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Sample records for okra seed abelmoschus

  1. Nutritional evaluation of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proximate, functional properties, in-vitro multi enzyme protein digestibility and amino acid compositions of nigerian dried okra (abelmoschus esculentus) seeds were evaluated. the ash, moisture, fat, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate of the okra seeds were: 4.8%, 13.5%, 39.9%, 8.82%, 26.4% and 6.62%, respectively. the water and oil absorption capacities were: 220% and 200% which makes okra seeds exhibit a high water retention capacity. the least gelation concentration was 8% while, emulsion capacity was 45.5% and foaming capacity and stability were: 12% and 2%, respectively. the in vitro protein digestibility was 69.3%. glutamic acid was the most concentrated amino acid (121.1 mg/g crude protein) while, cystine (10.0 mg/g crude protein) was the least concentrated amino acid. the total amino acid was 706 mg/g crude protein. (author)

  2. Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Afshan; Jamil, Yasir; ul Haq, Zia; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan; Ahmad, Rasheed

    2012-06-01

    The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in germination percentage, number of flowers per plant, leaf area (cm2), plant height (cm) at maturity, number of fruits per plant, pod mass per plant and number of seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control. PMID:22803337

  3. Evaluation of Vegetative Growth Parameters in Biofield Treated Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the growth contributing characters of biofield treated bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds. The seeds of both crops were divided into two groups, one was kept aside and denoted as untreated, while the other group was subjected biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. Further the level of glutathione (GSH) in okra leaves, along with...

  4. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus) FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn) FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Tesleem Ibrahim; Lola Ajala; Foluso Adetuyi

    2012-01-01

    In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopro...

  5. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  6. Germination and seedling growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. as influenced by organic amendments

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    Banashree Sarma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to understand the effects of different soil organic amendments on germination and seedling vigour of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. Five treatments with organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and biochar and mineral fertilizers were designed in randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that organic amendments significantly enhanced per cent seed germination and emergence speed index compared to inorganic fertilizer. Highest homogeneity of seed germination (CVgt = 20.74 was observed in vermicompost. Plant height, root length and leaf area were higher in vermicompost and biochar than farmyard manure. Both allocation of biomass to above ground parts and Dickson quality index were highest in seedlings from the plots amended with vermicompost. The study revealed that compared to biochar, vermicompost and farmyard manure significantly enhanced the germination and growth of Okra seedling, but the stimulation was best in vermicompost-amended plots.

  7. Salt stress effects on some morphological and physiological characteristics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.

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    Muhammad Adnan Shahid*, Muhammad Aslam Pervez, Rashid Mukhtar Balal, Rashid Ahmad, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub, Tahira Abbas and Naheed Akhtar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is worldwide problem that limits the growth and productivity of all vegetations and it is going toincreasing day by day. The objective of the investigation was to study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL. in terms of morphological and physiological characteristics under salt stress conditions. Okra seeds of cultivarChinese Red were grown in plastic pots having fine sand as growth medium. After 30 days of germination, theplants were subjected to salt stress under control, 25, 50, and 75 mM NaCl. Increasing salinity caused a decrease ofgermination percentage, shoot and root length, plant height, pod weight, pod length, photosynthesis rate, andstomatal conductance. The Na+ and Cl- accumulation were correlated with a decline in concentration of K+ inleaves and roots. Under salinity, a high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were noted in both leave and roots portions.

  8. Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Messing, Jutta; Thoele, Christian; Niehues, Michael; Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Boren, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology: A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori...

  9. Study on Extraction Method of Caffeine from Okra(Abelmoschus esculentus) Seeds%黄秋葵种子中咖啡碱的提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅狄华

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The purpose was to discuss the extraction method of caffeine from okra seeds, and lay a foundation for its deeply development and utilization. [ Method ] Microwave extraction method, reflux extraction method and ultrasonic extraction method were used to extract caffeine from okra seeds, and visible-ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine its content. [ Result] When using microwave extraction method, the highest caffeine ratio of 0. 149% was obtained under the conditions of medium power and 8 min extraction time. When using reflux extraction method, the highest caffeine ration of 0. 156% was obtained under the conditions of water-alcohol ratio of 1:2 and extraction time 1 hour. When using ultrasonic extraction method, the highest caffeine ratio of 0. 142% was obtained under the conditions of extraction agent 25 ml and extraction time 30 min. [ Conclusion ] The study obtains the most convenient and the most effective extraction method of caffeine from okra seeds when using microwave extraction method, reflux extraction method and ultrasonic extraction method, lays a foundation for research on effective components extraction from okra seeds.%[目的]探讨黄秋葵(Abelmoschus esculentus)种子中咖啡碱的提取方法,为其进一步开发利用奠定基础.[方法]采用微波提取法、回流提取法和超声提取法3种方法提取黄秋葵种子中的咖啡碱,并采用可见-紫外分光光度法测定其含量.[结果]采用微波提取法时,在中等功率、微波时间8 min条件下,所得的咖啡碱的得率最高,为0.149%.采用回流提取法时,在提取剂水∶乙醇为1∶2、提取时间为1h条件下,所得的咖啡碱的得率最高,为0.156%.采用超声提取法时,在提取剂用量为25ml、超声时间为30 min条件下,所得的咖啡碱的得率最高,为0.142%.[结论]该研究得出了采用微波提取法、回流提取法和超声提取法提取黄秋葵种子中咖啡碱含量的最方便最有

  10. Physicochemical properties of pectins from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengkhamparn, N.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Vries, de R.J.; Schols, H.A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Okra pectin obtained by hot buffer extraction (HBSS) consists of an unusual pectic rhamnogalacturonan I structure in which acetyl groups and alpha galactose residues are substituted on rhamnose residues within the backbone. The okra Chelating agent Soluble Solids (CHSS) pectin consists of slightly d

  11. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Siah Lee; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John P.; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25–90 °C), time (0.25–5...

  12. Antiadhesive properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra immature fruit extract against Helicobacter pylori adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Messing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. METHODOLOGY: A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori J99, 2 clinical isolates, AGS cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Bacterial adhesins affected by FE were pinpointed using a dot-blot overlay assay with immobilized Lewis(b, sialyl-Lewis(a, H-1, laminin, and fibronectin. (125I-radiolabeled Okra FE polymer served for binding studies to different H. pylori strains and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. Iron nanoparticles with different coatings were used to investigate the influence of the charge-dependence of an interaction on the H. pylori surface. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Okra FE dose-dependently (0.2 to 2 mg/mL inhibited H. pylori binding to AGS cells. FE inhibited the adhesive binding of membrane proteins BabA, SabA, and HpA to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled compounds from FE bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori, as well as to BabA/SabA deficient mutants, indicating an interaction with a still-unknown membrane structure in the vicinity of the adhesins. The binding depended on the charge of the inhibitors. Okra FE did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. CONCLUSION: Non-specific interactions between high molecular compounds from okra fruits and the H. pylori surface lead to strong antiadhesive effects.

  13. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish Kumar Doreddula; Srinivasa Reddy Bonam; Durga Prasad Gaddam; Brahma Srinivasa Rao Desu; Nadendla Ramarao; Vijayapandi Pandy

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus ...

  14. Association studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

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    Sateesh Adiger, G. Shanthkumar, P. I. Gangashetty* and P. M. Salimath

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken on 163 genotypes including 43 parents and 120 crosses of okra to determine the geneticvariability, nature of association among different yield attributes and their direct and indirect contribution towards yield. Fromthe analysis of variance, it was observed that mean squares due to genotypes were significant for all the traits, indicating thepresence of genetic variability in the experimental material. The values of PCV were higher than that of GCV values for all theten characters indicating influence of environmental effects in the expression of these characters. The GCV, heritability andgenetic advance as percentage of mean were higher for plant height, fruit yield per plant, fruit weight and days to 50 per centflowering which might be attributed to additive gene action of inheritance. The Fruit yield has significantly positive correlationwith plant height, number of branches per plant, inter nodal length, fruit length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant at bothgenotypic and phenotypic level, indicating mutual association of these traits. Path coefficient analysis revealed that fruit weighthad maximum direct contribution (0.884 towards fruit yield followed by number of fruits per plant (0.852, plant height (0.024and number of branches per plant (0.020. However, days to 50 per cent flowering exhibited highest negative direct effect (-0.013 followed by test weight (-0.009 and fruit diameter (-0.003. These important traits may be viewed in selection programmefor the further improvement of okra.

  15. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

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    Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moenchwere studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248, P2(IC27826-A, P3(IC29119-B, P4(IC31398-A, P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819, P7(IC89976, P8(IC90107, P9(IC99716 andP10(IC111443 during mid kharif (July-October, 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both additive and non-additive variances were important for a majority of the characters except plant height, fruit andshoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on plants. Genetic analysis revealed apreponderance of non-additive gene action for plant height, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering andfruiting node, fruit length and weight, total number of fruits and number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield and marketableyield per plant and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on fruits and plants and a preponderance of additive gene actionfor number of branches per plant and fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots. The parents P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819 and P7(IC89976 were high general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and their associated traits,which could be exploited for developing prolific pure line varieties of okra. The crosses C23(IC29119-B × IC99716, C17(IC27826-A × IC111443, C42(IC89976 × IC111443 were superior specific combiners for total and marketable yield per plant withthe potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The cross combinations C42 (IC89976 × IC111443 and (IC27826-A × IC89819 having one of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects fortotal yield and marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding with single plant selection in the passinggenerations to capitalize

  16. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (Pfertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for sustainable cultivation of okra. PMID:17336057

  17. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

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    Reddivenkatagari Subbarama Krishna Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during kharif, 2008. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively, for thirteen quantitative characters, namely plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, internodal length(cm, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node, first fruiting node, fruit length (cm, fruit width (cm, fruit weight (g, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield per plant (g and marketable yield per plant (g for the identification of appropriate selection indices. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant and total yield per plant had significant positive correlation, while number of branches per plant, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node and first fruiting node had significant negative correlation with marketable yield per plant.Genotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant not only had positively significant association with marketable pod yield per plant, but also had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant and are regarded as the main determinants of marketable pod yield per plant. The improvement in marketable pod yield per plant will be efficient, if the selection is based on fruit weight, total number of fruits per

  18. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

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    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  19. The effects of color plastic mulches and row covers on the growth and yield of okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench'Clemson Spineless'] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in shorter, AL. Okra was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (3...

  20. Isolation of the mucilages from Hibiscus rosasinensis linn. and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus linn.) and studies of the binding effects of the mucilages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ameena K; Dilip C; Saraswathi R; Krishnan PN; Sankar C; Simi SP

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and evaluate comparatively the binding efficacy of the mucilages obtained from the plants of Hibiscus rosasinensis and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Methods:Extraction of mucilages from the leaves of Hibiscus and pods of Okra (Ladies finger) was carried out by a cold maceration process. The extracted mucilages were subjected to various physicochemical properties for its suitability as an excipient in the formulation of tablet dosage form. Different concentrations (10, 8, 5, 2 and 1%w/v) of binder solutions of Hibiscus and Okra were used for the formulation of tablets and the formulated tablets were evaluated by studying the standard parameters like diameter, thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and in vitro dissolution. Stability studies of the formulated tablets were conducted for four weeks. Results:The formulated tablets prepared using the mucilages of both Hibiscus and Okra had good appearance. The in vitro drug release profile of the tablets prepared using Okra mucilage had an optimum of 90%at a mucilage concentration of 1%w/v concentration mucilage itself within 4 h. Conclusions:According to the observations, the lower concentration levels of Okra can be used as an alternative binder to starch. The higher concentration levels of Okra mucilage show a slow and sustained release, and can be considered as an alternative natural excipient in the modified drug delivery systems. At the same time, the above natural excipient of Hibiscus mucilage could be used as a platform for prolonged release if its binder concentrations are increased.

  1. Decontamination of sliced and powdered okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and some aspects of nutrient quality before and after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food security in Africa is crucial for survival of the increasing population. However, agricultural produce in the field are drastically reduced along the food pipeline (from farm gate to the consumer's table) by bioderioagents including microorganisms. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is one such farm produce of economic importance in Ghana with a great potential of providing essential nutrients and vitamins in our diet. The high moisture content of the fresh fruit makes it susceptible to microbial deterioration in a short time. Dehydration methods (sun-drying and solar drying) are practiced worldwide but in Africa, this is attended by contamination by aeromycoflora and other agents such as insect eggs and larvae. In addition are physical and chemical contaminants. In this thesis, the mycoflora and Total Aerobic Bacteria load of market samples and solar-dried okra (Clemson spineless and Legon Finger) chips and powder were ascertained with the view to documenting toxin-producing fungal species and update the resident mycoflora and bacteria load. Insects resident in the samples were detected by the hidden infestation technique; mycoflora was determined by the decimal serial dilution method on different media and Total Aerobic Bacteria population was determined on Plate Count Agar at 320C for 48hr. In order to establish storage stability of the okra, the chips and powdered samples were placed in glass desiccators with glycerol: water mixtures providing Environmental Relative Humidities of 20, 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95% representative of the Ghanaian Tropic Conditions to undergo sorption at the same temperature. Gamma irradiation doses (0, 5, 10, 20kGy) were used as a preservation process to decontaminate resident mycoflora and total aerobic bacteria. This was supplemented by an in vitro study in the radio-resistance of six selected resident fungi (Aspergillus; Penicllium spp). The veracity of the dry okra supporting growth of selected Aspergillus and Penicillium

  2. Effect of Biomixture Containing Spent Coffee Ground and Milled Egg-shells on The Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and Soil Fertility under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Khoi Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of biomixture including spent coffee ground and milled egg-shells (ratio of 10:2 (w/w on the yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and soil fertility, an experiment was conducted in the greenhouse for 3 months with four replicates for each treatment. The soil sample in this study was collected from the experimental farm of Cantho University. The biomixture was applied with 3 levels: 5, 10 and 15% (w/w. A commonly recommended inorganic fertilizer application rate for Okra was used as control treatment and 15% of used coffee ground as another treatment to study a single effect of used coffee ground on yield of Okra and soil fertility.  Results showed that although the plan performance was much better in the control treatment, the highest yield of Okra was found in the treatments amended with 10 and 5% of the biomixture and was 167 and 161 g/plant/pot, respectively. The yield was much higher in these two treatments than that in the control treatment. The appearance of Okra fruits in the amended biomixture treatments reached the standard quality for selling. Moreover, organic matter, N, P, pH, bacterial and fungal cell counts in soils were enhanced considerably when amended with this biomixture. Five percent of the biomixture performed as the best treatment to enhance Okra yield in the greenhouse experiment.

  3. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. in Mice

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    Sathish Kumar Doreddula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM and forced swimming test (FST in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o. for seven days significantly (P< 0.01 attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

  4. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  5. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the h

  6. Advances in breeding of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Okra, an important vegetable of the tropics and sub-tropics is very popular in India. Its production is limited by 'yellow vein mosaic virus'. Advances in breeding for resistance to this virus have been made through inter-specific hybridisation as well as mutagenesis. Hybridisation used A. manihot ssp. manihot and ssp. tetraphyllus. New varieties showed 87-146% yield increases over older virus susceptible varieties. The number of fruits increased by 13-30%, virus incidence decreased by 84-99%. An EMS induced mutant 'EMS8' showed a yield increase of 107%, a fruit number increase of 16% and a disease decrease of 99%. The mutant also carries a good amount of resistance to the fruit borer; infestation decreased by 46%. The mutant is the best among the tested varieties for canning, is suitable for dehydration, and can be stored prepacked at room temperature for 6 days. (author)

  7. Period of Weed Control in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] as Influenced by Varying Rates of Cattle Dung and Weeding Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adigun DADA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2005 and 2006 planting seasons to investigate the influence of cattle dung and the critical period of weed interference on growth and yield components of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench]. The study was a factorial trial laid out in a split plot design and replicated three times. The main plot comprised of four levels of cattle dung and the sub plots were three regimes of weeding. The growth attributes viz; plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter production differed significantly due to different treatments. These attributes increased significantly owing to application of cattle dung which leads to continuous availability of nutrients to the plants as well as appropriate timing of weeding which reduced the influence of weed interference on the okra. Yield and yield components were influenced significantly by application of cattle dung and weeding regimes. Highest fresh fruit yield (102.93 t ha-1 was observed in plots that received 8 t ha-1cattle dung and weeded at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing. Application of 8 t ha-1 of cattle dung as well as weeding at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing significantly enhanced okra growth and fruit yield. However, plots with sub-optimal cattle dung rate and infested with weeds till harvest produced least dry matter and fresh fruit yield.

  8. Genetic analysis for fruit yield and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Akotkar and D. K. De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The components of gene effects for yield and its components in okra were studied using generation mean analysis from six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 derived from six different genotypes. Joint scaling test was applied to detect the presence of epistasis. Epistasis was detected in both the cases. Prevalence of duplicate type of epistasis was observed in all the cases except number of fruits/ plant, fruit length in C1 (IC 3307 x IC 433645, fruit diameter, inter node length in C2 (IC- 43736 x Parbhani Kranti, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit weight in C3 (IC-342075 X IC-332453. Additive, dominance and epistatic gene effects contribute significantly to the inheritance of various yield characters studied. The joint scaling test confirmed the inadequacy of the additive dominance model in most of the crosses for majority of the characters and indicated the presence of epistasis. Low narrow sense heritability values for most of the characters indicating that these characters are more influenced by the environment and they cannot be improved by simple selection.

  9. Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seed and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Nzikou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1 (Blye and Dyer.The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet to 21.98%(Blye & Dyer. The minerals, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters,unsaponifiable matter content, peroxide value, activation energy and differential scanning calorimetry w eredetermined. Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds have ash content of 5.68% (with the presence of followingminerals: Ca, M g, K and N a. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especiallyoleic (up to 24.89% and linoleic (up to 42.78%. Abelmoschus esculentus L. oil can be classified in theoleic-linoleic acid group. The dominant saturated acid w as palmitic (up to 25.79%. Abelmoschus esculentusL. seeds were also founded to contain high levels of crude protein (24.85%. The content of insaponifiables is1.53%. Taking into account these results, the gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. finds its applications in thefood and cosmetic industry.

  10. Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikram-ul-HAQ; Asif Ali KHAN; Iqrar Ahmad KHAN; Muhammad Abubakkar AZMAT

    2012-01-01

    The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny.Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage.An 80 mmol/L NaCI concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes.The pooled ranking of the genotypes,based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length,germination percentage,and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations,was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes.Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCI during plant ontogeny,suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective.Among 39 okra genotypes,five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant,high-yield okra cultivars.

  11. Urea polymer coated with controlled release in physiological quality okra seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquéias de Oliveira Assis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of urea coated with controlled release polymer in the seed quality of okra cultivar Santa Cruz 47.The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications.The experiment consisted of two parts. At first, we evaluated four doses of nitrogen (0, 48, 96, and 144 kg ha-1 applied using as a source, a commercial mixture containing 30% urea and 70% common urea polymer controlled release. In the second part, we tested the effect of two nitrogen sources, urea and conventional urea polymer controlled release at a dose of 120 kg ha-1. In the first part, the treatment means were compared by regression analysis and the second, the “t” test at 5%. To evaluate the physiological quality of seeds, the following tests and / or determinations were carried out: moisture, seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings, and electrical conductivity. The seed quality of okra cultivar Santa Cruz 47, reduces to the application of doses of conventional commercial mixture containing urea and urea polymer coated controlled release. The nitrogen sources used did not affect the physiological quality of seeds of okra.

  12. Volatile organic nitrogen-containing constituents in ambrette seed Abelmoschus moschatus Medik (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhizhi; Clery, Robin A; Hammond, Christopher J

    2008-08-27

    A detailed investigation of the basic fraction of a CO2 extract of ambrette seeds (Abelmoschus moschatus) revealed a total of 58 nitrogen-containing compounds. The identification of these compounds was carried out by GC-MS and NMR. All the identified nitrogen-containing compounds are reported here for the first time in ambrette seeds. Among these are 27 pyrazine derivatives and 12 pyridines, including the tentative identification of four new natural compounds, 1-(6-ethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)ethanone (1), 1-(3-hydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)ethanone (2), 1-(3-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)ethanone (3), and 1-(3-hydroxy-5-methylpyridin-2-yl)ethanone (4). The odor of the basic fraction was assumed to be due to these pyrazines and pyridines and also the presence of seven thiazoles. The odors described suggest that these N-compounds contribute to what is described in perfumery terms as the "natural and rounded" character of the ambrette extract. PMID:18656937

  13. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L.) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E. Oppong; Abenney-Mickson, S.; Sabi, E.B.;

    2015-01-01

    Three seasons' experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure...... spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N-K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen...... compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation....

  14. Pre-germinative treatments in okra seeds in different stadiums of fruit maturationTratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de quiabo em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Peixoto de Macedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the pre-soak and of the thermotherapy in the germination and in the energy of the okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus in different stadiums of maturation of the fruit. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5 x 9, five maturation stadiums (green, semi-hard, hard, dry and dehiscent and nine treatments pre-germination: pre-soak for immersion of the seeds in water to the temperature of 30ºC for 6, 12 and 24 hours; immersion of the seeds in water to 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC for 3 minutes; thermotherapy for immersion of the seeds in water to the ebullition temperature (97ºC until cooling and intact seeds (control. The seeds were sowed in paper-towel rolls and they were maintained in camera type BOD regulated to 20-30ºC and photoperiod of 8-16 hours. The okra seeds originating from dry and dehiscent fruits presented larger germination performance. The pre-germination treatments more effective to accelerate the germination of seeds obtained from dry and dehiscent fruits are the pre-soak for 6 hours and thermotherapy at 60 °C for 3 minutes, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da pré-embebição e da termoterapia na germinação e no vigor das sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 5 x 9, cinco estádios de maturação (verde, semi-duro, duro, seco e deiscente e nove tratamentos pré-germinativos: pré-embebição por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de 30ºC por 6, 12 e 24 horas; imersão das sementes em água a 40, 50, 60 e 70ºC por 3 minutos; termoterapia por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de ebulição (97ºC até esfriar e sementes intactas (testemunha. As sementes foram semeadas em rolos de papel-toalha que foram mantidos em câmara tipo

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Extract and Its Major Constituents from Okra Seed on Rat Hepatocytes Injured by Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianmei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1→6 glucoside (QDG and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG. TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities.

  16. Chemical, physical and biological features of Okra pectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengkhamparn, N.

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, many plants have been used as vegetables as well as for traditional medicine. Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, is an example of such a plant. Examples for the medical use are treatment of gastric irritation, treatment of dental diseases, lowering cholesterol level and preven

  17. Selection for Resistance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Disease of Okra by Induced Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production for both exporting and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of two okra varieties, Annie and Okura, were irradiated with Gamma-rays at doses of 400 and 600Gy. Screening of YVMD resistant plants was conducted for M3 and M4 plants under field conditions in Petchaburi and Phichit provinces, and greenhouse conditions using whitefly transmission in Bangkok. One M4 plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400Gy was found to be highly resistant, but none of Annie. M5 plants of B-21 were screened further for YVMD resistance under both greenhouse and field conditions. Ten resistant lines obtained by screening for YVMD resistance up to the M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS), both located in the northern Thailand. Three of the mutant lines were further tested at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi province, an okra growing area in the west of central Thailand where YVMD was seriously widespread. At the KHRC, all tested mutant lines showed resistance up to a month, when the susceptible check variety already showed symptoms of the disease. However, only a small portion of the plants of the mutant lines appeared to be resistant throughout the whole growth duration; others eventually exhibited the yellow vein symptom. Plants were further screened in two growers' fields. Growers were satisfied with the plant stature and fruit shape of the mutants and their delayed disease development, and further screening is underway to select uniformly YVMD resistant lines for okra production in Kanchanaburi. (author)

  18. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  19. Protective Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus Against Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Wistar Strain Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neetu; Kumar, Dileep; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) has been reported to possess many important biological properties. We undertook in vivo studies on male Wistar rats to examine the antioxidative potential of okra in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic rats. Okra extract was administered to control and diabetic rats for 35 consecutive days. Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) activity (p diabetes for prevention of oxidative stress-mediated complications. PMID:27065051

  20. Some effects of feeding Tribulus terrestris, Ipomoea lonchophylla and the seed of Abelmoschus ficulneus on fetal development and the outcome of pregnancy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D; Bird, A; Flora, T; O'Sullivan, B

    1992-01-01

    Pregnant ewes and their fetuses were chronically catheterized using aseptic procedures under general anaesthesia, and the ewes were then fed either lucerne chaff alone, or lucerne mixed with dried plant material obtained from one of three forb species, Tribulus terrestris (caltrop), Abelmoschus ficulneus (native rosella) or Ipomoea lonchophylla (cowvine), from 103-112 days gestation until term. Ingestion of the forb material was not associated with changes in maternal blood gases, plasma glucose concentrations, or the length of gestation. However, ingestion of rosella seed was associated with a significantly greater fall of fetal arterial pO2 with advancing gestation, and ingestion of either rosella or cowvine was associated with significantly lower fetal mean arterial pressure at 127-131 days, compared with the Tribulus and lucerne groups. Also, the incidence of fetal breathing movements was significantly lower, and did not show a normal day-night variation, in each of the forb-fed groups compared with the lucerne-fed group. The results indicate that these forb plants may contain substances that affect the functional development of the fetal brain. Although ingestion of these plants did not appear to affect the outcome of pregnancy in this study, the possibility that these forbs have a greater impact in sheep populations with poor nutrition and in more extreme environmental conditions is discussed. PMID:1438942

  1. Effect of plant growth regulators on the quality of bast fibres in Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench.

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima, M; A Balasubramanian

    2006-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn) Moench. vernacularly variously called okra, bhindi or ladies’ fingers, is a vegetable crop and a source of soft fibre which has not been commercially exploited. The use of its fibre as an admixture with jute and also in paper and cardboard manufacture is already documented. The present investigation highlights the effect of plant growth regulators like gibberelic acid (GA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on the quality of bast fibres in A. esculentus. The fibre...

  2. STUDY OF CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THE GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE IN SEEDS OF CORN,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Rebessi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is an agrochemical from the group of phosphonates, which is widely used as a herbicide. Although it kills almost any plant, it can be used to eliminate weeds during the growth of crops that are resistant to glyphosate. This research aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of the herbicide in a study using as test organism seeds of maize (Zea mays, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench and arugula (Eruca sativa. The toxicological testing was to use a paper towel dampened with a sample of glyphosate and twenty seeds evenly distributed in containers with lids, left in a dry and airy place, and watered once a day for 5 days. It was possible to check the toxic effect of glyphosate for corn seeds at concentrations above 90 mg.L-1, for okra seeds at concentrations above 75 mg L-1 and arugula seeds in concentrations above 2 mg L - 1. Thus it was concluded that the seeds studied showed a high sensitivity with the possibility to be applied in toxicity testing, representing a simple and low cost.

  3. Effect of endophytic pseudomonas aeruinosa and trichoderma harzianum on soil-borne diseases, mycorrhizae and induction of systemic resistance in okra grown in soil amended with vernonia anthelmintica (L.) seeds powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biostimulants are used in agricultural practices for plant growth improvement. These fertilizers improve microbial activity and cause a negative impact on soil-borne pathogens. In recent years, stimulating plant natural defense is considered as most promising alternative strategy for crop productivity. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum in soil amendment with Vernonia anthelmintica seeds powder, on root rotting fungi, plant growth, mycorrhizal population around roots, phosphorous uptake and stimulation of plant defense markers like poylphenol and antioxidant status in okra. Combine application of Vernonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum significantly (p<0.05) suppressed Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum with complete reduction of Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil significantly reduced nematode galls on roots. Organic amendment also improved plant resistance against root diseases as evident from enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capacity and polyphenol content in treated plants as compare to control. VA Mycorrhizal spores were found significantly (p<0.05) higher in number around roots received Pseudomonas aeruginosa or T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil. Whereas, higher concentrations of phosphorus in okra shoots were found in plants received biocontrol agents in amended soil. Mixed application of PGPR and T. harzianum in amended soil produced tallest plants than other treatments. Soil amendment with Vernonia seed powder alone or with biocontrol agents offer a non-chemical means of plant disease control. (author)

  4. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  5. Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewole Moses B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO, compost organic fertilizer (OR, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY and zero fertilizer applications as control (CT was laid out in a completely randomised block design and each treatment plot (4 x 2 m was replicated four times. Selected weather parameters were collected from a meteorological station in OAU campus during the period of the experiments. Growth parameters such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves of okra increased with added soil amendments from four weeks after planting in the order: IO > OR > MY > CT. In 2010, the highest mean yield of 16.3 t ha-1 obtained with 6.0 t ha-1 of MY was not significantly higher than 15.4 t ha-1 obtained with application of 0.2 t ha-1 of IO, but significantly (p < 0.05 higher than 13.1 and 10.4 t ha-1 obtained with applications of 6.0 and zero t ha-1 of OR and CT respectively. Comparative okra yield, though relatively higher with mycorrhizal inoculation, but lower with no soil amendment was obtained in 2011. The study concluded that a direct linear relationship existed between solar radiation and okra productivity. Also, for a moderately ‘treated field’ with sewage sludge from domestic wastes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be integrated into soil fertility management to achieve low-cost sustainable agricultural systems for enhanced productivity of okra.

