 percent of adolescents were cyberbullied in the past 12 months. Adolescents who were female, younger, of lower socioeconomic status, and who used alcohol or tobacco were at greater odds of being cyberbullied. The use of SNSs was associated with an increased risk of cyberbullying victimization in a dose-response manner (p-trend <0.001). Gender was not a significant moderator of the association between use of SNSs and being cyberbullied. Results from this study underscore the need for raising awareness and educating adolescents on effective strategies to prevent cyberbullying victimization.

  3. Beyond birth-weight: early growth and adolescent blood pressure in a Peruvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Sterling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear.Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11–14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence.Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI −2.4 to −0.1 and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI −4.9 to 0.0, and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI −1.1 to 0.0 and 1.2 cm (95% CI −2.3 to −0.1, respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio.Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.

  4. Socioeconomic status, non-communicable disease risk factors, and walking speed in older adults: multi-cohort population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Jokela, Markus; Avendaño, Mauricio; McCrory, Cathal; d'Errico, Angelo; Bochud, Murielle; Barros, Henrique; Costa, Giuseppe; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Delpierre, Cyrille; Gandini, Martina; Fraga, Silvia; Goldberg, Marcel; Giles, Graham G; Lassale, Camille; Kenny, Rose Anne; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Paccaud, Fred; Layte, Richard; Muennig, Peter; Marmot, Michael G; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Steptoe, Andrew; Shipley, Martin J; Zins, Marie; Mackenbach, Johan P; Vineis, Paolo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-03-23

    To assess the association of low socioeconomic status and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (diabetes, high alcohol intake, high blood pressure, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking) with loss of physical functioning at older ages. Multi-cohort population based study. 37 cohort studies from 24 countries in Europe, the United States, Latin America, Africa, and Asia, 1990-2017. 109 107 men and women aged 45-90 years. Physical functioning assessed using the walking speed test, a valid index of overall functional capacity. Years of functioning lost was computed as a metric to quantify the difference in walking speed between those exposed and unexposed to low socioeconomic status and risk factors. According to mixed model estimations, men aged 60 and of low socioeconomic status had the same walking speed as men aged 66.6 of high socioeconomic status (years of functioning lost 6.6 years, 95% confidence interval 5.0 to 9.4). The years of functioning lost for women were 4.6 (3.6 to 6.2). In men and women, respectively, 5.7 (4.4 to 8.1) and 5.4 (4.3 to 7.3) years of functioning were lost by age 60 due to insufficient physical activity, 5.1 (3.9 to 7.0) and 7.5 (6.1 to 9.5) due to obesity, 2.3 (1.6 to 3.4) and 3.0 (2.3 to 4.0) due to hypertension, 5.6 (4.2 to 8.0) and 6.3 (4.9 to 8.4) due to diabetes, and 3.0 (2.2 to 4.3) and 0.7 (0.1 to 1.5) due to tobacco use. In analyses restricted to high income countries, the number of years of functioning lost attributable to low socioeconomic status by age 60 was 8.0 (5.7 to 13.1) for men and 5.4 (4.0 to 8.0) for women, whereas in low and middle income countries it was 2.6 (0.2 to 6.8) for men and 2.7 (1.0 to 5.5) for women. Within high income countries, the number of years of functioning lost attributable to low socioeconomic status by age 60 was greater in the United States than in Europe. Physical functioning continued to decline as a function of unfavourable risk factors between ages 60 and 85. Years of functioning

  5. Dose of dialysis based on body surface area is markedly less in younger children than in older adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T; Hanna, Melisha G; Becker-Cohen, Rachel; Langman, Craig B

