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Sample records for oil tank washing

  1. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b...

  2. Wash-oil problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlosta, J

    1941-01-01

    Meier-Grolman and others have deduced from experimental studies of the vapor pressure of solutions of benzene in paraffin oil and Solway oil-paraffin oil mixtures that the higher the proportion of aliphatic compounds in a wash oil, the less suitable it is for benzene scrubbing. This generalization is not supported. Paraffin oils from brown-coal tar and low viscous oils from the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis process are both being successfully used for benzene scrubbing.

  3. Tank 4 Characterization, Settling, And Washing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na 2 SO 4 · Na 2 CO 3 ). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an insoluble or undissolved form

  4. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...-base ink where the tank washing system uses solvents. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations...

  5. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash... production of oil-base paint where the tank cleaning is performed using solvents. When a plant is subject to...

  6. Laboratory testing in-tank sludge washing, summary letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.V.; Torres-Ayala, F.

    1994-09-01

    In-tank washing is being considered as a means of pretreating high-level radioactive waste sludges, such as neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) sludge. For this process, the contents of the tank will be allowed to settle, and the supernatant solution will be decanted and removed. A dilute sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrite wash solution will be added to the settled sludge and the tank contents will be mixed with a mixer pump system to facilitate washing of the sludge. After thorough mixing, the mixer pumps will be shut off and the solids will be allowed to re-settle. After settling, the supernatant solution will be withdrawn from the tank, and the wash cycle will be repeated several times with fresh wash solution. Core sample data of double shell tank 241-AZ-101 indicate that settling of NCAW solids may be very slow. A complicating factor is that strong thermal currents are expected to be generated from heat produced by radionuclides in the sludge layer at the bottom of the tank. Additionally, there are concerns that during the settling period (i.e., while mixing pumps and air-lift re-circulators are shut off), the radionuclides may heat the residual interstitial water in the sludge to the extent that violent steam discharges (steam bumping) could occur. Finally, there are concerns that during the washing steps sludge settling may be hindered as a result of the reduced ionic strength of the wash solution. To overcome the postulated reduced settling rates during the second and third washing steps, the use of flocculants is being considered. To address the above concerns and uncertainties associated with in-tank washing, PNL has conducted laboratory testing with simulant tank waste to investigate settling rates, steam bump potential, and the need for and use of flocculating agents

  7. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Colton, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    Methods are being developed to treat and dispose of large volumes of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The wastes will be partitioned into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. The HLW will be vitrified into borosilicate glass and disposed of in a geologic repository, while the LLW will be immobilized in a glass matrix and will likely be disposed of by shallow burial at the Hanford Site. The wastes must be pretreated to reduce the volume of the HLW fraction, so that vitrification and disposal costs can be minimized. The current baseline process for pretreating Hanford tank sludges is to leach the sludge under caustic conditions, then remove the solubilized components of the sludge by water washing. Tests of this method have been performed with samples taken from several different tanks at Hanford. The results of these tests are presented in terms of the composition of the sludge before and after leaching. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron dispersive x-ray techniques have been used to identify the phases in the untreated and treated sludges

  8. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Heintzelman, J.; Squires, L.; Meservey, R.

    2009-01-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in about 100,000 gallons of wash water. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to evaluate alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The workshop was conducted by a trained facilitator using Value Engineering techniques to elicit the most technically sound solutions from the workshop participants. A brainstorming session was held to identify possible alternative treatment methods that would meet the primary functions and criteria of neutralizing the hazards, maximizing byproduct removal and minimizing waste generation. An initial list of some 20 probable alternatives was evaluated and refined down

  9. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  10. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both 137 Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report

  11. 78 FR 63235 - Tank Vessel Oil Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2013-0522] Tank Vessel Oil Transfers... that it is considering new measures to reduce the risks of oil spills in oil transfer operations from...), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  12. Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; BM Rapko; J Liu; DJ Temer; RD Hunt

    1998-12-11

    Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.

  13. Status report: Pretreatment chemistry evaluation FY1997 -- Wash and leach factors for the single-shell tank waste inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, N.G.

    1997-08-01

    The wash factors will be used to partition the single-shell tank (SST) inventory into soluble and insoluble portions. The leach factors will be used to estimate the further removal of bulk analytes, such as chromium, aluminum, and phosphate, as well as minor components. Wash and leach factors are given here for 18 analytes, elements expected to drive the volume of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW). These factors are determined by a weighting methodology developed earlier by this task. Tank-specific analyte inventory values depicted in Tank Waste Data Summary Worksheets, are calculated from concentrations obtained from characterization reports; the waste density; and the tank waste volume. The experimentally determined percentage of analytes removed by washing and leaching in a particular tank waste are translated into a mass (metric tons) in Experimental Washing and Leaching Data Summary Worksheets.

  14. Status report: Pretreatment chemistry evaluation FY1997 - Wash and leach factors for the single-shell tank waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1997-08-01

    The wash factors will be used to partition the single-shell tank (SST) inventory into soluble and insoluble portions. The leach factors will be used to estimate the further removal of bulk analytes, such as chromium, aluminum, and phosphate, as well as minor components. Wash and leach factors are given here for 18 analytes, elements expected to drive the volume of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW). These factors are determined by a weighting methodology developed earlier by this task. Tank-specific analyte inventory values depicted in Tank Waste Data Summary Worksheets, are calculated from concentrations obtained from characterization reports; the waste density; and the tank waste volume. The experimentally determined percentage of analytes removed by washing and leaching in a particular tank waste are translated into a mass (metric tons) in Experimental Washing and Leaching Data Summary Worksheets

  15. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

    1997-08-01

    The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na 3 PO 4 . Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111

  16. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Myers, R.L.; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of 137 Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including 90 Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na 2 O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in 90 Sr

  17. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-01-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author's previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B ± $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author's engineering judgment

  18. Computer simulation of laboratory leaching and washing of tank waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.D.; MacLean, G.T.; Landeene, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The process simulator ESP (Environmental Simulation Program) was used to simulate laboratory caustic leaching and washing of core samples from Tanks B-110, C-109, and C-112. The results of the laboratory tests and the computer simulations are compared. The results from both, agreed reasonably well for elements contained in solid phases included in the ESP Public data bank. The use of the GEOCHEM data bank and/or a custom Hanford Data bank should improve the agreement, making ESP a useful process simulator for aqueous based processing

  19. Acoustic Profiling of Bottom Sediments in Large Oil Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svet, V. D.; Tsysar', S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Characteristic features of acoustic profiling of bottom sediments in large oil storage tanks are considered. Basic acoustic parameters of crude oil and bottom sediments are presented. It is shown that, because of the presence of both transition layers in crude oil and strong reverberation effects in oil tanks, the volume of bottom sediments that is calculated from an acoustic surface image is generally overestimated. To reduce the error, additional post-processing of acoustic profilometry data is proposed in combination with additional measurements of viscosity and tank density distributions in vertical at several points of the tank.

  20. Electrochemical probing of high-level radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Processes for the preparation of waste for final disposal will result in waste with low corrosion inhibitor concentrations and, in some cases, high aromatic organic concentrations, neither of which are characteristic of previous operations. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations have been conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. Probes included pH, Eh (potential relative to a standard hydrogen electrode), tank potential, and alloy coupons. In situ results are compared to those of the laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition. Transition metal hydroxide sludge contains strong passivating species for carbon steel. Washed precipitate contains organic species that lower solution pH and tend to reduce passivating films, requiring higher inhibitor concentrations than the 0.01 molar nitrite required for reactor fuel reprocessing wastes. Periodic agitation, to keep the organic phase suspended, or cathodic protection are possible alternatives to higher nitrite inhibitor concentrations

  1. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes during dump tank washing and hydrocooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Wooten, Anna; De Jesus, Antonio; Hur, Minji; Bae, Seonjae; Patel, Jitendra; Evans, Peter; Brown, Eric; Hammack, Thomas; Chen, Yi

    2017-09-18

    Recent listeriosis outbreaks and recalls associated with cantaloupes urge for studies to understand the mechanisms of cantaloupe contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. Postharvest practices such as washing and hydrocooling were suggested to facilitate the contamination of fresh fruits by human pathogens. This study assessed the potential of L. monocytogenes internalization into cantaloupes during dump tank washing and immersion-type hydrocooling in water contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The effect of cantaloupe cultivar, water temperature, and harvesting technique on L. monocytogenes internalization was also evaluated. Full slip (cantaloupe without any residual stem) Western and Eastern cultivar cantaloupes were pre-warmed to 42°C (to imitate peak-high field temperatures of freshly harvested cantaloupes) and then immersed in water at 6°C and 18°C containing 4 and 6logCFU/ml of L. monocytogenes. Clipped (cantaloupe with short stem residues obtained by clipping the stem at harvest) Western and Eastern cantaloupes were pre-warmed to 42°C and then immersed in water at 6°C containing 6logCFU/ml of L. monocytogenes. Additionally, full slip and clipped Western cantaloupes were equilibrated to 18°C and then immersed in water at 18°C containing 6logCFU/ml of L. monocytogenes (isothermal immersion without temperature differential). Water containing L. monocytogenes infiltrated both full slip and clipped cantaloupes through the stems/stem scars and was then distributed along the vascular system in hypodermal mesocarp reaching the calyx area of the fruit. The current study demonstrated that, under experimental conditions, L. monocytogenes can internalize into cantaloupes during immersion in water contaminated by L. monocytogenes, both in the presence and absence of temperature differential, and that temperature differential moderately enhanced the internalization of L. monocytogenes. The incidence and levels of L. monocytogenes internalized in the middle

  2. Clay-oil flocculation during surf washing at the Sea Empress incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.; Lunel, T.; Bailey, N.; Lee, K.

    1997-01-01

    Results of investigations into clay-oil flocculation during surf washing of oiled cobbles at Marros Beach, as a response to oiling during the Sea Empress incident, were summarized. Stranded oil on the cobble storm beach was found to associate with fine minerals and form flocs when introduced into sea water. The emulsions persisted for about 14 days after the oiling, after which it begun to disintegrate. After 50 days the remaining emulsion was found to be unstable and penetrated the beach to depths of up to three meters. Since no evidence of biodegradation was found during this period, oil reduction was attributed to sheening, facilitated by tidal fluctuations. Surf washing operation was undertaken over a seven day period beginning 47 days after the spill. Some 8150 tonnes of oiled cobbles were moved a distance of between 12 and 18 m seaward along a length of 850 m. Analysis of samples after two days following surf washing showed that oil concentration did not exceed 22 ppm, compared to 700 ppm before relocation. The significant reduction was considered to have been the result of enhanced oil dispersion coupled with the effects of the surf washing operations. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 10 figs

  3. Closed Process of Shale Oil Recovery from Circulating Washing Water by Hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional oil recovery system in the Fushun oil shale retorting plant has a low oil recovery rate. A large quantity of fresh water is used in the system, thereby consuming a considerable amount of water and energy, as well as polluting the environment. This study aims to develop a closed process of shale oil recovery from the circulating washing water for the Fushun oil shale retorting plant. The process would increase oil yield and result in clean production. In this process, oil/water hydrocyclone groups were applied to decrease the oil content in circulating water and to simultaneously increase oil yield. The oil sludge was removed by the solid/liquid hydrocyclone groups effectively, thereby proving the smooth operation of the devices and pipes. As a result, the oil recovery rate has increased by 5.3 %, which corresponds to 230 tonnes a month.

  4. Pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Wash and leach factors for the single-shell tank waste inventory. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1996-09-01

    This report discusses a methodology developed to depict overall wash and leach factors for the Hanford single-shell tank (SST) inventory. The factors derived from this methodology, which is based on available partitioning data, are applicable to a composite SST inventory rather than only an assumed insoluble portion. The purpose of considering the entire inventory is to provide a more representative picture of the partitioning behavior of the analytes during envisioned waste retrieval and processing activities. The work described in this report was conducted by the Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The leach factors will be used to estimate the further removal of analytes, such as sodium, aluminum, phosphate, and other minor components. Wash and leach factors are given for elements expected to drive the volume of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW)

  5. Japan FRI research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Introduction of research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire at FRI, Japan is done. FRI has a long history of studying oil tank and spilled oil fires. Many large oil fire tests were done. The purpose of these studies is different with research of response of oil spill, but the accumulation of this knowledge is useful for conducting elimination of spilled oil on the sea with burning. Therefore to do collaboration with fire science research groups, such as FRI is useful for future activities for response to oil spills

  6. Washing ashore: The politics of offshore oil in northern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristin Michelle

    This dissertation examines the political ecology of Angolan oil, by exploring state and corporate political economies; historical convergences of violence and capital; and struggles over the costs and benefits of oil production from the perspective of artisanal fishing and farming communities in the extractive zones. Angola is sub-Saharan Africa's second-largest oil producer but revenues from the enclave sector in oil rarely trickle down to the impoverished populace. The Angolan government strategically invests petrodollars in patronage networks to bolster their power; and watchdog agencies claim top officials divert the balance to offshore accounts. While the enclaved nature of production facilitates the restricted distribution of oil monies by concentrating services and revenue streams, the distortions and externalities that bleed out from these enclaves increase the misery of Angolans---especially those living in the extractive zones. By focusing on the lived experience of extraction, I explore the politics of oil through the forms of violence and degradation threatening the lives and livelihoods of local people. Most of Angola's oil is produced from offshore fields, so oil spills present a considerable risk to the health of local communities and ecosystems. The fishers and fish traders suffering from oil spills demand compensation from the liable oil corporations, yet the skewed system of disbursements only reaches the most powerful claimants. Moreover, faced with a repressive and unresponsive government, communities in extractive zones have come to rely on the same corporations for schools and health posts in a system I refer to as oil-backed development. I demonstrate that local histories of violence, national political exigencies, and transnational corporate interests govern the distribution of oil-backed development projects. Furthermore, I argue that the Angolan government leverages corporate donations for development to suit its own exclusionary interests

  7. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  8. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections. 157.150 Section 157.150 Navigation and Navigable... Vessels Inspections § 157.150 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information... machines. (2) Revolutions, number of cycles, and length of cycles of each COW machine. (3) Pressure and...