  6. Heavy metals phyto-assessment in commonly grown vegetables: water spinach (I. aquatica) and okra (A. esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chuck Chuan; Rahman, Md Motior; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Abas, Mhd Radzi

    2016-01-01

    The growth response, metal tolerance and phytoaccumulation properties of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were assessed under different contaminated spiked metals: control, 50 mg Pb/kg soil, 50 mg Zn/kg soil and 50 mg Cu/kg soil. The availability of Pb, Zn and Cu metals in both soil and plants were detected using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration and accumulation of heavy metals from soil to roots and shoots (edible parts) were evaluated in terms of translocation factor, accumulation factor and tolerance index. Okra recorded the highest accumulation of Pb (80.20 mg/kg) in its root followed by Zn in roots (35.70 mg/kg) and shoots (34.80 mg/kg) of water spinach, respectively. Different accumulation trends were observed with, Pb > Zn > Cu in okra and Zn > Pb > Cu in water spinach. Significant differences (p Malaysian Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations 1985 (2006) as well as the international Codex Alimentarius Commission limits. This study has shown that both water spinach and okra have good potential as Pb and Zn phytoremediators. PMID:27119073

  7. Expression de différents écotypes de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. au déficit hydrique intervenant pendant la boutonnisation et la floraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawadogo M., Zombre G., Balma D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of different ecotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under water deficit during budding and flowering phases. Despite numerous uses and its well known nutritional value, okra is cultivated on very small surfaces, on surroundings of traditional houses and often in dumping ground. To this little interest are added drought, diseases and pests that generate an important reduction of yield, leading okra to play the last roles in agricultural research programs of the country and this, despite the existence of early maturing ecotypes or resistant to some abiotic constraints. The low rate of improved varieties is the proof that it is necessary to develop strategies for participatory breeding programs that take into account farmers selection criteria including genotypes tolerant or resistant to drastic conditions such as water deficit to periods where the plant is expressing its genetic potential. Six ecotypes obtained through participatory plant breeding process in five agricultural districts of the country have been assessed for the tolerance to the drought occurring during the budding and the flowering phases. Results show that water deficit during budding phase has disastrous consequences for okra plants. The yield declines, and also the length, the number and the weight of fruits. Two types of period of flowering phases of okra plant have been observed: the period which intervenes during the accelerated growth phase of the main stem (type 1 and the one which starts once the growth of main stem begins to decline (type 2; this last type is the most frequently met. Water deficit during the phase of budding causes earlier flowering of type 2 plants and leads to delayed flowering of the type 1 plants. The best variables for discriminating okra ecotypes during water deficit are the relative water content (RWC, the length and the number of fruits. Three ecotypes (V1, V3 and V4 are chosen to be used in breeding program of okra for resistance

  8. Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium acting on Abelmoschus manihot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-fei; ZHOU Qi-xing

    2005-01-01

    Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium(Cd) on the ornamental Abelmoschus manihot was firstly examined and compared with single-factor effects of the two pollutants using ecotoxicological indexes including the inhibitory rate of seed germination, root elongation and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The results indicated that methamidophos and Cd had unobvious( p > 0.05) effects on seed germination of the ornamental. There were significant( p < 0.05) inhibitory effects of Cd on root elongation of the tested plant. When the concentration of added Cd was low( < 20 mg/L), significant antagonistic effects on root elongation were observed. And synergic effects were observed when Cd was added in high dose( > 20 mg/L). However, the analysis of joint effects indicated that there were antagonistic effects between Cd and methamidophos under all the treatments. At the high concentration of Cd, joint toxicity of methamidophos and Cd was more dependent on concentration of Cd.

  9. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis) Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays), Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus) and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI; Kehinde Stephen OLORUNMAIYE

    2014-01-01

    This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) with maize (Zea mays Linn.), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum). This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely ran...

  10. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM; Hazim Abd El-Rahman OBIADALLA ALI

    2012-01-01

    The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74%) was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82%) and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%). Neem seed oil...

  11. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  12. Effect of electromagnetic field on okra (Hibiscus sculentus L. developmental stages and the effect of okra extract on breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hasani Sadrabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields can act as stress factors with different effects on biological systems. Due to the nutritional and medicinal values, and the increasing electromagnetic radiations, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field on the developmental stages and cytotoxic properties of okra. Methods: Both dry and wet seeds were exposed to electromagnetic field with the intensities of 2 and 4 mT for 60 minutes. MTT assay was applied to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of okra extract on MCF-7 cell line. The anatomical structure of leaves in both treated and untreated (control plants were examined. Results: The results showed that a field intensity of 4 mT increased the speed of germination of wet treated seeds and the stem length of dry treated seeds. MTT assay revealed no cytotoxicity of the aqueous extracts of okra pods up to the concentration of 100 μg/mL from either the treated or the control plants towards the MCF-7 cell line. Conclusion: The results suggest that the electromagnetic fields would be able to increase the speed of germination without effects on percentage of germination.

  13. Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasababu; K. Murali Mohan Rao; J.Suresh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2) okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

  14. Tensile Properties Characterization of Okra Woven Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasababu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research exploits a new natural fiber namely okra for the preparationof okra fiber reinforced polyester composites. Chemically treated (chemicaltreatment-2 okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strengthand modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively than all othercomposites investigated in the present research. Specific tensile strength andmodulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is 34.31% and 39.84%higher than pure polyester specimen respectively.

  15. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MATRIX TABLETS BASED ON POLYELECTROLYTE COMPLEX BETWEEN OKRA MUCILAGE AND CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rajendra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years there has been greater utilization of natural polymers in the development of delivery systems. The present work is an effort towards development of matrix tablets using polyelectrolyte complex formed between the oppositely charged natural polymers like okra mucilage obtained from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus and chitosan. The effect of pH and polymer volume ratio on yield of polyelectrolyte complex was studied. It was observed that the yield was maximum (96.45% at pH 5 and at polymer volume ratio of 9:1 between okra mucilage and chitosan. The prepared polyelectrolyte complex was also characterised by conductimetry, FTIR, DSC. The results confirmed the formation of polyelectrolyte complex between the natural polymers. The matrix tablets were formulated for model drug diclofenac sodium using the best polyelectrolyte complex at different drug to polymer ratios and compared with formulations containing individual polymers as well as marketed formulation. The prepared formulations showed satisfactory physical parameters. Formulations F2 and F3 extended the drug release for more than 8 h with (83.87± 0.8321% and (77.125± 0.125% drug release respectively in 8 h. The formulations F2 and F3 followed zero order kinetics with anomalous diffusion mechanism. The mean dissolution times were 3.6042 and 3.5935 hrs and the % dissolution efficiency were 54.9467 and 55.7203 % for formulations F2 and F3 respectively. The similarity factor f2 for formulation F2 was 61.6751 and for formulation F3, it was found to be 60.5025.The formulations were found to be stable.

  16. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  17. Selection for resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease of okra by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellow vein mosaic virus disease (YVMD) caused by a begomovirus is the most serious factor affecting okra (Abelmochus esculentus) production for both export and domestic consumption in Thailand. Seeds of Annie and Okura okra varieties were gamma-irradiated at doses of 400 and 600 Gy and planted at Huaysai King's Project in Petchaburi Province. M3 plants were screened for OYVMD (Okra YVMD) resistance under field conditions at Huaysai King's Project and Phichit Horticultural Research Center (PHRC) in Phichit Province. In addition, M4 plants were screened for OYVMD resistance under greenhouse conditions at Crop Protection Research and Development Office using whitefly transmission. None of Annie was found resistant but one plant of Okura (B-21) irradiated at 400 Gy was found to be highly resistant. Ten resistant lines obtained through rescreening of B-21 descendants up to M7 generation were selected for yield trial observations at PHRC and Chiengmai Horticultural Research Station (CHRS). The mutants had good stature and fruit shape but the fruits have spines on the ridges. Selections for OYVMD resistance and spineless fruits were performed at PHRC in three generations and seven of the lines were chosen for yield trial at PHRC. Three of the mutant lines were also screened for OYVMD resistance at Kanchanaburi Horticultural Research Center (KHRC) in Kanchanaburi Province, okra growing area, where OYVMD was seriously widespread. All mutant lines showed resistance against the local OYVMV isolates up to a month before they started showing signs of the disease. Seeds were collected from resistant individuals and planted in farmers's fields for further selection. The farmers were very satisfied with the stature and fruit shape of the mutants when tested against a commercial variety. (author)

  18. Effect of Light Stress on Germination and Growth Parameters of Corchorus olitorius, Celosia argentea,Amaranthus cruentus, Abelmoschus esculentus and Delonix regia

    OpenAIRE

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU; Adekunle Ajayi ADELUSI; Kehinde Peter ADEKOYA

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus, Amaranthus cruentus, Celosia argentea, Corchorus olitorius and Delonix regia were germinated under light and dark conditions. The germination parameters revealed that germination was higher in seeds of A. cruentus and C. olitorus under light while the seeds of D. regia germinated more in the dark. However, no major difference was observed in the germination of C. argentea and A. esculentus in light and darkness. The above findings point out that germination is...

  19. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Thöle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL led to reduced binding to 3ʹ-sialyl lactose, sialylated Lea and Lex. A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CULTIVARS OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK (MALVACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubey Kumari Priyanka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of 2 cultivars (cultivars I: seed moisture content 3.5%, 100 seed weight 1.94 gm ± 0.03, seed size 3.47 mm ± 0.08 × 3.20 mm ± 0.06; cultivars II: seed moisture content 1.5%, 100 seed weight 1.25 gm ± 0.01, seed size 2.92 mm ± 0.07 × 3.33 mm ± 0.03 of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae were grown in the Experimental plots of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plain; 22°99´ N, 88°45´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76%, soil pH 6.85 during the rainfed seasons of 2009 and 2010 (July to December and morphological (taxonomical details, anatomical (transverse sections of ovary, stem and root, stomatal, cytological (meiotic chromosome behavior and pollen attributes (fertility, viability and acetolysis studies were assessed. Results indicated marked differences between the cultivars and based on observations cultivar I is recommended as tall, branched whereas cultivar II as dwarf, unbranched types and the cultivars may further be explored for pharmacological research.

  1. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays, Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. with maize (Zea mays Linn., okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum. This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with five (5 replicates. The treatments comprised of intercropping distances of 1 m, 2 m and 3 m each for the three (3 crops (maize, okra and pepper and a plot for each of the three (3 arable crops without oil palm trees as control. Weed species distribution was carried out in each of the plots to determine the Simpson’s Diversity Index (D, Simpson’s Index of Diversity (1-D and Simpson’s Reciprocal Index (1/D. Weed species’ frequency, density, relative density, relative frequency, importance value, abundance, dominance and relative dominance were also computed from data collected at 3WAP and 6WAP. The results showed that the control plot has the highest weed species distribution at 3WAP having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.0930. Okra plot has the least weed species distribution with the highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2726. At 6WAP, the pepper plot has the highest weed species distribution having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.1741. Control plot has the least weed species distribution with highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2831.

  2. Genetic variability and heritability in cultivated okra [Abel moschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwangburuka, C. C.; Denton, O. A.; Khinde, O. B.; Ojo, D. K.; Popoola, A. R.

    2012-11-01

    Twenty-nine okra accessions from different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria were grown during the rainy and dry seasons, between 2006 and 2007 at Abeokuta (derived savanah) and Ilishan (rainforest) and assessed to determine their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance from eight yield related characters. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications. There was high genotypic coefficient of variability, % broad-sense heritability and genetic advance in traits such as plant height (26.2, 90.7, 51.5), fresh pod length (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), fresh pod width (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), mature pod length (28.6, 98.5, 52.3), branching per plant (29.3, 82.3, 54.8) and pod weight per plant (33.9, 90.0, 63.3), suggesting the effect of additive genes and reliability of selection based on phenotype of these traits for crop improvement. The positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation between plant height at maturity, fresh pod width, seeds per pod and pods per plant, branches per plant with seed weight per plant and pod weight per plant, suggests that selection on the basis of the phenotype of these characters will lead to high seed and pod yield in okra. (Author) 26 refs.

  3. Morphological and biochemical responses of Abelmoschus esculantus (L.) Moench to zinc nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokak, I. B.; Taranath, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing application and use of nanoparticles are directly related to their release in the environment. There has arisen the necessity to study the interactions of nanoparticles with plants and other organisms. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the morphological and biochemical responses of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench to zinc nanoparticles treatment. Seeds were treated with zinc nanoparticles at concentrations of 50 100, 200, 500 ppm. The morphological and biochemical responses recorded include germination percentage, root, shoot length, number of root hairs and number of leaves. Chlorophyll, protein, proline and carbohydrate contents in the leaves of 30-days-old treated plants were estimated. A greater amount of total dissolved solids (TDS) leached out from the seeds soaked in different concentrations of Zn nanoparticles compared to the control. Zinc nanoparticles executed a positive impact on the seed germination. The seed germination percentage increased in all the treatments compared to control. Increase in the chlorophyll and protein content was also observed in the treated plants. The proline content increased in treated plants indicating the stress. The carbohydrate content of leaves decreased drastically in response to the treatment.

  4. 78 FR 25416 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), of the United...

  5. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), prior to...

  6. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  7. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection and eggs (magnifying lens occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total

  8. Flavonoids Derived from Abelmoschus esculentus Attenuates UV-B Induced Cell Damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts Through Nrf2-ARE Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a smaller fraction of the total radiation reaching the Earth but leads to extensive damage to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and other biomolecules through formation of free radicals altering redox homeostasis of the cell. Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) has been known in Ayurveda as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, demulscent, antispasmodic, diuretic, purgative, etc. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of flavonoids from A. esculentus against UV-B-induced cell damage in human dermal fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: UV-B protective activity of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of okra was studied against UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, antioxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway. Results: Flavonoid-rich EA fraction depicted a significant antioxidant potential also showing presence of rutin. Pretreatment of cells with EA fraction (10–30 μg/ml) prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated for the 1st time that EA fraction of okra may reduce oxidative stress through Nrf2-ARE pathway as well as through endogenous enzymatic antioxidant system. These results suggested that flavonoids from okra may be considered as potential UV-B protective agents and may also be formulated into herbal sunscreen for topical application. SUMMARY Flavonoid-enriched ethyl acetate (EA) fraction from A. esculentus protected against ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced oxidative DNA damageEA fraction prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, and intracellular reactive oxygen species

  9. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  10. Pectin from Abelmoschus esculentus: optimization of extraction and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sun, Han-Ju; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of pectin extraction from okra pods. The extracted okra pectin was then investigated by steady-shear and oscillatory rheological measurements. Statistical analysis showed that the linear term of the liquid-solid ratio, the quadratic term of the pH, and the linear term of the extraction time showed highly significant effects on pectin yield. The optimal extraction conditions that maximized the pectin yield within the experimental range of the variables researched were a pH of 3.9, an extraction time of 64 min, an extraction temperature of 60°C, and a liquid-solid ratio of 42:1. Under these conditions, the pectin yield was predicted to be 2.71%. At a liquid-solid ratio less than 2.5% w/w in aqueous solution, the pectin extracted from okra presented non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior and could be well described by the Cross model. The okra pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G'

  11. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of okra pectin on B16F10 melanoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vayssade, M.; Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R.P.; Delaigue, C.; Goundiam, O.; Vigneron, P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.; Nagel, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation and apoptosis of metastatic melanoma cells are often abnormal. We have evaluated the action of a pectic rhamnogalacturonan obtained by hot buffer extraction of okra pods (okra RG-I) on melanoma cell growth and survival in vitro. We added okra RG-I containing an almost pure RG-I car

  12. Impact of poultry manure on fruit yield and yield components of inland valley okra (Albelmoschus esculentus L. in a forest – Savannah transition ecology of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaiya A. O.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in an inland valley at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria in 2009 and 2010 to study the response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus to different rates of poultry manure. The poultry manure rates were 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 120 kgha-1 NPK (20-10-10 as check and no amendment as control. All these were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with five treatments and three replicates. Data collected on growth and yield parameters were analysed using general linear model and treatment means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Application of poultry manure at 37.5 kgha-1 produced the tallest plant (58.1 cm which was significantly different from the rest treatments, it was followed by 25 kgha-1 (55.3 cm and 12.5 kgha-1 (52.5 cm and shortest plants were observed in the control. NPK produced the largest leaf area (1.36 m2plant-1 compared to other treatments. Fruit length and number of fruit plant-1 were similar among plants treated with 25 and 37.5 kgha-1. Similarly, fresh fruit weight was similar among the plants treated with 25 and 37.5 kgha-1 in the two years. It is therefore concluded that 25 kgha-1 of poultry manure may be adequate to meet the okra nutritional need in the partially depleted inland valley and can be produced twice using the residual moisture in dry season.

  13. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

  14. 78 FR 63158 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... On February 9, 2012, AMS published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 6772) soliciting comments..., 2013, AMS published a second notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 25416) soliciting comments about...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra...

  15. Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İBRAHİM DOYMAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sun drying characteristics of green bean and okra were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted in Iskenderun-Hatay, Turkey. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of green bean and okra from the initial moisture contents of 89.5% and 88.7% (w.b. to final moisture content of around 15±0.5% (w.b. were 60 and 100 h in open sun drying, respectively. The constant rate period is absent in drying curves. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to thirteen thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Estimations by Approximation of diffusion (for green bean and Midilli et al. models (for okra were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained.

  16. The Effect of Abelmoschus Esculentus on Blood Levels of Glucose in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrozadeh, Maryam; Heydari, Naval; Abootalebi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia. According to the statistics of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), this problem has a fast growing prevalence and, unfortunately, leaves permanent complications on different body systems. For this reasons, nowadays attentions has been paid to the traditional medicine such as Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus). The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) on blood levels of glucose in diabetes. Methods: This is a review article, which was obtained by a search in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Magiran by using keywords such as diabetes, Okra, and hypoglycemic effect. Results: Various studies on Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) showed that Abelmoscus esculentus (AE)/Okra extract has a hypoglycemic effect that helps decrease blood glucose level. Its properties can be a useful remedy to manage diabetes mellitus. In addition, it leads to inhibition of cholesterol absorption and subsequently decreases the level of lipid and fat in the blood. The results of an investigation on diabetic mice by using this material has shown the same effect and confirmed this conclusion. Conclusion: Based on the positive effects of Okra on reducing blood sugar level, the widespread use of this plant is recommended. Clearly, further research is required.

  17. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML

  18. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  19. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh Hasna Habib; Hossain Kausar; Halimi Mohd Saud

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzym...

  20. Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5, three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of

  1. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was

  2. Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzinger, C H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1998-12-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India)

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. DESENVOLVIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO QUIABEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DAS DATAS DE PLANTIO GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A influência de quatro épocas de plantio (15 de maio, 15 de junho, 15 de julho e 15 de agosto de 1998 no desenvolvimento e na produção do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 foi investigada em Goiânia, GO. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, cultivado há muitos anos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (Tukey 5% entre épocas de plantio, para as seguintes características: número de frutos produzidos durante as trinta primeiras colheitas, altura das plantas no início da colheita, número de ramos laterais e número de dias da semeadura ao início do florescimento, ao início da colheita e ao início da colheita em 75% das covas. A temperatura média dos meses seguintes às datas de plantio aumentou de maio para agosto. Observou-se uma redução do período da semeadura até o início do florescimento, até o início da colheita e até o início da colheita em 75% das covas. O número de ramos laterais também foi reduzido no mesmo período. Entretanto verificou-se aumento na altura das plantas e no rendimento das primeiras trinta colheitas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abelmoschus esculentus; data de plantio; épocas de plantio.

    The influence of four sowing dates (May 15th, June 15th, July 15th and August 15th, 1998 on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus

  5. Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K; Sharma, S R; Mahajan, B V C

    2014-08-01

    The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. 'Punjab-8' pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and than stored at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH. The quality parameters of okra namely texture, chlorophyll content, physiological loss in weight, rotting percentage and general appearance were studied. The pods harvested with minimum handling and field packaging can retain their green colour, crisp texture (maximum force to puncture pod = 500.2 g) with minimum rotting (3.0%) and physiological loss in weight (15.8%) and good appearance upto 13 days of cold storage whereas normal handled pods can be stored upto 5 days at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH and thereafter lost their general appearance on the 7th day of storage and were discarded. Therefore, in order to maintain high quality of okra from harvesting to the final destination (consumer), the okra pods should be harvested with minimum handling followed by field packaging in CFB boxes.

  6. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  7. Responses of growth of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus [/i]L. to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ibrahim Al-Dulaimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus[/i] L.. Materials and methods. A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady’s fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The plants were watered using (WW raw dairy wastewater, (T1 chemicals treatment, (T2 physical treatment, (T3 dilution method treatment and tap water (TW in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter pos-tharvest. Results. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with

  8. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  9. La culture du gombo (Abelmoschus spp) Legume fruit tropical avec reference speciale a la Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The data for this study have been gathered in Ivory Coast during the period 1977-1980.The first purpose of the study was a description of the traditional okra cultivation and, in particular, the evaluation of the local planting material in order to determine its potential for crop improvement.The se

  10. Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikoni Ogaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1 or was first treated with base (F2, acid (F3 or heating in the presence of salt (F4 before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in acetaminophen acetaminophen suspension to deliver 125 mg/5 mL acetaminophen. A binary mixture of F2 and F4 (1:1 was also used. Similar suspensions of acetaminophen containing either hydroxymethylpropylcellulose (HPMC or tragacanth gum (TRAGA were produced. Some physicochemical properties of the formulations were evaluated. The rheological properties of acetaminophen-containing treated okra gums (F2-F5 were generally similar. Changes in viscosity with storage were slower in the F2-F5 formulations as compared with F1. Particle size and particle size distribution were different for all formulations, and hysteresis was a function of time and the suspending agent used. The re-dispersion time of the formulations with treated okra gums was generally shorter than that observed with the untreated okra gum. The use of a binary mixture of F2 and F4 resulted in different physicochemical properties from those of either F2 or F4. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were comparable to those with HPMC and TRAGA. It can thus be concluded that treating okra gum with acid, base or salt impacted better physicochemical properties on an acetaminophen pediatric suspension when they were used as suspending agents.

  11. Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Okra and Brinjal Grown in Peri-Urban Environment of Big Cities of Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peri urban farming system is main supplier of vegetables to urban population and organophosphate pesticides exposure due to consumption of okra and brinjal to urban population has been estimated in this study. Okra and brinjal samples (90 samples for each vegetable) were collected from peri-urban farming area of Faisalabad, Multan and Gujranwala and were analysed by GC-ECD for quantification of chlorpyrifos, profenophos and triazophos residues. Data were statistically analyzed to calculate, mean and standard deviation. Quantification of pesticides residues revealed that 85 (47.22 percentage) samples were contaminated and 15 (8.33 percentage of total samples and 17.64 percentage of contaminated) samples showed residues value higher than MRL'S. Out of 85 contaminated samples 27 (31.76 percentage) samples were contaminated with chlorpyrifos, 30 (35.29 percentage) samples with profenofos and 29 (34.11) were contaminated with triazophos. The mean concentration of chlorpyrifos in okra was 0.192 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.197 mg Kg-1. The mean concentration for profenofos in okra was 0.02 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.035 mg Kg-1. Similarly mean concentration for triazophos in okra was 0.009 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.01 mg Kg-1. Overall, 6.67 percentage samples of okra and 6.66 percentage samples of brinjal contaminated with chlorpyrifos exceeded EU MRL of 0.05 mg kg-1. Okra samples were found contaminated at frequency of 4.44 percentage and brinjal samples at frequency of 5.56 percentage with higher profenofos residues level than MRL of 0.05 mg kg-1. Approximately, 6.67 percentage samples of okra and 5.6 percentage samples of brinjal had profenofos residue level above MRL of 0.01 mg kg-1. This study may be helpful for building database regarding regional exposure of urban population and facilitate in estimation of possible risk to their health in our daily life. (author)

  12. Some physicochemical properties of acetaminophen pediatric suspensions formulated with okra gums obtained from different extraction processes as suspending agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ikoni Ogaji

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extraction process and the potential of okra gum as a suspending agent in pharmaceutical oral formulations containing acetaminophen as a model drug. Clarified mucilage of dried okra was either extracted directly with ethanol 96% (F1) or was first treated with base (F2), acid (F3) or heating in the presence of salt (F4) before extraction with ethanol 96%. The samples were used at 0.5% w/v as suspending agents in ac...

  13. 黄秋葵疫病的发生与防治%Occurrence and control of blight disease of Abelmoschus esculentus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞美

    2015-01-01

    黄秋葵疫病是危害黄秋葵的真菌病之一,发病严重时会导致黄秋葵产量和品质降低。该文综述了黄秋葵疫病的症状、病原、发生规律,并总结了防治措施。%Blight disease is one of the fungus diseases in Abelmoschus esculentus,the occurrence of which would cause seri-ous yield and quality decrease of Abelmoschus esculentus. This paper described the symptom,pathogen and occurrence regu-larity for blight disease of Abelmoschus esculentus,and control measures was summarized.

  14. Method validation and dissipation dynamics of chlorfenapyr in squash and okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghani, Sherif B; Abdallah, Osama I

    2016-03-01

    QuEChERS method combined with GC-IT-MS was developed and validated for the determination of chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra matrices. Method accuracy, repeatability, linearity and specificity were investigated. Matrix effect was discussed. Determination coefficients (R(2)) were 0.9992 and 0.9987 in both matrices. LODs were 2.4 and 2.2μg/kg, while LOQs were 8.2 and 7.3μg/kg. Method accuracy ranged from 92.76% to 106.49%. Method precision RSDs were ⩽12.59%. A field trial to assess chlorfenapyr dissipation behavior was carried out. The developed method was employed in analyzing field samples. Dissipation behavior followed first order kinetics in both crops. Half-life values (t1/2) ranged from 0.2 to 6.58days with determination coefficient (R(2)) ranged from 0.78 to 0.96. The developed method was utilized for surveying chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra samples collected from the market. Monitoring results are discussed. PMID:26471587

  15. In vivo and in vitro antiviral activity of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L) medik

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-lin WU; Xin-bo YANG; Zheng-ming HUANG; He-zhi LIU; Guang-xia WU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L) medik. Methods: The human hepatoma Hep G2.2.15 cell culture system and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection model were used as in vivo and in vitro models to evaluate the anti-HBV effects. Results:In the cell model, the 50% toxic concentration of hyperoside was 0.115 g/L; the maximum nontoxic concentration was 0.05 g/L. On the maximum nontoxic concentrations, the inhibition rates of hyperoside on HBeAg and HBsAg in the 2.2.15 cells were 86.41% and 82.27% on d 8, respectively. In the DHBV infection model, the DHBV-DNA levels decreased significantly in the treatment of 0.05g. kg-1·d-1 and 0.10 g·kg-1·d-1 dosage groups of hyperoside (P<0.01). The inhibition of the peak of viremia was at the maximum at the dose of 0.10 g·kg-1·d-1 and reached 60.79% on d 10 and 69.78% on d 13, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggested that hyperoside is a strong inhibitor of HBsAg and HBeAg secretion in 2.2.15 cells and DHBV-DNA levels in the HBV-infected duck model.

  16. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ASCORBATE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON OKRA (HIBISCUS ESCULENTS L.) GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Baghizadeh; Mahmood Hajmohammadrezaei

    2011-01-01

    Effect of drought stress was investigated at water potentials of-0.2 &-0.4 MPA (by using PEG 6000) on okra germination and seedling growth. In this study, percent germination, average time necessary for germination in day, radical and plumule length, fresh and dry weight of okra seedlings were measured. Effect of ascorbate and salicylic acid and interaction of these tow substances were investigated on germination and seedling growth under normal condition and dry conditions. Drought inhab...

  17. Potential of Soil Amendments (Biochar and Gypsum in increasing Water Use Efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniqa eBatool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger. A six weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after thirty days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were determined weekly under stressed (60% field capacity and non-stressed (100% field capacity conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto five weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, water use efficiency improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of Abelmoschus esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  18. Role of Antagonistic Microorganisms and Organic Amendment in Stimulating the Defense System of Okra Against Root Rotting Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Hafiza Asma; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Without application of chemical pesticides control of soilborne diseases is a great challenge. Stimulation of natural plant's defense is considered as one of the most promising alternative strategy for crop protection. Organic amendment of soil besides direct suppressing the pathogen, has been reported to have an influence on phytochemicals in plants. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cysts nematodes were examined individually and in combination in soil amended with cotton cake for suppressing the root rotting fungi and stimulating the synthesis of polyphenols and improving the antioxidant status in okra. Application of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus in soil amended with cotton cake significantly (P Rhizoctonia solani. Combine use of biocontrol agents in cotton cake amended soil showed maximum positive impact on plant growth, polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity in okra. PMID:26373176

  19. Advancing cultivation technology for okra in greenhouse%大棚黄秋葵提早栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方明清

    2015-01-01

    从品种选择、播期选择、育苗、整畦施肥、田间管理、采收等方面总结大棚黄秋葵提早栽培技术。%Advancing cultivation technology for okra in greenhouse were summarized,which included the selection of variety and sowing date,seedling culture,field preparation and fertilization,field management,harvesting,etc.

  20. La culture du gombo (Abelmoschus spp) Legume fruit tropical avec reference speciale a la Cote d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Siemonsma, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The data for this study have been gathered in Ivory Coast during the period 1977-1980.The first purpose of the study was a description of the traditional okra cultivation and, in particular, the evaluation of the local planting material in order to determine its potential for crop improvement.The second purpose of the programme was a study of the agronomic limitations in the case of intensive cultivation and in what ways such problems might be solved.The inventories of vegetables offered for ...

  1. Comparative Effects of Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench (Okro) and Corchorus olitorius L (Jew Mallow) on Soil Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kelechi L. Njoku; Bola O Oboh; Modupe O. Akinola; Arinola O. Ajasa

    2012-01-01

    The comparative effects of Abelmoschus esculentus and Corchorus olitorius on soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum products were evaluated in this study. The pH, moisture, organic matter, microbial population and total petroleum hydrocarbon of the soils at the beginning and the end of the study were evaluated. Growth of A. esculentus led to loss of more TPH from the soil than the growth of C. olitorius. The growth of A. esculentus increased soil alkalinity and the soil moisture content ...

  2. Pretreatment with the Total Flavone Glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot and Hyperoside Prevents Glomerular Podocyte Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Lei ZHOU; An, Xiao-Fei; Teng, Shi-Chao; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shang, Wen-bin; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Yuan, Yang-Gang; Yu, Jiang-yi

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important diabetic complication, and podocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in the development of DN. In the present study, we examined the preventive effect of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot (TFA) on urinary microalbumin and glomerular podocyte apoptosis in experimental DN rats. The preliminary oral administration of TFA (200 mg/kg/day) for 24 weeks significantly decreased the urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio and 24-h urinar...