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBSERVATIONS: The current denominator for dosing dialysis is the urea distribution volume (V). Normalizing Kt/V to body surface area (S) has been proposed, but the implications of doing this in children have not been examined. Dialysis dose given to children and adolescents was calculated in terms of conventional V-based scaling and surface-area-normalized standard Kt/V (SAN-stdKt/V) calculated as stdKt/V x (Vant/S)/17.5, where Vant was an anthropometric estimate of V calculated using the Morgenstern equation. Formal 2-pool modeling was used to compute all dialysis adequacy outputs. In 34 children (11 girls, 23 boys) dialyzed 3 times a week, age range 1.4 to 18 years, the mean delivered equilibrated Kt/V (eKt/V) was 1.40, and the mean stdKt/V was 2.49, both of which tended to be higher in younger children. The ratio of Vant to S was 15.6 +/- 2.69 and was strongly associated with age between ages 2 and 16. SAN-stdKt/V averaged 2.21 and was strongly correlated with age between ages 2 and 16. If one considers a desired target for SAN-stdKt/V to be 2.45, all children less than 10 years of age were below target, despite having relatively high values of eKt/V and stdKt/V. If a surface-area-based denominator were to be adopted for dialysis dosing, most children under 10 years of age would receive markedly less dialysis than adolescent patients and would require 6- to 8-hour hemodialysis sessions or, for the youngest children, treatments given more frequently than 3 times/wk.

  6. A preliminary examination of self-concept in older adolescents and young adults with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Paola R; Chiarotti, Flavia; Baglioni, Valentina; Neri, Valeria; Cardona, Francesco; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2017-05-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by multiple tics and often associated with behavioural problems. Although there is evidence of significantly reduced self-esteem in children and adolescents with GTS, little is known about perceived self-concept and its clinical determinants at the transition age between adolescence and adulthood. We therefore set out to investigate self-concept in a clinical sample of young patients with GTS at this crucial age for personal development. In addition to standard demographic and clinical data, we collected self-ratings using a standardised battery of psychometric instruments, as well as the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale, a comprehensive questionnaire developed to assess self-concept in subjects aged 9- to 19 years, tapping into the social, competence, affect, academic, family, and physical domains. We found that patients diagnosed with at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder ("GTS-plus" phenotype) reported significantly lower self-concept than patients with "pure GTS", whereas tic-related variables had no impact on self-concept. Anxiety symptoms were the main determinants of self-concept, especially trait anxiety with regard to social and affective domains. Affective symptoms could also have a negative impact on the physical, affective, competence, and social domains of self-concept. Routine screening for anxiety and affective symptoms should be recommended in all patients with GTS seen at transition clinics from paediatric to adult care, in order to implement effective treatment interventions whenever possible. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between common variants near LBX1 and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis replicated in the Chinese Han population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is one of the most common spinal deformities found in adolescent populations. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS in a Japanese population indicated that three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs11190870, rs625039 and rs11598564, all located near the LBX1 gene, may be associated with AIS susceptibility [1]. This study suggests a novel AIS predisposition candidate gene and supports the hypothesis that somatosensory functional disorders could contribute to the pathogenesis of AIS. These findings warrant replication in other populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we conducted a case-control study consisting of 953 Chinese Han individuals from southern China (513 patients and 440 healthy controls, and the three SNPs were all found to be associated with AIS predisposition. The ORs were observed as 1.49 (95% CI 1.23-1.80, P = 5.09E-5, 1.70 (95% CI 1.42-2.04, P = 1.17E-8 and 1.52 (95% CI 1.27-1.83, P = 5.54E-6 for rs625039, rs11190870 and rs11598564, respectively. Second, a case-only study including a subgroup of AIS patients (N = 234 was performed to determine the effects of these variants on the severity of the condition. However, we did not find any association between these variants and the severity of curvature. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the genetic variants near the LBX1 gene are associated with AIS susceptibility in Chinese Han population. It successfully replicates the results of the GWAS, which was performed in a Japanese population.