  9. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes during dump tank washing and hydrocooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent listeriosis outbreaks and recalls associated with cantaloupes urge for studies to understand the mechanisms of cantaloupe contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. Postharvest practices such as washing and hydrocooling were suggested to facilitate the contamination of fresh fruits by human pat...

  10. Exploratory tests of washing radioactive sludge samples from the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Keller, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Exploratory tests were initiated to wash radioactive sludge samples from the waste storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose was to provide preliminary information about (1) the anions in the sludge phase that are soluble in water or dilute acid (e.g., the anions in the interstitial liquid) and (2) the solubilities of sludge constituents in water under process conditions. The experiments were terminated before completion due to changing priorities by the Department of Energy (DOE). This memorandum was prepared primarily for documentation purposes and presents the incomplete data. 3 refs., 13 tabs

  11. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  12. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Masrul Nizam Salleh; Abd Razak Hamzah; Norasiah Abd Kasim

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  13. Soils washing for removal of heavy oil: Naval Air Engineering Center, Lakehurst, NJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.H.; Traver, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    With the recognition that large tracts of land are currently unusable as a result of either accidental spills or past industrial practices (such as oil field development), the USEPA Office of Research and Development evaluated soil washing as an alternative remedial technology for heavy oil contaminated soil at a site located on the Naval Air Engineering Center (NAEC), Lakehurst, New Jersey. The researchers used a self-contained, 100-pound-per-hour soil washer. Electrical, pneumatic, and fluid-pumping capabilities were provided by the trailer-mounted system at a remote No. 6 type oil spill site at the Navy base. Chloroform extracts of the contaminated sandy soil recovered a 0.91 gram/milliliter, 950 centistoke viscosity, dark brown, non-PCB oil. By using a surfactant/solvent solution at ambient temperatures, contaminant levels on the soil were reduced from 3.8% (38,000 milligram/kilogram-RCRA hazardous waste designation) to as low as 0.035% (350 milligram/kilogram) oil concentration. Supplemental laboratory evaluations extending the pilot field evaluations showed at elevated temperatures (120F) that residual oil contamination was less than 0.01% (100 milligram/kilogram). This final oil concentration in the treated soil would be defined as clean under the New Jersey Environmental Cleanup and Responsibilities Act (ECRA). A continuous belt press filter was used to recover the oil in a 47% solids cake that could be used as a secondary fuel feed to a waste boiler. The wash water solution was treated and recycled permitting economical operations

  14. Safety techniques of lightning rod and static electricity in oil tanks and oil trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilievska, Tatjana

    1999-01-01

    In this article the ways and examples of lightning rod installation of small tanks for storage of both oil and oil derivates used by petrol stations are presented (an example of some petrol stations in the wider region in Bitola is given ). Also, a lightning rod protection of big tanks and terminals as well as protection of static electricity of tank trucks during transportation of fuel is represented. Special review is given to the protection of static electricity during transforming (decanting) of the fuel. (Author)

  15. Adsorption Removal of Glycidyl Esters from Palm Oil and Oil Model Solution by Using Acid-Washed Oil Palm Wood-Based Activated Carbon: Kinetic and Mechanism Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Wang, Xuede; Han, Lipeng

    2017-11-08

    Acid-washed oil palm wood-based activated carbon (OPAC) has been investigated for its potential application as a promising adsorbent in the removal of glycidyl esters (GEs) from both palm oil and oil model (hexadecane) solution. It was observed that the removal rate of GEs in palm oil was up to >95%, which was significantly higher than other adsorbents used in this study. In batch adsorption system, the adsorption efficiency and performance of acid-washed OPAC were evaluated as a function of several experimental parameters such as contact time, initial glycidyl palmitate (PGE) concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium isotherm, and the equilibrium data were fitted best by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of acid-washed OPAC was found to be 36.23 mg/g by using the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption of PGE on acid-washed OPAC was an endothermic and physical process in nature. The experimental data were fitted by using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that the kinetic of PGE adsorption onto acid-washed OPAC followed well the pseudo-second-order model for various initial PGE concentrations and the adsorption process was controlled by both film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion. The desorption test indicated the removal of GEs from palm oil was attributed to not only the adsorption of GEs on acid-washed OPAC, but also the degradation of GEs adsorbed at activated sites with acidic character. Furthermore, no significant difference between before and after PGE adsorption in oil quality was observed.

  16. Electrochemical probing of high-level radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Processes for the preparation of waste for final disposal will result in waste with low corrosion inhibitor concentrations and, in some cases, high aromatic organic concentrations, neither of which are characteristic of previous operations. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations have been conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. Probes included pH, Eh (potential relative to a standard hydrogen electrode), tank potential, and alloy coupons. In situ results are compared to those of the laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition

  17. Protective activity of geranium oil and its component, geraniol, in combination with vaginal washing against vaginal candidiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Inouye, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2008-08-01

    In order to evaluate an effective administration method of essential oils for vaginal candidiasis, efficacy of vaginal application of essential oils against murine experimental candidiasis was investigated. The effect on vaginal inflammation and Candida growth form was also studied. Vaginal candidiasis was established by intravaginal infection of C. albicans to estradiol-treated mice. These mice intravaginally received essential oils such as geranium and tea tree singly or in combination with vaginal washing. Vaginal administration of clotrimazole significantly decreased the number of viable C. albicans cells in the vaginal cavity by itself. In contrast, these essential oils did not lower the cell number. When application of geranium oil or geraniol was combined with vaginal washing, the cell number was decreased significantly. The myeloperoxidase activity assay exhibited the possibility that essential oils worked not only to reduce the viable cell number of C. albicans, but also to improve vaginal inflammation. The smear of vaginal washing suspension suggested that more yeast-form cells appeared in vaginal smears of these oil-treated mice than in control mice. In vitro study showed that a very low concentration (25 microg/ml) of geranium oil and geraniol inhibited mycelial growth, but not yeast growth. Based on these findings, it is estimated that vaginal application of geranium oil or its main component, geraniol, suppressed Candida cell growth in the vagina and its local inflammation when combined with vaginal washing.

  18. Modern efficient methods of steel vertical oil tanks clean-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrasov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legislative base of the Russian Federation operating in the field of operation of tanks and tank parks is considered, and consecutive stages of technological process of cleaning of vertical steel tanks from oil ground deposits are presented. In work shortcomings of existing most widespread electromechanical mixers are described when using a hydraulic method of removal and prevention of formation of ground deposits in tanks with oil and oil products. For the purpose of increase of efficiency, reliability and decrease in power consumption of washout of oil ground deposits in tanks the new design of system of funneled washout and prevention of formation of deposits is offered.

  19. Fuzzy logic controller for crude oil levels at Escravos Tank Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for crude oil flow rates and tank levels was designed for monitoring flow and tank level management at Escravos Tank Farm in Nigeria. The fuzzy control system incorporated essence of expert knowledge required to handle the tasks. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control of crude flow ...

  20. Effect of freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil on house dust mites in soft toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Fu; Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ying; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2011-09-01

    Soft toys are a major source of house dust mites (HDM) and HDM allergens, and sleeping with soft toys is a significant risk factor for HDM sensitization. We studied three techniques to eliminate HDM from soft toys, namely freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil. Thirty-six toys (12 in each treatment group) were enumerated for live HDM by the heat escape method before and after freezing overnight, hot tumble drying for 1 h and washing in 0.2% to 0.4% eucalyptus oil. Freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in significant reductions in live HDM, an average reduction of 95.1%, 89.1% and 95.1%, respectively. Additionally, washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in a significant reduction in HDM allergens as well from a geometric mean of 9.12 μg/g to 0.37 μg/g (p = 0.033). These three HDM elimination techniques give parents of infants effective and acceptable methods of limiting HDM exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Fermoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application.

  2. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Fernández-Rodríguez, M.J.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, A.; Serrano, A.; Borja, R.

    2017-01-01

    Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES) operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application. [es

  3. Study on in-service inspection methods for the above-ground oil tanks floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Xiong; Yewei Kang; Mingchun, Lin; Yi Sun [PetroChina Pipeline R and D Center, Langfang (China)

    2009-07-01

    It is very dangerous to the environment when oil tank floors get corrosion or leak during its long-time service. The traditional inspection methods need to shut down a tank and to empty it, then to clean it in order to inspect the floor. Comparing with the traditional methods, the in-service methods can inspect tank floors rapidly without removing product and opening the tank and can save many costs of tank emptying and cleaning. This paper explores three up-to date in-service inspection methods for the oil tank floors which are acoustic emission technology ultrasonic guided wave technology and mobile robot technology. The theoretic foundation and application status of each method is described. The advantage and disadvantage of each in-service detection technology is concluded. At last some proposals are made. (author)

  4. Washing method of filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  5. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Latif, N.A.; Azhar Mohd Sinin; Mohamad Daud; Abd Nasir Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  6. Secondary Containment Design for the LLNL B801 Diala Oil Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Design is to add an extension to the secondary containment of tank T1-A3 at building 801. Piping from the inner tank penetrates the secondary containment tank below the liquid level of the primary tank. To meet Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation 40 CFR 120.7 the single wall piping needs to be provided with secondary containment. Steel Tank Institute (STI) conference publication states: §112.3(d)(1)(iii) –SPCC Plan requirements- Systems shall be designed in accordance with good engineering practice, including consideration of applicable industry standards and that procedures for required inspections and testing have been established. Section 112.7(a)(2) allows for deviations from specific rule requirements, provided the Owner/operator responsible to select, document and implement alternate measure and a PE certifies the SPCC Plan in accordance with good engineering practices, including consideration of industry standards

  7. How to evaluate the necessity of applying the floating roof tank for storing crude oil and gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, E

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for calculating differential profit from using floating roof tanks rather than fixed roof tanks. The method is based on the extensive testing by the American Petroleum Institute and applied to the Yugoslavian climatic conditions. Several diagrams are reproduced which show how to compute losses due to breathing from a tank with fixed and floating roofs for oil and refined oil products. Also shown are average daily temperatures of air in the Zagreb region, Yugoslavia, a diagram for determining temperature changes in a vertical cylindrical tank, and typical changes undergone in a gasoline tank during a 24-hr cycle.

  8. The mathematical model accuracy estimation of the oil storage tank foundation soil moistening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildebrandt, M. I.; Ivanov, R. N.; Gruzin, AV; Antropova, L. B.; Kononov, S. A.

    2018-04-01

    The oil storage tanks foundations preparation technologies improvement is the relevant objective which achievement will make possible to reduce the material costs and spent time for the foundation preparing while providing the required operational reliability. The laboratory research revealed the nature of sandy soil layer watering with a given amount of water. The obtained data made possible developing the sandy soil layer moistening mathematical model. The performed estimation of the oil storage tank foundation soil moistening mathematical model accuracy showed the experimental and theoretical results acceptable convergence.

  9. Remediation and recycling of oil-contaminated soil beneath a large above-ground storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1994-01-01

    While retrofitting a large 30-year-old, above-ground petroleum storage tank, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) discovered that soil beneath the fixed-roof, single-bottom tank was contaminated with 40,000 gallons of number-sign 6 fuel oil. The steel tank was left in place during the excavation and remediation of the contaminated soil to retain the operating permit. The resulting 2,000 tons of contaminated aggregate was recycled to make asphalt concrete for paving the tank basin and the remaining 5,600 tons of oily soil was thermally treated on site for use as engineered fill at another location. This successful operation provided an economical cleanup solution for a common leakage problem of single-lined tanks and eliminated the long-term liability of Class 1 landfill disposal. As a pro-active environmental effort, this paper shares SCE's site assessment procedure, reveals the engineering method developed to stabilize the tank, discusses the soil treatment technologies used, describes the problems encountered and lessons learned during the cleanup, discloses the costs of the operation, and offers guidelines and recommendations for similar tank remediation. This paper does not describe the work or costs for removing or replacing the tank bottom

  10. Tank testing of skimmers with waxy and viscous oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    A series of tests of four offshore skimmers (Framo ACW-400, GT-185, Walosep W2, Heavy Oil Skimmer) was conducted in a 120-by-60-meter wave basin. Each skimmer was tested with each of 3 oils: a conventional crude, a waxy crude, and a bunker oil. Each test involved 4-6 h of skimming, partly conducted in waves having a period of 4 s and heights of 0.4-0.8 m. Near the end of selected tests, the additive Elastol was applied to the oil and its effect on recovery parameters evaluated. All the optimum results were obtained in calm conditions. In general, waves had no effect on the performance of the Walosep W2, had little effect on the performance of the GT-185, and greatly reduced the performance of the Framo. The experimental Heavy Oil Skimmer failed to recover oil at significant rates without addition of Elastol to the oils. The fluid recovery rate less the water entrainment rate generally declined as oil viscosity increased. For a waxy oil, recovery rates under conditions typical of the Grand Banks in summer would be 30-40% less than for a conventional crude with the Framo skimmer and about the same as the recovery rates for conventional crude with the Walosep and GT-185 skimmers. The Walosep, unlike the other skimmers, did not entrain more water when skimming waxy oil compared to conventional oil. Adding Elastol to the oils improved the corrected recovery rates of the Walosep by ca 15% and had no effect on its water entrainment rate. For the Framo, Elastol addition had no effect on the recovery rate but increased its water entrainment rate. Elastol reduced the GT-185's recovery rate by 25-35% and increased its water entrainment rate. Adding Elastol had several negative effects on subsequent downstream operations. 11 refs., 55 figs., 14 tabs

  11. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  12. Modeling validation to structural flaws in the foundations of oil tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Larissa Goncalves; Leite, Sandro Passos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of an experiment used to study the application of backscattered neutrons in the identification of structural flaws in the foundations of oil tanks. This modeling was a preliminary validation procedure of the method of calculation, performed with the radiation transport code MCNP, to study the application of backscattered neutrons as inspection tool. (author)

  13. Preliminary study of acoustic emission (ae) noise signal identification for crude oil storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Shukri Mohd

    2008-08-01

    This preliminary work was carried out to simulate the Acoustic Emission (AE) signal contributed by pitting corrosion, and noise signal from environment during crude oil storage tanks monitoring. The purpose of this study is to prove that acoustic emission (AE) could be used to detect the formation of pitting corrosion in the crude oil storage tank and differentiated it from other sources of noise signal. In this study, the pitting corrosion was simulated by inducing low voltage and low amperage current onto the crude oil storage tank material (ASTM 516 G 70). Water drop, air blow and surface rubbing were applied onto the specimen surface. To simulate the noise signal produce by rain fall, wind blow and other sources of noise during AE crude oil storage tanks monitoring. AE sensor was attached onto the other surface of specimen to acquire all of these AE signals which then has send to AE DiSP 24 data acquisition system for signal conditioning. AE win software has been used to analyse this entire signal. It is found that, simulated pitting corrosion could be detected by AE system and differentiated from other sources of noise by using amplitude analysis. From the amplitude analysis is shown that 20-30 dB is the range amplitude for the blow test, 50-60 dB for surface rubbing test and over than 60 dB for water drop test. (Author)

  14. Modeling Bottom Sediment Erosion Process by Swirling the Flow by Tangential Supply of Oil in the Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, V. O.