  3. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  4. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. PMID:25040189

  5. Degradation analysis of some synthetic and bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop using HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to find out the degradation of three conventional and two bio-insecticides sprayed on okra crop. Imidacloprid, Endosulfan and Profenofos were selected as convectional and biosal and spinosad as bioinsecticide. The insecticides were sprayed at the rates of 49.4, 642.2, 988, 35.5 and 158 g. a. i. ha/sup -1/ respectively. The insecticide residues were analyzed in the leaf and fruit after 0, 1, 3 and 7 days using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half life were calculated. Conventional insecticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half life: 1.95, 2.42 and 1.57 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bioinsecticides (Average half life 1.25 and 0.27 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). Residues of all tested insecticides were compared with codex and EU MRLs and found both the bio-insecticides treated crops safe for human consumption even after few hours of spray. Endosulfan and profenofos treated crops were not found to be fit for consumption even after 7 days of application. Imidacloprid being biorational (low risk) was also safe for consumption on the next day of application. (author)

  6. Occurrence and Control of Okra Pests in Jianyang City%建阳市黄秋葵害虫的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范德友

    2012-01-01

    The morphological characteristics, occurrence features and prevention methods of cotton leaf roller, tobacco cutworm, yellow tea mite and aphid in Okra in Jianyang City were summarized, so as to provide reference for the prevention of Okra pests.%总结了建阳市黄秋葵主要害虫棉大卷叶螟、斜纹夜蛾、茶黄螨和蚜虫的形态特征、发生特点及其防治方法.以期为黄秋葵害虫的防治提供参考。

  7. Effects of Kraal Manure ApplicationRates on Growth and Yield of Wild Okra (Corchorus olitorius L in a Sub-tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Masarirambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild okra (Corchorus olitorius L is an important indigenous vegetable in Swaziland. Although the crop is a popular vegetable among rural communities, not much has been done to produce organic fertilizer application recommendations for its production. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of kraal manure application rates on growth and yield of wild okra. Kraal manure was applied at varying rates of 20, 40 and 60 tons/ha in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD where 2.3.2 (22 an inorganic fertilizer was used as a control, and was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha. For every increase in the application level of kraal manure there were significant (p<0.05 increases in all the growth parameters that were measured. There were also significant (p<0.05 differences of fresh mass and dry mass yield of wild okra. There was an increase in fresh and dry mass yield with every increase in application level of kraal manure while the least fresh and dry mass was recorded in plants provided with 2.3.2 (22. Kraal manure applied at 60 ton/ha gave the highest yield of wild okra under the conditions of this experiment.

  8. Extraction of Flavonoids from the Flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic by Modified Supercritical CO2 Extraction and Determination of Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic has been used for many years in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, supercritical CO2 plus a modifier was utilized to extract flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic. The effects of temperature (40 °C–60 °C, pressure (10–30 MPa and different concentrations of ethanol as modifier (60%–90%, ethanol:water, v/v on major flavonol content and the antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied by response surface methodology (RSM using a Box-Behnken design. The flavonol content was calculated as the sum of the concentrations of seven major flavonoids, namely rutin, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3′-O-glucoside and quercetin, which were simultaneously determined by a HPLC method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The results showed that three factors and their interactions could be well fitted to second-order polynomial models (p < 0.05. At the optimal extraction conditions for flavonol content (20 MPa, 52 °C, and 85% ethanol content, the yield of flavonoids was 41.96 mg/g and the IC50 value was 0.288 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting the extract has high antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic activity of the extract on the 3T3-L1 cell line was investigated. The results indicated that it can downregulate PPARγ and C/EBPα expression at mRNA. In summary, in this study, we have established a cost-effective method for the extraction of flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic using supercritical fluid extraction and the extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  9. Extraction of Flavonoids from the Flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic by Modified Supercritical CO₂ Extraction and Determination of Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic has been used for many years in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, supercritical CO₂ plus a modifier was utilized to extract flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic. The effects of temperature (40 °C-60 °C), pressure (10-30 MPa) and different concentrations of ethanol as modifier (60%-90%, ethanol:water, v/v) on major flavonol content and the antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied by response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken design. The flavonol content was calculated as the sum of the concentrations of seven major flavonoids, namely rutin, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside and quercetin, which were simultaneously determined by a HPLC method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay. The results showed that three factors and their interactions could be well fitted to second-order polynomial models (p extraction conditions for flavonol content (20 MPa, 52 °C, and 85% ethanol content), the yield of flavonoids was 41.96 mg/g and the IC50 value was 0.288 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting the extract has high antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic activity of the extract on the 3T3-L1 cell line was investigated. The results indicated that it can downregulate PPARγ and C/EBPα expression at mRNA. In summary, in this study, we have established a cost-effective method for the extraction of flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic using supercritical fluid extraction and the extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:27347916

  10. Seed proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  11. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  12. OKRA(HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS)AND FENUGREEK(TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRACEUM)MUCILAGE:CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION AS FLOCCULANTS FOR TEXTILE EFFLUENT TAEATMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajani Srinivasan; Anuradha Mishra

    2008-01-01

    The use of new food grade polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Hibiscus esculentus and Trigonella foenum graceum,commonly called Okra and Fenugreek,respectively,as flocculants was described.These polysaccharides were used for removal of solids (suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS)) and dyes from real textile effluents and aqueous solutions of different class of synthetic dyes.Influences of varying polysaccharide concentration,contact time and pH on removal of pollutant from the textile wastewater were investigated.Results showed that polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Okra and Fenugreek were capable of removing 90%-94% of SS,30%-44% of TDS and 30%-35% of dye using a very low concentration of polysaccharide.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of solid waste material obtained before and after the treatment with polysaccharides were used as a supportive evidence to explain the mechanism of flocculation.

  13. Research Progress on Genetics and Breeding of Okra -- a Vegetable for Health Maintenance%保健蔬菜黄秋葵遗传育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维侠; 曹振木; 党选民; 杨衍

    2012-01-01

    Okra is a new health vegetable of high nutritional value, and has very high use value and de- velopment potential. This paper mainly introduces the genetic breeding research progress of okra in the domestic and foreign, including collection and evaluation of germplasm resources, introduction, and breeding methods and means. And put forward the future prospect of the breeding of okra.%黄秋葵是一种营养价值较高的新型保健蔬菜,国内外的遗传育种研究进展情况,包括资源收集评价,育种前景。具有很高的利用价值和开发潜力。主要介绍了黄秋葵在引种、育种方法和手段等,并在此基础上展望黄秋葵的

  14. Association of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus DNA-B with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus in okra showing yellow vein mosaic disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Jalali, S; Krishna Reddy, M

    2015-06-01

    Okra samples showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting and bushy appearance were collected from different locations of India during the surveys conducted between years 2005-2009. The dot blot and PCR detection revealed that 75.14% of the samples were associated with monopartite begomovirus and remaining samples with bipartite virus. Whitefly transmission was established for three samples representing widely separated geographical locations which are negative to betasatellites and associated with DNA-B. Genome components of these three representative isolates were cloned and sequenced. The analysis of DNA-A-like sequence revealed that three begomovirus isolates shared more than 93% nucleotide sequence identity with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus from India (BYVMV), a monopartite begomovirus species that was reported previously as causative agent of bhendi yellow mosaic disease in association of bhendi yellow vein mosaic betasatellite. Further, the DNA-B-like sequences associated with the three virus isolates shared no more than 90% sequence identity with tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). Analyses of putative iteron-binding sequence required for trans-replication suggests that begomovirus sequences shared compatible rep-binding iterons with DNA-B of ToLCNDV. Our data suggest that the monopartite begomovirus associated with okra yellow vein disease has captured DNA-B of ToLCNDV to infect okra. Widespread distribution of the complex shows the increasing trend of the capturing of DNA-B of ToLCNDV by monopartite begomoviruses in the Indian subcontinent. The recombination analysis showed that the DNA-A might have been derived from the inter-specific recombination of begomoviruses, while DNA-B was derived from the ToLCNDV infecting different hosts.

  15. 黄蜀葵花对阿霉素肾病大鼠足细胞的保护作用%Protective effect of Sunset Abelmoschus on podocyte injury in adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边琪; 郭志勇; 胡海燕; 李娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨黄蜀葵花(黄葵)治疗阿霉素肾病大鼠的疗效及其对足细胞病变的影响.方法 雄性SD大鼠50只,按随机数字法分为假手术组(n=10)、模型组(n=10)、黄葵低剂量组(0.5 g·kg-1·d-1,n=10)、黄葵中剂量组(1.0 g·kg-1·d-1,n=10)和黄葵高剂量组(2.0 g·kg-1·d-1,n=10).采用单侧肾切除联合两次阿霉素(ADR)注射法,制备阿霉素肾病大鼠模型.黄葵各组于右肾摘除术当天起给予相应剂量黄葵溶液灌胃.分别在术前、术后2、4、6、8周末检测大鼠尿蛋白、尿N-乙酰葡萄糖氨基转移酶(NAG)、血清白蛋白、Scr和血脂.第8周末宰杀大鼠,取肾组织行光镜和电镜检查,并观察肾组织nephrin的分布.结果 与模型组比较,黄葵各组在各时间点的尿蛋白量和尿NAG水平均降低,以高剂量组最显著(P<0.01);且血浆白蛋白增加,血脂紊乱改善,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).模型组及黄葵各治疗组Scr自第4周起较假手术组明显升高;第8周末,黄葵高剂量组Scr低于模型组(P<0.05).黄葵各组肾小球球性硬化和节段硬化比例均低于模型组,肾小管间质损害改善,且以高剂量组最显著.与模型组比较,黄葵各组足细胞的足突损伤减轻,足突融合程度和范围均有所改善,以高剂量组最显著.黄葵各组肾组织nephrin表达较模型组增加.结论 黄葵能减少阿霉素肾病大鼠的蛋白尿,减轻肾组织损伤和慢性化,其机制可能与改善足细胞病变有关.%Objective To explore the effect of Sunset Abelmoschus on podocyte injury in adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats.Methods Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups:sham operation group (n=10),model group (n=10),Sunset Abelmoschus low dose group (0.5 g·kg-1· d-1 n=10),middle dose group (1.0 g· kg-1· d-1,n=10) and high dose group (2.0 g· kg-1· d-1,n=10).Unilateral nephrectomy combined repeated adriamycin injection were performed to establish

  16. Análise Faunística de Insetos Associados à Cultura do Quiabeiro [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] em Plantio Comercial, no Município de Canindé de São Francisco, SE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina Silva

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. This research aims to study the entomofauna associated with the commercial cultivation of okra in municipality of Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe State, Brazil, through faunal analysis. The species Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, Aphis gossypii (Glover, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi (Maskell and Lagria villosa (Fabricius were the okra key pests. Diabrotica speciosa (Germar and Gryllus assimilis (Fabricius were plagues of secondary importance. And Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, Nezaraviridula L., Pachycoris torridus (Scopoli and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa were sporadic pests. Four species of predatory insects were found, a constant and dominant (Cycloneda sanguinea L. a dispersed, but constant (Eriopis connexa German and two rare (Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Psyllobora confluens F..

  17. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que

  18. Comparative Effects of Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (Okro and Corchorus olitorius L (Jew Mallow on Soil Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelechi L. Njoku

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of Abelmoschus esculentus and Corchorus olitorius on soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum products were evaluated in this study. The pH, moisture, organic matter, microbial population and total petroleum hydrocarbon of the soils at the beginning and the end of the study were evaluated. Growth of A. esculentus led to loss of more TPH from the soil than the growth of C. olitorius. The growth of A. esculentus increased soil alkalinity and the soil moisture content more than that of C. olitorius. More bacteria and fungi were isolated from soil that had A. esculentus than from soil that had C. olitorius. Significant differences were noticed between the impacts of A. esculentus and that of C. olitorius on the soil contaminated with mixture of petroleum (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. The findings in this study show that A. esculentus has better ability to remediate petroleum contaminated soils than C. olitorius. Since both crops are easily propagated and readily grow in most soils, they can be very useful in combating the problems associated with contamination of soil with petroleum products.

  19. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  20. 金花葵花总黄酮解热抗炎作用的实验研究%Experimental Study of Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Total Flavonoids in Abelmoschus Manihot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of total flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot. Methods Intravenous injection of E. Coli liquid into rabbits resulted in fever model of rabbits and its antipyretic effect was observed. Xylene was used to induce ear swelling and resulted in acute inflammation model,and the anti-inflammatory effect was observed. Results Oral intake of total flavonoids in abelmoschus manihot on the dosage of 60 mg/kg or 120 mg/kg significantly inhibited E. Coli-induced fever of rabbits,and lowered the peak temperature; Topical application of total flavonoids could reduce the swelling rate of external ear in mice. Conclusion The total flavonoids in abelmoschus manihot have some antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects.%目的 研究金花葵花总黄酮的解热和抗炎作用.方法 采用大肠杆菌液静脉注射家兔的方法,制成家兔发热模型,观察其解热作用;采用二甲苯致小鼠耳片肿胀的方法,造成急性炎症模型,观察其抗炎作用.结果 金花葵花总黄酮60 mg/kg、120mg/kg灌胃能明显抑制大肠杆菌所致的家兔体温升高,使体温峰值降低;局部涂抹能降低二甲苯致炎小鼠耳廓肿胀率.结论金花葵花总黄酮具有一定的解热和抗炎作用.

  1. Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Finger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the most popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de injúria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10

  2. Determinação das etapas do processamento mínimo de quiabo Determination of the stages of minimum processing of okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto G. Carnelossi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um fluxograma operacional para o processamento mínimo de quiabo, produto muito consumido e produzido em diversos estados brasileiros. Para isso, foram avaliados dois modelos de fluxograma. Os procedimentos ideais para cada etapa do processamento mínimo foram determinados utilizando os seguintes parâmetros: tipos de corte, concentração do sanitizante, enxágüe (tratamento com ácido, tempo de centrifugação e tipo de embalagem (PEAD a vácuo e bandejas de poliestireno recobertas com filme de PVC, armazenadas em câmara fria (5±2ºC por oito dias. Com base na análise sensorial, quiabo cortado em rodelas com aproximadamente 2 cm de espessura mostrou-se o mais aceito. Dentre as concentrações de sanitizantes avaliadas, o tratamento com concentrações de 100 mg L-1 de cloro ativo durante 10 minutos, mostrou eficiência significativa na redução de coliformes totais, aeróbios mesófilos e fungos e leveduras. A utilização do ácido cítrico (1% durante o enxágüe mostrou-se eficiente na retirada da mucilagem do produto e verificou-se ainda que o tempo para centrifugação de quiabo deve ser de 10 minutos. A embalagem de PEAD a vácuo foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade dos produtos. Para o processamento mínimo de quiabo deve ser utilizado o seguinte fluxograma: recepção, seleção, lavagem, corte, sanitização, enxágüe com ácido, centrifugação, embalagem e armazenamento.This work aimed to establish an operational flowchart for the minimum processing of okra, a product much consumed and produced in diverse Brazilian States. In this work two models of flowchart were evaluated. The ideal procedures for each stage of the minimum processing were determined by utilization of the following parameters: types of cut, concentration of the rinse (treatment with acid, time of centrifugation and type of the packing (PEAD the recovered polystyrene vacuum and trays with film of PVC, stored in

  3. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource...... is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus......, the main aim of our study was to explore the water sa ving potential of drip irrigation in order to save the shallow groundwater from over exploitation. A two season study (minor dry season, 2011 and major dry season, 2012) were carried out to determine the okra crop response to the following treatments: 1...

  4. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality.......To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  5. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality......To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  6. Research on Process Optimization and Formula of Okra-Orange CompoundJ uiec Beverage%黄秋葵橘子复合果汁饮品工艺优化及配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐; 谭嘉丽; 刘日斌; 朱建华; 唐海梅; 杨莹; 刘廙人; 郭舒婷; 李雅

    2016-01-01

    Abstratc: A compound formula of fruit and vegetable juice was explored using okra and orange as raw materials , after juice extraction, the formula for the compound beverage was confirmed by single factor experiment and orthogonal test .The results showed that the optimal conditions as follows:the content of okra juice and orange juice were 15%and 4%, and the amounts of sugar and citric acid were 7.5%and 0.1%, respectively.The compound beverage of okra and orange beverage had bright color and better mouth feel, with fragrance of okra and orange, was a pleasant taste and nutritious drink.%以黄秋葵、橘子为主要原料,先进行黄秋葵汁液及果汁提取,然后在单因素试验的基础上通过正交试验优化复合果汁饮料工艺配方,得到最佳复合饮料主要成分配比为:黄秋葵汁液添加量15%、蔗糖7.5%、柠檬酸0.1%、橘子汁4%。在该配方条件下得到的饮料色泽明亮,甜酸适宜,具有秋葵清香、橘子甜味,是一种口感愉悦、营养丰富的健康饮料。

  7. Plantlet regeneration for stem segments and determination of total flavonoids in separate flower callus of Abelmoschus manihot L.%黄蜀葵茎段植株再生体系的建立和花各部愈伤组织总黄酮含量的测定比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫明雅; 王晓萌; 白洁; 陈放

    2012-01-01

    以黄蜀葵种子获得无菌苗的茎段为外植体,研究了不同浓度激素配比对愈伤组织诱导及分化再生植株的影响.结果表明:以75%酒精30s+0.1%升汞10min灭菌黄蜀葵种子,可获得较高发芽率的无菌苗;愈伤组织最适诱导培养基为改良MS+KT0.8 mg/L+IAA0.6mg/L,经愈伤组织分化不定芽的最佳培养基为MS+6-BA3.0 mg/L+NAA0.05 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为:1/2 MS+NAA0.1 mg/L;且移栽后成活率可达95%.用紫外分光光度法测定花和各部愈伤组织总黄酮的含量,对比发现:花中总黄酮的含量高于各部愈伤组织,愈伤组织中子房愈伤组织的总黄酮含量高于其他部位.%The stem segments of Abelmoschus manihot were used as explants for the studing of callus induction and plantlets regeneration. The sterilized seedlings were obtained from the seeds sterilized thirty-seconds of 75% alcohol and ten minutes of 0. 1% corrosive sublimate. The result revealed that improved MS+KTO. 8mg · L-1+IAA0. 6 mg · L-1 was the best medium for its callus induction, MS+6-BA3. 0 mg · L-1 +NAA0. 05 mg · L-1 was the optimum medium for differentiation of adventitious bud via callus, and 1/2 MS+NAA0. 1 mg · L-1 was the optimum medium for adventitious bud. The survival rate of regrowth seedling in garden soil was up to 95%. The content of total flavonoids in flower and separate callus was compared by UV spectrophotometry, and the content of total flavonoids in ovary was higher than others.

  8. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Soares da Silva; Aurenice Lucena Pereira

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. ...

  9. Using termite nests as a source of organic matter in agrosilvicultural production systems in Amazonia Uso de ninhos de cupin como fonte de matéria orgânica em sistemas de produção agrosilviculturais na Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    L. S. Batalha; D. F. da Silva Filho; C. Martius

    1995-01-01

    The growth of two annual crops, okra (Abelmoschus escutentus) and egg-plant (Solatium melongena) and one perennial crop, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, a native forest tree of Amazonia) under different treatments with organic manure derived from termite nest material of wood-feeding Nasutitermes species was tested (randomized block design). The use of 25-100 g of nest material gave no significant increase in okra productivity, and 25-200 g gave no significant response in andiroba. The combined ...

  10. Seed Treatment. Sale Publication 4076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information about types of seeds that may require chemical protection against pests, seed treatment pesticide formulations, seed treatment methods, labeling treated seed, and safety and environmental precautions. (Author/BB)

  11. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo during germination. Differences in timing of endosperm digestion can be illustrated with broad bean ( Vicia faba ) and Gasteria...

  12. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  13. Water relations in seed biology

    OpenAIRE

    Villela F. A.

    1998-01-01

    The water relations play a fundamental role in seed biology. Thus, the purpose of the present paper was to analyze the performance of water status in seed development and germination. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content. The seed water status plays a regulatory role in seed development and germination.

  14. Occurrence and control of cotton leaf roller (Sylepta derogate) on okra%棉大卷叶螟在黄秋葵上的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范德友

    2012-01-01

    分析棉大卷叶螟在建阳市城郊黄秋葵上的为害特点、形态特征及其发生规律,并提出农业防治、物理防治、化学防治等综合防治措施。%The damage status, morphological characteristics and occurrence regulation of cotton leaf roller ( Sylepta derogate) on the okra in suburbs of Jianyang were analyzed in this paper. Integrate control measures, such as agricultural control, physical control and chemical control were put forward in the paper.

  15. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    OpenAIRE

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza; Manuela O. de Souza; Ronaldo S. Oliveira; Claudineia R. Pelacani

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). Every 4 months, the seeds were r...

  16. Effects of tallowtree seed coat on seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xian; GU Hong-biao; MAO Yan; YIN Tong-ming; GAO Han-dong

    2012-01-01

    We measured physiological parameters including water uptake,in-vitro embryo germination ratio,and seed coat structure observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to explore the influence of seed coat on the germination of seeds of tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (Linn) Roxb.).Tallow tree seeds had good water permeability.We found that germination of cabbage seeds was inhibited when cabbage seeds were soaked in extracted solutions from tallow tree seed coat.Seed coat structure at the side of the radicle appeared to be a barrier to seed germination.We tested methods to break tallow tree seed dormancy.Dormancy of tallow tree seeds was overcome by soaking the seeds in 500 mg·L-1 or 1000 mg·L-1 GA3,followed by 100 days of cold stratification.

  17. UTILIZATION OF VERMIWASH POTENTIAL ON CERTAIN SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAKH NATH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of vermiwash on the growth, flowering and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus, lobia (Vigna unguiculata and radish (Raphnus sativus. Vermiwash was extracted from different vermicompost which was composted from different animal agro and kitchen wastes through earthworm Eisenia foetida. It was observed that treatment of vermiwash shows significantly increased in growth and productivity and decreased flowering period. The maximum significant growth was observed in 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with rice bran 38.0±1.3 cm. in case of okra, 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with gram bran (seed of Cicer arientinum 215.5±5.2 cm., in lobia crops and 30 mg/m2 concentration of buffalo dung with gram bran 20.4±1.4 cm. The significant early starting of flowering and increased in productivity was found in all treated groups with respect to control.

  18. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki;

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  19. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorrentes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.. As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s espécie(s e, ou da(s raça(s de Meloidogyne presente(s nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2, seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3 e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2. A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp.Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG, and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. The main species

  20. The earliest seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. 中药黄蜀葵花化学成分的分离与鉴定(Ⅲ)%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot( L.)Medic (Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春梅; 安雅婷; 王涛; 尚海花; 高秀梅; 张祎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot(L. ) Medic. Methods The compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods such as silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC,and their structures were identified by physicochemical properties,especially spectral analysis. Results Nine compounds were isolated. The structures of them were identified as gossypetin 8-O-β-D-glucuronide (1), gossypetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-8-O-β-glucuronopyranoside (2), gossypetin 3 '-O-β-glucopyranoside(3), uiliroside(4), kaempferol 3-O-[ 3"-O-acetyl-6"-O-( E)-p-coumaroyl) ]-β-D-glucopyr-anoside(5),quercetin 3-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl( 1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6) ]-β-D-galactopyrano-side(6) ,4-hydroxybenzoic acid β-D-glucose ester(7),protocatechuic acid(8) and protocatecheuic acid-3-O-β-glucoside(9),respectively. Conclusion Compounds 2,4-9 are obtained from Abelmoschus genus for the first time,and the spectral data in DMSO-d6 solution of S ,6 and 9 are reported firstly.%目的 研究中药黄蜀葵(Abelmoschus manihot(L.)Medic)花的化学成分.方法 采用正相硅胶、反相ODS、Sephadex LH-20等柱色谱以及HPLC等手段进行分离纯化,并通过理化性质与光谱分析方法鉴定了化合物的结构.结果 从黄蜀葵花体积分数为95%的乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了9个化合物,分别为棉皮素8-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸苷(gossypetin 8-O-β-D-glucuronide,1)、棉皮素-O-β-D-葡萄糖-8-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸(gossypetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-8-O-β-glucuronopyranoside,2)、棉皮素3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(gossypetin 3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,3)、tiliroside(4)、山奈酚3-O-[(3″-O-乙酰基-6″-O-(E)-对羟基桂皮酰基)]-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(kaempferol 3-O-[3″-O-acetyl-6"-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)]-β-D-glucopyranoside,5)、槲皮素3-O-[β-D-木糖基(1→2)-(1-L-鼠李糖基(1→6)]-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(quercetin 3-O[β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside,6)、4-羟

  3. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  4. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  5. Seed output and the seed bank in Vallisneria americana (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokker, C; Lovett-Doust, L; Lovett-Doust, J

    1997-10-01

    Seed banks and sexual reproduction are known to be significant in colonization and re-establishment of some aquatic macrophyte communities. For highly clonal aquatic macrophytes, however, there is a lack of information on seed production and seed fate as compared with annual sexual species. The seed bank for three populations of Vallisneria americana in the Huron-Erie corridor of the Great Lakes was sampled and quantified in the spring of 1994, and related to seed production in the previous season at these sites. Seed deposition rates during 1994 were also assessed. Sites varied in the proportion of plants flowering and in their tertiary sex ratios, but did not differ in seed numbers produced per unit area. The size of the seed bank was not significantly related to the previous season's seed output, and estimates of seed deposition in the following year tended to be approximately tenfold greater than seed densities found in the seed bank. The stages between seed production and subsequent seed germination are generally very dynamic, with dispersal, mortality, and predation as likely regulating factors. The potential for seedling establishment in V. americana needs to be assessed more fully before the role of seeds in population processes can be determined. PMID:21708549

  6. Priorities in seed pathology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nameth S.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of seedborne pathogens that might go undetected using more conventional means. These types of research will be fundamental in guaranteeing seed health quality standards and achieving phytosanitary requirements throughout the world in the new millennium.

  7. Seed collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  8. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... magnesium and zinc. Emerging research suggests that including chia seeds as part of a healthy diet may help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not many ...

  9. Ethylene and lettuce seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene can stimulate seed germination and overcome dormancy in many species. For instance, the inhibitory effect of high temperature on lettuce seed germination can be overcome by exogenous ethylene. Involvement of ethylene in seed germination is a widely accepted fact, but the mechanistic details are poorly understood. A critical factor in ethylene studies is the response of seed germination properties to various ethylene inhibitors. Lettuce seed has been used as a model to study the role ...

  10. Seed systems support in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Munyi, Peter; Jonge, de, M.J.I.

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector Development (ISSD) approach. The ISSD approach has evolved as a response to the almost exclusive focus on formal seed systems in seed sector development programs. Instead, ISSD aims to recognize and sup...

  11. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. PMID:27507473

  12. Study on Anti-fatigue Effect of The Polysaccharide from Okra in Mice%黄秋葵多糖抗小鼠运动性疲劳及其作用机理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱一闻; 方树远; 徐天姿; 单雪峰; 胡斐媛; 陈蕾蕾; 李南奇; 王慧铭; 方道会

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the anti-fatigue effect of the polysaccharide from Okra in mice. [Methods] 40 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups including low-, high-dose groups (treated with the polysaccharide from Okra at dose of 150, 300 mg/kg·d), positive control group(treated with water extract of Dried Fresh Ginseng, at dose of 200 mg/kg·d ) and control group(treated with distil ed water). Al the 4 groups were treated by gavage for continuous 21 days and tested for their weight-loaded swimming times as wel as blood urea nitrogen, blood lactic acid and hepatic glycogen levels. [Results]The groups treated with the polysaccharide from Okra significantly prolonged the exhaustive swimming time of mice, decreased the contents of both blood urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid and increased the content of hepatic glycogen, and their effects were as effective as Dried Fresh Ginseng. [Conclusion]The polysaccharide from Okra could resist fatigue in mice in a dose-dependent manner.%  [目的]研究黄秋葵多糖抗小鼠运动性疲劳的作用及其机理。[方法]清洁级ICR小鼠随机分为四组:黄秋葵多糖低、高剂量组(分别用黄秋葵多糖150、300mg/(kg·d))、阳性对照组(生晒参水提物200mg/(kg·d))和空白对照组(等量蒸馏水),连续灌胃21d后,测定小鼠的游泳时间、体重变化、血乳酸、血尿素氮、肝糖元指标。[结果]低、高2个剂量黄秋葵多糖均可显著延长小鼠的游泳时间(P<0.05),降低小鼠血乳酸、血尿素氮水平(P<0.05),并增加肝糖原含量(P<0.05);其作用均与阳性对照生晒参水提物相当(P>0.05)。[结论]黄秋葵多糖具有明显的抗小鼠运动性疲劳作用,其作用机理可能通过提高肝糖原含量增加能源物质储备、增加葡萄糖的有氧分解、减少葡萄糖的无氧酵解、减少蛋白质的分解、提高产能效率而发挥作用。

  13. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85). Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8%) patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4%) treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V100(%): 88.7/82, D90(Gy): 149.2/140.3, D90(%): 104.2/93.8, V150 (%): 53.8/47, respectively). No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33), PSA (p = 0.391), prostate volume (p 0.397), activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109), number of seeds (p 0.338), V100 (p = 0.332), although significant differences were measured in the values of D90 (% and Gy) (p = 0.022 and 0.011) and V150 (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry. (author)

  15. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Ismail Ahmed; Awad Mohammed Babeker; Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed Elamin; Elshiekh Awadelkarim Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea), Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi) seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were...

  16. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  18. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  19. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  20. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  1. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  2. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  3. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1

  4. Lectin release by soybean seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, D.W.; Foard, D.E.; Replogle, W.D.; Yang, W.K.

    1977-09-16

    Lectin is released from soybean seeds during water uptake. Hemagglutination activity data show that the lectin is a preferential release product within the first 8 hours of hydration. A qualitative filter-paper assay for detection of lectin released by single seeds is used to show that the release phenomenon is independent of seed viability and insensitive to azide.

  5. 黄蜀葵花制剂治疗慢性肾脏病的机制和疗效%Mechanisms and effects of Abelmoschus manihot preparations in treating chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萍; 万毅刚; 王朝俊; 赵青; 魏晴雪; 涂玥; 尹雪皎

    2012-01-01

    黄蜀葵花Abelmoschus manihot( AM)中分离出20余种生物活性成分,包括黄酮类、多糖类、鞣酸类以及长链烃类等化合物.其中,主要化学成分是AM总黄酮(total flavones of A.manihot,TFA).AM制剂——“黄葵胶囊”治疗慢性肾脏病(chronic kidney disease,CKD)的机制主要包括抑制免疫反应、减轻炎症反应、改善肾纤维化、保护肾小管上皮细胞等.在临床上,黄葵胶囊可以治疗肾病综合征、糖尿病肾病、紫癜性肾炎、IgA肾病、膜性肾病等常见CKD.其临床疗效主要表现在改善CKD患者临床症状,减少蛋白尿和血尿,提高肾功能等方面.%Ahelmoschus manihot (AM) is a medicinal plant rich in twenty kinds of separated active bio-components including flavones, polysaccharides, trannic acid, and long chain hydrocarbons. Among these, total flavones of A. manihot (TFA) are the major active component. In this review, the mechanisms of Huangkui capsule will be discussed as a preparation of AM to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) by improving immunological reaction, inflammation, renal fibrosis, and renal tubular epithelial injury. Additionally, it has been reported that Huangkui capsule can ameliorate some clinical symptoms, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal function in patients with common CKD, such as nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, Henoch-Schb'nlein purpura nephritis, IgA nephropathy, and membranous nephropathy.