  8. Effects of a community health promotion program on social factors in a vulnerable older adult population residing in social housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gina; Brydges, Madison

    2018-04-16

    Supporting older adults' health and wellbeing in the community is an important policy goal that can be supported by health promotion. Despite widespread acceptance of the biopsychosocial model of health and its relation to health, many health promotion programs fail to realize this model in program design. Further, there is limited evidence to support program design targeting social determinants of health such as social isolation or connectedness. To fill this gap, we aimed to understand older adult's experiences participating in cardiovascular health promotion program in a subsidized residential building to capture unintended 'spin-off' psychosocial effects. This study took a constructivist, ethnographic approach utilizing participant observation and semi-structured interviews with participants of the program to understand participant's lived experiences of a health promotion program. In total, we conducted eighty hours of field work and fifteen semi-structured interviews with participants of the program. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged. First, the health promotion program filled a perceived gap caused by a constrained and impersonal health care system. Secondly, the program connected older adults with resources and provided regular and secure access to health information and support. Third, for some residents, the program facilitated social relationships between older adults, leaving participants feeling more socially connected to other residents. Lastly, a paradox of loneliness emerged where older adults talked openly about feelings of loneliness, however not in relation to themselves, but rather regarding their peers. Psychosocial aspects of health, such as loneliness, social connectedness, and social support may be of equal value as the physical health benefits to the older adults who participate in health promotion programs. Incorporating these elements into programming is a complex goal, and the complexity of targeting

  9. Child and Family Antecedents of Pain During the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incledon, Emily; O'Connor, Meredith; Giallo, Rebecca; Chalkiadis, George A; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-11-01

    Pediatric persistent pain is associated with poorer physical and psychosocial functioning in children, as well as immediate and long-term societal costs. Onset typically occurs in early adolescence, suggesting that late childhood is a key window for identifying potential intervention targets before pain symptoms become entrenched. This study used population-based data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 3,812) and adopted a biopsychosocial and ecological systems approach to investigate child, family, and sociodemographic factors associated with pain problems in children transitioning to adolescence. The prevalence of at least weekly parent-reported pain in the study sample was approximately 5% at 10 to 11 years of age, and pain continued at 12 to 13 years of age for 40% of these children. Key factors at 10 to 11 years that uniquely predicted parent-reported pain problems at 12 to 13 years were frequency of previous pain (1-3 times weekly: odds ratio [OR] = 7.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3-13.0; 4-7 times weekly: OR = 17.8; 95% CI, 8.7-36.5) and sleep difficulties (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.97). This study highlights the importance of early intervention for persistent pain in childhood, because pain complaints in late childhood tend to persist into early adolescence. This article used a biopsychosocial and ecological systems approach to understanding predictors of pain problems during the transition to adolescence within a nationally representative community-based cohort. Sleep difficulties at 10 to 11 years uniquely predicted pain at ages 12 to 13 years, suggesting that early intervention using sleep interventions may be a promising direction for future research. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and heritability of body dysmorphic symptoms in adolescents and young adults: a population-based nationwide twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Jesper; Ivanov, Volen Z; Mataix-Cols, David; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Lundström, Sebastian; Pérez-Vigil, Ana; Monzani, Benedetta; Lichtenstein, Paul; Rück, Christian

    2018-02-28

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) usually begins during adolescence but little is known about the prevalence, etiology, and patterns of comorbidity in this age group. We investigated the prevalence of BDD symptoms in adolescents and young adults. We also report on the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on BDD symptoms, and the risk for co-existing psychopathology. Prevalence of BDD symptoms was determined by a validated cut-off on the Dysmorphic Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) in three population-based twin cohorts at ages 15 (n = 6968), 18 (n = 3738), and 20-28 (n = 4671). Heritability analysis was performed using univariate model-fitting for the DCQ. The risk for co-existing psychopathology was expressed as odds ratios (OR). The prevalence of clinically significant BDD symptoms was estimated to be between 1 and 2% in the different cohorts, with a significantly higher prevalence in females (1.3-3.3%) than in males (0.2-0.6%). The heritability of body dysmorphic concerns was estimated to be 49% (95% CI 38-54%) at age 15, 39% (95% CI 30-46) at age 18, and 37% (95% CI 29-42) at ages 20-28, with the remaining variance being due to non-shared environment. ORs for co-existing neuropsychiatric and alcohol-related problems ranged from 2.3 to 13.2. Clinically significant BDD symptoms are relatively common in adolescence and young adulthood, particularly in females. The low occurrence of BDD symptoms in adolescent boys may indicate sex differences in age of onset and/or etiological mechanisms. BDD symptoms are moderately heritable in young people and associated with an increased risk for co-existing neuropsychiatric and alcohol-related problems.