    2016-10-01

    The article carries out a statistical data processing of quantitative and territorial division of oil tanks operating in Tyumen region, intended for reception, storage and distribution of commercial oil through trunk pipelines. It describes the working principle of the new device of erosion and prevention of oil bottom sediment formation with tangential supply of oil pumped into reservoir. The most significant similarity criteria can be emphasized in modeling rotational flows exerting significant influence on the structure of the circulating flow of oil in tank when operation of the device described. The dependence of the distribution of the linear velocity of a point on the surface along the radius at the circular motion of the oil in the tank is characterized, and on the basis of this dependence, a formula of general kinetic energy of rotational motion of oil and asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits total volume in the oil reservoir is given.

  15. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a distilling...

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Welded Joints for Cargo Oil Tanks of Crude Oil Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-shan WEI; Yan-chang QI; Zhi-ling TIAN; Yun PENG

    2016-01-01

    E32 grade corrosion resistant steel was welded with welding wires with three different S contents.The mi-crostructure,mechanical properties,inclusions,and corrosion behavior of welded joint were investigated.The joint coupon corrosion test and potentiodynamic polarization test were carried out under the simulated corrosion environ-ment of the inner bottom plates of cargo oil tanks.The pitting initiation and propagation mechanism of the weld metal were studied by scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus.The results indicated that the microstructures of three kinds of weld metals are all composed of acicular ferrite,ferrite side-plate and proeutectoid ferrite.The micro-structure of heat-affected zone is composed predominantly of bainite.Joint welded with low S filler wire has good me-chanical properties.S can decrease free corrosion potential and increase the corrosion tendency.The pitting initiation is oxide inclusion or sulfide-oxide inclusion complex.S can induce the formation of occluded area and promote the corrosion propagation.The chemical compositions of weld metal is similar to base metal,which can limit the galvanic corrosion between weld metal and base metal,and avoid formation of corrosion step.

  17. Design of full scale debris washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Dosani, M.A.; Wentz, J.A.; Patkar, A.N.; Barkley, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1987, IT Environmental Programs Inc. (ITEP, a subsidiary of International Technology Corporation) in conjunction with EPA/RREL in Cincinnati, Ohio, have been developing and conducting bench scale and pilot scale testing of a transportable debris washing system which can be used on-site for the decontamination of debris. During the initial phase of the debris decontamination project, a series of bench scale tests were performed in the laboratory to assess the ability of the system to remove contaminants from debris and to facilitate selection of the most efficient surfactant solution. Five nonionic, non-toxic, low foaming, surfactant solution (BG-5, MC-2000, LF-330, BB-100, and L-433) were selected for an experimental evaluation to determine their capacity to solubilize and remove contaminants from the surfaces of corroded steel places. The pieces of corroded steel were coated with a heavy grease mixture prepared in the laboratory and these pieces of debris were placed in a bench scale spray tank on a metal tray and subjected in a high-pressure spray for each surfactant solution for 15 minutes. At the end of the spray cycle, The tray was transferred to a second bench scale system, a high-turbulence wash tank, where the debris was washed for 30 minutes with the same surfactant solution as the used in the spray tank. After the was cycle was completed, the tray was removed from the wash tank and the debris was allowed to air-dry. Before and after treatment, surface-wipe samples were obtained from each of the six pieces of debris and were analyzed for oil and graese. Based on the results, BG-5 was selected as the solution best suited for cleaning grease-laden, metallic debris. 2 refs

  18. Scheduling of Crude Oil Operations in Refinery without Sufficient Charging Tanks Using Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A short-term schedule for crude oil operations in a refinery should define and sequence the activities in detail. Each activity involves both discrete-event and continuous variables. The combinatorial nature of the scheduling problem makes it difficult to solve. For such a scheduling problem, charging tanks are a type of critical resources. If the number of charging tanks is not sufficient, the scheduling problem is further complicated. This work conducts a study on the scheduling problem of crude oil operations without sufficient charging tanks. In this case, to make a refinery able to operate, a charging tank has to be in simultaneous charging and feeding to a distiller for some time, called simultaneously-charging-and-feeding (SCF mode, leading to disturbance to the oil distillation in distillers. A hybrid Petri net model is developed to describe the behavior of the system. Then, a scheduling method is proposed to find a schedule such that the SCF mode is minimally used. It is computationally efficient. An industrial case study is given to demonstrate the obtained results.

  19. Wave tank to simulate the movement of oil under breaking waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botrus, D.; Wickley-Olsen, E.; Boufadel, M.C.; Weaver, J.W.; Weggle, R.; Lee, K.; Venosa, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Methods to mitigate offshore oil spills before they reach the shoreline have been investigated in order to reduce environmental impacts. Artificial dispersants are commonly used on offshore oil spills to decrease the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The wave action helps break the slick into droplets that penetrate into the sea. This paper presented the results of wave tank tests in which the effectiveness of dispersants was evaluated. The focus was on the transport of oil during the breakup of a wave. In this study, the energy dissipation rate per unit mass was evaluated at various depths in the tank for regular and breaking waves. It was shown that breaking waves play an important role in the dispersion of oil at sea. Contrary to previous studies which suggested that the plume moves forward following the breaker, the results of this study showed that the plume splits into two parts, with one part going upstream. Understanding how the plume travels will provide insight as to where to add the dispersant with respect to the location of the breaker. The addition of the dispersant should take place before the location of the breaker. It was concluded that future work should include computational fluid dynamics simulation, as well as the use of a higher resolution camera. 9 refs., 17 figs

  20. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Hu, Feng; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Xinlun

    2014-06-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An approach for upgrading biomass and pyrolysis product quality using a combination of aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Cen, Kehui; Jing, Xichun; Gao, Jinghui; Li, Chen; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-06-01

    Bio-oil undergoes phase separation because of poor stability. Practical application of aqueous phase bio-oil is challenging. In this study, a novel approach that combines aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment was used to upgrade the biomass and pyrolysis product quality. The effects of individual and combined pretreatments on cotton stalk pyrolysis were studied using TG-FTIR and a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the aqueous phase bio-oil washing pretreatment removed metals and resolved the two pyrolysis peaks in the DTG curve. Importantly, it increased the bio-oil yield and improved the pyrolysis product quality. For example, the water and acid content of bio-oil decreased significantly along with an increase in phenol formation, and the heating value of non-condensable gases improved, and these were more pronounced when combined with torrefaction pretreatment. Therefore, the combined pretreatment is a promising method, which would contribute to the development of polygeneration pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on heat transfer characteristic of crude oil during the tubular heating process in the floating roof tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of finite volume method, the heat transfer characteristic of crude oil under the tubular heating in the floating roof tank is investigated by numerical simulation. The evolution of temperature profile and its relationship with the flow pattern is presented in detail. A noticeable finding is that there exists the transformation of the flow pattern which affects the temperature profile apparently during the heating process. Special concern is taken on the evolution of temperature distribution on the interface between oil and the inner wall of the tank. The temperature profile on the top wall, sidewall and base wall of the tank is investigated. It is concluded that the plume induced by natural convection takes most responsibility for the formation of temperature field in the tank. The second factor is the boundary condition of the tank.

  3. Assessment of the behavior of oil in the tanks of the Prestige in the Atlantic deep sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Marcos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The sinking of the Prestige supertanker off the coast of Spain in November 2002 led to one of the most devastating oil spills ever worldwide. Between 13,800 and 37,500 tons of oil still remain inside the wreckage. The mid-range and long-term behaviour of oil temperature and leaks were analysed to decide whether the oil could be pumped out in the current conditions. Past and present conditions near the wreckage were analysed, considering depth, water pressure, estimated oil behaviour inside the tanks, and possible future hull corrosion. A similar analysis may be useful in the management of future wreckages.

  4. Design and Optimization of Sheet Hydroforming Process for Manufacturing Oil tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, C.; Narasimhan, K.

    2005-01-01

    The need for reduction of weight is an important issue in sheet metal forming industry. The hydroforming process has become an effective manufacturing process, as it can be adapted for the manufacturing of complex structural components with high structural stiffness. The process parameters and material properties are important factors that influence the quality of final product. In this paper, an optimized window of process parameters is obtained for successful sheet hydroforming of Oil tank. The simulation of hydroforming process is performed by using a Finite Element Method based Commercial code

  5. ULC/ORD-C80.1 : the standard for aboveground non-metallic tanks for fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, G. [Underwriters' Lab. of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-09-01

    As a rule, flammable and combustible liquids were stored in aboveground tanks made of steel. Non-metallic materials are now being used for a new generation of aboveground tanks. Corrosion is a problem faced by most tank owners in many parts of Canada. Saltwater mist, sand blasting and bacteria growth formed in the condensation water at the bottom of the tank in the Maritimes affects an aboveground tank installed outdoors and close to the seashore. European non-metallic aboveground tanks for fuel oil first arrived on the North American market, and are now followed by designs from Canada. Requirements for these tanks were developed and tested by the Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada (ULC). It is a not-for-profit, independent organization accredited by the Standards Council of Canada to perform safety, certification, testing, quality registration, and standards development. The minimum criteria for non-metallic aboveground tank construction are contained in the ULC/ORD-C80.1 document. They can be constructed of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP), single or double wall, or they can be double wall tanks consisting of primary plastic tanks within metallic secondary containment. Other tanks are made of the blow molded high-density polyethylene. To simulate an in-house installation, fire tests were performed where a tank filled with fuel was exposed to pool fire for 30 minutes. A successful test meant the tank had not ruptured nor leaked during and after the test. Testers had to observe that any collapse occurred above the liquid level, and that violent explosion of any part of the tank or its content did not occur. The design requirements were evaluated by performing an analysis of the temperature chart: maximum vapour temperature inside the tank was 358 Celsius, while the liquid reached a maximum temperature of 91 Celsius and the outside temperature reached 600 Celsius. Primary tank pressure did not exceed 17 kilo Pascal. Building simulation of venting installation

  6. Earthquake and welded structures 5: Earthquake damages and anti-earthquake measures of oil storage tanks; 5 kikenbutsu chozo tank no jishin higai to taishin taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, K. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    The result of field investigation carried out on the state of damages of 236 hazardous material storage tanks out of 687 caused by the Hyogoken Nambu Earthquake in 1995 is introduced together with the cases of damage and the description of the countermeasures. The events of inclination and settlement of tank bodies were confirmed in 44% among those investigated in particular with tanks having a capacity of less than 1000kl and as for the basement and ground settlement, the fact that sand spouted as a result of their fluidization was witnessed as much as 81% among those investigated and the area surrounding tanks was roughly agreed with the area where ground crack appeared. A great number of other damages such as cracking of preventive seals against rain water, breakdown of oil defense banks and so forth were also confirmed. In the latter half of the report, aseismatic standards of old and new regulations as well as on the new criterion concerning the outdoor storage tank body, its basement and ground are tabulated and 4 items of anti-earthquake measures such as the final structural check up with regard to an earthquake exceeding the designed permissible stress, consolidation of tank body structure on the basis of the revised seismic coefficient method, assurance of the steadfast basement, prevention of the elevated platform from falling down and strengthening of water-proof seals and oil defense banks are enumerated in accordance with the report of investigation and examination on the resistibility of hazardous material storage equipment against the earthquake. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Design and development of a high efficiency tank for crude oil dehydration (i)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Jorge Enrique; Ortiz Olga Patricia; Narino, Fredy Abelardo

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a new tank design for dehydrating and desalting large volumes of crude oils previously degasified, crude oil dehydration efficiency is reduced by gas presence in the emulsion interphase. The design presented in this paper is versatile (it is adaptable to any classical dehydration process), highly efficient in terms of separation (values usually greater than 90% and/or treated crude oil BSW less than 0,5% are ensured), low installation and operation costs, less consumption of additives. These are some of the advantages found in pilot tests plants and proven in industrial systems at the ECOPETROL S.A. production fields with treatment capacities from 14 to 50 KBD. Although this process also can be applied to other ranks of flow, maintaining the design critical conditions of each case in particular. This system does not exhibit the typical limitations shown by treatment traditional systems (FWKO, Gun Barrel, thermal and electrostatic separators, etc.) (Al-Ghamdi, 2007) since it can be easily adapted to system treatments for light, intermediate, and heavy crude oils and to treatments with BSW content ranging from a very low levels of ≤ 1% to very high levels ≥ 95%, values that are not unusual in production fields nowadays, especially where accelerated production methods are used

  8. Studies on sludge from storage tank of waxy crude oil. Part I: structure and composition of distillate fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-08-01

    Tank bottom sludge from storage tanks of Bombay High crude oil deposited during ten years have been studied. The yield of the sludge is approximately 0.1% wt. of the crude oil through-put. The residue boiling above 500{degree}C amounts to over 50%. The distillate fractions collected at 50{degree}C intervals have been analyzed extensively and compared to fractions from whole crude of same boiling range. The sludge distillate are distinctly more paraffinic in nature. 15 refs., 7 tabs.