  6. Lectin from Abelmoschus esculentus reduces zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception in rats via heme oxygenase-1 pathway integrity and tnf-α and il-1β suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Raul Sousa; do Val, Danielle Rocha; Fernandes, Maria Ester Frota; Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; de Lacerda, José Thalles Jocelino Gomes; SantiGadelha, Tatiane; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; de Paulo Teixeira Pinto, Vicente; Cristino-Filho, Gerardo; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos

    2016-09-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders show inflammatory components, heavily impacting on quality of life. Abelmoschus esculentus is largely cultivated in Northeastern Brazil for medicinal purposes, having it shown anti-inflammatory activity. We evaluated A. esculentus lectin (AEL) efficacy in reducing zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception in rats along with the mechanism of action through which it exerts anti-inflammatory activity. Animals were pre-treated with AEL (0.01, 0.1 or 1mg/kg) before zymosan (Zy) injection in the TMJ to determine anti-inflammatory activity. To analyse the possible effect of the hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the nitric oxide (NO) pathways on AEL efficacy, animals were pre-treated with ZnPP-IX (3mg/kg), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, or aminoguanidine (30mg/kg), a selective iNOS inhibitor, before AEL administration. Von Frey test evaluated inflammatory hypernociception, synovial fluid collection was performed to determine leukocyte counting and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity 6h after Zy injection, and Evans Blue extravasation determined vascular permeability. TMJ tissue was collected for histopathological analysis (H&E) and immunohistochemistry (TNF-α, IL-1β, HO-1). In addition, TMJ tissue and trigeminal ganglion collection was performed for TNF-α and IL-1β dosage (ELISA). AEL increased inflammatory nociceptive threshold, reduced leukocyte influx along with MPO activity, leukocyte influx into the synovial membrane, and Evans Blue extravasation. It promoted HO-1 overexpression whilst decreased TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the TMJ tissue. AEL reduced TNF-α and IL-1β levels in TMJ tissue and trigeminal ganglion. AEL effects, however, were not observed in the presence of ZnPP-IX. These findings suggest that AEL efficacy depends on TNF-α/IL-1β inhibition and HO-1 pathway integrity. PMID:27344040

  7. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  8. IMPACT OF IMPROVED SEEDS ON SMALL FARMERS' PRODUCTIVITY, INCOME AND LIVELIHOOD OF BARA LOCALITY IN NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhalil Elnour Briema Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test and identify the impact of improved seeds on small farmers' productivity, income and livelihood in Bara locality. Sixty households participants were randomly selected through a field survey during 2011 for 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons. The study applied Multi-stage random sample technique. Based on existing farm situation and price level, the sampled farmers were obtained SDG 8604 as gross margin to cover all expenses. Results of this study also depicted that the required net income and off-farm income were 16293 and 11378 SDG, respectively. With respect to Linear Programming (LP results, a total of SDG 8890 were obtained and all crops were entered and solved. The optimal plan and existing farm situation were changed by 3.3 and 5.6% for gross margin and cash income, respectively. Results of LP also indicated a positive change in production patterns of resource use; 3.3, 6.2, 3.5, 3.3 and 9.1% for land, cash income, labour, seeds supply and productivity, respectively under existing and optimal plan. Partial crop budgeting revealed that, all treatments were financially gave positive returns. Dominance analysis showed that cowpea ainelgazal, okra, roselle and sesame herhri crops were dominated by crops of millet ashana, watermelon, groundnut and guar, respectively. Marginal analysis exposed that, for every SDG 1.00 invested in improved seeds cultivation, farmer can expect to cover the SDG 1.00 and obtain an additional SDG 1.345; then, additional seed rate implies a further marginal rate of SDG 43.9. Sensitivity analysis for cost over run and benefit reduction by 10% indicated highly stability with MRR of 1.22, 3.991 and 1.21 and 3.951% for watermelon and guar, respectively. The productivity of improved seeds compared to local ones was increased in some varieties and decreased among others. This study reached to some recommendations for improving crop productivity, production and livelihood of

  9. Crop protection by seed coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  10. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  11. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  12. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  13. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  14. Seed thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki; Shahpiri, Azar; Buchanan, Bob B; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2016-08-01

    Thioredoxins are nearly ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of biochemical pathways in various biological systems, and also implicated in numerous biotechnological applications. Plants uniquely synthesize an array of thioredoxins targeted to different cell compartments, for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses on occurrence, reaction mechanisms, specificity, target protein identification, three-dimensional structure and various applications. The aim is to provide a general background as well as an update covering the most recent findings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics - a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26876537

  15. Molecular Characterization of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus and the Associated Satellite DNA Infecting Okra in Guangdong%侵染广东黄秋葵的木尔坦棉花曲叶病毒及伴随卫星DNA的分子特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董迪; 朱艳华; 何自福; 柴兆祥; 余小漫; 罗方芳

    2012-01-01

    The virus isolate Okra06 was obtained from the diseased okra plants exhibiting yellow vein and leaf curl symptoms in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. The results of PCR detection indicated that the virus belonged to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. The genome of the virus was cloned and sequenced. The results showed that it had only A component(DNA-A). The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined to be 2 737 nucleotides, encoding six potential ORFs. The comparison showed that Okra06 DNA-A had the highest nucleotide sequence identity (99. 7% ) with CLCuMV-[ G6]. Six ORFs shared 100% , 100% , 99. 6% , 99. 8% , 100% and 99. 7% nucleotide sequence identities with CLCuMV - [ G6 ], respectively. The Okra06 was also associated with satellite DNA p molecular. The full-length sequence of DN A p was determined to be 1 346 nucleotides, encoding one potential ORF (Cl). The comparison further showed that Okra06 DNA p had the highest nucleotide sequence identity (99. 5% ) with G6 DNA p. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DNA p of isolate Okra06, G6 and Gx08 were more closely related than the other begomoviruses associated with DNA p, and were clusteredin a separate branch and further clustered with other isolates of CLCuMV DNA 3 or CLCuV DNA f$. Those results revealed that the virus isolate Okra06 infecting okra plants in Guangdong belonged to the species CLCuMV, and it should be the Hibiscus strain.%从广东省表现黄脉曲叶的黄秋葵病株上分离到病毒分离物Okra06,PCR检测结果显示,该病毒属双生病毒科Geminiviridae菜豆金色花叶病毒属Begomovirus.基因克隆及序列分析结果表明,其基因组仅含A组分(DNA - A),全长为2 737 nt,推导编码6个开放阅读框(Open reading frame,ORF).该组分与木尔坦棉花曲叶病毒(Cotton leaf curl Multan virus,CLCuMV)分离物G6的核苷酸序列相似性最高,为99.7%;二者编码的6个ORF相似性分别为100%、100%、99.6%、99.8%、100%和99.7

  16. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  17. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  18. Seed and Embryo Germination in Ardisia crenata

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Oda; Shuji Shiozaki; Hideyuki Tanaka; Hisa Yokoyama; Takahiro Tezuka

    2012-01-01

    Ardisia crenata is an evergreen shrub with attractive bright red berries. Although this species is usually propagated by seed, the seeds take a long time to germinate with conventional sowing methods. We investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos collected in different months and the effects of seed storage conditions, germination temperature, water permeability of the seed coat, and the endosperm on seed germination. Seeds and embryos collected in late September or later show...

  19. Potassium leakage and maize seed physiological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Mariane Victorio de Carvalho; Marcos Filho Julio

    2002-01-01

    Seed production usually requires fast decisions to improve the efficacy of seed handling during harvesting, processing and storage. Seed technologists have focused on the development or improvement of procedures which allow rapid and consistent identification of higher quality seed lots. This research verified the effectiveness of the potassium leachate test on the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds in comparison to recommended seed vigor tests. Five seed lots of the hyb...

  20. Seed treatment technology of carrot seeds with plant volatile substances

    OpenAIRE

    Ličková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed treatment using essential oil vapour phase, especially focused on finding appropriate combination of concentration, temperature and application time to decrease number of native fungi and evaluating the effect of essential oil on seed germination. Seed samples were contaminated with natural microorganisms. Essential oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and ci...

  1. Simulation Of Seed Distribution Uniformity In Row On Seeding Machines

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞER, Ö. Faruk

    1996-01-01

    : In this research, it was determined the uniformity of seed distribution in row on the machines by using a simulation programme which made for this purpose. It was tested the truth of simulation programme by the applications of seeding in row. It was conducted the applications of controling in a closed area and it was made seeding machine constant and stick band system active. In the control applications, lentil seeds were used and application paramétrés were accepted on two different types...

  2. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  3. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  4. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  5. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets...

  6. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed... percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage....

  7. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed, if... percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage....

  8. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  9. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat

  10. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  11. Study on the Process of Extracting Pectin from Okra with Microwave-assisted Ammonium Oxalate%微波辅助草酸铵提取黄秋葵果胶的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梓琪; 吴湛霞; 林宏图; 钟杰平; 陈韩欧; 黎世尧; 谢智鹏

    2015-01-01

    以草酸铵为萃取剂,采用微波辅助提取黄秋葵果胶,通过单因素试验和正交法优选,确定了黄秋葵果胶提取的最优工艺条件。结果表明:最佳工艺条件是料液比1:20( g/mL )、草酸铵浓度13 g/L、微波功率60%×800 W、微波辐射时间20 min。在此条件下,果胶提取率达23.64%,所得果胶的各项指标均达到行业标准。%The extraction process for pectin from okra, using ammonium oxalate as the extraction solvent combined with microwave-assisted, was optimized by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, and then the pectin quality was analyzed. The optimum conditions were as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:20 ( g/mL ) , amount of ammonium oxalate 13 g·L-1 , microwave power mid-range(60%×800 W) , and microwave radiation time 20 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of pectin was 23. 64%, the quality indicators of the extracted pectin could meet the requirements of the industrial standard.

  12. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  13. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  14. Seed dispersal: Size does matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Many small seed-eating rodents bury their food in an erratic manner called scatter-hoarding because they are unable to defend one large hoard. This process has a complicated influence on seed dispersal,as shown in the work by ZHANG Zhibin at the CAS Institute of Zoology and hisco-workers.

  15. Genebanking seeds from natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional storage protocols have been developed to preserve genetic diversity of seeds of crops in genebanks. These same principles have been applied to preserve seeds from wild populations. While most principles for conventional storage protocols are applicable to a broad range of wild species...

  16. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  17. Characterization of volatile production during seed storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Pérez, Sara; González Benito, Elena; Walters, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of factors that regulate seed longevity and mechanisms that cause seed deterioration during storage. The over-all goal is to characterize the types of chemical reactions that occur in dry seeds and to relate these to the properties of the seed glassy matrix and the inevitable decline in seed quality and viability. Oxidation and peroxidation reactions occur in stored seeds and are implicated in chemical degradation. Oxidation of macromolecules gives ...

  18. Effect of Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth,Yield and Quality of Okra Grown on Seashore Saline Soil%氮磷配施对沿海滩涂黄秋葵生长发育、产量及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永慧; 陈建平; 张培通; 张萼; 蔡立旺; 高进

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on saline soil to evaluate the effects of the application of phosphorus fertilizers,in combination with nitrogen,on the growth,yield and quality of okra.Significant effects were found, especially when nitrogen was applied.With the application of N 300 kg·hm-2 and P 160 kg·hm-2 ,the greatest yield,as well as the pod weight,contents of peel pigment,free amino acids and soluble protein,and viscosity of mucilage of the okra pods was obtained.The results suggested that the tested fertilization was appropriate for okra cultivation in the coastal regions in Jiangsu province.%通过田间小区试验的方法,研究氮磷配施对沿海滩涂黄秋葵生长发育、产量及品质的影响。结果表明:氮(N)肥、磷(P)肥对黄秋葵生长发育、产量及品质均具有显著效应,以 N 肥影响最大;当氮肥为300 kg· hm-2、磷肥为160 kg·hm-2时,黄秋葵产量最高,且荚果单果重、果皮光合色素含量、游离氨基酸、可溶性蛋白含量和荚果黏度达到最高值,即黄秋葵产量与整体品质较高,表明在本试验条件下,该施肥量为江苏沿海滩涂黄秋葵大田种植最佳施肥模式。

  19. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  20. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  1. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Ombir Singh; Altaf Hussain Sofi

    2011-01-01

    A clonal seed orchard (CSO) of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand) was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlate...

  2. A record production from an integrated farming system utilising sewage enriched water

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, S.P.; A. K. Roy; Datta, A K; Das, C R; Ghosh, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of experiments conducted on a pond dyke (655m²) in the Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, during 1992-93 for maximising production through optimum utilisation of resources are communicated. Round the year intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus and A. viridus), water-bind weed (Ipomea aquatica), Indian spinach (Basella rubra), radish (Raphanus sativum), amaranth (Amaranthus vi...

  3. Seed germination photobiology. Physiological and agronomic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed germination photobiology is an important aspect of seed biology research for both physiological and agronomic aspects. Such knowledge is of extreme importance for the optimization of seed crop germination and for the prediction of weed seed bank emergence dynamics in field. Several aspects of photobiology research are reported and discussed in order to evidencing some of the relative agronomic involvements

  4. Embryo growth in mature celery seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der P.

    1989-01-01

    Germination of celery seeds is slow, due to the need for embryo growth before radicle protrusion can occur. Germination rate was correlated with embryo growth rate. Celery seeds with different embryo growth rates were obtained with fluid density separation of a seed lot. Low density seeds germinated

  5. Materials used for Seed Storage Containers: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient seed storage is a shared concern among the growing number of seed banks established for crop improvement or ex situ conservation. Container properties greatly affect seed interactions with the environment and the overall cost and success of seed banking operations. Several material proper...

  6. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seeds. 201.57 Section 201.57 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes,...

  7. 76 FR 31790 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... currently used terms, and reflect current industry practices. The seed testing and seed certification... freshly harvested Kentucky bluegrass seed and sugar beet seed shipped in interstate commerce during July... rulemaking was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 78932) on December 17, 2010. Interested parties...

  8. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size a

  9. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production conditions, and

  10. 黄秋葵果实粉对衰老模型小鼠抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of Okra Fruit Powder on Antioxidant Abilities in Aged Mice Induced by D-galactose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳珍; 宋新华

    2014-01-01

    探讨黄秋葵果实粉(OFP)对D-半乳糖致衰老模型小鼠抗氧化能力的影响。以昆明种小鼠为研究对象,颈背部皮下注射D-半乳糖造模。正常对照组、模型对照组饲喂基础饲料,实验组小鼠饲喂含受试物低、中、高剂量(32.00、64.00、128.00 g/kg)饲料,实验期56 d,测定血清和肝组织匀浆中超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、谷胱苷肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性及丙二醛(MDA)的含量。D-半乳糖致衰小鼠SOD活性、GSH-Px活性和CAT活性均明显下降,MDA含量明显上升,与正常小鼠比较差异显著;饲喂不同剂量的黄秋葵果实粉后均能提高小鼠血清、肝脏组织中的SOD、GSH-Px和CAT活性,同时降低血清、肝脏组织中MDA含量。适量摄入黄秋葵果实粉能显著提高衰老小鼠的抗氧化能力,具有一定延缓衰老的作用。%To investigate the effects of Okra fruit powder (OFP) on antioxidant abilities in aged mice induced by D-galactose. The subacute aged model mice were made by neck back subcutaneous injection of D-galactose continually. The mice were given different doses of Okra fruit powder 32.00,64.00 g/kg and 128.00 g/kg fed by diet for 56 d respectively.The content of malondialdehyde (MDA)and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and catalase (CAT) in the serum and liver of the mice were tested. The SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in aged model group were significantly decreased and MDA significantly increased compared with normal mice;OFP in different doses evidently increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities and reduced the MDA level in serum and liver in mice. OFP can obviously increase the antioxidant ability of mice.

  11. Determinação da demanda hídrica do quiabeiro em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Determination of water requirement of okra in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herval Martinho Ferreira Paes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as necessidades hídricas do quiabeiro em cada estádio do seu desenvolvimento, por meio da determinação da evapotranspiração da cultura e dos coeficientes de cultivo (Kc. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Evapotranspirométrica da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A cultivar utilizada foi a Santa Cruz 47, plantada no espaçamento 0,25 m x 1,00 m, em uma área de 1024 m², irrigada por aspersão convencional. Na área foram feitas as determinações da evapotranspiração da cultura e do coeficiente cultural, utilizando-se um lisímetro de 6 m² com balança eletrônica com variação de peso de 0,58 kg. Os resultados obtidos permitiram quantificar a evapotranspiração da cultura no período em 314 mm. O Kc do quiabeiro no primeiro estádio de desenvolvimento variou entre os valores de 0,8 e 0,5, obtendo o valor médio de 0,68; no segundo estádio variou de 0,5 a 1,0, sendo a média de 0,79; e no terceiro estádio o Kc variou de 1,0 a 0,3, sendo a média de 0,54.This study was carried out to describe the water needs of okra at each stage of its development, through the determination of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (kc providing subsidies to irrigated agriculture. The experiment was conducted at Station evapotranspirometers Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro in Campos State, Brazil. The cultivar used was the Santa Cruz 47, planted in a spacing of 0.25 mx 1.00 m in an area of 1024 m², irrigated by sprinkler. Area was done to determine the evapotranspiration and Kc, using a lysimeter 6 m² with an electronic scale with weight change of 0,58 kg. The results allowed to quantify the crop evapotranspiration during the period under 314 mm. The Kc of okra in the first stage of development varied between values of 0.8 and 0.5, obtaining the average value of 0.68, the second stage ranged from 0.5 to 1

  12. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  13. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Conrad; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms that are designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes increasingly important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  14. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or pasta dishes. Add them to your pancakes, French toast, or baked goods mix. You can also ... al. Chia seed supplementation United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Services. Plant guide: Chia. Updated ...

  15. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more of...... the minute posture sensing setae, proprioceptors, than expected from the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The excess of proprioceptors is suggested to be necessary for sensory input concerning the larval posture within the seed chamber. The trunk musculature includes an autapomorphic radial ventral...... musculature made up of unique multisegmental muscles. The combined presence of additional proprioceptors and the unique ventral musculature is proposed to be related to the larval movement within the confined space of the seed chamber, especially to a proposed somersault movement that allows the larva to...

  16. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Conrad; Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-06-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms specifically designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes more important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  17. Imaging genetics of seed performance

    OpenAIRE

    Joosen, R.V.L.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands has a long history of plant breeding which has resulted in a leading position in the world with respect to the sales of vegetable seeds. Nowadays high-tech methods are used for crop-production which demands high standards for the quality of the starting materials. While breeding has mainly focused on crop yield and disease resistance in the past, it now becomes equally important to create seeds that rapidly and uniformly germinate under a wide range of production environments....

  18. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F. da Mota

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

  19. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

    Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

  20. 黄蜀葵花提取物金丝桃苷的急性毒性和遗传毒性评价%Acute toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾国; 黄正明; 王德文; 张海艇

    2012-01-01

    研究黄蜀葵花提取物金丝桃苷的急性毒性和遗传毒性,对其安全性进行评价.急性毒性试验中,选用健康BALB/c小鼠40只,雌雄各半,灌胃给药(5000 mg/kg),连续观察14天,记录中毒和死亡情况,测定小鼠的半数致死量(LD50).用目前新药遗传毒性评价中推荐使用的3种试验方法,营养缺陷型鼠伤寒沙门氏菌回复突变试验(Ames试验),中国仓鼠肺成纤维细胞(CHL)染色体畸变试验和小鼠骨髓微核试验研究金丝桃苷的遗传毒性.在急性毒性试验中,所有实验动物都存活,且行为活泼,未见明显异常.Ames试验中,金丝桃苷在加或不加肝微粒体酶(S9)时均未见引起TA97、TA98、TA100和TA102试验菌株基因突变(P>0.05).体外CHL细胞染色体畸变试验中,金丝桃苷在加或不加S9时均未引起CHL细胞的染色体畸变(P>0.05).小鼠微核试验中,金丝桃苷各剂量组小鼠骨髓多染红细胞微核率与阴性对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).在本实验条件下,金丝桃苷对于BALB/c小鼠的LD50大于5000 mg/kg,金丝桃苷没有遗传毒性.%To further assess hyperoside as a potential new anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug,the safety of hyperoside extracted from Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic was evaluated by testing its acute toxicity and mutagenic risk.To test the acute toxicity of hyperoside,we determined the median lethal dose (LD50) in mice.Forty healthy BALB/c mice (20 per sex) were administered a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg hyperoside via the intragastrical route.The number of animals poisoned and died was noted daily for 14 consecutive days.All animals survived and appeared active and normal,indicating that the LD50 of hyperoside was more than 5000 mg/kg.Potential genotoxicity of hyperoside was investigated using a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test),a chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblasts,and an in vivo micronucleus test in rat bone marrow cells

  1. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  2. Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Jimmy L.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Hazle, John D.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy seed therapy is an increasingly common way to treat prostate cancer through localized radiation. The current standard of care relies on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for imaging guidance during the seed placement procedure. As visualization of individual metallic seeds tends to be difficult or inaccurate under TRUS guidance, guide needles are generally tracked to infer seed placement. In an effort to improve seed visualization and placement accuracy, the use of photoacoustic (PA...

  3. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui; Mu, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  4. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  5. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  6. Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rietberg, P.I.; Gevers, H.; Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food security. There is, however, considerable debate about the most appropriate type and strategic level of intervention to enhance smallholders’ seed security in conflict and post-conflict areas. Give...

  7. Challenges and problems of organic seed production in the EU – the EU Organic Seed Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbois , Klaus-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Content: - Organic Seed regime in the EU - Overview EU Organic Seed data base - Data Base Exeample: OrganicXseeds - Problems of the Organic Seed Regulation - Problems with MS's Data Base - How to overcome these problems - Recommendations for new MS

  8. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Basiri, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different so...

  10. Pre-dispersal predation effect on seed packaging strategies and seed viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Tutor, David; Torices, Rubén; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    An increased understanding of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different environments may improve current knowledge of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. In particular, pre-dispersal seed predation may influence seed packaging strategies, triggering a reduction of the resources allocated to undamaged seeds within the preyed fruits. Assessing plant reactions to pre-dispersal seed predation is crucial to a better understanding of predation effects, but the response of plants to arthropod attacks remains unexplored. We have assessed the effect of cone predation on the size and viability of undamaged seeds in populations of Juniperus thurifera with contrasting seed packaging strategies, namely, North African populations with single-large-seeded cones and South European populations with multi-small-seeded cones. Our results show that the incidence of predation was lower on the single-large-seeded African cones than on the multi-small-seeded European ones. Seeds from non-preyed cones were also larger and had a higher germination success than uneaten seeds from preyed cones, but only in populations with multi-seeded cones and in cones attacked by Trisetacus sp., suggesting a differential plastic response to predation. It is possible that pre-dispersal seed predation has been a strong selective pressure in European populations with high cone predation rates, being a process which maintains multi-small-seeded cones and empty seeds as a strategy to save some seeds from predation. Conversely, pre-dispersal predation might not have a strong effect in the African populations with single-large-seeded cones characterized by seed germination and filling rates higher than those in the European populations. Our results indicate that differences in pre-dispersal seed predators and predation levels may affect both selection on and intraspecific variation in seed packaging. PMID:26400794

  11. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, ZS; Jansen, PA; Zhang, ZB

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques - thread-marking and wire tin-tagging - affected seed fate by placing

  12. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Z.; Jansen, P.A.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques – thread-marking and wire tin-tagging – affected seed fate by placing

  13. Seed Development and Quality in Maize Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate seed development and quality of maize (Zea mays cultivars (DC-370, SC-500, OSSK-602 and SC-604, a split plot experiment (using R.C.B. design with three replicates was conducted in 2009 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Seeds were harvested at five day intervals in eight stages. Subsequently, the quality of seed samples was determined in the laboratory. Germination percentage and seedling dry weight were enhanced, but electrical conductivity of seed leachates was reduced with increasing seed weight on mother plant. Maximum seed quality of maize cultivars was attained at the end of seed filling phase. Seed quality at earlier harvests was low, because of immaturity. Differences in maximum seedling dry weight of maize cultivars were attributed to variation in genetic constitution. It was concluded that in maize cultivars, maximum seed quality could be achieved at physiological maturity.

  14. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  16. Calophyllum inophyllum: recalcitrant or intermediate seed?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhash Hathurusingha; Nanjappa Ashwath

    2012-01-01

    We studied seed storage behaviour of a multipurpose tree Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaseae).Seeds were collected at Roslyn bay (23°7′60″ S,150°43′60″ E) Central Queensland.Seed drying and desiccation tolerance tests were carried out according to International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) rules.We found C.inophyllum seeds to be recalcitrant and vulnerable to chilling injury,hence,unsuited for cold storage.C inophyllum seeds maintained their viability for an appreciable period (> 8 months) if stored in warmer environments.

  17. EFFICIENCY OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukru Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper pomegranate kinds that reach to harvest maturity which are produced in commercial scales in Adana, Antalya, Finike and Kilis regions in Turkey and also Hicaz and Eksilik kinds are chosen randomly to be investigated. Seed efficiencies, grain ratios, oil efficiency of these chosen pomegranate kinds were studied. According to this study, pomegranate kind taken from Kilis region is found to have the highest grain efficieny with a ratio of 71% and pomegranate kind taken from Hicaz region is found to have the highest seed oil with a ratio of 18%. Also various solvent efficiencies including Hexan, Diethylether and petroleum ether on pomegranate seed oil is examined and most efficient one is obtained with Diethylether.

  18. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Tian; Bo Guan; Daowei Zhou; Junbao Yu; Guangdi Li; Yujie Lou

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended pri...

  19. SEEDS: A Celebration of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Bob

    1991-01-01

    The major goal of the project of Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) was to stimulate interest in science through the active involvement of all participants. Youthful investigators utilized the basic and integrated science process skills as they conducted the research necessary to complete the data reports used in the compilation of this document. Participants described many unique activities designed to promote critical thinking and problem solving. Seeds made a significant impact toward enhancing the teaching, learning, and enjoyment of science for students worldwide.

  20. 高效液相色谱法测定黄蜀葵花总黄酮固体分散体中金丝桃苷含量%Determination of Hyperin in Solid Dispersion of Abelmoschus Manihot Total Flavones by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱芳; 刘志辉; 陆超

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立测定黄蜀葵花总黄酮固体分散体中金丝桃苷含量的高效液相色谱法。方法色谱柱为Hedera C18柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),以乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液为流动相梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL/min,检测波长为360 nm,柱温为30℃。结果金丝桃苷的质量浓度在1.1406~72.998μg/mL范围内与峰面积积分值线性关系良好( r=1.0000),平均加样回收率为99.01%,RSD为1.94%( n=9)。结论该方法简便易行,结果准确,重复性好,可用于测定黄蜀葵花总黄酮固体分散体中金丝桃苷的含量。%Objective To establish a method for the determination of hyperin in solid dispersion of Abelmoschus Manihot total flavones by HPLC. Methods The Hedera C18 column(250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5 μm)was used,the mobile phase was acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid solution with gradient elution. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL/min,the detection wavelength was 360 nm,and column temperature was 30 ℃. Results The linear range of hyperin was 1. 140 6-72. 998 μg/mL( r=1. 000 0),the average recovery rate was 99. 01%, and RSD was 1. 94%( n=9). Conclusion The method is simple,rapid,accurate and reliable. It can be used for the content determina-tion of hyperin in solid dispersion of Abelmoschus Manihot total flavones.

  1. 7 CFR 201.47a - Seed unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... structure usually regarded as a seed in planting practices and in commercial channels. The seed unit...

  2. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  3. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  4. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. PMID:15220396

  5. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  6. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  7. Composition of jojoba seeds and foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiscar, A.J.; Banigan, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The desert shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) may be browsed by cattle. The seeds have about 50% oil but the extracted meal is at present unsuitable for feeding. Simmondsin, the most prevalent toxin, is present in seed, 2.3%, and in husks, leaves and twigs. Seeds contained another toxin, Simmondsin 2'-ferulate. The contents of oil, protein, carbohydrate and amino acids in seed are tabulated. 13 references.

  8. Nutrient content of Prosopis africana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminas, J T; Maina, H M; Ali, J

    1998-01-01

    The proximate and mineral compositions of Prosopis africana seeds used in the preparation of a local condiment in Nigeria and as animal feed were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that protein, ash and fiber values were comparable to Parkia africana seeds. However, the crude lipid content was lower than Parkia filicoidea seeds and decorticated groundnut. Phosphorus, potassium and calcium were the major mineral elements of the seeds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute partially to the overall daily intake of these elements.

  9. Storage of Annona squamosa L. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva; Verônica Barbosa Santos; Rosa Honorato de Oliveira; Sirleine Lima de Oliveira; Otoniel Magalhães Morais

    2009-01-01

    The sugar apple is a species of great economic importance. The propagation is through seeds, but experimental studies focused on ascertaining the ideal conditions of seed storage, especially packing and environments, are mostly lacking. The current work thus aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of packing, environments and storage times over the germination and vigor of sugar apple seeds. The work was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of UESB – Campus de Vitória da Conquista, B...