  11. Time-location patterns of a diverse population of older adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Adar, Sara D; Stukovsky, Karen H; Avol, Ed; Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Nunn, Cathy; Mancera-Cuevas, Karen; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    The primary aim of this analysis was to present and describe questionnaire data characterizing time-location patterns of an older, multiethnic population from six American cities. We evaluated the consistency of results from repeated administration of this questionnaire and between this questionnaire and other questionnaires collected from participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Participants reported spending most of their time inside their homes (average: 121 h/week or 72%). More than 50% of the participants reported spending no time in several of the location options, including at home outdoors, at work/volunteer/school locations indoors or outdoors, or in "other" locations outdoors. We observed consistency between self-reported time-location patterns from repeated administration of the time-location questionnaire and compared with other survey instruments. Comparisons with national cohorts demonstrated the differences in time-location patterns in the MESA Air cohort due to differences in demographics, but the data showed similar trends in patterns by age, gender, season, and employment status. This study was the first to explicitly examine the time-location patterns in an older, multiethnic population and the first to add data on Chinese participants. These data can be used to inform future epidemiological research of MESA Air and other studies that include diverse populations.

  12. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive value of a profile of routine blood measurements on mortality in older persons in the general population: the Leiden 85-plus Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H van Houwelingen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various questionnaires and performance tests predict mortality in older people. However, most are heterogeneous, laborious and a validated consensus index is not available yet. Since most older people are regularly monitored by laboratory tests, we compared the predictive value of a profile of seven routine laboratory measurements on mortality in older persons in the general population with other predictors of mortality; gait speed and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Within the Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospective population-based study, we followed 562 participants aged 85 years for mortality over five years. At baseline (age 85 years high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, alanine transaminase, hemoglobin, creatinin clearance, C-reactive protein and homocysteine were measured. Participants were stratified based on their number of laboratory abnormalities (0, 1, 2-4 and 5-7. The predictive capacity was compared with gait speed (6-meter walking test and disability in IADL (Groningen Activity Restriction Scale by C-statistics. At baseline, 418 (74% 85-year old participants had at least one laboratory abnormality. All cause mortality risk increased with increasing number of laboratory abnormalities to a hazard ratio of 5.64 [95% CI 3.49-9.12] for those with 5-7 laboratory abnormalities (p<0.001 compared to those without abnormalities. The c-statistic was 0.66 [95% CI 0.59-0.69], similar to that of gait speed and disability in IADL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the general population of oldest old, the number of abnormalities in seven routine laboratory measurements predicts five-year mortality as accurately as gait speed and IADL disability.

  14. A Profile of Adolescent Wellness: Implications for Working with a Help-Seeking Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.; Lemon, Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined wellness profiles for 114 adolescents receiving counseling services at a local community mental health center. Participants were administered the Five Factor Wellness Inventory-Teenage Version and their responses were compared with a norm group (n = 1,142). Participants scored significantly lower on 13 of 23 variables assessed.…

  15. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  16. Association between Periodontal Condition and Nutritional Status of Brazilian Adolescents: A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro L; Ramos, Ianny A; Cardoso, Andreia M R; Fernandes, Liege Helena F; Aragão, Amanda S; Santos, Fábio G; Aguiar, Yêska P C; Carvalho, Danielle F; Medeiros, Carla C M; De S C Soares, Renata; Castro, Ricardo D

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a serious problem of public health and affects all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between periodontal condition and nutritional status of adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study using a probability cluster sampling, and the sample was defined by statistical criterion, consisting of 559 students aged 15-19 yr enrolled in public schools of adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil in 2012. Socioeconomic characteristics were analyzed, as well as self-reported general and oral health, anthropometric data and periodontal condition (CPI and OHI-S). Descriptive and analytical analysis from bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression analysis with 5% significance level was performed. Of the 559 adolescents, 18.6% were overweight and 98.4% had some form of periodontal changes such as: bleeding (34.3%), calculus (38.8%), shallow pocket (22.9%) and deep pocket (2.3%). There was association between presence of periodontal changes with obesity ( P periodontal changes and obesity status in adolescents was indicated.