  9. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  10. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  11. The reduction of oil pollutants of petroleum products storage-tanks sludge using low-cost adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari-Hosseini Zahra Beagom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of storage tank sludge in oil depots is a major environmental concern due to the high concentration of hydrocarbons involved. This paper investigates the reduction of the sludge oil pollutants with initial oil and grease concentration of about 50 mass% using low cost adsorbents. Among the examined adsorbents, sawdust indicated the maximum removal of oil and grease. The screening and optimizing of process parameters were evaluated employing Plackett-Burman design and response surface method. For the optimized conditions, more than 60 mass% of oil and grease from the sludge was removed. Moreover, it was found that sawdust adsorption of the oil and grease approximately followed the Freundlich isotherm. The results indicated that oil pollutants of sludge could be reduced using sawdust as a low-cost, available and flammable adsorbent so that thus saturated adsorbents could be used as fuel in certain industries.

  12. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jiménez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW, are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE and solid phase extraction (SPE methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid.

  13. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [es

  14. Measurements of oil spill spreading in a wave tank using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, H.; Saavedra, I.; Andreatta, A.; Llona, G.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study of spreading of crude oil is carried out in a wave tank. The tests are performed by spilling different volumes and types of crude oil on the water surface. An experimental measurement technique was developed based on digital processing of video images. The acquisition and processing of such images is carried out by using a video camera and inexpensive microcomputer hardware and software. Processing is carried out by first performing a digital image filter, then edge detection is performed on the filtered image data. The final result is a file that contains the coordinates of a polygon that encloses the observed slick for each time step. Different types of filters are actually used in order to adequately separate the color intensifies corresponding to each of the elements in the image. Postprocessing of the vectorized images provides accurate measurements of the slick edge, thus obtaining a complete geometric representation, which is significantly different from simplified considerations of radially symmetric spreading. The spreading of the oil slick was recorded for each of the tests. Results of the experimental study are presented for each spreading regime, and analyzed in terms of the wave parameters such as period and wave height. (author)

  15. Soil washing in combination with homogeneous Fenton-like oxidation for the removal of 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl from soil contaminated with capacitor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Ling; Lin, Zhi-Rong; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Detoxification by chemical oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils is very difficult and inefficient because PCBs typically associate with the solid phase or exist as non-aqueous-phase liquids due to their low solubility and slow desorption rates, and thus, they are difficult to remove from soils by using traditional, water-based elution techniques. Surfactant can enhance washing efficiency of PCBs from contaminated soils. This study used Brij 58, Brij 30, Tween 80, and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to solubilize 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl (PCB28) from soil contaminated with capacitor oil into solution. The feasibility of PCB28 oxidation in soil washing wastewater through a Fe(3+)-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction was subsequently examined. Washing with 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution showed the highest extraction efficiency (up to 61.5 %) compared with that of the three other surfactants. The total concentration of PCB28 in contaminated soil at 25 °C after 48-h extraction was 286 mg L(-1). In contrast to conditions in which no washing agent was added, addition of the four washing agents decreased the efficiency of PCB28 degradation by the Fenton-like reaction, with the decrease due to addition of 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution being the smallest. The optimal concentration of H2O2 for preventing its useless decomposition was found to be 50 mM. The efficiency of PCB28 removal was lower when the initial concentration of PCB28 treated in the Fenton-like reaction was higher. The degradation efficiencies of PCB28 at initial concentrations of 0.1, 10, and 176 mg L(-1) in 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution at 25 °C and pH 3.0 and 9 h of reaction using 50 mM H2O2 were 64.1, 42.0, and 34.6 %, respectively. This result indicates that soil washing combined with Fenton-like oxidation may be a practical approach for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  16. 33 CFR 155.1040 - Response plan requirements for unmanned tank barges carrying oil as a primary cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Tank Vessel Response Plans for Oil § 155.1040 Response plan...-based support or advice; (ii) The individuals who shall be notified of a casualty potentially affecting... coordinator responsible for overseeing or directing those actions. (4) The organizational structure that will...

  17. Composite reinforced alumina ceramics with titan and lantana for use in coating storage tanks and transport of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, C.E.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Oliveira, J.C.S.; Ferreira, R.A. Sanguinetti; Yadava, Y.P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to use ceramics to improve the performance of the tanks that store and transport crude oil and which use metallic materials for their manufacture. These tanks in contact with crude oil undergo a process of degradation on their surfaces, since crude oil is a highly corrosive substance. And in turn ceramic materials have good stability in hostile environments. However, they are inherently fragile for display little plastic deformation. Therefore, the choice of a ceramic composite alumina-titania-lantana has high mechanical strength and high toughness which were produced by thermo-mechanical processing. These composites were sintered at 1350 ° C for 36 hours, and it was held Vickers hardness testing and microstructural characterization to assess their surfaces before and after the attack by crude to use such material as ceramic coating. These results will be presented at the congress. (author)

  18. Countercurrent soil washing system for remediation of viscous hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, M.I.; Karlsson, M.K.; Downie, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Drying augers and multicell DAF tanks are excellent machines in which to countercurrently wash soil and remove hazardous hydrocarbons, metals or radionuclides. An auger works well because it preferentially moves soil along one side of its trough. Thus, when enough high pressure and temperature water jets are placed along that path, contaminants can be melted, or dissolved and scoured from the soil. Contaminants and fines flow down the opposite side of the auger and out for extraction in a series of flotation tanks. Countercurrent washing of the silt results when soil settles in tanks through rising water and air bubbles then is pumped through cyclones placed above the next DAF tank of the series. LNAPLs, DNAPLs, or metallic contaminants made hydrophobic by chemicals in the system are removed at the overflow of the cyclones or by flotation in the tanks. The overflow from the cyclones and DAF tanks flows into the previous tank of the series. Examples of contaminants remediated include; arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), uranium, solid oils, polyaromatic hydrocarbons in creosote and coal tars, and polychlorinated hydrocarbons

  19. Cogeneration of heat and electricity from rape oil with a little CHP unit in a car wash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilz, H.D.; Thomas, S.; Zeilinger, J.

    2002-01-01

    Environmentally friendly energy supply system for smaller houses is described. In Elsbett system the so-called multi fuel engine starts the combined electricity and heat production unit. In such a system one can use also natural fuels, animal oils and fats besides heating oil. Therefore no additional CO 2 is produced, but it will be brought to the balanced natural circle

  20. Soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, R.S.; Diel, B.N.; Halpern, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Disposal of soils or sludges contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds is a major problem for environmental remedial activities, hazardous waste generators, and the disposal industry. This paper reports that many of these wastes can be effectively treated utilizing soil washing technology. CWM has been developing soil washing technology over the past few years, with extensive work being conducted on the bench scale. These studies have demonstrated consistently high removal efficiencies (95-99%) for a wide variety of PCB and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste. Recently, a comprehensive study examining the removal of both organic and inorganic contraminants from two different types of surrogate soil matrices was completed. In addition to establishing the range of contaminants that can be removed from soil, a method for surfactant/water separation was evaluated. For example, using a thermal phase separation method, approximately 90% of the surfactant could be recovered from the water

  1. Design and construction work of underground pit for existing light oil tank foundation at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Keita; Date, Masanao; Horimi, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Based on the new regulatory standards for commercial power plant reactors enforced in July 2013, Onagawa Nuclear Power Station of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. implemented various safety measure works. One of them was a measure for the existing light oil tank foundation for emergency diesel generators for Unit 2 reactor. In consideration of tornado, external fire, and earthquake resistance, the company implemented the underground pit construction for a light oil tank basement by utilizing the existing oil retaining wall and foundation. This paper reported the outline of the planning, design, and implementation of construction works, which were carried out while securing quality and safety. Upon installation of the underground pit, the company utilized the existing oil retaining wall from the viewpoint of reducing construction costs, shortening time schedule, and reducing environmental burden. As a result of checking bending and axial force, part of these values exceeded the design reference values. So, 3-dimensional shell model was applied, and the simulation results showed sufficient seismic margin. As a measure to secure seismic margin against shear force, Ceramic-Cap-bar construction method was adopted. Upon construction, the company adopted the water jet method, and devised the sequential order of construction. In parallel with the day and night work and tank installation, it constructed the top slab, which secured the time schedule and quality. (A.O.)

  2. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent

  3. Shoreline clean up during the Sea Empress incident: the role of surf washing (clay-oil flocculation), dispersants and bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Lee, K.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the at sea operations which took place in response to the Sea Empress oil spill, was presented. The grounding of the Sea Empress resulted in the release of 70,000 tonnes of blended crude oil into the environment. A qualitative account of the events which followed the incident were described. The early mobilization of a monitoring team has demonstrated the importance of scientific measurements to identify and maximize the efficiency of various cleanup operations. One of the important responses to this incident was the application of dispersants which by inducing flocculation, thereby reducing contact of oil directly with the substrate, and by reducing adhesion of the oil to the shoreline, contributed greatly to minimizing shoreline impact. 19 refs., 7 figs

  4. Development of High Heat Input Welding High Strength Steel Plate for Oil Storage Tank in Xinyu Steel Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hemin; Dong, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xiong

    This essay introduces the developed high-heat input welding quenched and tempered pressure vessel steel 12MnNiVR for oil storage tank by Xinyu Steel, which passed the review by the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Technical Committee in 2009. The review comments that compared to the domestic and foreign similar steel standard, the key technical index of enterprise standard were in advanced level. After the heat input of 100kJ/cm electro-gas welding, welded points were still with excellent low temperature toughness at -20°C. The steel plate may be constructed for oil storage tank, which has been permitted by thickness range from 10 to 40mm, and design temperature among -20°C-100°C. It studied microstructure genetic effects mechanical properties of the steel. Many production practices indicated that the mechanical properties of products and the steel by stress relief heat treatment of steel were excellent, with pretreatment of hot metal, converter refining, external refining, protective casting, TMCP and heat treatment process measurements. The stability of performance and matured technology of Xinyu Steel support the products could completely service the demand of steel constructed for 10-15 million cubic meters large oil storage tank.

  5. Measures against concrete cracking in underground type light oil tank pit construction work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Takeo; Kadowaki, Kazuhiko; Date, Masanao

    2017-01-01

    The underground type light oil tank pit set at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station is a tripartite underground pit structure made of reinforced concrete. This is a mass concrete made of deck slab / outer wall of 1.5 m in thickness and inner wall / top slab of 1.0 m in thickness. Since concrete placement season was July for the deck slab and October for the walls, the occurrence of thermal cracking was highly conceivable. As a result of investigating crack suppression measures based on the crack width of 0.2 mm or less as a guide, the application of fly ash cement and the addition of expansion material to the walls were judged effective and adopted. Thanks to these preliminary studies and careful construction control, it was possible to minimize the occurrence of cracks, but several through cracks of 0.2 mm or less were confirmed on part of the outer walls. As a countermeasure, repair by means of surface impregnation method was adopted, and quality and schedule could be secured. This paper outlines crack suppression measures and repair of the cracks that occurred after the implementation. (A.O.)

  6. Oxidative-Alkaline Leaching of Washed 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101 Tank Sludges and Its Impact on Immobilized High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Geeting, John GH; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Vienna, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes work designed to evaluate the effectiveness of alkaline permanganate contacts at selectively removing chromium from the Hanford tank sludges 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101. The key variables examined in this study, as compared to contact with the standard conditions of stoichiometric permanganate in 3 M hydroxide at elevated temperature, were: (a) excess permanganate and hydroxide at elevated temperature, (b) the separation of an elevated temperature 3 M hydroxide leach with either a room temperature permanganate contact or an elevated temperature permanganate contact at 0.25 M hydroxide. It was determined that sequential permanganate and caustic leaching can provide as effective removal of Cr as the combined high hydroxide permanganate contact at elevated temperature while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution

  7. Counter current decantation washing of HLW sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Peterson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 51 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks with typical dimensions 25.9 meters (85 feet) diameter and 10 meters (33 feet) high. Nearly 114 million liters (30 M gallons) of HLW waste is stored in these tanks in the form of insoluble solids called sludge, crystallized salt called salt cake, and salt solutions. This waste is being converted to waste forms stable for long term storage. In one of the processes, soluble salts are washed from HLW sludge in preparation for vitrification. At present, sludge is batch washed in a waste tank with one or no reuse of the wash water. Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite are added to the wash water for tank corrosion protection; the large volumes of spent wash water are recycled to the evaporator system; additional salt cake is produced; and sodium carbonate is formed in the washed sludge during storage by reaction with CO 2 from the air. High costs and operational concerns with the current washing process prompts DOE and WSRC to seek an improved washing method. A new method should take full advantage of the physical/chemical properties of sludge, experience from other technical disciplines, processing rate requirements, inherent process safety, and use of proven processes and equipment. Counter current solids washing is a common process in the minerals processing and chemical industries. Washing circuits can be designed using thickeners, filters or centrifuges. Realizing the special needs of nuclear work and the low processing rates required, a Counter Current Decantation (CCD) circuit is proposed using small thickeners and fluidic pumps

  8. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  9. Effects of temperature and wave conditions on chemical dispersion efficacy of heavy fuel oil in an experimental flow-through wave tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengkai; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Boufadel, Michel C; Venosa, Albert D

    2010-09-01

    The effectiveness of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500 and SPC 1000) on heavy fuel oil (IFO180 as test oil) has been evaluated under different wave conditions in a flow-through wave tank. The dispersant effectiveness was determined by measuring oil concentrations and droplet size distributions. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model indicated that wave type and temperature significantly (p or = 400 microm). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nasal Wash Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Alternative Therapies Nasal Wash Treatment Nasal Wash Treatment Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for preparing water used in a nasal wash are listed below. Many ...