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  11. Effect of seed maturity on sensitiviy of seed towards physical sanitation treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Rop, N.; Jalink, H.; Forsberg, G.; Kromphardt, C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2006-01-01

    Physical sanitation methods are used by the seed industry to prevent transmission of seed-borne diseases, but sensitivity varies between seed lots. The effect of seed maturity on the sensitivity to hot water, aerated steam and electron treatments was studied. Two Brassica oleracea L. and two Daucus

  12. Smallholder seed practices : maize seed management in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badstue, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to contribute to an in­creased understanding of what is commonly referred to as 'local seed systems', 'farmer seed systems' or 'informal seed systems', both in relation to seed supply for agricultural production and in relation to the conservation of important crop genetic diversi

  13. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  14. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  15. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  16. Dormancy cycling in seeds: mechanisms and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most plants starts, and ends, at the seed stage. In most species mature seeds are shed and dispersed on the ground. At this stage of its life cycle the seed may be dormant and will, by definition, not germinate under favourable conditions (Bewley, 1997). Seasonal dormancy cycling

  17. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  18. Staying Alive: Molecular Aspects of Seed Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Rajjou, Loïc; North, Helen M; Debeaujon, Isabelle; Marion-Poll, Annie; Seo, Mitsunori

    2016-04-01

    Mature seeds are an ultimate physiological status that enables plants to endure extreme conditions such as high and low temperature, freezing and desiccation. Seed longevity, the period over which seed remains viable, is an important trait not only for plant adaptation to changing environments, but also, for example, for agriculture and conservation of biodiversity. Reduction of seed longevity is often associated with oxidation of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Seeds possess two main strategies to combat these stressful conditions: protection and repair. The protective mechanism includes the formation of glassy cytoplasm to reduce cellular metabolic activities and the production of antioxidants that prevent accumulation of oxidized macromolecules during seed storage. The repair system removes damage accumulated in DNA, RNA and proteins upon seed imbibition through enzymes such as DNA glycosylase and methionine sulfoxide reductase. In addition to longevity, dormancy is also an important adaptive trait that contributes to seed lifespan. Studies in Arabidopsis have shown that the seed-specific transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) plays a central role in ABA-mediated seed dormancy and longevity. Seed longevity largely relies on the viability of embryos. Nevertheless, characterization of mutants with altered seed coat structure and constituents has demonstrated that although the maternally derived cell layers surrounding the embryos are dead, they have a significant impact on longevity. PMID:26637538

  19. Seed dormancy and germination: light and nitrate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable conditions, such as th

  20. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  1. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  2. Contagious Deposition of Seeds in Spider Monkeys' Sleeping Trees Limits Effective Seed Dispersal in Fragmented Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo González-Zamora; Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez; Federico Escobar; Matthias Rös; Ken Oyama; Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Colin A Chapman

    2014-01-01

    The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rai...

  3. Produtividade e estado nutricional do quiabeiro em função da densidade populacional e do biofertilizante suíno Effects of plant population and swine biofertilizer application on yield and nutrient content of okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Nogueira Sediyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade e o estado nutricional do quiabeiro 'Santa Cruz', cultivado em sistema orgânico, em função de populações de plantas e doses de biofertilizante suíno. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em Oratórios (MG, no período de 16/10/2007 a 22/2/2008. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo duas populações de plantas e cinco doses de biofertilizante, obtido pela fermentação anaeróbica de dejeto líquido de suíno. As populações foram 23.809 e 35.714 plantas ha-1, obtidas no espaçamento de 1,4 x 0,30 m com uma planta por cova e 1,4 x 0,40 m com duas plantas por cova. As doses de biofertilizante foram: 0; 6; 12; 24 e 48 m³ ha-1, sendo 80% aplicado no sulco de plantio, 15 dias antes do transplante, e 20% em cobertura, aos 30 dias após o transplante das mudas. Avaliaram-se teor foliar de nutrientes, índice SPAD, altura de plantas, número de hastes e produção de frutos comerciais e não comerciais. A aplicação do biofertilizante suíno proporcionou plantas com bom estado nutricional. O índice SPAD correlacionou positivamente com teores foliares de N, sendo as maiores concentrações obtidas nas maiores doses de biofertilizante, especialmente na menor população de plantas. O número e a produção de frutos comerciais por planta foram maiores quando se utilizou menor população de plantas. A maior produtividade obtida na população de 35.714 plantas ha-1 foi 31,23 t ha-1 e na população de 23.809 plantas ha-1 foi 21,90 t ha-1, ambas alcançadas com a maior dose de biofertilizante aplicada. A maior produtividade comercial de frutos de quiabo foi obtida na maior população de plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and nutritional status of organically cultivated Santa Cruz okra as a function of planting densities and doses of swine biofertilizer. The experiment was carried

  4. Self-seeding ring optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arlee V.; Armstrong, Darrell J.

    2005-12-27

    An optical parametric oscillator apparatus utilizing self-seeding with an external nanosecond-duration pump source to generate a seed pulse resulting in increased conversion efficiency. An optical parametric oscillator with a ring configuration are combined with a pump that injection seeds the optical parametric oscillator with a nanosecond duration, mJ pulse in the reverse direction as the main pulse. A retroreflecting means outside the cavity injects the seed pulse back into the cavity in the direction of the main pulse to seed the main pulse, resulting in higher conversion efficiency.

  5. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Andrew D; St Clair, J Bradley; Erickson, Vicky

    2014-07-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum temperature and aridity (as measured by annual heat : moisture index), each classified into discrete bands. This results in the delineation of 64 provisional seed zones for the continental United States. These zones represent areas of relative climatic similarity, and movement of seed within these zones should help to minimize maladaptation. Superimposing Omernik's level III ecoregions over these seed zones distinguishes areas that are similar climatically yet different ecologically. A quantitative comparison of provisional seed zones with level III ecoregions and provisional seed zones within ecoregions for three species showed that provisional seed zone within ecoregion often explained the greatest proportion of variation in a suite of traits potentially related to plant fitness. These provisional seed zones can be considered a starting point for guidelines for seed transfer, and should be utilized in conjunction with appropriate species-specific information as well as local knowledge of microsite differences. PMID:25154085

  6. Variability in seed traits and genetic divergence in a clonal seed orchard of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ombir singh; Altaf Hussain Soft

    2012-01-01

    The variations in seed and pod traits,genetic superiority and genetic divergence were evaluated for a Clonal Seed Orchard (CSO) of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.at Bithmera,India consisting of 20 clones from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh,Uttarakhand,Haryana and Rajasthan).The seeds and pods of various clones in the orchard exhibited significant variability in size,weight and other characters.Significant positive correlations were observed between seed length and seed width (p<0.05),seed length and seed thickness (p<0.01),seed length and seed weight (p<0.0l),seed thickness and seed weight (p<0.01),seed length and germination value (p<0.05).The genetic parameters for seed and pod traits also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard.Heritability values were found to be over 50 vpereent for most of the seed and pod traits.Seed weight,seed length and seed thickness showed high heritability values coupled with maximum genetic gain for these characters.Ward's minimum variance dendrogram of clones of D.sissoo showed three distinct clusters; cluster 1 was the largest with 12 better clones whereas cluster 2 and 3 consisting of seven moderate clones and one poor clone,respectively.Mean cluster values showed sufficient variation among the clusters for seed weight,germination value and seed length.The possible hybridization between best clones of cluster 1 to the disease resistant clone of cluster 2 (resistant against deadly Gandoderma lucidum root rot disease of D.sissoo) is also suggested for further breeding programmes of the species.The deployment of clone 194 (better performed and disease resistant) is also recommended in future plantation programmes of D.sissoo in northern India.

  7. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  8. Water binding in legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    The physical status of water in seeds has a pivotal role in determining the physiological reactions that can take place in the dry state. Using water sorption isotherms from cotyledon and axis tissue of five leguminous seeds, the strength of water binding and the numbers of binding sites have been estimated using van't Hoff analyses and the D'Arcy/Watt equation. These parameters of water sorption are calculated for each of the three regions of water binding and for a range of temperatures. Water sorption characteristics are reflective of the chemical composition of the biological materials as well as the temperature at which hydration takes place. Changes in the sorption characteristics with temperature and hydration level may suggest hydration-induced structural changes in cellular components.

  9. Proteomics of rice seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    He, Dongli; Yang, Pingfang

    2013-01-01

    Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles, and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the de...

  10. EFFICIENCY OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sukru Karatas; Nihan Ozdogan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper pomegranate kinds that reach to harvest maturity which are produced in commercial scales in Adana, Antalya, Finike and Kilis regions in Turkey and also Hicaz and Eksilik kinds are chosen randomly to be investigated. Seed efficiencies, grain ratios, oil efficiency of these chosen pomegranate kinds were studied. According to this study, pomegranate kind taken from Kilis region is found to have the highest grain efficieny with a ratio of 71% and pomegranate kind taken from...

  11. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenien...

  12. Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic

  13. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  14. Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude protein content was so high as the 21.8% of the seeds. Standard procedures were applied to determine the fatty acids composition of the seed oil. The fatty acid profiles of the seed oil showed an unsaturated fatty acid content of 77.4% and the high content of 63.2% of PUFA. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic (18:2 acid in 62.2%. The presence of other fatty acids ranged in 10-14% for oleic (18:1 stearic (18:0 and palmitic (16:0 acids, respectively. Furthermore, the physical and chemical characteristics of the seed oil was also determined as iodine, acid, saponification, peroxide values and specific gravity.

  15. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds. PMID:26926652

  16. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  17. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ata SIADAT; Seyed Amir MOOSAVI; Mehran SHARAFIZADEH

    2015-01-01

    Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing) and the response to seed priming when using dif...

  18. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage.

  19. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests. PMID:16532195

  20. Tamarind seed: properties, processing and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandini S; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2008-01-01

    Tamarind seed is an underutilized byproduct of the tamarind pulp industry. Only a small portion of the seed, in the form of tamarind kernel powder (TKP), is used as a sizing material in the textile, paper, and jute industries. Though many applications of this seed are possible, there have been hardly any other uses for it including using it as an additive in food formulations. The excellent gelling cum adhesive characteristics of the decorticated seed powder can lead to several applications in food and pharmaceutical industries which are evident by the number of research papers as well as patent applications. This article thus focuses on the possibilities of using the seed in several food and non-food industries with particular reference to physical and engineering properties, hydration behavior, rheological properties, functional and nutritional characteristics, and the processing of the tamarind seed for wider applications.

  1. Water uptake curve in physic nut seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Caetano Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is a useful species in oil production for energy purposes, however its agricultural crop counts on little scientific knowledge. This work aimed to determine the water uptake curve in physic nut seeds, with the purpose to help future researches depending on this information. Two batches of seeds were used, represented by two sub-samples (intact seeds and dead seeds of each batch. The water uptake curve was determined weighing samples at specified intervals of time. A fully randomized experimental delineation was applied, with two treatments and four repetitions of 10 seeds each. Data were submitted to Bartlett, Anova and Turkey tests; regression equations were adjusted for the uptake curves. It was concluded that Jatropha curcas seeds follow the three-phases water uptake pattern , being phase I between 0 and 15h, phase II between 15h and 60h and phase three starting after 60h.

  2. Seed Cryopreservation of Some Medicinal Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla B. Kholina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed survival after storage in liquid nitrogen (–196°C was examined in 12 wild medicinal legume species occurred Far East of Russia. Dry seeds of all species survived cryostorage without loss of viability. Initial germinability varied from 3 to 85%. The stimulatory effect of cryogenic temperature on germination, with or without subsequent chemical scarification, was observed in all species studied with deep physical dormancy or heterogeneous levels of hardseededness. Frozen seeds demonstrated higher germination percentages (the percentage of germinated seeds and germination rates (time for first seed to germinate (T0 and time required (in days to reach 50% of the final germination percentage (T50 than the control ones. The anomalous seedlings were not observed after storage of seeds in liquid nitrogen. This study shows that cryostorage may be successfully applied for conservation of native species without detrimental effects on germination and growth.

  3. Transcriptional dynamics of two seed compartments with opposing roles in Arabidopsis seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.; Pearce, S.; Bolderen-Veldkamp, R.P.; Marshall, A.; Widera, P.; Gilbert, J.; Drost, H.G.; Bassel, G.; Muller, K.; King, J.R.; Wood, A.; Grosse, I.; Bentsink, L.

    2013-01-01

    Seed germination is a critical stage in the plant life cycle and the first step toward successful plant establishment. Therefore, understanding germination is of important ecological and agronomical relevance. Previous research revealed that different seed compartments (testa, endosperm, and embryo)

  4. Fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments conducted in laboratory, the effect of fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in seeds of barley cultivar BRS Elis, with 58% incidence, was quantified. Fungicides indicated by barley research (carboxin + thiram, difenoconazole and triadimenol compared with the mixture carbendazim + iprodione were tested. As seed dresser adjuvants, water (500m mL/100 Kg and a polymer (150 mL/100 Kg were used. Treated seeds were stored in paper bags and kept in the refrigerator at 5ºC. At 30-day intervals during six months, seeds were plated on semi-selective Reis's medium (1983. The best control was obtained by the mixtures carboxin + thiram and carbendazim + iprodione and the polymer as seed dresser. The control efficiency was improved by the storage time without negatively affecting seed germination. Due to the transmission efficiency, the fungus eradication in seeds should be pursued.

  5. Physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Garavand, A.; Nassiri, A.; Gharibzahedi, S. M. T.

    2012-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of moisture content on the post-harvest physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed in the range of 5.39 to 27.12% d.b. Results showed that the effect of moisture content on the most physical properties of the grain was significant (Phemp seed was not significant. However, the moisture content effect on rupture force and energy was significant (Phemp seed were significant (P<0.05).

  6. Seed Cryopreservation of Some Medicinal Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Alla B. Kholina; Nina M. Voronkova

    2012-01-01

    Seed survival after storage in liquid nitrogen (–196°C) was examined in 12 wild medicinal legume species occurred Far East of Russia. Dry seeds of all species survived cryostorage without loss of viability. Initial germinability varied from 3 to 85%. The stimulatory effect of cryogenic temperature on germination, with or without subsequent chemical scarification, was observed in all species studied with deep physical dormancy or heterogeneous levels of hardseededness. Frozen seeds demonstrate...

  7. A study of autorotating plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, S; Ide, A; Hoshino, Y; Okamoto, M

    2015-12-01

    A leading edge vortex exists on the upper surface of an autorotating plant seed. The vortex enhances the vertical aerodynamic force acting on the seed and decreases the rate of descent. We analyzed the flight data of rotary seeds and revealed that the lift-drag ratio affects the descent factor more strongly than the vertical force coefficient. This has also been confirmed by falling tests of model rotors, which have various aspect ratios, airfoil shapes and total masses. PMID:26382230

  8. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  9. Seed Development and Quality in Maize Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI; Zahra TAJBAKHSH; Yaeghoob RAEY

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate seed development and quality of maize (Zea mays) cultivars (DC-370, SC-500, OSSK-602 and SC-604), a split plot experiment (using R.C.B. design) with three replicates was conducted in 2009 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Seeds were harvested at five day intervals in eight stages. Subsequently, the quality of seed samples was determined in the laboratory. Germination percentage and seedling dry weight were enhanced, but...

  10. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increasing occurrence of major pests ON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protected against pests and seed corn should be treated with appropriately insecticides. Choosing better technological solutions and choosing and appropriate insecticide seed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pest attack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aim of this research was to obtain based upon result information on the impact of treatment on quality of mai...

  11. A Hedonic Model of Corn Seed Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge; Valle, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A notable feature of the adoption of genetically engineered (GE) corn is the rapid growth in seed prices accompanied by rapid increases in GE corn with multiple (stacked) traits, which have often seen to offer several advantages to farmers, particularly increased yields. This paper presents preliminary empirical results on the estimation of the pricing of seed traits for corn using 2010 data. The hedonic approach used entails expressing the price of seed as a function of their “quality charac...

  12. 7 CFR 201.57a - Dormant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or application of germination promoting chemicals. (b) The percentage of dormant seed, if present..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57a Dormant seeds. Dormant seeds...

  13. Applicator Training Manual for: Seed Treatment Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeKrony, Dennis M.

    This manual gives general information on seed treatment and type of seeds which can be treated. Also discussed are the problems and pests commonly associated with seed diseases and the fungicides and insecticides used for seed treatment. Information is also given on seed treatment equipment such as dust treaters, slurry treaters, and direct…

  14. Abscisic acid and assimilate partitioning during seed development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de S.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on the transport of assimilates to seeds and the deposition of reserves in seeds. It is well-known from literature that ABA accumulates in seeds during development, and that ABA concentrations in seeds correlate rather well with seed size an

  15. 7 CFR 201.64 - Pure live seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined...

  16. 7 CFR 201.7a - Treated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treated seed. 201.7a Section 201.7a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7a Treated seed. The complete record for...

  17. 7 CFR 201.49 - Other crop seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other crop seed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.49 Other crop seed. (a) Seeds of...

  18. Variability in seed characters of Tinospora cordifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Anjali K.; Geetha K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe,   ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in  seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found wide  variability   of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is...

  19. The seed factor in forest establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboho E. G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large scale deforestation all over the world necessitates planting of more trees to augment the forest estate. Tree planting and forest production require the use of lots of seeds to raise seedlings. Factors of importance are those directly relating to the seed as well as those indirect factors affecting the germination of seeds, early growth and survival of seedlings. The main factors include physiological and physical attributes of seeds, factors controlling availability in time and quantity, seed extraction/handling, viability, storage, germination and early growth characteristics; nursery site condition, management know-how and dedicated staff are also vital to the success of forest production by affecting the sustenance of growth, development and survival of seedlings raised. Nursery staff, seed vendors and seedling producers should be properly trained in seed technology and nursery practices in order to enhance the quality and quantity of seedlings produced from available seeds. This is because seed is an invaluable regenerative propagule without which there would be neither seedlings nor forest establishment.

  20. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SEED SELECTION NOWADAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s insight into the theoretical foundations of plant breeding for self-pollinators and cross-pollinators. From the author’s point of view, plant breeding techniques depend on a type of pollination, population propagation and isolation from other variety pollen. Adaptive properties of crops are described as ones depending on a genetic type (genetically pure lines, populations, hybrids, pure varieties and clones. The key role of seeds in preserving a plant variety, or a cultivar, is emphasized. In the article, cultivar and yield qualities of seeds are characterized. The reasons for seed deterioration and yield decrease have been looked into. Improvement of main crops such as wheat, barley, rye, rice, soybeans, maize, triticale, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets is characterized in detail. The author shares the traditional point of view on the seed breeding program. It includes following steps: development phase (breeder’s seed, maintenance phase (in which a quantity of seed is maintained under high standards and the distribution phase (production of commercial seed for distribution to the public. The difference between primary and secondary seed selection is explained. The best periods for crop rotation and crop renovation are also described. The legally enforceable standards of quality and genetic purity for different crops are presented in the article. It is pointed out that it is vital to maintain high cultivar qualities after multiplication and distribution of the new variety. Only large-scale pedigree system for seed production promotes it

  1. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  2. QTLs for Seed Vigor-Related Traits Identified in Maize Seeds Germinated under Artificial Aging Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed g...

  3. Do Primed Seeds After Drought Stress Have Higher Germination Recovery Efficiency Compared To Unprimed Seeds?

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarpour Bahreh M.; Sharif Zadeh F.; Archin Sh.

    2014-01-01

    From the ecological and economic point of view Agropyron elongatum, among perennial grasses, has a special place. This study was conducted to determine the most appropriate seed priming treatment and whether after a temporary stress removal, primed seeds have a higher recovery efficiency compared with unprimed seeds? In this research, seed was treated with different osmo and hydro priming and evaluated their effect by conducting germination test under drought stress (-1.2 and -1.4 MPa PEG) an...

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, J G; Boelt, B; Rolston, M P; Chastain, T G

    2013-04-01

    Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High-temperature stress before developing seeds reach physiological maturity (PM) can reduce germination by inhibiting the ability of the plant to supply the assimilates necessary to synthesize the storage compounds required for germination. Nothing is known concerning the effects of elevated CO2 on seed vigour. However, seed vigour can be reduced by high-temperature stress both before and after PM. High temperatures induce or increase the physiological deterioration of seeds. Limited evidence suggests that only short periods of high-temperature stress at critical seed development stages are required to reduce seed vigour, but further research is required. The predicted environmental changes will lead to losses of seed quality, particularly for seed vigour and possibly germination. The seed

  5. KARRIKIN: A SEED GERMINATION STIMULANT

    OpenAIRE

    SANJEEV KUMAR MAURYA, ALOK SRIVASTAVA AND SANJAY KUMAR GARG*

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Karrikins are a chemically defined group of plant growth regulators of the butenolide class found in smoke of burning plant material. Karrikins are effective in breaking the dormancy of seeds and also control the seedling growth of the plant.  F-box gene MAX2 and an α/β hydrolase fold protein KAI2 or DAD2 play important role in the signaling pathway for signal transduction of karrikins.  The discovery of karrikins set up an interesting new nexus among fire ecology, plant evolutio...

  6. KARRIKIN: A SEED GERMINATION STIMULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJEEV KUMAR MAURYA, ALOK SRIVASTAVA AND SANJAY KUMAR GARG*

    2014-10-01

    Karrikins are a chemically defined group of plant growth regulators of the butenolide class found in smoke of burning plant material. Karrikins are effective in breaking the dormancy of seeds and also control the seedling growth of the plant.  F-box gene MAX2 and an α/β hydrolase fold protein KAI2 or DAD2 play important role in the signaling pathway for signal transduction of karrikins.  The discovery of karrikins set up an interesting new nexus among fire ecology, plant evolution and molecular plant physiology.

  7. Cytokinins in Seeds of Pumpkin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Geeta R. P.; Maheshwari, S. C.

    1970-01-01

    Extracts of seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) contain three chromatographically distinguishable cytokinins which are held on Dowex 50-W and are extractable by ethanol and n-butanol. Two of the active factors are precipitable by silver nitrate at acidic pH. The chromatographic behavior and the spectral characteristics of one of these cytokinins are similar to those of zeatin. However, the RF values of the other two active compounds do not match with those of any of the known natural cytokinins. PMID:16657272

  8. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  9. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, Al S.; Wikstrom, M.; Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Jahn, M.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec­tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of

  10. Culling phenotypically inferior trees in seed production area enhances seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Sivakuma; B.Gurudevsingh; R.Anandalakshmi; R.R.Warrier; S.Sekaran; Mulualem Tigabu; P.C.Odén

    2011-01-01

    Improvement in seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis after culling phenotypically inferior trees was studied in a 6-year old seed production area (SPA). A 5-ha plantation was identified, of which 2.3 ha was converted into SPA. The initial stocking, 1 612 trees·ha-1, was thinned down to 982 trees·ha-1 based on growth characteristics. The following fruiting season, seeds were collected from 10 randomly selected trees in culled and non-culled stands, and seed physical characters, germination and seedling traits were assessed. Seed weight,seed thickness and percentage germination increased by 32.1%, 4.43% and 22.37%, respectively in the culled stand compared to the non-culled stand. Culling also increased the speed of germination, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor index. Heritability values were high for seed weight (0.974) and seed thickness (0.948) while medium values were observed for percentage germination (0.577) and total dry weight (0.534).Predicted genetic gain was 11.13% and 11.22% for seed weight and percentage germination, respectively. The actual gain was 32.1, 51.9 and 22.9% for seed weight, percentage germination and total dry matter,respectively. In conclusion, SPAs established by culling inferior trees could serve as sources of good quality seeds for reforestation programs until genetically improved seeds are made available.

  11. Cold tolerance, seed production and seed germination of a forage bermudagrass core collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage bermudagrass can be an important perennial warm-season forage for transitional zones of warm and cool season pastures. Cold-tolerant seeded varieties will be especially desirable. A forage bermudagrass core collection was assessed for seed production and seed germination. Also, a replicate...

  12. Bulk YBCO seeded with 45°-45° bridge-seeds of different lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.-H.; Durrell, J. H.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Single grain, (RE)BCO (rare earth-barium-copper oxide) bulk superconductors in large or complicated geometries are required for a variety of potential applications, such as in motors and generators and magnetic shielding devices. As a result, top, multi-seeded, melt growth has been investigated over the past 15 years in an attempt to enlarge the size of (RE)BCO single grains specifically for such applications. Of these multi-seeding techniques, so-called bridge-seeding provides the best alignment of two seeds in a single grain growth process. Here we report, for the first time, the successful growth of YBCO (yttrium-barium-copper oxide) using a special, 45°-45°, arrangement of bridge-seeds. The superconducting properties, including trapped field, of the multi-seeded YBCO grains have been measured for different bridge lengths of the 45°-45° bridge-seeds. The boundaries at the impinging growth front and the growth features of the top, multi-seeded surface and cross-section of the multi-seeded, samples have been analysed using optical microscopy. The results suggest that an impurity-free boundary between the two seeds of each leg of the bridge-seed can form when 45°-45° bridge-seeds are used to enlarge the size of YBCO grains.

  13. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed sample

  14. 黄蜀葵花总黄酮对人脐静脉血管内皮细胞凋亡及fas蛋白表达的影响%Effects of total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot on apoptosis and fas expression in human umbilical endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘武; 骆晓梅; 徐正元; 刘振锋; 蒋萌

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察黄蜀葵花总黄酮(TFA)对人脐静脉血管内皮细胞(HUVEC)凋亡及凋亡相关蛋白fas表达的影响.方法:体外培养HUVEC,加入TFA,按加入药物浓度的不同分为4组:TFA 0 μg· ml-1组(对照组)、TEA 5μg·ml-1组、TFA 10 μg·ml-1组、TFA 20 μg· ml -1组,培育72 h后应用流式细胞术检测各组HUVEC凋亡率及fas蛋白的表达.结果:HUVEC凋亡率对照组为10.1%、TFA 5 μg· ml -1组为7.2%、TFA 10 μg·ml-1组为3.9%、TFA 20 μg·ml-1组为8.5%.与对照组比较:各浓度TFA组HUVEC凋亡率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),各浓度TFA组HUVEC fas表达率均下降,差异有统计学意义(分别P=0.000,P=0.000,P =0.028).结论:TFA浓度在5~20 μg·ml -1范围可抑制HUVEC凋亡,其机制与下调凋亡相关蛋白fas的表达有关.%Objective; To observe the effects of total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot (TFA)on apoptosis and apoptosis-related protein fas expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Methods; Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured in vitro with adding TFA, and according to the concentration of total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot, HUVEC were divided into four groups; TFA 0 μg·ml-1 group (the control group) , TFA 5 μg·ml-1 group, TFA 10 μg·ml-1 group, TFA 20 μg·ml-1 group. After 72 hours, the rate of apoptosis and fas expression of HUVEC were determined by flow cytometry. Results; HUVEC apoptosis rates was 10. 1% in control group, 7. 2% in TFA 5 μg·ml-1 group, 3. 9% in TFA 10μg·ml-1 group, 8.5% in TFA 20 μg·ml-1 group. Compared with the control group, difference of apoptosis rate was significant (P <0.01). The fas expression of HUVEC in different TFA conceutralion groups was decreased compared with control group (P =0.000, P=0.000,P =0.028). Conclusions; Concentration of 5-20 μg·ml-1 TFA can inhibit apoptosis of HUVEC, and the mechanism is related with reducing fas expression.

  15. Genetic analysis of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with the genetic aspects of seed development in Arabidopsisthaliana. Mutants affected in several aspects of seed development and, more specifically, in seed maturation have been isolated by various selection procedures. The mutants have been analyzed genetically, physiologically,

  16. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL from 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.07 mg/kg for the proposed use on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. An adequate analytical enforcement method is available to control the residues of bixafen in oilseeds. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bixafen on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk. This risk assessment has to be regarded as provisional since the residue definition for enforcement and risk assessment in oilseeds are provisional and pending the need for MRLs in rotational crops and the definitive MRLs in animal origin commodities.

  17. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  18. Field appraisal of seed priming to improve the growth, yield, and quality of direct seeded rice

    OpenAIRE

    REHMAN, Hafeez Ur; BASRA, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed; Farooq, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Poor crop stand and high weed infestation are the major constraints of direct seeded rice. Seed priming has the potential to improve the seedling emergence and crop stand. This study was conducted to evaluate the on-farm assessment of direct seeded rice by employing different priming techniques such as on-farm priming, hydropriming, hardening, and osmohardening with CaCl2 and KCl. Untreated seeds were taken as control. Among all the seed priming techniques, osmohardening with CaCl2 improved t...

  19. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  20. Flavor compounds of popped amaranth seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Amaranth caudatus seeds were popped and studied for optimal popping conditions and flavor compounds. The optimum popping temperature for the seeds was 180C. At this temperature, the expansion volume, flake size and unpopped kernel proportion were 9.4¿11.3 cm3/g, 0.010¿0.012 cm/g and 10¿2%, respectiv

  1. Puncturevine seed response to postemergence herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) continues to plague growers, vegetation managers, and home gardeners. Puncturevine is a summer annual weed with spiny fruits that split into five segments, each containing one to four seeds. The seed nearest the pointed end of the bur is the largest and usually ge...

  2. Ovule and seed of Zanthophyllum (Polygalaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, W.

    1984-01-01

    The ovule primordia of Xanthophyllum are trizonate and the outer integument is completely of subdermal origin. Due to a different post-fertilization development the variation in seed coat morphology is considerable. Primitive features of the Xanthophyllum seed are thick endosperm with foliaceous cot

  3. Dormancy and growth vigour of seed potatoes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Dormancy is an important property of seed potatoes. Seed tubers planted too soon after their harvest do not produce plants because of dormancy, or produce low yields because of poor growth vigour. Potato tubers from the same cultivar vary in their duration of dormancy. The first aim of the research

  4. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macey A. Mahawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. On the otherhand, the taste of the biscuits prepared with 0% Avocado seed flour was moderate like, in 25% proportion of Avocado seed flour were slight like and in 50% proportion was neither liked nor disliked. The overall acceptability results for 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. Furthermore, the computed p values for the comparison of the level of acceptability in terms of color, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of biscuits using 0%, 25%, and 50% avocado seed flour were lower than 0.05. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

  5. Convective Drying of Rapeseed Hybrids’ Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Jukić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the water release from seeds of three rape hybrids, (‘Artus’, ‘Baldur’ and ‘Titan’, during the convection drying of the seeds at three different drying temperature (40, 60 and 80 °C. The drying was conducted in laboratory scale drier which can simulate the conditions of large drier. The air velocity in the drier was maintained at 1.0 m/s. Activation energy needed for starting the process of water release during the convective drying of oil seed rape seeds was also studied. According to the obtained values, the mathematical models (equations and curves of kinematic drying were determined. By comparing the exponential equations and the constants of water release from seeds it was observed that drying of hybrid Artus was the slowest and the one of hybrid Titan the fastest. Results showed that there was a significant difference between all investigated hybrids in water release rate and that within the same drying conditions, hybrids showed different behaviour. Moreover, air temperature increase caused significant increase in water release from the seeds. The highest activation energy needed for starting the process of water release from the seeds had the hybrid Artus and the lowest one hybrid Titan. Due to this, it can be concluded that the activation energy was reversely proportional to the water release rate from the seeds.