  17. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Wiefferink, Karin H.; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; Hox, Joop; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective. This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster. 'risk-taking behavior', and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in

  18. Is Child Abuse Associated with Adolescent Obesity? A Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Katherine; Norris, Tom; Crawley, Esther; Shield, Julian P H

    Child abuse is associated with obesity in adulthood through multiple mechanisms. However, little is known about the relationship between abuse and obesity during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a birth cohort, whether there is an association between child abuse and overweight or obesity in adolescence. This study utilizes data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective cohort study based in South West England. Using data from the 4205 children with complete data at 13 and 16 years, we analyzed body mass index (BMI) and anonymous parental report of abuse. Abuse was categorized as emotional, physical, or sexual. A sub-sample of 3429 had BMI recorded at 18 years, enabling a longitudinal analysis of BMI trajectories. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex and family adversity, no association was found between child abuse and BMI, BMI Z-scores, overweight, or obesity, at 13 or 16 years, with all confidence intervals straddling the null. There was weak evidence of a negative association between physical and emotional abuse and BMI trajectories between 13 and 18 years. No relationship was found between child abuse and adolescent obesity in this cohort. This challenges the assumption that adolescent obesity is linked to previous child abuse, as demonstrated for obesity in adult life. A further longitudinal study utilizing both parental and child reports with data record linkage, to improve reporting of abuse, and including neglect as an abuse category, would be desirable.

  19. Prevalence of high, medium and low-risk medical conditions for pneumococcal vaccination in Catalonian middle-aged and older adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ochoa-Gondar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Updated population-based data on the frequency and distribution of risk factors for pneumococcal disease is scarce. This study investigated the prevalence of distinct comorbidities and underlying risk conditions related to an increasing risk of pneumococcal disease among Catalonian middle-aged and older adults. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study including 2,033,465 individuals aged 50 years or older registered at 01/01/2015 in the Catalonian Health Institute (Catalonia, Spain. The clinical research database of the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP database was used to identify high-risk (asplenia and/or immunocompromising conditions and other increased-risk conditions (chronic pulmonary, cardiac or liver disease, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism and/or smoking among study subjects. Results Globally, 980,310 (48.2% of the 2,033,465 study population had at least one risk condition of suffering pneumococcal disease (55.4% in men vs 42.0% in women, p < 0.001; 41.7% in people 50–64 years vs 54.7% in persons 65 years or older, p < 0.001. An amount of 176,600 individuals (8.7% had high-risk conditions (basically immunocompromising conditions. On the other hand, 803,710 persons (39.5% had one or more other risk conditions. In fact, 212,255 (10.4% had chronic pulmonary diseases, 248,377 (12.2% cardiac disease, 41,734 (2.1% liver disease, 341,535 (16.8% diabetes mellitus, 58,781 (2.9% alcoholism and 317,558 (15.6% were smokers. Conclusion In our setting, approximately 50 % of overall persons 50 years or older may be considered at-risk population for pneumococcal disease (almost 10 % have high-risk conditions and 40 % have other risk conditions.

  20. Poor adherence to U.S. dietary guidelines for children and adolescents in the NHANES population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Emilyn C.; Liu, Yan; Davis, Jennifer S.; Chang, Shine; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor diet quality in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse health outcomes throughout life, yet the dietary habits of American children and how they change across childhood and adolescence are unknown. Objectives This study sought to describe diet quality among children and adolescents by assessing adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and to determine whether any differences in adherence occurred across childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants We employed a cross-sectional design using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Of 9,280 children ages 4-18 who participated in NHANES from 2005-2010, those with insufficient data on dietary recall (n=852) or who were pregnant or lactating during the time of interview (n=38) were excluded from the final study sample (n=8,390). Main Outcome Measures We measured adherence to the DGA using the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-10) and stratified participants into three age groups (4-8, 9-13 and 14-18 years of age). We analyzed each of twelve HEI-10 components, and total HEI-10 score. Results The youngest children had the highest overall diet quality due to significantly greater scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dairy, and whole grains. These children also had the highest scores for sodium, refined grains, and empty calories. Total HEI-10 scores ranged from 43.59 to 52.11 out of 100, much lower than the minimum score of 80 thought to indicate a diet associated with good health. Conclusions Overall, children and adolescents are failing to meet the DGA and may be at an increased risk of chronic diseases throughout life. By analyzing which food groups show differences between age groups, we provide data which may inform the development of dietary interventions to promote specific food groups targeting specific ages, thus improving diet quality among children and adolescents. PMID:26391469