  11. Oxygen-Induced Cracking Distillation of Oil in the Continuous Flow Tank Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Valeriy F.; Kozlovskiy, Roman A.; Luganskiy, Artur I.; Gorbunov, Andrey V.; Suchkov, Yuriy P.; Ushin, Nikolay S.; Cherepanov, Alexandr A.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses problems of processing black oil fuel and addresses the possibility of increasing the depth of oil refining by a new processing scheme. The study examines various methods of increasing the depth of oil refining reveals their inadequacies and highlights a need to introduce a new method of processing atmospheric and vacuum…

  12. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.; McCabe, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements

  13. Application of risk curve for statistical analysis of backside corrosion in the bottom floors of oil storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Naoya; Maeda, Takuma; Tamura, Koichi; Kitsukawa, Shigeo; Sekine, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Overall thickness profile data for backside corrosion of the bottom floors of 17 oil storage tanks were collected, and a risk curve from the overall thickness profile and discrete thickness data was derived to evaluate the corrosion risk of the bottom floors. The slope of the risk curve in the large corrosion region was found to indicate the local corrosion condition. Parameters for evaluating localized corrosion derived from the corrosion distributions were also investigated to evaluate the corrosion risk of the bottom floors. Compared with the parameters obtained using the overall thickness profile and discrete thickness data, the slope of the risk curve is an excellent evaluation parameter using discrete thickness data. Thus, it is possible to accurately evaluate the corrosion characteristics of the bottom floors of oil storage tanks with the parameters obtained from discrete thickness data. - Highlights: • The risk curves for corrosion show the corrosion characteristic. • The obtained parameters indicate the corrosion characteristic. • The corrosion characteristic can be evaluated with discrete thickness data.

  14. Studies on sludge from waxy crude oil storage tank. II. Solvent fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The sludge formed from crude oil (Bombay Hindu Crude oil) dump storage has been analysed by solvent extraction with a series of solvents of increasing polarity. The extract fractions so obtained have been analysed extensively. The nature of the sludge is compared with the similar sludges reported by other workers. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Successful field application of novel, non-silicone antifoam chemistries for high foaming heavy oil storage tanks in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Clariant Oil Services, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Heavy oil operators in northern Alberta have experienced production problems associated with foam formation in crude oil storage tanks. The foam could enter the transportation trucks and create separation problems in the process systems. Any antifoam used in the system could not contain silicone based polymers since these compounds affected the catalysts used in upgrading the crude oil and in the manufacture of asphalt. As such, there was a need to change the performance of the antifoam product. A phosphate ester and a salted amine were the previous incumbent antifoam products that did not perform well. Several chemistries were tested, including phosphate based products; ethoxylated and propoxylated esters; polyethylene glycol esters and oleates; alcohols, fatty alcohols and ethoxylated; and propoxylated alcohols. All products had to be freeze protected to -40 degrees C, which influenced the efficacy of antifoam chemicals. This paper described how laboratory testing has evolved to field wide implementation of a combined defoamer/antifoam chemistry. The laboratory tests revealed that foam induced in heavy, aged crude was very challenging and required the addition of heptane to create the foam. A potential follow-up may be to induce the foam without the addition of heptane by using a Seltzer cylinder in a semi-quantitative manner to rank performance of products against one another. The final selection of antifoam will depend on supply chain cost since the performance of the 2 blend products was essentially the same. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Soil washing for brine removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyachamy, J.S.; Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.

    1992-01-01

    During the exploration for oil and thereafter, brine transfer lines get ruptured releasing the brine which contaminates the surrounding soil. The salinity level in brine is very high, sometimes approaching or exceeding that of sea water. Soils contaminated with brine are unproductive and unsuitable for plant growth. Several investigators have documented the pollution of surface water and groundwater due to brine disposal from oil and needed to clean up such sites. The objective of this study is to develop a soil washing technique that can be used to remove brine sites were collected and used in the study. This paper reports on results which indicate that soil washing using various surface active agents is effective in removing the brine

  17. Modeling validation to structural flaws in the foundations of oil tanks; Validacao de modelagem para estudo de alteracoes estruturais em fundacoes de tanques de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Larissa Goncalves; Leite, Sandro Passos, E-mail: leite_sp@ig.com.br [Fundacao Tecnico-Educacional Souza Marques, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Pereira, Walsan Wagner [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the modeling of an experiment used to study the application of backscattered neutrons in the identification of structural flaws in the foundations of oil tanks. This modeling was a preliminary validation procedure of the method of calculation, performed with the radiation transport code MCNP, to study the application of backscattered neutrons as inspection tool. (author)

  18. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  19. Change on storage quality of edible oil in different specification of tank%不同规格罐体内食用植物油储存品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽琼; 朱启思; 吴秋婷; 曾彩虹; 邓常继

    2015-01-01

    The related indicators of edible oil quality during storage were monitored to compare the change of the oil quality,including peanut oil,soybean oil,rapeseed oil,stored in non -standard oil tank with standard oil tank.The results showed that the quality of peanut oil stored in non -standard tank was bet-ter than stored in standard tank.With stored in non -standard tank,the quality of soybean oil and rape-seed oil,was better than peanut oil.%监测食用油储存期间相关指标,对存放在标准油罐与非标油罐花生油的品质变化进行研究,非标罐中花生油、大豆油、油菜籽油的品质变化进行比较。结果表明非标准油罐存放的花生油品质好于标准罐存放;同是非标油罐存放,大豆油和油菜籽油储存品质优于花生油储存品质。

  20. Use of aluminum oxides, titanium and cerium in the production of ceramic composites for protective coating of storage tanks and transportation of oil raw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of the Abreu e Lima refinery in the port of SUAPE - PE will increase the need to store oil in the region, it is essential to research and develop new materials inert to chemical attack promoted by oil. In this work, we produce the ceramic composite alumina-titania, ceria of high mechanical strength which is observed that with additions of titanium oxide in the order of 15% and 20% better results are obtained as possibly indicating these composites suitable for use in coating ceramic storage tanks of crude oil. (author)

  1. Corrosion Resistant FBG-Based Quasi-Distributed Sensor for Crude Oil Tank Dynamic Temperature Profile Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Marques, Rogério; Prado, Adilson Ribeiro; da Costa Antunes, Paulo Fernando; de Brito André, Paulo Sérgio; Ribeiro, Moisés R. N.; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a corrosion resistant, maneuverable, and intrinsically safe fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based temperature optical sensor. Temperature monitoring is a critical activity for the oil and gas industry. It typically involves acquiring the desired parameters in a hazardous and corrosive environment. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was proposed as a means of simultaneously isolating the optical fiber from the corrosive environment and avoiding undesirable mechanical tensions on the FBGs. The presented sensor head is based on multiple FBGs inscribed in a lengthy single mode fiber. The sensor presents an average thermal sensitivity of 8.82 ± 0.09 pm/°C, resulting in a typical temperature resolution of ~0.1 °C and an average time constant value of 6.25 ± 0.08 s. Corrosion and degradation resistance were verified by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy during 90 days exposure to high salinity crude oil samples. The developed sensor was tested in a field pilot test, mimicking the operation of an inland crude tank, demonstrating its abilities to dynamically monitor temperature profile. PMID:26690166

  2. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactive demonstration of the ''late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ''late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests

  4. Late Washing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO 2 - ] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO 2 - ] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft 2 for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec

  5. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  6. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  7. America's gas tank : the high cost of Canada's oil and gas export strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.; Bennett, J.

    2002-10-01

    The high environmental cost of exporting oil and gas from Canada to the United States is discussed. The increased demand for fossil fuels by the United States has coincided with Canada's deregulation of the energy industry and a greater control of Canadian energy companies by American interests. The authors note that most of the oil and gas produced in Canada is exported to the United States, where many of the extraction and production decisions affecting Canadians and the Canadian environment are made. It was cautioned that if the current trend continues, oil and gas development will degrade habitat for endangered species and greenhouse gases will escalate. This is because the fossil fuel industry, particularly the development of Alberta's tar sands, is helping to increase greenhouse gas emissions outside of Canada by selling fossil fuels that are burned outside of Canada. It is recommended that federal and provincial governments in Canada should shift their policies away from fossil fuel production and promote renewable energy production. The United States plans to increase Canadian oil and gas imports in the coming decade, requiring more wells to be drilled and pipelines to carry it. If the fossil fuel industry proceeds with the current plans, greenhouse gas emissions in Canada will grow to 827 million tonnes by 2010, 44 per cent beyond the Kyoto target, having an overall negative impact on public health, wildlife and fresh water supplies. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Sedimentibacter sp. With corrosive capability, Ferric-reducing, isolated from an oil separation tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, G.; Loera, O.; Ramirez, F.; Monroy, O.; Fernandez-Linares, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    Bio corrosion is a common problem in oil and gas industry facilities. characterization of the microbial populations responsible for bio corrosion and the interactions between different microorganisms with metallic surfaces is required in order to implemented efficient monitoring and control strategies. (Author)

  9. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  10. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. Two operating scenarios were evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-VSL-T01A/B ultrafiltration feed vessels, identified as Integrated Test A. The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-VSL-T02A ultrafiltration feed preparation vessel, identified as Integrated Test B. Washing operations in PEP Integrated Tests A and B were conducted successfully as per the approved run sheets. However, various minor instrumental problems occurred, and some of the process conditions specified in the run sheet were not met during the wash operations, such as filter-loop flow-rate targets not being met. Five analytes were selected based on full solubility and monitored in the post-caustic-leach wash as successful indicators of washing efficiency. These were aluminum, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, and free hydroxide. Other analytes, including sodium, oxalate, phosphate, and total dissolved solids, showed indications of changing solubility; therefore, they were unsuitable for monitoring washing efficiency. In the post-oxidative-leach wash, two analytes with full solubility were selected as suitable indicators of washing

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  12. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  13. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  14. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford?s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data

  15. The properties of heavy oils and Orimulsion : another look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z.; Smith, P.

    2003-01-01

    A comparison was made between the physical properties and behaviour indicators of several heavy oils, including Orimulsion. Most heavy oils are rich in resins, asphaltenes, heavy saturates and heavy aromatics and their behaviour may vary during spills due to their different densities. The authors examined the change in density with changes in weathering and temperature. The authors noted two phenomena associated with the behaviour of heavy oils in water, namely sinking and over-washing. Sinking was defined as the bulk sinking of oil to the bottom or an intermediate layer. Over-washing was described as the washing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea while the oil is still close to the surface. The problem with over-washing is that it is not always visible to observers from a ship. The authors briefly reviewed the literature on the topic of dense oil behaviour. To determine whether extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water, weathering experiments were performed on dense oils. Results showed that weathering is rarely a sole factor in the bulk sinking of oil. For the oil to sink after weathering, its density would have to be very close to that of water. Weathering studies have shown that little weathering occurs on sunken oil after it is submerged. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. The authors also discussed sinking prediction equations and provided a mathematical description of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a layer of water. A summary of the dynamics of Orimulsion as measured in a test tank was also included. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  16. European model code of safe practice for the prevention of ground and surface water pollution by oil from storage tanks and during the transport of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The code outlines general requirements for pollution prevention and provides guidelines for corrosion protection of mild steel tanks, pipe and fitting assemblies, and for storage tank installations. The transportation and delivery of petroleum fuels are discussed, and operating procedures are suggested.

  17. An alarm instrument for monitoring leakage of oil storage tanks and the location of their leak position using radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qingqian; Sun Xiaolei; Hu Xusheng

    1990-01-01

    Usually it is difficult to find out gasoline leakage at the bottom of a storage tank from the very beginning. In order to solve this problem, a leak-monitoring technique and an instrument based on the detection of nuclear radiation have been successfully developed. The instrument possesses high sensitivity, short reaction time, excellent stability and rellability. When very small leaks at the bottom of a tank appear, the instrument will show a leak signal and give an alarm. In the meantime, however, the tank can be still used until the preparations for repairing are completed. Then its leak position can be accurately located by using radioisotope tracers

  18. Oil-water separators for use in ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, G.; Nuttall, P.J.

    1978-11-04

    After ratification by the United Nations Assembly of the 15 ppm limit for the oil content in water discharges from ships, as recommended by the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, all oil separating systems used to treat cargo tank washings, oil-contaminated ballast water from double-bottom tanks, engineroom bilge water, or oily sludge from self-cleaning fuel oil purifiers, will be subjected to a stringent test procedure specified by IMCO. This specification requires the use of centrifugal supply pumps capable of discharging at 1.5 times the separator capacity and operating at over 1000 rpm. To meet the 15 ppm standards, filtration or coalescence equipment must be added to conventional single-stage static separators. Tests by Alexander Esplen and Co. Ltd. showed that a two-stage Comyn coagulator incorporating elements specially designed by Vokes Ltd. meets the IMCO requirements. Separator system control and maintenance problems are discussed.