  6. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  7. Seed bank characteristics of Dutch plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Schaminee, JHJ; Bakker, JP; Thompson, K

    1998-01-01

    With the recent appearances of a new and well-documented classification of the Dutch plant communities (Schaminee et al 1995a,b; 1996) and a database on the seed longevity of plant species of North West Europe (Thompson ct al. 1997a) it was possible to investigate patterns of seed longevity in Dutch

  8. SUPERMASSIVE SEEDS FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z ∼> 7 constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we elucidate the implications of the radiative feedback from early generations of stars and from BH accretion for popular models for the formation and growth of seed BHs. We show that by properly accounting for (1) the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from cosmological simulations of early star formation and radiative feedback, (2) the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and (3) the large radiative efficiencies ε of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift (ε ∼> 0.1), we are led to the conclusion that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as ∼> 105 M☉. This presents a strong challenge to the Population III seed model, which calls for seed masses of ∼100 M☉ and, even with constant Eddington-limited accretion, requires ε ∼4-106 M☉ seed BH. These results corroborate recent cosmological simulations and observational campaigns which suggest that these massive BHs were the seeds of a large fraction of the SMBHs residing in the centers of galaxies today.

  9. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  10. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these protei

  11. Storage of Annona squamosa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The sugar apple is a species of great economic importance. The propagation is through seeds, but experimental studies focused on ascertaining the ideal conditions of seed storage, especially packing and environments, are mostly lacking. The current work thus aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of packing, environments and storage times over the germination and vigor of sugar apple seeds. The work was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of UESB – Campus de Vitória da Conquista, BA. Seeds were conditioned in paper and plastic and were maintained in the atmosphere and refrigerator. The evaluation times were 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the beginning of the experiment. The following were evaluated: seed water content, germination, and vigor. Among the main results it was proved that the maximum storage time of sugar apple seeds was six months. Paper bags were best for the conservation of seed viability, regardless of the environment. The highest percentages of germination were obtained using paper bags in environmental conditions.

  12. Integrated modelling of nitrogen seeded JET discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagorski, R.; Telesca, G.; Rapp, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present results of numerical simulations of nitrogen seeded JET discharges. In particular, we have benchmarked the code against the type III ELMy JET pulses. In addition to recovering the main discharge parameters, the interplay between seeded nitrogen and intrinsic carbon is also r

  13. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  14. Formative Assessment Probes: Seeds in a Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2014-01-01

    Many young children come to school with prior experiences planting seeds in a garden or in a pot, watering them, and seeing them grow. These early scientific investigations are designed to help children understand that seeds need water, something to grow in (such as soil), and the right temperature to sprout--if these conditions are met, a seed…

  15. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  16. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  17. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  18. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  19. Factors Affecting Water Permeability of Aleurone Layer in Soybean Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Hiroko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the immersion condition of soybean seeds on the water permeability in aleurone layer was investigated to clarify the water permeability at the initial stage of water sorption. The amounts of water absorbed in seeds coated with only aleurone layer (embryos uncovered with seed coat) and untreated seeds (embryos covered with seed coat and aleurone layer; intact seeds) were compared under several conditions of temperature, pH, ion species, and salt concentration. The relative weight...

  20. The pleiotropic effects of the seed germination inhibitor germostatin

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Yajin; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are the most important adaptive traits of seed plants, which control the germination in a proper space and time. Internal genetic factors together with environmental cues govern seed dormancy and germination. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone induces seed dormancy and inhibits seed germination through its molecular genetic signaling network responding the seed inherent physiological and environmental factors. Recently, auxin has been shown to be another phy...

  1. Use of molecular marker techniques in seed testing by Brazilian seed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Vecchia P.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed market is becoming global and globalization is growing very fast. To compete favourably in this new global seed world, quality and cost are and will be certanly the key issues. High seed quality can only be obtained by a thorough control of the entire seed production process, step by step from planning to final delivery. That requires science, technology, expertise, experience, good management and certanly, the most important, an absolute and unconditional commitment with quality. Seed testing for quality assurance is one important step in the process of production of high quality seed. In the late years a considerable amount of research has been published, particularly on the use of some Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA based new technologies (RAPD, microsatelites, AFLP for genetic purity determinations in seed testing. As far as we know, no Brazilian seed company is using, on regular basis, RAPD or other molecular marker techniques in the determination of genetic purity in seed testing. Most of these are using morphological or physiological traits expressed by seed, seedling or mature plant and/or electrophoresis of seed or seedling proteins/isoenzymes for that purpose. Main reasons for that are: DNA molecular marker techniques are relatively new; lack of specialized personnel to run DNA molecular marker assays on routine basis; higher cost/sample when compared to proteins/isoenzymes electrophoresis.

  2. Design of Millet Seed-metering Device under Hole-seeding Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshun Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that traditional millet drilling method needs labor-intensive artificial thinning-out, a hole-seeding method is proposed to replace it. Under hole-seeding conditions, an air-suction millet seed-metering device was designed. The design of air-cutting valve can assure that suction-holes are not clogged and reliably falling seeds. Suction-hole structure of the seed-metering device takes chamfer type. The dimension parameter of the chamfer hole is as follows: diameter of 4 mm, chamfer depth of 2.5 mm, fissuriform bottom of suction-hole is 1 mm width, number of holes is 32. The passing rate of hill spacing, repeat-sowing rate, leak-sowing rate and hill formation were analyzed by seed-metering test platform, which meets the precision of millet seed and agronomic requirements.

  3. Variability in seed characters of Tinospora cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali K Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe,   ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in  seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found wide  variability   of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is concluded that seed characters can be used for the characterization of accessions in T. cordifolia germplasm and these characters can be used in   DUS descriptors of the species.

  4. Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yong-Ling; Patrick, John W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Osorio, Sonia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-11-01

    Seed and fruit set are established during and soon after fertilization and determine seed and fruit number, their final size and, hence, yield potential. These processes are highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses, which often lead to seed and fruit abortion. Here, we review the regulation of assimilate partitioning, including the potential roles of recently identified sucrose efflux transporters in seed and fruit set and examine the similarities of sucrose import and hydrolysis for both pollen and ovary sinks, and similar causes of abortion. We also discuss the molecular origins of parthenocarpy and the central roles of auxins and gibberellins in fruit set. The recently completed strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes have added to the existing crop databases, and new models are starting to be used in fruit and seed set studies. PMID:22776090

  5. Seed-less iodine-125 ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of preparation a seed-less active insert of iodine-125 ophthalmic applicator is described. Internal electrolysis was applied for fixing iodine-125 on the concave surface of the silver shell which is afterwards hermetically sealed inside a spherically shaped acrylic insert. The current-voltage characteristics of the galvanic cell used for deposition of silver iodide were determined. The results of the measurements of the energy spectra of the radiation emitted by a seed-less and seed-containing applicator are presented. The iodine-125 surface distribution uniformity on a silver shell was measured. The depth dose rate measurements indicate that the total activity incorporated in a seed-less applicator can be lower than that in seed-containing, while simultaneously assuring the desired dose rate

  6. Weed seed predation in organic and conventional fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Wratten, S.D.; Kristensen, Kristian;

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced biological control of weed seeds may improve sustainability of agricultural production. Biological control due to seed predation may be higher in organic fields because organic production generally supports more seed predators. To investigate such a difference, weed seed predation...... University and in two of the fields used for estimating seed predation. Recording of predators had therefore limited overlap with seed predation assays but was expected to give important information on key seed predators in the region. The mean seed removal rate was 17% in organic fields compared with 10...

  7. The Effects of the Different Seeding Rate and Forward Speed on Longitudinal Distribution Seed in a Combine Grain eed Drill

    OpenAIRE

    yardımcısı, Baş editör ve; Mustafa ÇETİN; TAŞER, Ö. Faruk

    1999-01-01

    In Turkey, grain production has the first place in the agricultural production. Grain sowing is generally being done by combined grain seed drills. In this study, the effects of different seeding rate and forward speed of the combined seed drill on the seed distribution on row were tried to be determined. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions and sticky band system was used to determine seeding uniformity on row. The experiments were conducted on three seeding rates and four...

  8. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  9. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  10. Seed rain, soil seed bank, seed loss and regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii (Fagaceae) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Guo, Q.; Gao, X.; Ma, K.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the seed rain and seed loss dynamics in the natural condition has important significance for revealing the natural regeneration mechanisms. We conducted a 3-year field observation on seed rain, seed loss and natural regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii Franch., a dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dujiangyan, southwestern China. The results showed that: (1) there were marked differences in (mature) seed production between mast (733,700 seeds in 2001) and regular (51,200 and 195,600 seeds in 2002 and 2003, respectively) years for C. fargesii. (2) Most seeds were dispersed in leaf litter, humus and 0-2 cm depth soil in seed bank. (3) Frequency distributions of both DBH and height indicated that C. fargesii had a relatively stable population. (4) Seed rain, seed ground density, seed loss, and leaf fall were highly dynamic and certain quantity of seeds were preserved on the ground for a prolonged time due to predator satiation in both the mast and regular years so that the continuous presence of seed bank and seedling recruitments in situ became possible. Both longer time observations and manipulative experiments should be carried out to better understand the roles of seed dispersal and regeneration process in the ecosystem performance. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate Change: Seed Production and Options for Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hampton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

  12. A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

    2008-08-22

    Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while enhancing seed dispersal by ground-foraging scatter-hoarding rodents (Peromyscus). Thus, there is a shift from relying on primary seed dispersal by birds in areas without red squirrels, to an increasing reliance on secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents in areas with red squirrels. Seed predators can therefore drive the evolution of seed defences, which in turn favour alternative seed dispersal mutualisms that lead to major changes in the mode of seed dispersal. Given that adaptive evolution in response to antagonists frequently impedes one kind of mutualistic interaction, the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions may be a common by-product. PMID:18460433

  13. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  14. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Lens culinaris Medikus seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kripi Vohra; Vivek Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the Lens culinaris Medikus (Fabaceae) seeds, a food grain used as Dhal in India. Methods: The macroscopy, microscopy, fluorescence analysis of powdered drug, physicochemical analysis, preliminary testing and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results: Seeds are greyish brown in colour. Treatment of powdered drug with various chemical reagents showed the presence of proteins, cellulose, lignins and fixed oils. Microscopy of seeds revealed the presence of starch grains in seed. The colour of seed coat changed from brown to greenish grey in day light and brown to black at 254nm when treated with acetic acid. Total ash value of the seeds was found to be 1.86% w/w whereas foreign organic matter was found to be nil. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins and flavonoids in acetone extract. Conclusions: The present study on pharmacognostic profile of Lens culinaris Medikus seeds provides an important tool in identification and authentication of this plant to researchers in future.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  16. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira, E-mail: camilo.urucum@hotmail.com [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Bicombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B., E-mail: jorgecazefilho@yahoo.com.br [Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria da Paraiba (EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  17. SUPERMASSIVE SEEDS FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Li Hui [Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Group (T-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holz, Daniel E., E-mail: jlj@lanl.gov [Enrico Fermi Institute, Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-07-10

    Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z {approx}> 7 constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we elucidate the implications of the radiative feedback from early generations of stars and from BH accretion for popular models for the formation and growth of seed BHs. We show that by properly accounting for (1) the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from cosmological simulations of early star formation and radiative feedback, (2) the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and (3) the large radiative efficiencies {epsilon} of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift ({epsilon} {approx}> 0.1), we are led to the conclusion that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as {approx}> 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. This presents a strong challenge to the Population III seed model, which calls for seed masses of {approx}100 M{sub Sun} and, even with constant Eddington-limited accretion, requires {epsilon} {approx}< 0.09 to explain the highest-z SMBHs in today's standard {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. It is, however, consistent with the prediction of the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation, in which a supermassive primordial star forms in a region of the universe with a high molecule-dissociating background radiation field, and collapses directly into a 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} seed BH. These results corroborate recent cosmological simulations and observational campaigns which suggest that these massive BHs were the seeds of a large fraction of the SMBHs residing in the centers of galaxies today.

  18. TAMARIND SEEDS CARBON: PREPRARTION AND METHANE UPTAKE

    OpenAIRE

    K. Munusamy; Rajesh S. Somani; Hari C. Bajaj

    2011-01-01

    Tamarind seeds carbon (TSC) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds, an agro-byproduct and waste that is available abundantly in the southern states of India, was prepared by chemical activation with KOH. The influence of tamarind seeds char to KOH weight ratio (1:1 to 1:4) and activation temperature (400 to 800 °C) were investigated. TSC having micro-pore volume as high as 1.0 cm3/g with surface area 2673 m2/g was obtained. TSC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray ...

  19. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J. R.; Dinator, M. I.; Cerda, P.

    1989-04-01

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce 11C and 13N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm 2. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center.

  20. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.R.; Dinator, M.I. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Fisica); Cerda, P. (Bio-Bio Univ., Chillan (Chile))

    1989-04-01

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce /sup 11/C and /sup 13/N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm/sup 2/. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center. (orig.).

  1. Nutrient Value of Leaf vs. Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Marvin; Colt, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin, and mineral concentrations and omega 6/omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea) are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed). An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables, and animal foods. Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons. The perspective ends with a discussion on "So why do we eat mainly seeds?" PMID:27493937

  2. Nutrient value of leaf versus seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Marvin; Holt, Monica

    2016-07-01

    Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin and mineral concentrations and omega 6 / omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea) are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed). An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables and animal foods. Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons. The perspective ends with a discussion on “So why do we eat mainly seeds?”

  3. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing occurrence of major pests ON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protected against pests and seed corn should be treated with appropriately insecticides. Choosing better technological solutions and choosing and appropriate insecticide seed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pest attack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aim of this research was to obtain based upon result information on the impact of treatment on quality of maize seed as well as the means to improve the conditions of storage and preservation of semen quality. Investigation and checking if insecticide treated seed adverse phytotoxic effect on plant growth and development in field conditions. The results indicate a significant effect of insecticide seed treatments on germination energy and non standard germination. A very significant influence of treated seed storage was also found on quality seeds. Looking at the impact of the treated hybrid on germination vigor and standard germination, a very significant hybrid impact was found out. The highest quality of the seed semen during the study was noticed with the seed of hybrid “H2”, followed by hybrid “H1”, while the hybrids “H3” and “H4” possessed less. The research shows that hybrids “H2” and “H1” are more suitable for seed treatment with insecticides than “H3” and “H4” hybrids. The field observations and research results obtained indicate a very significant impact of the treated seed on the above ground parts of plants, above ground mass, stem thickness and a very significant impact on plant spacing. The positive effect of treatment with “T1” and “T3” insecticides is visible in all conducted field researches. Plants treated with common fungicides and insecticides “T1” and “T3” had a greater height of the above ground plant parts, a larger mass of the above ground stems, greater stem thickness and better plant density treatments, compared to

  4. A reusable iodine-125 seed ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable iodine-125 seed ophthalmic applicator has been manufactured to treat intraocular tumours. It is made up of a stainless steel cap which houses a perspex insert; the perspex insert is used to contain four I-125 seeds. This applicator will treat a tumour with a surface diameter of 10mm and when loaded with four seeds each of activity 150MBq a dose of 60Gy may be delivered to a depth of 5mm in the eye in 5 to 6 days. The resultant dose to the sclera is of the order of 220Gy

  5. Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Berghout, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds The growth in the world population requires an increase in the production of protein-rich foods from plant-based materials. Lupin seeds have potential to become a novel plant protein source for food products because they are rich in protein (about 37 wt%) and they can be grown in moderate temperature climates as in north-western Europe. Besides a high protein content, lupin seeds are rich in dietary fibres (soluble and insoluble), contain abou...

  6. Gender inequality in predispersal seed predation contributes to female seed set advantage in a gynodioecious species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gretel L; Brody, Alison K

    2015-05-01

    Most flowering plants are hermaphrodites. However, in gynodioecious species, some members of the population are male-sterile and reproduce only by setting seed, while others gain fitness through both male and female function. How females compensate for the loss of male function remains unresolved for most gynodioecious species. Here, as with many plants, fitness differences may be influenced by interactions with multiple species. However, whether multiple species interactions result in gender-specific fitness differences remains unknown. Using observational data from 2009-2010, we quantified seed set of the two sex morphs of Polemonium foliosissimu and asked how it is affected by pollination, and seed predation from a dipteran predispersal seed predator (Anthomyiidae: Hylemya sp.). We assessed seed production and losses to predation in 27 populations for one year and in six populations for a second year. Females set significantly more seed than did hermaphrodites in both years. Of the fitness components we assessed, including the number of flowers per plant, fruit set, seeds/fruit, and proportion of fruits destroyed by Hylemya, only fruit destruction differed significantly between the sexes. In one year, seeds/fruit and predation had a stronger effect on seed set for hermaphrodites than for females. Because predispersal seed predators do not pollinate flowers, their effects may depend on successful pollination of flowers on which they oviposit. To examine if genders differed in pollen limitation and seed predation and/or their interactive effects, in 2011 we hand-pollinated flowers and removed seed predator eggs in a fully factorial design. Both sexes were pollen limited, but their degree of pollen limitation did not differ. However, predation reduced.seed set more for hermaphrodites than for females. We found no significant interaction between hand pollen and seed predation, and no interaction between hand pollination and gender. Our results suggest that while

  7. Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC. Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2% and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

  8. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  9. Screening for resistance to purple seed stain Cercospora kikuchii by seed inoculation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.H.; Oh, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish a mass-screening technique for resistance to purple seed stain disease in soybean. Seeds sterilized in 1 : 10,000 mercuric chloride for 1 minute and transferred to Petridishes containing 20ml water agar plus 50 ppM of the sodium salt of 2,4-D were inoculated by placing a small agar cube containing fungal mycelium on the seed coat of each seed. A positive correlation betweeen natural infection of purple seed stain and purple discoloration by seed inoculation technique was highly significant and by this technique, some native soybean collections and introduced varieties were tested for resistance to the disease. Most of the soybean varieties tested were susceptible except for the varieties Hill, Harosoy and Sac, resistant comparatively.

  10. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  11. Secondary dispersal of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B.; Borchert, Mark I.; Gworek, Jennifer R.

    2006-07-01

    Large-seeded pines ( Pinus spp.) are known to be dispersed by seed-caching corvids (i.e. jays and nutcrackers) and rodents (e.g. chipmunks and mice), with a concomitant decrease in seed dispersability by wind. We tested the idea that seeds of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), which are winged but larger than the seeds of other members of Pseudotsuga, are dispersed by a combination of wind and seed-caching rodents. We compared characteristics of seeds from P. macrocarpa in southern California (mean seed mass 132.6 mg) to seeds of a population of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in northern California (24.8 mg). We also tested whether rodents would cache seeds of P. macrocarpa. Seeds of P. macrocarpa had greater wing loadings (1.37 mg/mm 2) and descent velocities (2.47 m/s) than those of P. menziesii (0.52 mg/mm 2 and 1.28 m/s, respectively). These data indicate that the wind dispersability of P. macrocarpa is likely to be less than that of P. menziesii, but this loss of wind dispersability is partially compensated for by secondary dispersal of seeds by rodents, which readily gathered and cached the larger seeds of P. macrocarpa up to 34 m from source trees. Large seed size confers several advantages to P. macrocarpa, most importantly attracting seed-caching animals that effectively bury seeds.

  12. Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...

  13. Spectroscopic analysis of catechins in peanut seed skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are cultivated as a source of edible seed oil and protein. The peanut seed testa or skin that surrounds the seed is typically removed after the shelling process by blanching. Several phenolic compounds such as catechins may be isolated as co-products from peanut seed skins...

  14. 7 CFR 457.108 - Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for oil type sunflower seed grading U.S. No. 2, or non-oil type sunflower seed with a test weight of... area in which you normally market the sunflower seed. The local market price for oil type sunflower...) Deficiencies in quality result in: (A) Oil type sunflower seed not meeting the grade requirements for U.S....

  15. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  16. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked, or otherwise appropriately identified, under the supervision of the official seed...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  18. Studies on germination and vigour of cabbage seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liou, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of commercial storage of cabbage seeds on the germination of seeds and the emergence and growth of seedlings have been studied. Progressive ageing of seeds caused loss of seed vigour which resulted in poor emergence and growth of seedlings and the formation of abnormal seedlings. Loss of

  19. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  20. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  1. 7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall be tested for germination; except that in mixtures, 200 seeds of each of...

  2. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Se...

  3. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (BAKUCHI) SEED AND CHEMICAL PROFILE CRUDE METHANOL SEED EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    A. BORATE; M. UDGIRE; A. KHAMBHAPATI

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Present study aims to evaluate antifungal efficacy of Bakuchi (Psoralea corylifolia) seed extracts prepared in methanol solvents and the bakuchi oil. Bakuchi seed used in the formulations against skin related diseases and disorders in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Method: Antifungal assay was performed by agar well diffusion method against common fungal skin pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Malassezia furfur. Results: Bakuchi seeds extract in methanol was obs...

  4. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: Where do all the seeds go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, L.A.; Esque, T.C.; Nicklas, M.B.; Kane, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert-sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  5. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  6. Novel development of heat treatment techniques for seed surface sterilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Krebs, Niels; Langkjær, carsten

    2005-01-01

    Heat treatment to prevent seed borne diseases, e.g. in the form of hot water or warm humid air, will normally heat up the entire seed. Heat treatment of the seed embryo will always have a negative side-effect on seed vigour and the duration of several minutes are difficult to implement in seed plans treating huge volumes of seed. However, in the case of common bunt in wheat and similar diseases, where the inoculum is transmitted as fungal spores on the surface of the seed, an uniform and effi...

  7. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  8. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  9. Seeding Coherent Radiation Sources with Sawtooth Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Seed radiation sources have the ability to increase longitudinal coherence, decrease saturation lengths, and improve performance of tapering, polarization control and other FEL features. Typically, seeding schemes start with a simple sinusoidal modulation, which is manipulated to provide bunching at a high harmonic of the original wavelength. In this paper, we consider seeding from sawtooth modulations. The sawtooth creates a clean phase space structure, providing a maximal bunching factor without the need for an FEL interaction. While a pure sawtooth modulation is a theoretical construct, it is possible to approach the waveform by combining two or more of the composite wavelengths. We give examples of sawtooth seeding for HGHG, EEHG and other schemes, and note that the sawtooth modulation may aid in suppression of the microbunching instability.

  10. Analysis of soybean seed proteins using proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This editorial elaborates on investigations consisting of different proteomics technologies and their application to biological sciences. In addition, different classes of soybean seed proteins are discussed. This information will be useful to scientists in obtaining a greater understanding of the...

  11. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  12. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  13. Prairie remnant seed collection data, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a record of prairie seed collections on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge from 1992.

  14. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  15. Seed size variability: from carob to carats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Santamaria, Luis; Martorell, Toni; Rallo, Joan; Hector, Andy

    2006-09-22

    The seeds of various plants were used as weights because their mass reputedly varies so little. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua), which has given its name to the carat, is particularly famous in this regard. But are carob seeds unusually constant in weight and, if not, how did the myth arise? The variability of seeds sampled from a collection of carob trees (CV=23%) was close to the average of 63 species reviewed from the literature (CV=25%). However, in a perception experiment observers could discriminate differences in carob seed weight of around 5% by eye demonstrating the potential for humans to greatly reduce natural variation. Interestingly, the variability of pre-metrication carat weight standards is also around 5% suggesting that human rather than natural selection gave rise to the carob myth.

  16. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  17. Seed dispersers, seed predators, and browsers act synergistically as biotic filters in a mosaic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regino Zamora

    Full Text Available In this study, we analize the functional influence of animals on the plants they interact with in a mediterranean mountain. We hypothesise that seed dispersers, seed predators, and browsers can act as biotic filters for plant communities. We analyse the combined effects of mutualistic (seed dispersal and antagonistic (seed predation, herbivory animal interactions in a mosaic landscape of Mediterranean mountains, basing our results on observational and experimental field. Most of the dispersed seeds came from tree species, whereas the population of saplings was composed predominantly of zoochorous shrub species. Seed predators preferentially consumed seeds from tree species, whereas seeds from the dominant fleshy-fruited shrubs had a higher probability of escaping these predators. The same pattern was repeated among the different landscape units by browsers, since they browsed selectively and far more intensely on tree-species saplings than on the surrounding shrubs. In synthesis, our work identifies the major biotic processes that appear to be favoring a community dominated by shrubs versus trees because seed dispersers, predators, and herbivores together favored shrub dispersal and establishment versus trees.

  18. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  19. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

    Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass-type fest......Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass...

  20. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Virginia; Ruchi; Paul Ajit

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10) served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organole...

  1. Use of multispectral images and chemometrics in tomato seed studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    During the production of tomato seeds, green tomatoes are normally discarded before seed extraction irrespective of their maturity stage. Studies indicate that seeds from green tomatoes may reach be able to reach full germination capacity. Thus the potential of multispectral imaging for non......-destructive discrimination of seeds based on their germination capacity was investigated. A total of 840 seeds extracted from green and red tomatoes were divided into two sets; a training set and a test set consisting of 648 and 192 seeds respectively. Each set consisted of 96 seeds from green tomatoes. The multispectral......, respectively. Similarly, dead seeds were predicted with 98% of accuracy. Results also showed that 23 and 14 seeds from green tomatoes in the training and test sets respectively were viable, while only one viable seed in the test set was misclassified. The results indicate that green tomatoes might be mature...

  2. Mathematical model of seed germination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical model of seed germination process was described. The model based on proposed working hypothesis leads - by analogy - to a law corresponding with Verhulst-Pearl's law, known from the theory of population kinetics. The model was applied to describe the germination kinetics of tomato seeds, Promyk field cultivar, biostimulated by laser treatment. Close agreement of experimental and model data was obtained

  3. The conservation physiology of seed dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxton, Graeme D; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2012-01-01

    At a time when plant species are experiencing increasing challenges from climate change, land-use change, harvesting and invasive species, dispersal has become a very important aspect of plant conservation. Seed dispersal by animals is particularly important because some animals disperse seeds to suitable sites in a directed fashion. Our review has two aims: (i) to highlight the various ways plant dispersal by animals can be affected by current anthropogenic change and (ii) to show the import...

  4. Mycoflora of Calendula officinalis L. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Pięta

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Calendula offlcinalis harvested in the years 1985-1987 were investigated. Agar medium with nitrients was used to isolate the fungi. As a result of the mycological analysis, 3642 isolates belonglng to 23 species and dark unsporulating mycelium were obtained. Alternaria alternata dominated among the isolated fungi. Moreover, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum and Sclerotinia sc1erotiorum were obtained from the seeds.

  5. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  6. Microstructure of Lentil Seeds (Lens Culinaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Joe S.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1986-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the microstructure of five cultivars of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris). Lentil cot yledons contain sphericai starch granules surrounded by protein bodies similar to starch granules and protein bodies observed in cotyledons of other food legumes. Examination of the lentil seed coat in cross - section revealed outer palisade and inner parenchyma layers characteris tic of legumes. The subepidermal layer, however, is comprised of hourglass...

  7. Factors influencig seeds development and maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Werschallová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Perennial common wheat is one of the three most grown cereals in the world, along with corn and rice. In the Czech Republic, the common wheat covers approximately 32 % of seeded areas of cereals. Countless numbers of species suitable for different locations were made by their cultivation. This bachelor´s thesis „Factors influencing seeds development and maturation“ is made by compilation of knowledge gained by several authors, writing about effects of outer space and its influence on a mother...

  8. Laser Heater and seeded Free Electron Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Dattoli, G.; Petrillo, V.; E. Sabia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the effect of laser heater on a seeded Free Electron Laser. We develop a model embedding the effect of the energy modulation induced by the heater with those due to the seeding. The present analysis is compatible with the experimental results obtained at FERMI displaying secondary maxima with increasing heater intensity. The treatment developed in the paper confirms and extends previous analyses and put in evidence further effects which can be tested in future experi...

  9. Orchid seeds viability identification by tetrazolium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Schultz Soares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of germinal potential optimizes the practice of in vitro germination of Orchidaceae. This work evaluated of the type and concentrations of tetrazolium solutions on reaction time and on the identification of viable orchid seeds. Were used seeds of the species Brassavola tuberculata Rchb f., Cattleya labiata Lindley var Amoema, Cattleya intermedia and Dendrobium antenatum and of two primary hybrids of Cattleya labiata autumnalis x Cattleya labiata Lindley var. Alba. The seeds (0.01g of each species or hybrid were soaked in 3 mL of aqueous and neutral solutions of 2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride at 0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% ou 1,0% concentrations and stored in a light-free environment at 25±2 °C, being evaluated every 30 minutes for identification of the time needed for embryos coloring and later counting of the number of viable seeds by milligram of seed. A completely randomized design was used, in a factorial scheme 6 x 2 x 5 (six genotypes of orchids, two types of tetrazolium solutions and five concentrations with 3 replications. The genotypes responded differently response both for viable seeds by milligram of seed and for the time required for embryos coloring and C. intermedia not respond to the test. Irrespective of solution type, concentrations only interfered in reaction time for the hybrids. It is recommended, therefore, the use of neutral tetrazolium solution at 0.5% for indentification of viable seeds of hybrids of Cattleya labiata autumnalis x Cattleya labiata var. Alba and use of aqueous solution at 0.125% for Brassavola tuberculata, Cattleya labiata var Amoema e Dendrobium antenatum.

  10. Are predatory birds effective secondary seed dispersers?

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, Manuel; Quilis, Vicente; Medina, Félix M.; Mora, Juan L.; Trigo, Laura S.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the unusual phenomenon of secondary seed dispersal of Lycium intricatum seeds on a small oceanic Atlantic island (Alegranza, Canarian Archipelago)in which a small frugivorous lizard (Gallotia atlantica) and two different predatory birds participate, a shrike (Lanius excubitor) and a kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Endemic lizards that are common prey of both bird species consume Lycium fruits. Lizard remains were significantly matched with the presence of Lycium fruits in the reg...

  11. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increasing occurrence of major pestsON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protectedagainst pests and seed corn should be treated withappropriately insecticides. Choosing better technologicalsolutions and choosing and appropriate insecticideseed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pestattack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aimof this research was to obtain based upon result informationon the impact of treatment on quality of maizeseed as well as the means to i...