  1. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings. Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.

  2. Large-scale community echocardiographic screening reveals a major burden of undiagnosed valvular heart disease in older people: the OxVALVE Population Cohort Study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcy, Joanna L.; Coffey, Sean; Loudon, Margaret A.; Kennedy, Andrew; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Birks, Jacqueline; Frangou, Eleni; Farmer, Andrew J.; Mant, David; Wilson, Jo; Myerson, Saul G.; Prendergast, Bernard D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Valvular heart disease (VHD) is expected to become more common as the population ages. However, current estimates of its natural history and prevalence are based on historical studies with potential sources of bias. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of VHD identified at recruitment of a large cohort of older people. Methods and results We enrolled 2500 individuals aged ≥65 years from a primary care population and screened for undiagnosed VHD using transthoracic echocardiography. Newly identified (predominantly mild) VHD was detected in 51% of participants. The most common abnormalities were aortic sclerosis (34%), mitral regurgitation (22%), and aortic regurgitation (15%). Aortic stenosis was present in 1.3%. The likelihood of undiagnosed VHD was two-fold higher in the two most deprived socioeconomic quintiles than in the most affluent quintile, and three-fold higher in individuals with atrial fibrillation. Clinically significant (moderate or severe) undiagnosed VHD was identified in 6.4%. In addition, 4.9% of the cohort had pre-existing VHD (a total prevalence of 11.3%). Projecting these findings using population data, we estimate that the prevalence of clinically significant VHD will double before 2050. Conclusions Previously undetected VHD affects 1 in 2 of the elderly population and is more common in lower socioeconomic classes. These unique data demonstrate the contemporary clinical and epidemiological characteristics of VHD in a large population-based cohort of older people and confirm the scale of the emerging epidemic of VHD, with widespread implications for clinicians and healthcare resources. PMID:27354049

  3. Large-scale community echocardiographic screening reveals a major burden of undiagnosed valvular heart disease in older people: the OxVALVE Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcy, Joanna L; Coffey, Sean; Loudon, Margaret A; Kennedy, Andrew; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Birks, Jacqueline; Frangou, Eleni; Farmer, Andrew J; Mant, David; Wilson, Jo; Myerson, Saul G; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2016-12-14

    Valvular heart disease (VHD) is expected to become more common as the population ages. However, current estimates of its natural history and prevalence are based on historical studies with potential sources of bias. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of VHD identified at recruitment of a large cohort of older people. We enrolled 2500 individuals aged ≥65 years from a primary care population and screened for undiagnosed VHD using transthoracic echocardiography. Newly identified (predominantly mild) VHD was detected in 51% of participants. The most common abnormalities were aortic sclerosis (34%), mitral regurgitation (22%), and aortic regurgitation (15%). Aortic stenosis was present in 1.3%. The likelihood of undiagnosed VHD was two-fold higher in the two most deprived socioeconomic quintiles than in the most affluent quintile, and three-fold higher in individuals with atrial fibrillation. Clinically significant (moderate or severe) undiagnosed VHD was identified in 6.4%. In addition, 4.9% of the cohort had pre-existing VHD (a total prevalence of 11.3%). Projecting these findings using population data, we estimate that the prevalence of clinically significant VHD will double before 2050. Previously undetected VHD affects 1 in 2 of the elderly population and is more common in lower socioeconomic classes. These unique data demonstrate the contemporary clinical and epidemiological characteristics of VHD in a large population-based cohort of older people and confirm the scale of the emerging epidemic of VHD, with widespread implications for clinicians and healthcare resources. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Nutritional status and falls in community-dwelling older people: a longitudinal study of a population-based random sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Chien