  19. Probabilistics since WASH-1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    Literature since the issuing of WASH-1400 reactor safety study shows that although the methodology has been attacked, it stands criticism well. Contrary to the aim of the study, which was to give a realistic, rather than a conservative risk estimate, there are many conservatisms in it. The strongly attacked treatment of common mode failure involving the square bounding model is shown here to be very likely to give correct results - and the applications of it in WASH-1400 do not often give results different from using the mean instead of the median. The Three-Mile Island accident is not such as to change the conclusions of WASH-1400 regarding core melt probabilities

  20. Soil washing technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis

  1. The density behaviour of heavy oils in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2006-01-01

    The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a

  2. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  3. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  4. Sludge Washing And Demonstration Of The DWPF Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells For Sludge Batch 8 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M.; Crawford, C. L.

    2013-04-26

    The current Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks to Tank 51. Tank 51 sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes using a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). WSE requested the SRNL to perform characterization on a Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) sample and demonstrate the DWPF flowsheet in the SRNL shielded cells for SB8 as the final qualification process required prior to SB8 transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40. A 3-L sample from Tank 51 (the SB8 qualification sample; Tank Farm sample HTF-51-12-80) was received by SRNL on September 20, 2012. The as-received sample was characterized prior to being washed. The washed material was further characterized and used as the material for the DWPF process simulation including a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, and glass fabrication and chemical durability measurements.

  5. Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in DoD Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    in ERDC’s Prop-Wash Tank Resuspension by propeller wash from tugboat: in-situ field data: near-bed velocity field, shear stress, critical shear...samples of sediment and water were collected prior to any resuspension event. A C14 Tractor and a slightly smaller Tiger tug boats were used in San

  6. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  7. 大型浮顶油罐直击雷防护实验分析%Experimental Analysis of Direct Lightning Protection for Floating Roof Oil Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓明; 傅正财; 刘全桢; 刘宝全; 孙伟

    2011-01-01

    为了完善大型浮顶油罐的防雷技术,对浮顶油罐遭雷击过程进行了分析,并对目前标准规定的浮顶油罐防雷措施进行了实验.实验表明导电片的主要作用是快速释放雷电流,但导电片的存在也有其反效应,即当浮顶油罐遭受雷击时,导电片与罐壁之间会产生电火花.因此,提出了取消浮顶边缘二次密封上方的导电片,采用了增加可伸缩的接地装置(SGD)弥补导电片取消后雷电流释放通道的不足,并以105m3实际油罐为例,均匀布置安装不同个数的SGD,利用经验公式对其遭受直击雷时的暂态电压降进行计算.计算结果表明,对200 kA雷电流,采用不同截面宽度的SGD时,均匀分布的连接浮顶与罐壁的14~20个SGD能够保证浮顶油罐安全泄放雷电流.%In order to improve the lightning protection of large floating roof oil tanks, the lightning strike process of floating roof tanks was analyzed, and some experimental models were tested to investigate the protection effects of the present standard protection measures. The tests indicate that the major role of conductive film is to rapidly release lightning current. However, the presence of conductive films has their counter-effects. Electric spark occurs between the conductive film and the tank skin when the floating roof tank is stroked by lightning. It is proposed to abolish the conductive film on the second seal floating roof top edge and to adopt scalable grounding device (SGD) as lightning protection measures. Empirical formula was used to calculate the transient voltage drop when a 100 000 m3 tank was stroked by lightning. Under 200 kA lightning current, with different cross-section width of the SGD, uniformly distributed 14 to 20 SGDs can ensure to release the lightning current safely.

  8. Water saving in IC wafer washing process; IC wafer senjo deno sessui taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Araki, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    1997-11-30

    This paper reports features of a wafer washing technology, a new IC wafer washing process, its pure water saving effect, and a `QC washing` which has pure water saving effect in the wafer washing. Wafer washing processes generally include the SC1 process (using ammonia + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to ultrafine particles, the SC2 process (using hydrochloric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to heavy metals, the piranha washing process (using hot sulfuric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to organic matters, and the DHF (using dilute hydrofluoric acid) purposed for removing natural oxide films. Natural oxide films are now remained as surface protection films, by which surface contamination has been reduced remarkably. A high-temperature washing chemical circulating and filtering technology developed in Japan has brought about a reform in wafer washing processes having been used previously. Spin washing is used as a water saving measure, in which washing chemicals or pure water are sprayed onto one each of wafers which is spin-rotated, allowing washing and rinsing to be made with small amount of washing chemicals and pure water. The QC washing is a method to replace tank interior with pure was as quick as possible in order to increase the rinsing effect. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Tank drive : ZCL takes its composite tank technology worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    Edmonton-based ZCL Composites Inc. is North America's largest manufacturer and supplier of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) underground storage tanks. The company has aggressively pursued new markets in the oil sands, shale gas gas, and other upstream petroleum industries. The manufacturer also targets water and sewage applications, and provides customized corrosion solutions for a variety of industries. The company developed its double-walled FRP tanks in response to Canadian Environmental Protection Act rules requiring cathodic protection for steel tanks, leak detection, and secondary containment. ZCL supplies approximately 90 per cent of the new tanks installed by gasoline retailers in Canada. Future growth is expected to be strong, as many old tanks will soon need to be replaced. The company has also developed a method of transforming underground single wall tanks into secondarily contained systems without digging them out. The company has also recently signed licence agreements with tank manufacturers in China. 3 figs.

  10. Modelling a historic oil-tank fire allows an estimation of the sensitivity of the infrared receptors in pyrophilous Melanophila beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Schmitz

    Full Text Available Pyrophilous jewel beetles of the genus Melanophila approach forest fires and there is considerable evidence that these beetles can detect fires from great distances of more than 60 km. Because Melanophila beetles are equipped with infrared receptors and are also attracted by hot surfaces it can be concluded that these infrared receptors are used for fire detection.The sensitivity of the IR receptors is still unknown. The lowest threshold published so far is 0.6 W/m(2 which, however, cannot explain the detection of forest fires by IR radiation from distances larger than approximately 10 km. To investigate the possible sensitivity of the IR receptors we assumed that beetles use IR radiation for remote fire detection and we made use of a historic report about a big oil-tank fire in Coalinga, California, in 1924. IR emission of an oil-tank fire can be calculated by "pool fire" simulations which now are used for fire safety and risk analysis. Assuming that beetles were lured to the fire from the nearest forests 25 and 130 km away, our results show that detection from a distance of 25 km requires a threshold of the IR receptors of at least 3×10(-2 W/m(2. According to our investigations most beetles became aware of the fire from a distance of 130 km. In this case the threshold has to be 1.3×10(-4 W/m(2. Because such low IR intensities are buried in thermal noise we suggest that the infrared sensory system of Melanophila beetles utilizes stochastic resonance for the detection of weak IR radiation. Our simulations also suggest that the biological IR receptors might be even more sensitive than uncooled technical IR sensors. Thus a closer look into the mode of operation of the Melanophila IR receptors seems promising for the development of novel IR sensors.

  11. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks is described comprising: a cylindrical tank; a hollow float member for supporting said tank in a substantially upright position; a skirt assembly secured to said hollow float member and extending in a direction away from said float member opposite said tank; means for removing oil from said tank; and means for removing gas from said tank

  12. Solvent wash solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neace, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution

  13. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  14. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands frequently can help limit the transfer of bacteria, viruses and other microbes. Always wash your hands before: Preparing food or eating Treating wounds or caring for a sick person Inserting or removing contact lenses Always wash your hands after: Preparing food Using ...

  15. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  16. Status and progress in sludge washing: A pivotal pretreatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, W.B.; MacLean, G.T.; Meng, C.D.; Winkler, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Separation of the bulk soluble chemical salts from the insoluble metal hydroxides and radionuclides is central to the strategy of disposing Hanford tank waste. Sludge washing and caustic leaching have been selected as the primary methods for processing the 230 million L (61,000,000 gal) of Hanford tank waste. These processes are very similar to those selected for processing waste at the West Valley Site in New York and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The purpose of sludge washing is to dissolve and remove the soluble salts in the waste. Leaching of the insoluble solids with caustic will be used to dissolve aluminum hydroxide and chromium hydroxide, and convert insoluble bismuth phosphate to soluble phosphate. The waste will be separated into a high-level solids fraction and a liquid fraction that can be disposed of as low-level waste after cesium removal. The washing and leaching operations involve batchwise mixing, settling, and decanting within the existing underground storage tanks

  17. Tanks and Tank Troops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    dis- tance of up to 1,200 meters in moonlight . Effective range is substantially reduced with weaker starlight. Night vision devices with...by purification treatment and employment of corrosion inhibitors; by applying protective films to the vulnerable surface (chemically passive, oil...elaborated dynamic stereotype , tanker efficiency Improves, as do march performance Indicators. The duration of this period Is approximately 24 hours

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the tanks to vent pipes. (2) Tanks having a comparatively small surface, such as fuel oil settling... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank-vent piping. 56.50-85 Section 56.50-85 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-85 Tank-vent piping. (a) This section...

  19. Oil road effects on the anuran community of a high canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina in the upper Amazon basin, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn F McCracken

    Full Text Available Tropical forest canopies are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats on earth and one of the remaining relatively unexplored biotic frontiers. Epiphytic bromeliads provide microhabitat for a high diversity of organisms in tropical forest canopies and are considered a keystone resource. A number of amphibians inhabit these phytotelmata, yet their ecological role and status in forest canopies remains unknown. For this study, anurans were collected from an upper canopy tank bromeliad (Aechmea zebrina at ∼20-45 m (x¯ = 33 m above the forest floor. Bromeliads were sampled from trees located near trails in undisturbed primary rainforest and oil access roads in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of Amazonian Ecuador. We collected 95 anurans representing 10 species from 160 bromeliads in 32 trees. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of disturbance and habitat factors on the occupancy and abundance of anurans collected. Bromeliads in forest along oil roads had a lower occupancy and abundance of anurans than those in undisturbed forest, a somewhat unexpected result due to the intactness and quality of forest adjacent to the roads. Recorded habitat variables had no relationship with occupancy or abundance of anurans, and did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings reveal that even the minimal footprint of natural resource extraction operations, primarily roads, in rainforest environments can have significant negative impacts on the unique upper canopy anuran community. Based on these results, we recommend that natural resource development treat rainforest habitat as an offshore system where roads are not used, employ industry best practice guidelines, and current access roads be protected from colonization and further deforestation.

  20. Occurrence, effects, and fate of oil polluting the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZoBell, C E

    1963-01-01

    A major source of oil polluting the sea is ships which use their cargo or fuel tanks alternately for carrying different kinds of oil and salt water ballast. Wash waters, wrecks, bilge water, and accidental spills account for large volumes of oils being discharged into the sea. Recreational beaches and sea birds are most adversely affected by oil pollution. Oysters and other shellfish in certain beds are injured by oil. Only at its worst does oil pollution appear to be injurious to animal and plant life in the sea. The movement, modification, and persistence of oil in the sea or on its shores are influenced by the properties of the oil, its dispersion in water, ocean currents, wind, sunlight, and many other factors. Most beached oils and tars become mixed with or smeared on solids to be buried, decomposed, or carried back into the sea by the tidal currents and the backwash of waves. Virtually all kinds of oils are susceptible to microbial oxidation, which is most rapid at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 degrees C. In the marine environment oil persists only when protected from bacterial action. 78 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Sampling plan to support HLW tank 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, P.O.; Martin, B.

    1997-01-01

    Plans are to remove the residual waste from the annulus of High-Level Waste Tank 16, located in the H-Area Tank Farm, in 1998. The interior of the tank is virtually clean. In the late 1970's, the waste was removed from the interior of the tank by several campaigns of waste removal with slurry pumps, spray washing, and oxalic acid cleaning. The annulus of the tank at one time had several thousand gallons of waste salt, which had leaked from the tank interior. Some of this salt was removed by adding water to the annulus and circulating, but much of the salt remains in the annulus. In order to confirm the source term used for fate and transport modeling, samples of the tank interior and annulus will be obtained and analyzed. If the results of the analyses indicate that the data used for the initial modeling is bounding then no changes will be made to the model. However, if the results indicate that the source term is higher than that assumed in the initial modeling, thus not bounding, additional modeling will be performed. The purpose of this Plan is to outline the approach to sampling the annulus and interior of Tank 16 as a prerequisite to salt removal in the annulus and closure of the entire tank system. The sampling and analysis of this tank system must be robust to reasonably ensure the actual tank residual is within the bounds of analysis error

  2. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  3. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system; Idoneidad del agua de lavado de aceites de oliva como donador de electrones en un sistema alimentado por lotes bioelectroquímico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Fernández-Rodríguez, M.J.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, A.; Serrano, A.; Borja, R.

    2017-07-01

    Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES) operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application. [Spanish] El agua de lavado del aceite de oliva procedente del proceso de elaboración en dos fases fue utilizada como donador de electrones en un Sistema Bioelectroquímico (BES) operado a 35ºC. Se realizó una etapa de arranque del sistema mediante alimentación con acetato, alcanzando un potencial de referencia de +680 mV. Tras 54 días, el sistema se alimentó con agua de lavado de aceite, generando un potencial máximo de +520 mV y una eliminación de materia del 41%, en demanda química de oxígeno. Sin embargo, cargas subsecuentes conllevaron una bajada en la eliminación de materia, mientras que la densidad de corriente y de potencia disminuyeron ostensiblemente. El empeoramiento de estos parámetros puede deberse a la acumulación de compuestos recalcitrantes o inhibidores, como fenoles. Por tanto, el uso del agua de lavado de aceite de oliva en un BES es factible, aunque es necesario llevar a cabo nuevas investigaciones que hagan más atractiva su aplicación a escala real.