  12. Fertilization and early seed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christian; Rogowsky, Peter

    2008-10-01

    The double fertilization of flowering plants is a complex process, encompassing multiple steps. From its discovery more than a century ago, many useful descriptive approaches have been employed to better unveil specific steps/mechanisms. More recently, the development of an in vitro assay developed in our laboratory, has allowed a better understanding of this phenomenon. However, in vitro methods may show some limitations. The search for complementary strategies, especially with the search of mutants affected in the fertilization step allowed one to elucidate this critical and unique phenomenon in living organisms. Genes involved in pollen tube guidance or pollen discharge in synergids have been identified, as well as genes exhibiting differential expression in sperm, egg and central cells before and after fertilization. A calcium wave proved to correspond to the first cellular event seen after cytoplasmic fusion in the fertilized egg cell or zygote, which develops into a multi-cellular organism with an elaborate body plan. The development of the fertilized central cell into a nourishing tissue (endosperm) starts with the formation of the coenocyte, a multinuclear single cell unique in the plant kingdom, cellularization occurring later on. The balance of the paternal and maternal genomes, which is under the control of the FIS polycomb group complex, was found to be of the utmost importance for the successful development of the seed.

  13. Apiaceae seeds as functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L., anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., dill (Anethum graveolens L., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplements. These plants are rich in essential oil, which is a mixture of volatile compounds that give it a characteristic aroma. Their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities have been proven and because of these activities they have great potential to be used as natural food conservatives. These plants also have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities as well as anticancer properties. They are used as food supplements in everyday nutrition and as natural health products for the prevention and treatment of many disorders such as inflammations, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and others. Apart from this, these plants have real application in foods such as pastries, meat and dairy products, pickles and salads as well as spice blends like curry powder, garam masala and others.

  14. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF RUBBER SEED (Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of rubber seeds (Hevea brasiliensis available in Bangladesh. Hevea brasiliensis seeds were collected directly from 200 rubber trees of the rubber garden in the Bandarban area under standard random sampling technique. Seeds were decorticated, ground and dried in hot air oven. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for moisture, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extract (NFE, ether extract (EE and ash in the animal nutrition laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was calculated mathematically by using standard mathematical formula. Results indicated that, decorticated Hevea brasiliensis seeds contained 85.7% DM, 26.1% CP, 43.0% CF, 13.8% NFE, 11.0% EE and 1.8% ash. ME contents in in the seeds was 2101.1 kcal/kg DM. Since, decorticated rubber seeds contained substantial amount of metabolizable energy and proximate components, therefore it could be assumed that, like other unconventional feeds, it might be a promising feed resource for livestock.

  15. Nutritional evaluation of some Nigerian wild seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ekperigin, M Mofoluso

    2004-04-01

    Some wild seeds, namely Parkia biglobosa, Tetracarpidum conophorum, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Irvingia gabonensis, Afzelia africana, Prosporis africana and Monodora myristica, were randomly collected from various parts of Nigeria and analyzed with regard to their proximate, mineral, antinutrient composition and zinc bioavailability. The results revealed that the seeds had high protein (6.5-24.2%), fat (19.0-58.5%), mineral (Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Na, K, P) and phytate (1043.6-2905.2 mg/100 g) contents, while the cyanide content was low (3.7-6.4 mg/kg). However, Co, Pb and Ni were not detected in all the samples. The calculated [Ca] [phytate]/[Zn] molar ratios (which is the best index for predicting Zn bioavailability) for all the seeds revealed that Parkia biglobosa, Irvingia gabonensis and Prosporis africana had a calculated molar ratio above 0.50 mol/kg (critical level), thus indicating reduced bioavailability of Zn to a critical level. In view of the high fat, protein, mineral and low cyanide contents, the high phytate content would not be expected to reduce bioavailability of Zn in some of the wild seeds (Afzelia africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Monodora myristica). These wild seeds could be good nutrient sources if integrated fully into human and animal nutrition. However, further studies will be carried out on the protein quality and toxicological potentials of these wild seeds.

  16. Maximizing seed germination in two Acacia species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akram Kiani Abari; Mohammad Hoseini Nasr; Mohammad Hodjati; Dariush Bayat; Morteza Radmehr

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of disturbed land,particularly in arid environment,is often hindered by low seedling establishment.Information on seed biology and germination cues of valuable species is lacking.We investigated seed germination of two Acacia species (Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne and Acacia oerfota (Forssk) schweinf),required for nitrogen fixation and rehabilitation of arid and semi-arid areas.(four pre-germination seed treatments were applied in order to find the best treatment in germinating acacia species.The medium was L2 and three replicates were used.Seeds pre-treated with sand paper and also with H2SO4 and then H2O2 had the highest germination percentage in both species.The lowest germination percentage resulted from soaking seeds in water for 48 h followed by soaking in H2SO4 for A.oerfota and from soaking in water for 24 h for A.tortilis.Because the use of sand paper is difficult and time consuming,we recommend pre-treatment of A.tortilis and A.oerfota seeds with H2SO4 and H2O2 before planting.Our study results are significant for conservation agencies with an interest in optimizing germination in arid zones for rehabilitation and reforestation.

  17. The HPLC Fingerprint and Isovanillin Content of Benincasa hispida Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Liu; Pinglin Li; Qi Wang; Bin Li,; Guoqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    The Benincasa hispida seed is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, there is still a lack of medicinal quality control of B. hispida seeds. The seeds may contain isovanillin, but this finding remains to be confirmed and quantified. The current study aimed to confirm the existence of isovanillin and then preliminarily establish medicinal quality standards for B. hispida seeds. Fourteen batches of unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds were purchased from 7 different producers...

  18. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, A.; Gore, J; Musser, F.; Cook, D; Catchot, A.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities ...

  19. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Xiai Chen; Ling Wang; Wenquan Chen; Yanfeng Gao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid...

  20. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  1. Influence of corn (Zea mays L) seed processing with a locally produced sheller on seed quality and their damage

    OpenAIRE

    Pratima Pandey; Jwala Bajrachrya; S. Pokharel

    2013-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays dis.L.) is one of the most important staple crops in the world. Sindhupalchok, Kavre and Nuwakot were the three districts selected for the maize CBSP groups under the respective Agriculture Development Offices identified by CDD for the present study. Altogether 2x6x3 samples for the study were collected. Seed damage as broken seeds, damages on embryo, seed quality assessments like seed moisture content, pure seed percentage, seed vigor measured by root and shoot length, seed g...

  2. Problems associated with the seed-trap method when measuring seed dispersal in forests inhabited by Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Riyou; Yumoto, Takakazu

    2014-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of seed/litter traps in seed dispersal ecology, several problems have arisen when using this method in forests inhabited by semi-terrestrial monkeys. The first issue is the height of the trap relative to the location where macaques spit seeds and/or defecate. For Japanese macaques in the lowland forests of Yakushima Island, southern Japan, 30-50% of the seeds emitted from cheek pouches and faeces will not be caught by seed traps, leading to underestimation of seed fall. The second issue is the attractiveness of seed traps. Macaques sometimes play with the traps, potentially affecting the results of the seed-trap method in complex ways, including both negative and positive effects. To obtain reasonable estimates of total seed dispersal, we recommend that researchers conduct the seed-trap method concurrently with monkey observations, and that they should affix traps more securely to prevent macaques from destroying the traps. PMID:24378823

  3. Wheat seed enhancement by vitamin and hormonal priming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed priming has proven beneficial in many important agricultural crops. The present study was conducted to explore the role (if any) of hormonal and vitamin seed priming to improve the germination, seedling emergence, early seedling establishment, electrolyte leakage and nutrients uptake in wheat seedlings. The wheat seeds were soaked for 48 hours in aerated solution of salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, kinetin and GA3 with 20 ppm concentration of each solution, whereas untreated seeds were taken as control. Seed priming with ascorbic acid resulted in maximum final germination and emergence percentage (FGP and FEP), radical and plumule length, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots, root shoot ratio, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and seedling dry weight compared to control (untreated seeds). Minimum mean germination and emergence time (MGT and MET) was recorded in seeds primed with kinetin and GA3. While in case of biochemical attributes, seedling potassium contents were decreased by hormonal seed priming while total soluble sugars were increased by salicylic acid and ascorbic acid seed priming. Hormonal seed priming had non-significant effect on phosphorus seedling contents. Untreated (Control) seeds showed maximum electrical conductivity at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after inbibition than primed seeds against the minimum electrical conductivity that was recorded in seeds primed with salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the wheat seeds primed with 20 ppm solution of ascorbic acid may be used for wheat seed invigoration. (author)

  4. Uncoupling the effects of seed predation and seed dispersal by granivorous ants on plant population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Arnan

    Full Text Available Secondary seed dispersal is an important plant-animal interaction, which is central to understanding plant population and community dynamics. Very little information is still available on the effects of dispersal on plant demography and, particularly, for ant-seed dispersal interactions. As many other interactions, seed dispersal by animals involves costs (seed predation and benefits (seed dispersal, the balance of which determines the outcome of the interaction. Separate quantification of each of them is essential in order to understand the effects of this interaction. To address this issue, we have successfully separated and analyzed the costs and benefits of seed dispersal by seed-harvesting ants on the plant population dynamics of three shrub species with different traits. To that aim a stochastic, spatially-explicit individually-based simulation model has been implemented based on actual data sets. The results from our simulation model agree with theoretical models of plant response dependent on seed dispersal, for one plant species, and ant-mediated seed predation, for another one. In these cases, model predictions were close to the observed values at field. Nonetheless, these ecological processes did not affect in anyway a third species, for which the model predictions were far from the observed values. This indicates that the balance between costs and benefits associated to secondary seed dispersal is clearly related to specific traits. This study is one of the first works that analyze tradeoffs of secondary seed dispersal on plant population dynamics, by disentangling the effects of related costs and benefits. We suggest analyzing the effects of interactions on population dynamics as opposed to merely analyzing the partners and their interaction strength.

  5. Physical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Paparella, Stefania; Dondi, Daniele; Bentivoglio, Antonio; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical invigoration treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, "magneto-priming" and irradiation with microwaves (MWs) or ionizing radiations (IRs) are the most promising pre-sowing seed treatments. "Magneto-priming" is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigor and crop yield. IRs, as γ-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual 'priming' treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to MWs and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed invigoration agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV) radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination, and seedling vigor. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed invigoration treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed invigoration, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and advantages. The future perspectives related to

  6. Contagious deposition of seeds in spider monkeys' sleeping trees limits effective seed dispersal in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    Full Text Available The repeated use of sleeping sites by frugivorous vertebrates promotes the deposition and aggregation of copious amounts of seeds in these sites. This spatially contagious pattern of seed deposition has key implications for seed dispersal, particularly because such patterns can persist through recruitment. Assessing the seed rain patterns in sleeping sites thus represents a fundamental step in understanding the spatial structure and regeneration of plant assemblages. We evaluated the seed rain produced by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi in latrines located beneath 60 sleeping trees in two continuous forest sites (CFS and three forest fragments (FF in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We tested for differences among latrines, among sites, and between forest conditions in the abundance, diversity (α-, β- and, γ-components and evenness of seed assemblages. We recorded 45,919 seeds ≥ 5 mm (in length from 68 species. The abundance of seeds was 1.7 times higher in FF than in CFS, particularly because of the dominance of a few plant species. As a consequence, community evenness tended to be lower within FF. β-diversity of common and dominant species was two times greater among FF than between CFS. Although mean α-diversity per latrine did not differ among sites, the greater β-diversity among latrines in CFS increased γ-diversity in these sites, particularly when considering common and dominant species. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit scarcity in FF can 'force' spider monkeys to deplete the available fruit patches more intensively than in CFS. This feeding strategy can limit the effectiveness of spider monkeys as seed dispersers in FF, because (i it can limit the number of seed dispersers visiting such fruit patches; (ii it increases seed dispersal limitation; and (iii it can contribute to the floristic homogenization (i.e., reduced β-diversity among latrines in fragmented landscapes.

  7. Physical methods for seed vigourization: advantages and challenges in seed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eAraújo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical vigourization treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, magneto-priming and irradiation with microwaves or ionizing radiations are the most promissory pre-sowing seed treatments. Magneto-priming is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigour and crop yield. Ionizing radiations, as gamma-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual ‘priming’ treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to microwaves and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed vigourization agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination and seedling vigour. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed vigourization treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed vigourization, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and

  8. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; M. Hashemi; Struik, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that seed ...

  9. Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to determine the incidence of seed migration not only to the chest, but also to the abdomen and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. We reviewed the records of 267 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. After seed implantation, orthogonal chest radiographs, an abdominal radiograph, and a pelvic radiograph were undertaken routinely to document the occurrence and sites of seed migration. The incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was calculated. All patients who had seed migration to the abdomen and pelvis subsequently underwent a computed tomography scan to identify the exact location of the migrated seeds. Postimplant dosimetric analysis was undertaken, and dosimetric results were compared between patients with and without seed migration. A total of 19,236 seeds were implanted in 267 patients. Overall, 91 of 19,236 (0.47%) seeds migrated in 66 of 267 (24.7%) patients. Sixty-nine (0.36%) seeds migrated to the chest in 54 (20.2%) patients. Seven (0.036%) seeds migrated to the abdomen in six (2.2%) patients. Fifteen (0.078%) seeds migrated to the pelvis in 15 (5.6%) patients. Seed migration occurred predominantly within two weeks after seed implantation. None of the 66 patients had symptoms related to the migrated seeds. Postimplant prostate D90 was not significantly different between patients with and without seed migration. We showed the incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Seed migration did not have a significant effect on postimplant prostate D90

  10. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Hamm; Srinivas Lanka; Michael Stout

    2014-01-01

    Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determ...

  11. A new approach for tracking seed dispersal of large plants: soaking seeds with 15 N-urea

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Xianfeng; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Mingming; DONG, Zhong; Yang, Yueqin

    2014-01-01

    International audience & Context Although various tracking methods have been used in many ecosystems to investigate seed dispersal and seedling recruitment, it is still difficult to measure seed dispersal pat-terns due to methodological challenges in tracking seed move-ment away from parent trees and in finding the locations of seedlings. & Aim Here, we aimed to develop a new approach to track seed dispersal by animals in the field. & Methods Our approach involves soaking seeds directly in...

  12. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  13. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  14. Online gamma-camera imaging of 103Pd seeds (OGIPS) for permanent breast seed implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Ananth; Caldwell, Curtis B.; Keller, Brian M.; Reznik, Alla; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Permanent brachytherapy seed implantation is being investigated as a mode of accelerated partial breast irradiation for early stage breast cancer patients. Currently, the seeds are poorly visualized during the procedure making it difficult to perform a real-time correction of the implantation if required. The objective was to determine if a customized gamma-camera can accurately localize the seeds during implantation. Monte Carlo simulations of a CZT based gamma-camera were used to assess whether images of suitable quality could be derived by detecting the 21 keV photons emitted from 74 MBq 103Pd brachytherapy seeds. A hexagonal parallel hole collimator with a hole length of 38 mm, hole diameter of 1.2 mm and 0.2 mm septa, was modeled. The design of the gamma-camera was evaluated on a realistic model of the breast and three layers of the seed distribution (55 seeds) based on a pre-implantation CT treatment plan. The Monte Carlo simulations showed that the gamma-camera was able to localize the seeds with a maximum error of 2.0 mm, using only two views and 20 s of imaging. A gamma-camera can potentially be used as an intra-procedural image guidance system for quality assurance for permanent breast seed implantation.

  15. Online gamma-camera imaging of {sup 103}Pd seeds (OGIPS) for permanent breast seed implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, Ananth [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada); Caldwell, Curtis B [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada); Keller, Brian M [Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Canada); Reznik, Alla [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada); Pignol, Jean-Philippe [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2007-09-21

    Permanent brachytherapy seed implantation is being investigated as a mode of accelerated partial breast irradiation for early stage breast cancer patients. Currently, the seeds are poorly visualized during the procedure making it difficult to perform a real-time correction of the implantation if required. The objective was to determine if a customized gamma-camera can accurately localize the seeds during implantation. Monte Carlo simulations of a CZT based gamma-camera were used to assess whether images of suitable quality could be derived by detecting the 21 keV photons emitted from 74 MBq {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy seeds. A hexagonal parallel hole collimator with a hole length of 38 mm, hole diameter of 1.2 mm and 0.2 mm septa, was modeled. The design of the gamma-camera was evaluated on a realistic model of the breast and three layers of the seed distribution (55 seeds) based on a pre-implantation CT treatment plan. The Monte Carlo simulations showed that the gamma-camera was able to localize the seeds with a maximum error of 2.0 mm, using only two views and 20 s of imaging. A gamma-camera can potentially be used as an intra-procedural image guidance system for quality assurance for permanent breast seed implantation.

  16. Effect of Different Pollinator Attractant Crops for Seed Setting and Maximizing Seed Yield of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kalim Uddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Spices Research Centre, Shibgonj, Bogra during rabi season, 2010-11and 2011-12 to identify the suitable pollinator attractant crops for increasing the vigilance of pollinators and higher seed settings and thereby increasing seed yield of onion. In 2010-11, the highest seed setting was recorded in onion + fennel (69.88% which was statistically identical to Onion + coriander (67.45 % and Onion + black cumin (64.15 % while the highest seed setting was recorded in Onion + Fennel (73.70 % which was identical to Onion + Dill (70.50% and Onion + Coriander( 72.37% during 2011-12. In 2010-11, the highest seed yield (865.5 kg/ha was obtained from Onion + fennel which was identical to Onion + coriander (838.1 kg/ha but in 2011-12, the highest seed yield (1165.34 kg/ha was recorded from Onion + fennel which was identical to Onion + coriander (1064.59 kg/ha. In both the years, percent seed setting was lowest in Sole onion (55.93 % in 2010-11and 57.73% in 2011-12. Accordingly, the lowest seed yield was also recorded from Sole onion (623.3 kg/ha in 2010-11 and 685.44 kg/ha in 2011-12. Dill and Fennel was the better attractant crop for pollination while coriander acted as intermediate.

  17. Identification of embryo proteins associated with seed germination and seedling establishment in germinating rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Lu, Zhuang; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the mechanism of seed germination is still poorly understood. In the present study, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Peiai 64S) seeds were sampled individually when they reached different germination stages, quiescent, germinated sensu stricto, germinated completely and seedling, and were used to study the changes in the embryo proteome. A total of 88 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance during germination in water, and the results showed an activation of metabolic processes. Cell division, cell wall synthesis, and secondary metabolism were activated at late seed germination and during preparation for subsequent seedling establishment. Cycloheximide (CHX) at 70μM inhibited seedling establishment without an apparent negative effect on seed germination, while CHX at 500μM completely blocked seed germination. We used this observation to identify the potentially important proteins involved in seed germination (coleoptile protrusion) and seedling establishment (coleoptile and radicle protrusion). Twenty-six protein spots, mainly associated with sugar/polysaccharide metabolism and energy production, showed a significant difference in abundance during seed germination. Forty-nine protein spots, mainly involved in cell wall biosynthesis, proteolysis as well as cell defense and rescue, were required for seedling establishment. The results help improve our understanding of the key events (proteins) involved in germination and seedling development. PMID:27085178

  18. Seed abscission and fruit dehiscence required for seed dispersal rely on similar genetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzà, Vicente; Roig-Villanova, Irma; Di Marzo, Maurizio; Masiero, Simona; Colombo, Lucia

    2016-09-15

    Seed dispersal is an essential trait that enables colonization of new favorable habitats, ensuring species survival. In plants with dehiscent fruits, such as Arabidopsis, seed dispersal depends on two processes: the separation of the fruit valves that protect the seeds (fruit dehiscence) and the detachment of the seeds from the funiculus connecting them to the mother plant (seed abscission). The key factors required to establish a proper lignin pattern for fruit dehiscence are SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2). Here, we demonstrate that the SHP-related gene SEEDSTICK (STK) is a key factor required to establish the proper lignin pattern in the seed abscission zone but in an opposite way. We show that STK acts as a repressor of lignin deposition in the seed abscission zone through the direct repression of HECATE3, whereas the SHP proteins promote lignin deposition in the valve margins by activating INDEHISCENT. The interaction of STK with the SEUSS co-repressor determines the difference in the way STK and SHP proteins control the lignification patterns. Despite this difference in the molecular control of lignification during seed abscission and fruit dehiscence, we show that the genetic networks regulating these two developmental pathways are highly conserved.

  19. Non- chemical methods of seed treatment for control of seed- borne pathogens on vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Wickstrom, M.; Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Jahn, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of EU-project "Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production" (STOVE) was to evaluate non-chemical methods for control of seed-borne pathogens in organic vegetable production. Physical (hot air, hot water and electron) and biologi-cal (microorganisms and different agents of natural origin

  20. Inflorescence characteristics, seed composition, and allometric relationships predicting seed yields in the biomass crop Cynara cardunculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archontoulis, S.V.; Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Bastiaans, L.; Vos, J.; Danalatos, N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Cynara (Cynara cardunculus) is a perennial C3 herb that has its potential as bioenergy crop. This paper aims (a) to derive empirical relationships to predict cynara seed yield per head and per unit area, avoiding laborious extraction of seeds from the complex structure of its inflorescences; (b) to

  1. INFLUENCE OF SEED TREATMENT CHEMICALS AND CONTAINERS ON SEED QUALITY OF MARIGOLD DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    t. p. kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to know the effect of seed treatment and containers on seed quality of marigold during storage. Result from the study indicated that seed treated with chlorax and stored in double layer polythene bag recorded higher seed quality parameters viz., significantly higher germination (49.25% and 38.81%, root length (4.13 cmand 3.30 cm, shoot length (3.51 cm and 3.90 cm, vigour index (376 and 281, germination rate index (11.31 and 11.04 and field emergence (43.25% and 33.44 with lowest electrical conductivity of seed leachate (1.292 dSm-1 and 1.856 dSm-1, respectively of marigold at the end of storage. With the advance in the storage period, an increase in moisture, seed health and electrical conductivity of seed were observed. Therefore, these treatments can be used for storage of marigold seeds in order to maintain viability.

  2. Identification of embryo proteins associated with seed germination and seedling establishment in germinating rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Lu, Zhuang; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the mechanism of seed germination is still poorly understood. In the present study, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Peiai 64S) seeds were sampled individually when they reached different germination stages, quiescent, germinated sensu stricto, germinated completely and seedling, and were used to study the changes in the embryo proteome. A total of 88 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance during germination in water, and the results showed an activation of metabolic processes. Cell division, cell wall synthesis, and secondary metabolism were activated at late seed germination and during preparation for subsequent seedling establishment. Cycloheximide (CHX) at 70μM inhibited seedling establishment without an apparent negative effect on seed germination, while CHX at 500μM completely blocked seed germination. We used this observation to identify the potentially important proteins involved in seed germination (coleoptile protrusion) and seedling establishment (coleoptile and radicle protrusion). Twenty-six protein spots, mainly associated with sugar/polysaccharide metabolism and energy production, showed a significant difference in abundance during seed germination. Forty-nine protein spots, mainly involved in cell wall biosynthesis, proteolysis as well as cell defense and rescue, were required for seedling establishment. The results help improve our understanding of the key events (proteins) involved in germination and seedling development.

  3. Effects of seed predators of different body size on seed mortality in Bornean logged forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Hautier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Janzen-Connell hypothesis proposes that seed and seedling enemies play a major role in maintaining high levels of tree diversity in tropical forests. However, human disturbance may alter guilds of seed predators including their body size distribution. These changes have the potential to affect seedling survival in logged forest and may alter forest composition and diversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated seed density in plots beneath con- and heterospecific adult trees within a logged forest and excluded vertebrate predators of different body sizes using cages. We show that small and large-bodied predators differed in their effect on con- and heterospecific seedling mortality. In combination small and large-bodied predators dramatically decreased both con- and heterospecific seedling survival. In contrast, when larger-bodied predators were excluded small-bodied predators reduced conspecific seed survival leaving seeds coming from the distant tree of a different species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that seed survival is affected differently by vertebrate predators according to their body size. Therefore, changes in the body size structure of the seed predator community in logged forests may change patterns of seed mortality and potentially affect recruitment and community composition.

  4. Peasant seeds in Europe: stakes and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bocci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The myth of technological progress in agriculture and then modern plant breeding have resulted in a separation of farming from breeding activities. Seed laws have also contributed to this outcome (e.g. by imposing strict rules for the entry of varieties in the official catalogue. Nowadays, some pioneers, among them farmers rejecting industrialized agriculture and more often practising organic agriculture, are proposing a different option. In Europe, since the beginning of this century, they have been organizing themselves in networks: the Réseau Semences Paysannes in France, the Red de Semillas in Spain and the Rete Semi Rurali in Italy. Their members are farmers, consumers and scientists working together in order to reconsider the scientific, technical and legal aspects of seed production. These new varieties are designated ‘peasant varieties’, a concept that encompasses two main aspects: the seed, the reproductive part of the plant linked to its terroir, and the variety, shaped by history and coevolved with farmers. Scientists working with these networks are developing participatory plant breeding projects, which aim to broaden agrobiodiversity by creating so called new peasant varieties. The basis of these projects comes from old local varieties and landraces conserved in seed banks. In Europe, the legal framework has evolved since the establishment of ‘conservation varieties’ by directive 98/95. The European research project Farm Seed Opportunities is under way to support new seed policies, in the light also of the different national contexts. The debate in Europe now offers a range of seed systems models. It is time to enlarge this debate to southern countries through the sharing of knowledge between farmers of the North and the South, aiming at conserving agrobiodiversity and promoting rural innovation.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1016 - Ethylene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a plant regulator on plants, seeds, or cuttings and on all food commodities after harvest and when..., eggplant, okra, onion, pasture grass, pea (field and sweet), peanut, pepper, potato, sweet potato,...

  6. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cibele C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrical conductivity and moisture were measured. The seeds of A. alexandrae are recalcitrant, with high germination percentage (over 67% when undried (47% seed moisture. Lowering seed moisture below 31.5% reduced the germination rate significantly (<52.5%. Total germination failure was observed when seed moisture reached 15.1%. The electrical conductivity was the most sensitive vigor test to identify seed deterioration.

  7. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, John G; Boelt, Birte; Rolston, M P;

    2013-01-01

    -temperature stress before developing seeds reach physiological maturity (PM) can reduce germination by inhibiting the ability of the plant to supply the assimilates necessary to synthesize the storage compounds required for germination. Nothing is known concerning the effects of elevated CO2 on seed vigour. However......Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed...... production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among...

  8. Scaling Behaviour of Diffusion Limited Aggregation with Linear Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Qiang; TIAN Ju-Ping; YAO Kai-Lun

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present a computer model of diffusion limited aggregation with linear seed. The clusters with varying linear seed lengths are simulated, and their pattern structure, fractal dimension and multifractal spectrum are obtained.The simulation results show that the linear seed length has little effect on the pattern structure of the aggregation clusters if its length is comparatively shorter. With its increasing, the linear seed length has stronger effects on the pattern structure, while the dimension Df decreases. When the linear seed length is larger, the corresponding pattern structure is cross alike. The larger the linear seed length is, the more obvious the cross-like structure with more particles clustering at the two ends of the linear seed and along the vertical direction to the centre of the linear seed. Furthermore, the multifractal spectra curve becomes lower and the range of singularity narrower.The longer the length of a linear seed is, the less irregular and nonuniform the pattern becomes.

  9. Improving the sludge conditioning potential of moringa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Joel O.; Eze, Romanus M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a cheaper material to effectively condition sludge, oil-free moringa seed was prepared and tested. A Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract the oil from moringa seed ( Moringa oleifera). The oil-free seed (marc) has been found to have higher conditioning potential than the ordinary moringa seed. However, the traditional ferric chloride is still a better sludge conditioner than moringa seed marc. For the digested domestic sludge used, optimum conditioning dosages were found to be 0.6, 0.80, and 1.10% of the total solids for ferric chloride, marc of the moringa seed, and ordinary moringa seed, respectively. Since little or no operational material is lost in the extraction process, the moringa seed marc is a promising conditioner in place of the ordinary seed.

  10. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Celina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate over the dependent variables: seeds germination, seeds accelerated aging and the speed of seeds germination in soil, were investigated in a factorial scheme trial. The maximum processing time was 120 min. A totally randomized experiment evaluated and compared seeds germination and vigor of the coated and non-coated seeds. There was no identifiable, pronounced difference on germination of coated and non-coated seeds, accelerated aging of seeds, and speed of seeds germination in the soil. Coating with hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose in the spouted bed did not alter broccoli seeds physiologic quality. The surface of coated seeds presented satisfactory distribution and spreading of the polymer film, uniform and individual coating and homogeneous aspect.

  11. Image recognition of diseased rice seeds based on color feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Ying, Yibin

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a digital image analysis algorithm for detection of diseased rice seeds based on color features. The rice seeds used for this study involved five varieties of Jinyou402, Shanyou10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou99 and IIyou3207. Images of rice seeds were acquired with a color machine vision system. Each original RGB image was converted to HSV color space and preprocessed to show, as hue in the seed region while the pixels value of background was zero. The hue values were scaled so that they varied from 0.0 to 1.0. Then six color features were extracted and evaluated for their contributions to seed classification. Determined using Blocks method, the mean hue value shows the strongest classification ability. Parzen windowing function method was used to estimate probability density distribution and a threshold of mean hue was drawn to classify normal seeds and diseased seeds. The average accuracy of test data set is 95% for Jinyou402. Then the feature of hue histogram was extracted for diseased seeds and partitioned into two clusters of spot diseased seeds and severe diseased seeds. Desired results were achieved when the two cancroids locations were used to discriminate the disease degree. Combined with the two features of mean hue and histogram, all seeds could be classified as normal seeds, spot diseased seeds and severe diseased seeds. Finally, the algorithm was implemented for all the five varieties to test the adaptability.

  12. Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on major indices of the quality was analyzed. Seed collected in 1996 and stored for 30 days (analyzed in 1996, seed stored for one year (analyzed in 1997, seed stored for two years (analyzed in 1998, seed stored for three years (analyzed in 1999 seed stored for four years (analyzed in 2000, seed stored for five years (analyzed in 2001 and seed stored for six years (analyzed in 2002 were investigated. The results of investigation have shown that seed stored up to two years had preserved its good production traits. Seed stored longer than two years have shown poor quality traits, and seed stored over three years could not be used - its production traits (germination energy and total germination confirmed that such seed could not be used for planting. Seed stored over five years, regardless of storage conditions, had no qualitative traits, and therefore no value. It was also observed that longer storage duration induced decrease of seed mass. In regard to fractions, it was observed that smaller fractions lost their quality more quickly than medium fractions.