    Full Text Available Falls are common in older people and may lead to functional decline, disability, and death. Many risk factors have been identified, but studies evaluating effects of nutritional status are limited. To determine whether nutritional status is a predictor of falls in older people living in the community, we analyzed data collected through the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (SHLSET.SHLSET include a series of interview surveys conducted by the government on a random sample of people living in community dwellings in the nation. We included participants who received nutritional status assessment using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Taiwan Version 2 (MNA-T2 in the 1999 survey when they were 53 years or older and followed up on the cumulative incidence of falls in the one-year period before the interview in the 2003 survey.At the beginning of follow-up, the 4440 participants had a mean age of 69.5 (standard deviation= 9.1 years, and 467 participants were "not well-nourished," which was defined as having an MNA-T2 score of 23 or less. In the one-year study period, 659 participants reported having at least one fall. After adjusting for other risk factors, we found the associated odds ratio for falls was 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.23, 2.42 for "not well-nourished," 1.57 (1.30, 1.90 for female gender, 1.03 (1.02, 1.04 for one-year older, 1.55 (1.22, 1.98 for history of falls, 1.34 (1.05, 1.72 for hospital stay during the past 12 months, 1.66 (1.07, 2.58 for difficulties in activities of daily living, and 1.53 (1.23, 1.91 for difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living.Nutritional status is an independent predictor of falls in older people living in the community. Further studies are warranted to identify nutritional interventions that can help prevent falls in the elderly.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Prodromal Risk Syndromes in Young Adolescents in the Community: A Population-Based Clinical Interview Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    While a great deal of research has been conducted on prodromal risk syndromes in relation to help-seeking individuals who present to the clinic, there is a lack of research on prodromal risk syndromes in the general population. The current study aimed first to establish whether prodromal risk syndromes could be detected in non-help-seeking community-based adolescents and secondly to characterize this group in terms of Axis-1 psychopathology and general functioning. We conducted in-depth clinical interviews with a population sample of 212 school-going adolescents in order to assess for prodromal risk syndromes, Axis-1 psychopathology, and global (social\\/occupational) functioning. Between 0.9% and 8% of the community sample met criteria for a risk syndrome, depending on varying disability criteria. The risk syndrome group had a higher prevalence of co-occurring nonpsychotic Axis-1 psychiatric disorders (OR = 4.77, 95% CI = 1.81-12.52; P < .01) and poorer global functioning (F = 24.5, df = 1, P < .0001) compared with controls. Individuals in the community who fulfill criteria for prodromal risk syndromes demonstrate strong similarities with clinically presenting risk syndrome patients not just in terms of psychotic symptom criteria but also in terms of co-occurring psychopathology and global functioning.

  6. Prevalence and impact of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult cancer patients in comparison with population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Hanneke; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Knoop, Hans; Jansen, Rosemarie; Prins, Judith B; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Husson, Olga; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2017-09-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (aged 18-35 years at diagnosis) consulting a multidisciplinary AYA team in comparison with gender- and age-matched population-based controls. In addition, impact of severe fatigue on quality of life and correlates of fatigue severity were examined. AYAs with cancer (n = 83) completed questionnaires including the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-fatigue), Quality of Life (QoL)-Cancer Survivor, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (reflecting psychological distress), and the Cancer Worry Scale (reflecting fear of cancer recurrence or progression). The vast majority of participants had been treated with chemotherapy (87%) and had no active treatment at the time of participation (73.5%). Prevalence of severe fatigue (CIS-fatigue score ≥35) in AYAs with cancer (48%, n = 40/83) was significantly higher in comparison with matched population-based controls (20%, n = 49/249; p fatigued AYAs with cancer reported lower QoL compared to non-severely fatigued AYAs with cancer (p fatigue severity (p fatigue based on a validated cut-off score was highly prevalent in this group of AYAs with cancer. QoL is significantly affected by severe fatigue, stressing the importance of detection and management of this symptom in those patients affected by a life-changing diagnosis of cancer in late adolescence or young adulthood.