  4. Apparatus for washing out halogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M; Hahn, J; Kroenig, W

    1941-03-26

    An apparatus is described for washing out of halogens and the like or liquid halogen compounds from the products, which are formed on pressure hydrogenation or splitting of carbon-containing material in the presence of halogens or halogen compounds, consisting of a washing apparatus installed between the reaction vessel and the hot separator, which is inclined in relatively small space for steam regulation and contains, with the steam, arranged baffles, especially spirals.

  5. Tank Farm Contractor Waste Remediation System and Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy

  6. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  7. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 and tank 51 HLW radioactive sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. The high activity radioactive wastes stored as caustic slurries at SRS result from the neutralization of acid waste generated from production of nuclear defense materials. During storage, the wastes separate into a supernate layer and a sludge layer. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS, the radionuclides from the sludge and supernate will be immobilized into borosilicate glass for long term storage and eventual disposal. Before transferring the waste from a storage tank to the DWPF, a portion of the aluminum in the waste sludge will be dissolved and the sludge will be extensively washed to remove sodium. Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges represent the first batch of HLW sludge to be processed in the DWPF. This paper presents results of rheology measurements of Tank 51 and Tank 42 at various solids concentrations. The rheologies of Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive slurries were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco RV-12 with an M150 measuring drive unit and TI sensor system. Rheological properties of the Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges were measured as a function of weight percent solids. The weight percent solids of Tank 42 sludge was 27, as received. Tank 51 sludge had already been washed. The weight percent solids were adjusted by dilution with water or by concentration through drying. At 12, 15, and 18 weight percent solids, the yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge were 5, 11, and 14 dynes/cm2, respectively. The apparent viscosities were 6, 10, and 12 centipoises at 300 sec-1 shear rate, respectively

  8. Development and characterization of ceramic composites alumina-titania based reinforced with lanthanum oxide for fabrication of inert coatings for metallic tanks of the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.M.; Yadava, Y.P.; Silva, N.D.G.; Ferreira, R.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Crude petroleum is highly corrosive causing superficial degradation in metallic tanks used for storage and transportation of this material, which causes a serious problem in the oil industry. An alternative to solve this problem is to use some kind of coating that is inert to this kind of corrosion. Alumina and titania are interesting materials for several engineering applications because, when compared with other ceramic materials, they present superior mechanical properties, e.g. high mechanical strength, good chemical stability and high fracture toughness combined with good wear resistance and a coefficient of thermal expansion close to the iron's, which makes them fit to use in ceramic hardening process and coating. In this paper, alumina-titania ceramic composites with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of titania (TiO2) and reinforced with 2% of lanthanum oxide of were produced by thermo-mechanical processing and sintering techniques at 1350 deg C. In these composites, microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed using X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers hardness in order to evaluate their applicability. X-ray spectroscopy showed the formation of composite without the presence of other phases. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed a homogeneous microstructure in terms of particle size and distribution. Vickers hardness test showed a gradual decrease in hardness with the addition of titania. The composite with 5% of titania and 2% of lanthanum oxide is the best choice for structural applications. The composites were submerged in crude petroleum for 30 days to study their stability in such environment. Through the analysis of X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy and Vickers hardness before and after the submersion in crude petroleum, it was not observed structural or microstructural degradation nether alterations in mechanical properties. This way, it was concluded that these composites have good

  9. Optimization of combined in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation for remediation of bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolivand, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Saeedi, Reza

    2017-07-31

    In this research, removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated under the optimized conditions of in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 and Fenton. After determining the optimum conditions, the sludge was pre-treated with the optimum state of the oxidation process. Then, the determined optimum ratios of the sludge to immature compost were composted at a C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 and moisture content of 55% for a period of 10 weeks. Finally, both pre-treated and composted mixtures were again oxidized with the optimum conditions of the oxidants. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of the 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with H 2 O 2 were 88.34% and 90.4%, respectively. In addition, reduction of TPH in 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with Fenton were 83.90% and 84.40%, respectively. Without applying the pre-treatment step, the composting reactors had a removal rate of about 80%. Therefore, pre-treatment of the reactors increased the TPH removal. However, post-oxidation of both pre-treated and composted mixtures reduced only 13-16% of TPH. Based on the results, remarkable overall removal of TPH (about 99%) was achieved by using chemical oxidation and subsequent composting process. The study showed that chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 followed by in-vessel composting is a viable choice for the remediation of the sludge.

  10. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  11. Process for washing electromagnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guittet, Maurice; Treille, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This process concerns the washing of an electro-magnetic filter used, inter alia, for filtering the drain-off waters of nuclear power station steam generators, by means of a washing water used in closed circuit and freed, after each cleaning, of the solids in suspension it contains, by settlement of these solids. This invention enables the volume of water to be evaporated to be divided by 50, thereby providing a solid assurance of better safety, apart from a very significant saving [fr

  12. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  13. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  14. An overview of the Department of Energy's soil washing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Soil Washing Workshop was convened in Las Vegas, Nevada, on August 28--29, 1990 at the request of C.W. Frank, Associate Director, Office of Technology Development, US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of existing soil washing technologies and their applicability to specific soil contamination problems at DOE sites and at Superfund sites of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). From the workshop deliberations, a course of action would be recommended in developing soil washing technologies. Presentations were given describing the soil contamination problems at various DOE sites. The factors addressed for each site included: type of contamination (organic, heavy metals, radionuclides, etc.), sources of contamination (leaking tanks, ponds, soil columns, pipes, etc.), types of soils that are contaminated, magnitude of the problem, current site activities (remediation), other considerations that impact the use of soil washing technology (e.g., environmental, site policies, etc.), and regulations and standards the sites are required to meet. Major findings and presentations of the workshop are presented

  15. Nitric acid flowsheet with late wash PHA testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This Task Technical Plan outlines the activities to be conducted in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) in ongoing support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) utilizing the Nitric Acid Flowsheet in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produced by the Late Wash Flowsheet. The IDMS facility is to be operated over a series of runs (2 to 4) using the Nitric Acid Flowsheet. The PHA will be produced with the Late Wash Flowsheet in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). All operating conditions shall simulate the expected DWPF operating conditions as closely as possible. The task objectives are to perform at least two IDMS runs with as many operating conditions as possible at nominal DWPF conditions. The major purposes of these runs are twofold: verify that the combined Late Wash and Nitric Acid flowsheets produce glass of acceptable quality without additional changes to process equipment, and determine the reproducibility of data from run to run. These runs at nominal conditions will be compared to previous runs made with PHA produced from the Late Wash flowsheet and with the Nitric Acid flowsheet in the SRAT (Purex 4 and Purex 5)

  16. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika F Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis, lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma. Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.

  17. WASH-1400: quantifying the uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, R.C.; Leverenz, F.L. Jr.; Lellouche, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus on the limitations of the WASH-1400 analysis in estimating the risk from light water reactors (LWRs). This assessment attempts to modify the quantification of the uncertainty in and estimate of risk as presented by the RSS (reactor safety study). 8 refs

  18. Sludge Washing and Demonstration of the DWPF Nitric/Formic Flowsheet in the SRNL Shielded Cells for Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to qualify the next batch of sludge – Sludge Batch 9 (SB9). Current practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge to Tank 51 from other tanks. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to sludge transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Tank 51 sludge must be qualified. SRNL qualifies the sludge in multiple steps. First, a Tank 51 sample is received, then characterized, washed, and again characterized. SRNL then demonstrates the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet with the sludge. The final step of qualification involves chemical durability measurements of glass fabricated in the DWPF CPC demonstrations. In past sludge batches, SRNL had completed the DWPF demonstration with Tank 51 sludge. For SB9, SRNL has been requested to process a blend of Tank 51 and Tank 40 at a targeted ratio of 44% Tank 51 and 56% Tank 40 on an insoluble solids basis.

  19. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  20. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  1. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine). Th...... up 2%, Manually disassembling and recycling of metals, Reuse of motor in a new washing machine, aluminium wire instead of copper wire in the motor....

  2. Frequencies of leaks and probability of ignition sources in the H-area tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Point estimates are developed for the probability of an ignition source for tetraphenylborate (TPB) solids in H-area which leak into the annulus of Tank 48 and/or in the Filter Cell. Additionally, leak frequencies and leak rates are estimated for: the inner cell wall of Tank 48; Hanford connectors and single-wall transfer lines in the Filter Cell of the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Facility; and the double-wall transfer lines between tank 48, the Filter Cell, Tank 49 and the 'Late Wash' Tank

  3. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira da Mota, Izabel; de Castro, José Adilson; de Góes Casqueira, Rui; de Oliveira Junior, Angelo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Electroflotation method (EFM) for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it...

  4. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  5. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  6. [Preparation and antimicrobial effect of aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Su-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ling-Ling

    2013-06-01

    To prepare the aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care and research the inhibition effect on the different bacteria and pathogenic fungus which cause dermatophytosis. It was prepared by using Sophoraflavescens and Dictamnus dasycarpus as materials with the addition of Aloe extract, essential oil, surfactant, etc. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was researched by the levitation liquid quantitative method. The foot wash smelled faintly scent. The use of this product can produce a rich foam. The inhibitory rate were all more than 90%. The preparation process of the foot wash was simple. It has obviously bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect.

  7. Nuclear safety of extended sludge processing on tank 42 and 51 sludge (DWPF sludge feed batch one)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemons, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sludge in tanks 42 and 51 is to be washed with inhibited water to remove soluble salts and combined in tank 51 in preparation for feed to DWPF. Since these tanks contain uranium and plutonium, the process of washing must be evaluated to ensure subcriticality is maintained. When the sludge is washed, inhibited water is added, the tank contents are slurried and allowed to settle. The sludge wash water is then decanted to the evaporator feed tank where it is fed to the evaporator to reduce the volume. The resulting evaporator concentrate is sent to a salt tank where it cools and forms crystallized salt cake. This salt cake will later be dissolved, processed in ITP and sent to Z-Area. This report evaluates the supernate and sludge during washing, the impact on the evaporator during concentration of decanted wash water, and the salt tank where the concentrated supernate is deposited. The conclusions generated in this report are specific to the sludge currently contained in tanks 42 and 51

  8. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1995-05-05

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document.

  9. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document

  10. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  11. A Novel Transporting System Model for Oil Refinery

    OpenAIRE

    Razman M. Tahar; Waleed K. Abduljabbar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Oil refineries are widely used to store various liquids and gases. Petroleum products are in high demand. Oil companies have abundant resources of petroleum products in pipelines and storage tanks. Approach: Included are storage tanks at retail gasoline station, home heating oil tanks, lubricant storage at automotive service facilities, propane tanks in all sorts of application, and oil company terminals across the world. The aim of this study is to present a model by which...

  12. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  13. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  14. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  15. Cross flow filtration of aqueous radioactive tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.J.; Reynolds, B.A.; Todd, T.A.; Wilson, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology addresses remediation of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks. Baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. Solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. This basic process is used for decontamination of tank waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Ion exchange of radioactive ions has been proposed for other tank wastes, requiring removal of insoluble solids to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Additionally, volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage of High Level Wastes. The scope of this multi-site task is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. Testing has emphasized cross now filtration with metal filters to pretreat tank wastes, due to tolerance of radiation and caustic

  16. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  17. Enhancement of oxygen mass transfer and gas holdup using palm oil in stirred tank bioreactors with xanthan solutions as simulated viscous fermentation broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sauid, Suhaila; Krishnan, Jagannathan; Huey Ling, Tan; Veluri, Murthy V P S

    2013-01-01

    Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v) of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h(-1). It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.

  18. Enhancement of Oxygen Mass Transfer and Gas Holdup Using Palm Oil in Stirred Tank Bioreactors with Xanthan Solutions as Simulated Viscous Fermentation Broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaila Mohd Sauid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h−1. It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.

  19. Detecting wash trade in the financial market

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yi; Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Sonya; Belatreche, Ammar; McGinnity, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Wash trade refers to the activities of traders who utilise deliberately designed collusive transactions to increase the trading volumes for creating active market impression. Wash trade can be damaging to the proper functioning and integrity of capital markets. Existing work focuses on collusive clique detections based on certain assumptions of trading behaviours. Effective approaches for analysing and detecting wash trade in a real-life market have yet to be developed. T...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water system...