  13. Advances on Seed Vigor Physiological and Genetic Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seed vigor is a more promising seed quality character reflecting potential seed germination, field emergence and seed storage ability under different conditions than standard germination. Standard germination is influenced by genetic background and environmental effects during seed development and storage conditions. The latest research on physiological mechanism in seed vigor showed that at the late stage of seed development, the development of seed vigor involves some stress-resistant substances including late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, oligosaccharides and abscisic acid (ABA). Whereas the loss of seed vigor, or seed aging and deterioration, could be attributed to lipid peroxidation, chromosome deformation and genes aberrance, and embryo protein degradation, etc. Seed vigor is a quantitative character controlled by multi-genes. Genetic and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses on seed-vigor trait in model plants, such as Arabidopsis and rice, are mostly concentrated on related morphology traits, whereas few physiological traits have been researched. It was concluded that, all of the QTL genetic characteristics of seed vigorincluding QTL quantities, its locus on chromosome, genetic effects, and interaction effects between genetic and environment, differed with plant species and used seed-vigor traits.

  14. Seed quality characteristics of Pinus halepensis – seed germination strategy and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Tsitsoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus halepensis is a Mediterranean tree species occupying areas of high tourist interest, where it forms aesthetic and recreational forests. However, intense human pressure, adverse climatic conditions and overgrazing degrade Aleppo pine forest ecosystems and render the natural regeneration of this species difficult. The ecological, landscape, recreational and soil conservation uses of P. halepensis along with its aesthetic value, make this species important for landscape planning and multi-purpose forestry. For these reasons, artificial regeneration may be required in order to render ecosystem restoration faster. Although P. halepensis is characterized by a high germination capacity and a constant temperature of 20 °C is considered optimal for germination, no research has dealt with the germination behaviour and early growth of seedlings under alternative temperature conditions similar to those dominating outdoors. Moreover, little research was conducted on seed quality characteristics of this species. Thus, in this study seed quality of P. halepensis was estimated by measuring purity, number of seeds per kg, weight of 1000 seeds, average seed weight, seed moisture content and percentage of empty seeds. Also, seed germination capacity, germination rate, percentage of infected and not germinated viable seeds, abnormal seedlings as well as the total seedling length were studied under laboratory (alternative temperature and chamber (constant temperature conditions with the same photoperiod. Results showed that the percentage of empty seeds and abnormal seedlings was extremely low and the total germination percentage was very high (87–90% in both environments. Germination capacity, germination rate and the total length of seedlings did not show any differences among the two growth environments.

  15. Rapid and High Seed Germination and Large Soil Seed Bank of Senecio aquaticus in Managed Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Suter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Senecio aquaticus, regionally a Red List species in Europe, has become increasingly abundant in agricultural grassland of medium to high management intensity in Switzerland, Southern Germany, and Austria in recent years, where it is a threat for animal and human health due to its toxicity. In this study, we investigated the seed ecology of S. aquaticus to help protection of the species in relic populations while improving its control when abundant in managed grassland. Germination percentages of fresh ripe seeds of S. aquaticus were on average 68% in 2008, but only 45% in 2010, indicating yearly variation. Germination was generally fast: ten days after the onset of the tests, often more than 45% of all seeds had germinated. When covered with a soil layer of 5 mm, germination was only 16% compared to 63% in full light. Seeds buried in the soil for one and two years showed a germination of 78%, significantly higher than that of fresh ripe seeds, thus suggesting a stimulating effect of cold-wet stratification on germination and long seed survival in the soil. In grasslands with established populations of S. aquaticus, the number of germinable seeds of the species ranged from 361 to 1875 m-2 in topsoil (0–10 cm with an average of 1139 m-2. The large seed bank and the rapid and high germination of S. aquaticus suggest that allowing seed formation is important for its preservation in relic populations. With respect to agricultural grassland, strategies to control the species should initially target hindering seed production and dispersal.

  16. Rapid and high seed germination and large soil seed bank of Senecio aquaticus in managed grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Matthias; Lüscher, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Senecio aquaticus, regionally a Red List species in Europe, has become increasingly abundant in agricultural grassland of medium to high management intensity in Switzerland, Southern Germany, and Austria in recent years, where it is a threat for animal and human health due to its toxicity. In this study, we investigated the seed ecology of S. aquaticus to help protection of the species in relic populations while improving its control when abundant in managed grassland. Germination percentages of fresh ripe seeds of S. aquaticus were on average 68% in 2008, but only 45% in 2010, indicating yearly variation. Germination was generally fast: ten days after the onset of the tests, often more than 45% of all seeds had germinated. When covered with a soil layer of 5 mm, germination was only 16% compared to 63% in full light. Seeds buried in the soil for one and two years showed a germination of 78%, significantly higher than that of fresh ripe seeds, thus suggesting a stimulating effect of cold-wet stratification on germination and long seed survival in the soil. In grasslands with established populations of S. aquaticus, the number of germinable seeds of the species ranged from 361 to 1875 m⁻² in topsoil (0-10 cm) with an average of 1139 m⁻². The large seed bank and the rapid and high germination of S. aquaticus suggest that allowing seed formation is important for its preservation in relic populations. With respect to agricultural grassland, strategies to control the species should initially target hindering seed production and dispersal. PMID:22272180

  17. Study of dose deposition for different configurations of seeds OncoSeed 6711

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. lodine-125 brachytherapy seeds are presented as a form of treatment. In prostate cancer therapy 80-120 iodine-125 seeds are implanted in the organ following a previous planning. During positioning and after it, the implanted seeds can undergo slight displacements relative to the original position. These deviations may cause changes in dose distribution in the tumor volume. This work has made a dosimetry study for iodine-125 seeds used in low dose rate brachytherapy. In the first stage, we performed a one seed dosimetric parameters study following the TG-43 protocol recommendations with the objective of validating our methodology. Then a quantitative study of the variation in dose distribution for three configurations of four seeds OncoSeed 6711 was conducted with two configurations using the seeds in symmetrical positions and the other presenting small displacements. A soft tissue phantom and TLD dosimeters were used. Then a qualitative study of isodose curves of the configurations was performed using radiochromic film, Gafchromic model. This method was used to complement the study of the crystals. The seed's dosimetric parameters obtained in this work showed excellent agreement with the TG-43 consensual values, thus validating the methodology used in this work. The results obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters have shown that there is a significant difference in dose distribution when there is a change in the positioning of the seeds. The use of these two methods simultaneously is efficient since the crystals bring a point view and the film has a global view of the dose distribution. (author)

  18. Introduction of Seed Accumulation Index as new approach in soil seed bank classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Noraiy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the introduction of seed accumulation index as a new approach in the evaluation of soil seed bank consistency in the Populus caspica in Noor reserved forest park. Sampling were made above ground vegetation at peak vegetation cover during June 2010 by systematic- selective method. Soil samples were collected during late June, late November and early February by hammering a hollow metal frame 400 cm2 into two depths with 4 replicate in each sample plot and the species composition of seed bank was determined using seedling emergence method. Results showed that 42.2% of the plants species were classified in transient soil seed bank and only 57.8% species, which were mainly composed of early successional species, were able to produce persistent seed bank. In this case, only 3 tree species including Ficus carica, Morus alba and Alnus glutinosa were able to produce persistent soil seed bank. Chi- square goodness of fit test (χ2= 60.2 in reviewing the independence of SAI index and seed depth distribution model as the two methods of seed bank classification showed that the results of these two methods were not independent and they were applicable together with 99% probability. In this case, conformity and correlation between the two mentioned methods were assessed 85.2% based upon Kappa index and Spearman correlation coefficient. Therefore, it was concluded that seed accumulation index, which namely SAI, could be used as a new approach in soil seed bank classification of forest habitats.

  19. Supermassive Seeds for Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jarrett L; Li, Hui; Holz, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z > 7 allow to constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. The combination of the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from recent cosmological simulations, the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and the large radiative efficiencies of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift, all suggest that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as > 10^5 solar masses. This is consistent with the prediction of the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation, in which a supermassive primordial star forms in a region of the universe with a high molecule-dissociating background radiation field, and collapses directly into a 10^4 --10^6 solar mass seed BH. This also corroborates the results of recent cosmological simulations which suggest that these massive BHs wer...

  20. Dynamic Proteomic Insights of Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Galland; Romain Huguet; Erwann Arc; Gwendal Cueff; Dominique Job; Lo(i)c Rajjou

    2012-01-01

    Proteome analysis,which involves the identification and characterization of expressed proteins,is a powerful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins.Furthermore,by providing a systematic and without any a priori mean for large-scale identification of cellular proteins,proteomics is expected to accelerate discoveries in complex processes such as plant development.Our research activity is mainly focused on the "Functional proteomics" approach in the field of seed biology.We are developing a proteome analysis of the model plant,Arabidopsis thaliana,in order to investigate seed development,dormancy,germination and longevity and identify related changes in the seed proteome.Combined approaches associating classical 2D gel-based proteome and dynamic radiolabeled proteome disclosed data regarding protein turnover and protein stability (http://www.seed-proteome.com).The selective translation of mRNAs emerges as an important mechanism regulating molecular functions involved in the control of seed germination.

  1. Protein fingerprint diversification of rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Zheng, Qi; Guan, Shuanghong

    To study protein fingerprint diversification of rice seeds induced by space environment we selected three series mutants induced in Chinese recoverable satellite in 1996 for 15 days including 1 Series 971 971ck the control sample in ground 971-5 and 971-4 samples after space derivation 2 Series 972 972ck the control sample in ground 972-4 and 972-1 samples after space derivation 3 Series 974 974ck the control sample in ground 974-5 and 974-8 samples after space derivation The proteins were extracted and separated to 4 groups Albumin Globulin Prolamine and Glutelin from the seeds of ground control group and inducted by space environment group Using RPLC method Reference peak was selected in every group and its relative retention time was 1 000 The relative retention time of other peaks was the ratio Calculate the contents due to the peak areas and draw a conclusion that some contents of protein were changed in the seeds of the mutant varieties There are character peaks among different varieties as the fingerprint Comparative analysis the fingerprint of Albumin Globulin and Prolamine can find the different in varieties identify The protein express abundance and easy be detected in the seeds So using RPLC method the Protein Fingerprint can identify breed handily and steadily Keywords rice seeds Space environment Protein Fingerprint

  2. Influence of He-Ne laser irradiation of soybean seeds on seed mycoflora, growth, nodulation, and resistance to Fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser irradiation of soybean seeds for 3 min caused a clear reduction in the number of seed-borne fungi which became more pronounced as the irradiation time was extended. Pretreatment of the seeds with methylene blue, methyl red and carmine enhanced the effect of laser. Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria tenuissima, Cercospora kikuchii and Colletotrichum truncatum were completely eliminated when the seeds were pretreated with a dye and irradiated for 10 min. Seed germination was stimulated on exposure of the seed to 1-min irradiation. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid content of developed plants differed, depending on the irradiation dose and dye treatment of the seeds. The number and dry mass of nodules were mostly greater (as compared to the corresponding control), when the seeds irradiated for 1 or 3 min were pretreated with methyl red, chlorophenol red, crystal violet and methylene blue. Irradiation of pre-sowing seeds greatly protected soybean stands against F. solani

  3. Viability Prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. Seeds Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Nikneshan, Pejman; Shrestha, Santosh;

    2015-01-01

    the seeds. Mean intensity for each single seed was extracted from the images, and a significant difference between the three colour classes was observed, with the best separation in the near-infrared wavelengths. A specified feature (RegionMSI mean) based on normalized canonical discriminant analysis, were......-germinated seeds. This validation of the model resulted in 96% correct classification of the seeds. The results illustrate how multispectral imaging technology can be employed for prediction of viable castor seeds, based on seed coat colour....

  4. Investigation on carob seed germination under controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    GÜBBÜK, Hamide; GÜNEŞ, Esma; Dilek GÜVEN; Nafiye ADAK

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments on seed germination of wild carob seeds were investigated under two different conditions (germination cabinet and greenhouse). Twenty two pre-treatments were applied to the seeds. Pre-treated and control seeds were placed under dark conditions at 25°C. All treated seeds were germinated at 27°C temperature in the germination cabinet and greenhouse conditions. Seed germination rate was determined according to the pre-treatments for both conditio...

  5. Genotype variation of perennial ryegrass grown for seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Simon; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    There is a large source of untapped variation within perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) populations that may increase seed yields. Understanding this variation starts with the development of potentials seed yield and how the length of this period may change with cultivar. Utilising 53 UPOV...... for the range of cultivars modelled. We show that in later secondary inducing cultivars, there is a reduced period for the development of seed yield potential. The results have wider implications for seed production management systems, with research trials needing to comprehend if the varying inputs...... alter the development of seed yield potential, or the utilisation of seed yield potentials....

  6. Is a Loose-Seed Nomogram Still Valid for Prostate Brachytherapy in a Stranded-Seed Era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To characterize the amount of activity required to treat the prostate with stranded 125I radioactive seeds and compare our stranded data with the amount of activity recommended when individual seeds are implanted using a Mick applicator. Methods and Materials: Data from two groups of patients at University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center who were treated with prostate brachytherapy as monotherapy were analyzed. The first group included 100 patients implanted with individual seeds in 2000 and 2001. The second group comprised 81 patients for whom stranded seeds were implanted in 2006 and 2007. Seeds in both groups were 125I seeds with an air kerma strength of 0.497 U per seed (0.391 mCi per seed). The prescribed dose to planning target volume was 145 Gy. Results: The total implanted activity and the number of seeds used were significantly lower in the second group (p 3 prostate and approximately 15% for a 60-cm3 prostate. With equivalent activity between the two groups, the stranded-seed treatment covered a larger treatment volume with the prescribed dose. Conclusions: The amount of activity required to effectively treat a prostate of a given volume was lower with stranded seeds than with loose seeds. Our experience suggests that prostate brachytherapy that uses stranded seeds leads to a more efficient implant with fewer seeds and lower overall activity, resulting in improved homogeneity

  7. Scatter hoarding of seeds confers survival advantages and disadvantages to large-seeded tropical plants at different life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Kuprewicz

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although

  8. Scatter hoarding of seeds confers survival advantages and disadvantages to large-seeded tropical plants at different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprewicz, Erin K

    2015-01-01

    Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate) enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis) and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although tradeoffs in seed

  9. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  10. Mycoflora of commercial maize seed in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić-Pap Slađana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear and kernel rots can reduce yield, quality and feed value of grain. Toxins produced by the fungi in corn can also have serious implications on the end use of the grain. Various fungi cause ear and kernel rots. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium are the most significant fungi which can cause corn ear and kernel rots. The aim of this paper is to test health of mercantile maize seed belonging to different hybrids. Seed health testing was done using filter paper and nutritive media (PDA method. Fungi from genera Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria were isolated from tested corn seed by both methods. Two species from the genus Fusarium were found in the tested corn samples F. graminearum and F. monilirome. Tested hybrids that belonged to different FAO maturity groups showed differences in susceptibility to ear and kernel rot.

  11. Multi-Seed Key Distribution Scheme Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yumin; SHI Feng; MING Yang; Muhammad Kamran; YANG Xiaoxu

    2006-01-01

    The key problem of securing multicast is to generate, distribute and update Session Encryption Key(SEK). Polynomial expansion with multi-seed(MPE) scheme is an approach which is based on Polynomial expansion(PE) scheme and overcomes PE's shortage. Its operation is demonstrated by using multi-seed, the group member is partitioned to many subgroups. While updating the SEK, computation is needed only in one of subgroups, the other of them will use the computation history to update their SEK. The key problems to design a MPE scheme application includes to find a feasible one way function as well as to generate a Strict Prime Number(SPN). Those technologies with multi-seed and computation history concepts make MPE as a good choice in practical applications. A prototype test system is designed and solutions of all above mentioned problems are included in this proposed paper.

  12. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  13. Preformed Seeds Modulate Native Insulin Aggregation Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Colina; Yang, Mu; Long, Fei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-12-10

    Insulin aggregates under storage conditions via disulfide interchange reaction. It is also known to form aggregates at the site of repeated injections in diabetes patients, leading to injection amyloidosis. This has fueled research in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry as well as in academia to understand factors that modulate insulin stability and aggregation. The main aim of this study is to understand the factors that modulate aggregation propensity of insulin under conditions close to physiological and measure effect of "seeds" on aggregation kinetics. We explored the aggregation kinetics of insulin at pH 7.2 and 37 °C in the presence of disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT), using spectroscopy (UV-visible, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy) techniques. We prepared insulin "seeds" by incubating disulfide-reduced insulin at pH 7.2 and 37 °C for varying lengths of time (10 min to 12 h). These seeds were added to the native protein and nucleation-dependent aggregation kinetics was measured. Aggregation kinetics was fastest in the presence of 10 min seeds suggesting they were nascent. Interestingly, intermediate seeds (30 min to 4 h incubation) resulted in formation of transient fibrils in 4 h that converted to amorphous aggregates upon longer incubation of 24 h. Overall, the results show that insulin under disulfide reducing conditions at pH and temperature close to physiological favors amorphous aggregate formation and seed "maturity" plays an important role in nucleation dependent aggregation kinetics.

  14. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Macey A. Mahawan; Ma. Francia N. Tenorio; Jaycel A. Gomez; Rosenda A. Bronce

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was m...

  15. Pathogenic seed-borne fungi of triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pathogenic fungi on 86 triticale seed samples was studied during the years 1992-1994. From each samples 400 seeds were tested using the blotter method with prefreezing and keeping under lights. In the greenhouse experiment pathogenicity of isolated fungi was evaluated. It was found that 20% of tested kernels were transmitting pathogenic fungi. Species of the genus Fusarium (including Microdochium nivale were isolated from 9,7 % of tested kernels, Drechslera tritici-repentis from 4,6 %, Stagonospora nodorum from 4,2 %, Bipolaris sorokiniana from 1,2%, Botryris cinerea from 0,9% and Drechslera dematioidea was noted sporadically.

  16. Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J; Naikwadi, Nikhil N; Variya, Bhavesh C

    2013-09-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans.

  17. Effects of uniconazole waterless-dressing seed on DNA synthesis in seed germination of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of uniconazole waterless-dressing seed on the synthesis of DNA in seed germination of wheat, c.v. Mianyang 26, were studied with the method of 3H-TdR. The results showed that uniconazole treatments could promote DNA synthesis, when the concentration of uniconazole was 20 mg/kg, the speed of DNA synthesis was the quickest. At the same time, the incorporating 3H-TdR indicated that uniconazole treatment were beneficial to the DNA repairing in the early period of wheat seed germination. (authors)

  18. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded

  19. Impact of Seed Size and of Ultrasounds on Seed Germination in Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Toth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors point out the impact of ultrasounds on seed germination in bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. The bird’s-foot trefoil seeds, grouped into 4 size groups, were exposed to ultrasounds with variable intensities and exposure times ranging between 0.11 and 2.72 W/cm2 and between 10 and 160 seconds. Research shows that both germinating energy and germinating ability measured at 10 and 21 days, respectively, were positively impacted by ultrasounds. The highest values were when we treated with ultrasounds medium- and largesize bird’s-foot trefoil seeds.

  20. IMPACT OF BIOFERTILIZER SEED TREATMENT ON SEED AND SEEDLING PARAMETERS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    ANIMESH PATHAK; S. K. CHAKRABORTI

    2014-01-01

    To study influence of inorganic nitrogen and seed treatment with Azospirillum on different seed quality parameters, four local cultivars of maize seed were treated with full inorganic nitrogen (T1), half inorganic nitrogen with Azospirillum (T2) and Azospirillum (T3). Germination percentage for T2 exhibited significant increase than T1 and T3. The fresh and dry weight of root and shoot was significantly high for T2 followed by T1 and than T3. The vigour index was also found to...

  1. Sequential Seeding in Complex Networks: Trading Speed for Coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Jankowski, Jarosław; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Bródka, Piotr; Michalski, Radosław; Kajdanowicz, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion in complex networks studied in the paper is a process of spreading information, ideas or substances with replication between nodes through edges from the regions of high to low concentration. Diffusion cascades are triggered by the activation of a small set of initial nodes - seeds - and later supported by the natural process. In this work, several novel approaches related to extension of the commonly used seeding strategies into a sequence of stages are proposed. Sequential seeding method is compared with a single stage approach using both real and artificial complex networks and applying various dynamic node ranking methods and diffusion parameters. The experimental results show that sequential seeding strategies deliver better results than single stage seeding in most cases. These strategies avoid seeding nodes that are activated through the natural diffusion process at the preceding stages of sequential seeding. The gain arises when a saved seed is allocated to a node difficult to reach via diff...

  2. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402, Shanyou10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and IIyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  3. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402,Shanyou 10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and Ilyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  4. 7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... separation of the kind, variety, or type considered pure seed and shall be counted without discrimination as to size or appearance. (b) When only a germination test is required and the pure seed is estimated...

  5. Book Review on the Illustrated Seeds of Chinese Medicinal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo QS; Wang QY; Liu L; HE Shan-an

    2010-01-01

    @@ Medicinal plants are important source for Oriental and Western medicines. There are more than 500 herbs commonly used today in China, in which near 30% of them are seed medicines and over 65% are propagated from seed.

  6. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  7. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiai Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid search algorithm, the classification results of watermelon seeds exterior quality achieved by genetic algorithm were analyzed in detail. Meanwhile machine vision grid laser was applied to detect the surface irregularities defects of watermelon seeds. This study demonstrated the feasible of detecting the watermelon seeds exterior quality by machine vision.

  8. Seed Dormancy, Seedling Establishment and Dynamics of the Soil Seed Bank of Stipa bungeana (Poaceae) on the Loess Plateau of Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiao Wen; Wu, Yan Pei; Ding, Xing Yu; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan Rong; Baskin, Jerry M.; Carol C. Baskin

    2014-01-01

    Studying seed dormancy and its consequent effect can provide important information for vegetation restoration and management. The present study investigated seed dormancy, seedling emergence and seed survival in the soil seed bank of Stipa bungeana, a grass species used in restoration of degraded land on the Loess Plateau in northwest China. Dormancy of fresh seeds was determined by incubation of seeds over a range of temperatures in both light and dark. Seed germination was evaluated after m...

  9. Seed dispersal limitations shift over time in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J Leighton; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A

    2015-06-01

    Past studies have shown that tropical forest regeneration on degraded farmlands is initially limited by lack of seed dispersal, but few studies have tracked changes in abundance and composition of seed rain past the first few years after land abandonment. We measured seed rain for 12 months in 10 6-9-year-old restoration sites and five mature, reference forests in southern Costa Rica in order to learn (1) if seed rain limitation persists past the first few years of regeneration; (2) how restoration treatments influence seed community structure and composition; and (3) whether seed rain limitation is contingent on landscape context. Each restoration site contained three 0.25-ha treatment plots: (1) a naturally regenerating control, (2) tree islands, and (3) a mixed-species tree plantation. Sites spanned a deforestation gradient with 9-89% forest area within 500 m around the treatment plots. Contrary to previous studies, we found that tree seeds were abundant and ubiquitous across all treatment plots (585.1 ± 142.0 seeds · m(-2) · yr(-1) [mean ± SE]), indicating that lack of seed rain ceased to limit forest regeneration within the first decade of recovery. Pioneer trees and shrubs comprised the vast majority of seeds, but compositional differences between restoration sites and reference forests were driven by rarer, large-seeded species. Large, animal-dispersed tree seeds were more abundant in tree islands (4.6 ± 2.9 seeds · m(-2) · yr(-1)) and plantations (5.8 ± 3.0 seeds · m(-2) · yr(-1)) than control plots (0.2 ± 0.1 seeds · m(-2) · yr(-1)), contributing to greater tree species richness in actively restored plots. Planted tree species accounted for forest cover effects on seed rain, consistent with previous studies. We conclude that seed rain limitation shifted from an initial, complete lack of tree seeds to a specific limitation on large-seeded, mature forest species over the first decade. Although total seed abundance was equal among restoration

  10. Biochemical composition of the horse chestnut seed (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Čukanović Jelena; Ninić-Todorović Jelena; Ognjanov V.; Mladenović Emina; Ljubojević Mirjana; Kurjakov A.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents research on the chemical composition of 15 horse chestnut seed genotypes (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) conducted on three different sites. The seeds were picked from selected trees in Bačka Palanka, Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci at the end of September 2010. The statistical parameters point out the variables of the examined features of the seed. On the basis of the moisture, starch, fat and protein contents in the horse chestnut seeds, the genotypes, the reproductive m...

  11. Seed and germination characteristics of wild Onobrychis taxa in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman AVCI; Kaya, Mehmet Demir

    2013-01-01

    Turkey is of great importance for the biodiversity of genus Onobrychis Adans. and hosts 55 species that are adapted to dry and poor environments. This study was conducted to evaluate 35 Onobrychis taxa in terms of 1000-seed weight, germination percentage, mean germination time, and hard and swollen seeds and to determine the suitability of mechanical scarification for dormancy breaking in species with hard or impermeable seed coats. Seed dormancy was detected in 19 of the investigated species...

  12. RATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS POST-HARVEST PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priporov I. E.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is the determination of rational technology of post-harvest treatment of seeds of sunflower. Existing technologies that are implemented in grain cleaning units and complexes for the preparation of seed material type GCM (Voronezhselmash, "Polyma" (Belarus and others perform seed treatment by sequential processing on all cleaning machines. Return at any point not provided, it is necessary to conduct repeated handling throughout the chain of cars that leads to the reduction of seed yield, decreased performance and increased injury to seed. Research Institute of oil crops designed container technology in universal seed cleaning complex, eliminates these disadvantages and allows finishing the processing of seed material at the time of matching seeds with the requirements of GOST at any stage. In seed output pneumatic sorting machines MOS-9N, which is seed cleaning complex that contained diseased seeds that differ from healthy seeds by color and lowered their quality. To improve the quality of seed material was applied photoelectron separator F 5.1, followed by separation of sunflower seeds on the dimension fraction (Ø7-Ø8 mm, Ø8-Ø9мм. In the result of the research container technology with subsequent fractionation of sunflower seeds on the separator at the final stage of their processing improves the yield of highly certified seeds from 92.90 to 93.20 % compared 91,20 % (without fractionation and reduce the content of their departure from 68,83 to 65,60 % compared 85,52 % (without fractionation depending on size fraction

  13. A Crunching Colon: Rectal Bezoar Caused by Pumpkin Seed Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Janaki R.; Rangu, Venu M.; Motapothula, Uma Maheswara R.; Hall, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Rectal seed bezoars are an uncommon cause of fecal impaction, particularly in the United States. Although the literature has reported several cases of phytobezoars composed of various types of seeds, bezoars formed of pumpkin seeds have rarely been reported. We report a case of a man, aged 62 years, with a rectal bezoar composed of pumpkin seeds with complications necessitating extensive treatment, including manual disimpaction and colonoscopy. PMID:22031478

  14. Innovations in precision seed drilling technology: successes or failures?

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Benninger

    2016-01-01

    In view of the development of various technological alternatives in precision seed drilling, it has become a matter of research whether there are clear criteria for the success or failure of technological innovations. Around the turn to the 20th century, two very different precision seed drill methods were developed almost at the same time. Band seeding made it possible to achieve nearly perfect single grain sowing. For this purpose, individual, equally spaced seeds were embedded into bands o...

  15. Polymer coating, germination and vigor of broccoli seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Celina de; Rocha Sandra Cristina dos Santos; Razera Luiz Fernandes

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea var italica occupies a special place in the internal and external market of vegetables seeds. Vegetables producers demand seeds with high degree of purity, germination and vigor, since seeds' quality is the basis for the success of the production. In this work, broccoli seeds were coated in a spouted bed, by an aqueous suspension of hidroxy-ethyl-cellulose. Effects of the operating variables: spouting air temperature, atomizing air pressure and coating suspension flow rate o...

  16. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    OpenAIRE

    Neya, O.

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying and subsequent dry storage. Seeds col...

  17. Choosing the best heuristic for seeded alignment of DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhler Jeremy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeded alignment is an important component of algorithms for fast, large-scale DNA similarity search. A good seed matching heuristic can reduce the execution time of genomic-scale sequence comparison without degrading sensitivity. Recently, many types of seed have been proposed to improve on the performance of traditional contiguous seeds as used in, e.g., NCBI BLASTN. Choosing among these seed types, particularly those that use information besides the presence or absence of matching residue pairs, requires practical guidance based on a rigorous comparison, including assessment of sensitivity, specificity, and computational efficiency. This work performs such a comparison, focusing on alignments in DNA outside widely studied coding regions. Results We compare seeds of several types, including those allowing transition mutations rather than matches at fixed positions, those allowing transitions at arbitrary positions ("BLASTZ" seeds, and those using a more general scoring matrix. For each seed type, we use an extended version of our Mandala seed design software to choose seeds with optimized sensitivity for various levels of specificity. Our results show that, on a test set biased toward alignments of noncoding DNA, transition information significantly improves seed performance, while finer distinctions between different types of mismatches do not. BLASTZ seeds perform especially well. These results depend on properties of our test set that are not shared by EST-based test sets with a strong bias toward coding DNA. Conclusion Practical seed design requires careful attention to the properties of the alignments being sought. For noncoding DNA sequences, seeds that use transition information, especially BLASTZ-style seeds, are particularly useful. The Mandala seed design software can be found at http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~yanni/mandala/.

  18. Genetic analysis of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    OpenAIRE

    Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with the genetic aspects of seed development in Arabidopsisthaliana. Mutants affected in several aspects of seed development and, more specifically, in seed maturation have been isolated by various selection procedures. The mutants have been analyzed genetically, physiologically, and morphologically. Some of the mutants are impaired in the biosynthesis or sensitivity to the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA). All ABA-related mutants show reduced seed dormancy, indicating the...

  19. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  20. Allelopathy, seed germination, weed control and bioassay methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L.S.; Pereira, I.P.; A. S. Dias

    2016-01-01

    Even before its formal establishment as a scientific discipline, allelopathy has been intertwined with agriculture and the potential of allelopathy for weed control has been a permanent matter of interest. Therefore we investigate the importance of seeds and of permanent soil seed banks as a means for propagation of weed species as well as strategies for long-term weed control. Depleting seed banks is critical and encouraging weed seed germination prior to sowing crops is one of the most prom...