  7. Tontura em idosos da comunidade: estudo de base populacional Dizziness in community-dewelling older adults: a population-based study

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    Suzana Albuquerque de Moraes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A queixa de tontura é comum em idosos. OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de tontura e os fatores associados em uma amostra de idosos que vivem na comunidade. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte histórica prospectivo, com idosos de 65 anos ou mais. Foi utilizado um inquérito multidimensional e uma bateria de testes físico-funcionais. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tontura foi de 45%. A tontura giratória foi relatada por 70,4% dos idosos e 43,8% disseram já ter tido crises vertiginosas em algum momento da vida. Houve associação significativa entre queixa de tontura e gênero feminino (p=0,004, relato de dificuldade de memória (p=0,015, má percepção de saúde (p=0,001, depressão (pDizziness is a common complaint among older adults. AIM: To identify the prevalence of dizziness and its related factors in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A prospective population-based study with a representative sample of older adults aged 65 years and over. A multidimensional questionnaire and a battery of measures were used for assessing physical function. RESULTS: The prevalence of dizziness was 45%. Vertigo was found in 70.4% of older adults with dizziness and 43.8% of them referred vertigo crises along life. A significant association was found between dizziness and female gender (p=0.004, memory difficulties complaints (p=0.015, bad health perception (p=0.001, depression (p<0.0001, five or more comorbidities (p=0.021, self-reported fatigue (p<0.0001, recurrent falls (p=0.001, excessive sleepiness (p=0.003, fear of falling (p<0.0001, left leg unipedal stance (p=0.002 and Short Performance Physical Battery score (p=0.009. CONCLUSION: Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and it is associated with limiting clinical conditions, such as depression, fatigue, excessive sleepiness and impaired memory. It is highlighted the association between dizziness and recurrent falls, fear of falling and lower performance in physical

  8. Co-occurring symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based sample of adolescents screened for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Astri J; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Sørensen, Lin; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2016-02-25

    Depression is common in adolescents, with a gender bias towards girls. Symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to co-occur in depressed adolescents. This may be related to common features between the two symptom domains, but co-occurring ADHD symptoms may also inflate the severity of depression. The present study investigates the frequency and influence of ADHD symptoms co-occurring with depression in a gender balanced population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. A sample of 9614 adolescents (16-19 years) completed a questionnaire including the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), with items reflecting symptoms associated with depression and ADHD, respectively. The sMFQ sum score was used as a proxy for severity of depression, and adolescents with a score equal to or above the 90th percentile were defined as depressed. A high response on any of the ASRS items was used to define the presence of an ADHD symptom, and the number of high scores was used to indicate severity. ADHD symptoms were frequently reported by the adolescents, with a higher frequency in girls than in boys. The gender differences were, however, minor when the analysis was restricted to the adolescents defined as depressed. Each severe symptom reported on the ASRS contributed significantly to increase the sum score on the sMFQ, and more than 20 % of the adolescents defined as depressed reported six or more symptoms within the ASRS inattention subscale. The results emphasize the importance of screening for symptoms associated with ADHD when assessing adolescents presenting symptoms indicating depression. Although girls reported higher frequency of symptoms within both domains, the gender bias was dependent on the overall symptom severity. Awareness of co-occurrence of symptoms and gender biases are of importance for both clinical work and future research on mental health and service use in

  9. Subjective and objective cognitive function among older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Raquel C; Langa, Kenneth M; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia-an understudied but potentially vulnerable population. In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses) without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737) or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247). Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory ("How would you rate your memory at the present time?"). We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC). Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y), were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus 14.0, p = 0.21; calculation impairment

  10. Subjective and objective cognitive function among older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel C Gardner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia-an understudied but potentially vulnerable population.In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737 or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247. Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory ("How would you rate your memory at the present time?". We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC. Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y, were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus 14.0, p = 0.21; calculation