  1. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  2. Use of aluminum oxides, titanium and cerium in the production of ceramic composites for protective coating of storage tanks and transportation of oil raw; Uso de oxidos de aluminio, titanio e cerio na producao de compositos ceramicos para revestimento protetor de tanques de armazenamento e transporte de petroleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail: sheila.abc.rego@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias

    2012-07-01

    The deployment of the Abreu e Lima refinery in the port of SUAPE - PE will increase the need to store oil in the region, it is essential to research and develop new materials inert to chemical attack promoted by oil. In this work, we produce the ceramic composite alumina-titania, ceria of high mechanical strength which is observed that with additions of titanium oxide in the order of 15% and 20% better results are obtained as possibly indicating these composites suitable for use in coating ceramic storage tanks of crude oil. (author)

  3. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R

  4. Composite reinforced alumina ceramics with titan and lantana for use in coating storage tanks and transport of crude oil; Composito de ceramica alumina reforcada com titania e lantana para a utilizacao em revestimento de tanques de armazenamento e transporte de petroleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, C.E.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Oliveira, J.C.S.; Ferreira, R.A. Sanguinetti; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail: cata_esposito@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencia. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to use ceramics to improve the performance of the tanks that store and transport crude oil and which use metallic materials for their manufacture. These tanks in contact with crude oil undergo a process of degradation on their surfaces, since crude oil is a highly corrosive substance. And in turn ceramic materials have good stability in hostile environments. However, they are inherently fragile for display little plastic deformation. Therefore, the choice of a ceramic composite alumina-titania-lantana has high mechanical strength and high toughness which were produced by thermo-mechanical processing. These composites were sintered at 1350 ° C for 36 hours, and it was held Vickers hardness testing and microstructural characterization to assess their surfaces before and after the attack by crude to use such material as ceramic coating. These results will be presented at the congress. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the problematic of corrosion in bottoms of tanks of crude oil storage; Evaluacion de la problematica de corrosion en fondos de tanques de almacenamiento de petroleo crudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo T, Jose M; Uruchurtu C, Jorge; Meza, Beatriz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez C, Luis F [Region Marina Suroeste, Pemex (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this article the results related to the corrosive aggressiveness of the water fluids of crude oil of the Marine Terminal of Dos Bocas (TMDB), on the effectiveness of the anticorrosive control methods and on the control measures that could be adopted are presented. Also, this article comprises a work made by personnel of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) during year 2002. The corrosion in tanks is of electrochemical nature and has its origin in the watery phase that accompanies the crude oil on being extracted from underground. In the case of the storage tanks, the watery phase separates at the bottom, causing the wetness of the bottom steel plates and its degradation. Due to the limited access to the interior of the tank during its operation, a testing device was designed that was connected to a drain valve of a tank of the terminal. The experimental work looked for the evaluation of the aggressiveness of the fluids, the type of corrosion products formed and the effectiveness of the cathodic protection and of the coatings. Additionally, fluid samples were collected, for analyzing the natural aggressiveness level that presents the water contained in the three types of crude: Mayan, Olmeca and Istmo handled in the terminal, studying steel samples and of plant fluids under controlled laboratory conditions. The aggressiveness was obtained from measurements of corrosion rates and analysis of microbial activity. The feasibility of applying the method of cathodic protection was analyzed, observing its effectiveness, as well as particular corrosion forms as the ones that occur in the pontoons. The results of the study lead to propose a monitoring scheme to pursuit the integrity of the coatings, the operation of the cathodic protection and the corrosion in tanks, with which a better control of the operation of the anticorrosive methods and of the degradation that occurs with the corrosion, could be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan

  6. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-05-04

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy.

  7. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications

  8. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  9. Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

  10. Treatment of bilge and oily drain water of tankers and current measures against combustible oil gas discharge; Tanker no biruji yudakusui shori oyobi kanensei sekiyu gas haishutsu taiskau no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agatsuma, Y.

    1996-07-25

    This paper describes the current actual conditions on treatment of bilge discharged from engine area and oily drain water from cargo area of tankers. Clean bilge among various bilges discharged from engine area such as vapor drain, fresh water, rainwater, seawater and condensed water is directly dumped into the sea after temporary storage in a clean tank. Oily bilge is produced mainly by mixing of clean bilge and leakage oil from main engines and various auxiliaries. Oily bilge is dumped into the sea under comparative monitoring of the bilge quality with the dumping standard by oil concentration monitoring and control equipment after the primary treatment in a treatment tank and the secondary treatment in a bilge separator. Oily drain water from cargo area contains water ballast for cargo oil tanks, wash water for tanks and lines, and bilge produced in pump room. The oily drain water is dumped under a specific condition. However, water ballast for specific ballast tanks is excluded from the oily drain water. 2 figs.

  11. Treatment of radioactive wastes from DOE underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge and supernate tank waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology process for use in a comprehensive sludge processing flow sheet as a means of concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tank waste at national sites for final disposal. This paper discusses the separation of the sludge solids and supernate, the basic washing of the sludge solids, the acidic dissolution of the sludge solids, and the removal of the radionuclides from the supernate

  12. Analysis of railroad tank car releases using a generalized binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Hong, Yili

    2015-11-01

    The United States is experiencing an unprecedented boom in shale oil production, leading to a dramatic growth in petroleum crude oil traffic by rail. In 2014, U.S. railroads carried over 500,000 tank carloads of petroleum crude oil, up from 9500 in 2008 (a 5300% increase). In light of continual growth in crude oil by rail, there is an urgent national need to manage this emerging risk. This need has been underscored in the wake of several recent crude oil release incidents. In contrast to highway transport, which usually involves a tank trailer, a crude oil train can carry a large number of tank cars, having the potential for a large, multiple-tank-car release incident. Previous studies exclusively assumed that railroad tank car releases in the same train accident are mutually independent, thereby estimating the number of tank cars releasing given the total number of tank cars derailed based on a binomial model. This paper specifically accounts for dependent tank car releases within a train accident. We estimate the number of tank cars releasing given the number of tank cars derailed based on a generalized binomial model. The generalized binomial model provides a significantly better description for the empirical tank car accident data through our numerical case study. This research aims to provide a new methodology and new insights regarding the further development of risk management strategies for improving railroad crude oil transportation safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High-level waste tank modifications, installation of mobilization equipment/check out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffhauer, M.A.; Thompson, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    PUREX high-level waste (HLW) is contained at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) in an underground carbon-steel storage tank. The HLW consists of a precipitated sludge and an alkaline supernate. This report describes the system that the WVDP has developed and implemented to resuspend and wash the HLW sludge from the tank. The report discusses Sludge Mobilization and Wash System (SMWS) equipment design, installation, and testing. The storage tank required modifications to accommodate the SMWS. These modifications are discussed as well

  14. Cathode protection for underground steel tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelovski, Zoran

    1998-01-01

    Cathodic protection of underground petroleum storage tanks and piping systems is acceptable for both economic and ecological reasons. With out the cathodic protection of underground steel reservoirs, short time after the exploitation, there was a bore as a result of underground corrosion. The bore causes ecological consequences and at the same time its repair needs big investments. Furthermore, there are great number of tanks placed near cities, so in the future this problem needs a special attention in order to preserve ecological surrounding. The topic of this paper is underground corrosion as well as cathodic protection of steel tanks for oil derivatives storage. (author)

  15. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  16. Soil washing and post-wash biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Alok

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory scale study was conducted to investigate the treatability of petroleum contaminated soils by soil washing and subsequent biological treatment of the different soil fractions. In addition to soils obtained from contaminated sites, studies were also performed on soils contaminated in the laboratory. Soil washing was performed using a bench-scale soil washing system. Washing was carried out with simultaneous fractionation of the bulk soil into sand, silt and clay fractions. Cl...

  17. Safety evaluation of the ESP sludge washing baselines runs. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Purpose is to provide the technical basis for evaluation of unreviewed safety question for the Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) Sludge Washing Baseline Runs, which are necessary to resolve technical questions associated with process control (sludge suspension, sludge settling, heat transfer, temperature control). The sludge is currently stored in below-ground tanks and will be prepared for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility as part of the Integrated Waste Removal Program for Savannah River Site

  18. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities

  19. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    with slightly adapted washing habits, or 17% of normal today. If the heat is supplied from combined heat and power production as in the actual experiment, CO2-emission is reduced by 81%. With hot water from oil or gas heaters the reduction will be slightly lower, while with solar hot water it will be larger.......Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...

  20. Tank 241-BY-108 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQOs identity information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for tank BY-108 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given. Single-shell tank BY-108 is classified as a Ferrocyanide Watch List tank. The tank was declared an assumed leaker and removed from service in 1972; interim stabilized was completed in February 1985. Although not officially an Organic Watch List tank, restrictions have been placed on intrusive operations by Standing Order number-sign 94-16 (dated 09/08/94) since the tank is suspected to contain or to have contained a floating organic layer

  1. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  2. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs.

  3. Washing of Uranium Gel Resulted from Gelation Using Ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurwijayadi; Bangun-Wasito; Sukarsono; Endang-Nawangsih

    2000-01-01

    Washing of uranium gel resulted from gelation using ammonia underconcentration of 1, 2.5, 3, 4 and 5 % has been carried out. The sol wasprepared by reacting uranyl nitrate, urea and HMTA at 5 o C. The resulted solwas dropped into a column containing paraffin oil at temperature of 95 o C.The resulted gel color was orange. It was simmered in a 2.5 % ammoniasolution for 24 hours. After that, the gel was washed in an ammonia solutionunder a concentration variation. The best washing process occurred at ammoniaconcentration of 2.5 % with most absorbed ion nitrate, i.e. 292.2 ppm. Theresulted true density using N 2 was about 8.3 - 8.6 g/ml, specific surfacearea using multi point BET was about 1.5 - 3.1 m 2 /g, average pore radius was22.27 -41.22 A and total pore volume was 3.55 x 10 -3 cc/g. (author)

  4. Anaerobic digestion of waste waters after washing olives used for oil production: in fluence of harvest time on the kinetics of the process. Digestion anaerobia de las aguas de lavado de aceitunas de almazara: influencia del periodo de recoleccion sobre la cinetica del proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Padilla, R.; Alba-Mendoza, J.; Hidalgo-Casado, F.

    1994-01-01

    A kinetic study was carried out of anaerobic digestion of waste waters after washing olives used for oil production, collected at three different harvest times (December 1992, January and February 1993). A 1-litre mixed batch bioreactor operated at 35 degree centigree and containing a sepiolite-immobilized biomass was used. Assuming that the overall anaerobic digestion process conforms to a first-order kinetics, experimental data pairs, namely methane volume yield (G) and time (t), fit Roediger's equation, from which the rate coefficient values, k[sub o], were determined in each of the situations studied. The rate coefficient considerably decreased with the harvest time, over the substrate concentration range studied (0.5-2.5 g COD/1). The average values obtained were [sub 1.67],[sub 1.13] and [sub 0.75] days for the waste waters corresponding to the three harvest times considered. Also, the methanogenic activity decreased with the ripening of the olives; the observed differences increased when the substrate concentration in the digester increased. The coefficients of methane yield, Yp ranged between 0.263 (first harvest time) and 0.298 I CH[sub 4]/g COD removed (third harvest time). The elimination of COD exceeded 64% in all cases. (Author) 13 refs.

  5. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  6. 33 CFR 157.460 - Additional operational requirements for tank barges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT... Hulls Carrying Petroleum Oils § 157.460 Additional operational requirements for tank barges. (a...

  7. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  8. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO's identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given

  9. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft 3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330, Areas 6,22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. The CAUs are currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). This CAU is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1). CAU 330 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 06-02-04 - Consists of an underground tank and piping. This CAS is close to an area that was part of the Animal Investigation Program (AIP), conducted under the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose was to study and perform tests on the cattle and wild animals in and around the NTS that were exposed to radionuclides. It is unknown if this tank was part of these operations. (2) CAS 22-99-06 - Is a fuel spill that is believed to be a waste oil release which occurred when Camp Desert Rock was an active facility. This CAS was originally identified as being a small depression where liquids were poured onto the ground, located on the west side of Building T-1001. This building has been identified as housing a fire station, radio station, and radio net remote and telephone switchboard. (3) CAS 23-01-02 - Is a large aboveground storage tank (AST) farm that was constructed to provide gasoline and diesel storage in Area 23. The site consists of two ASTs, a concrete foundation, a surrounding earthen berm, associated piping, and unloading stations. (4) CAS 23-25-05 - Consists of an asphalt oil spill/tar release that contains a wash covered with asphalt oil/tar material, a half buried 208-liter (L) (55-gallon [gal]) drum, rebar, and concrete located in the vicinity.

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330, Areas 6,22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. The CAUs are currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). This CAU is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1). CAU 330 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 06-02-04 - Consists of an underground tank and piping. This CAS is close to an area that was part of the Animal Investigation Program (AIP), conducted under the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose was to study and perform tests on the cattle and wild animals in and around the NTS that were exposed to radionuclides. It is unknown if this tank was part of these operations. (2) CAS 22-99-06 - Is a fuel spill that is believed to be a waste oil release which occurred when Camp Desert Rock was an active facility. This CAS was originally identified as being a small depression where liquids were poured onto the ground, located on the west side of Building T-1001. This building has been identified as housing a fire station, radio station, and radio net remote and telephone switchboard. (3) CAS 23-01-02 - Is a large aboveground storage tank (AST) farm that was constructed to provide gasoline and diesel storage in Area 23. The site consists of two ASTs, a concrete foundation, a surrounding earthen berm, associated piping, and unloading stations. (4) CAS 23-25-05 - Consists of an asphalt oil spill/tar release that contains a wash covered with asphalt oil/tar material, a half buried 208-liter (L) (55-gallon[gal]) drum, rebar, and concrete located in the vicinity

  12. A laboratory study of washing of SRS high-level waste radioactive sludge-evidence for insoluble sodium and cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.; Bibler, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center were undertaken to simulate the full-scale sludge washing process and thereby identify potential problems, wash water requirements, sludge settling rates and the fate of various radioactive and non-radioactive species present in the sludge. The laboratory sludge washing experiments were conducted on a radioactive sludge sample taken from one of three processing tanks in Extended Sludge Processing. The sample of Tank 42H sludge was extensively characterized for both soluble and insoluble species (radioactive and non-radioactive) before beginning the washing study. The results of the washing experiments using inhibited water (0.01 M NaOH) indicate there is essentially no dissolution of species from the insoluble phase of the sludge during the washing. The addition of wash water to the sludge merely dilutes the salt dissolved in the interstitial supernate of the sludge. Another result from the experiments is that approximately 30% of the sodium and 86% of the Cs-137 in the original unwashed sludge is present in an insoluble form and does not wash out of the sludge

  13. Tank inspection, repair, alternation, and reconstruction, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper incorporates APIs Aboveground Storage Tank Inspector Certication Program (ASTICP) as an integral part of API Standard 653. This program certies qualified aboveground storage tank inspectors for oil tanks. The ASTICP was developed in accordance with APIs Environmental Excellence Program and promotes the operation of facilities and materials handling in a manner that protects the environment, and the safety and health of employees and the public

  14. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  15. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  16. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  17. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  18. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Jennifer L.; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. (Ine)

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer. PMID:26213953

  19. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Banach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  20. Wastewater Treatment Model in Washing Stations for Vehicles Transporting Dangerous Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Muha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Car washing is a task performed by every passenger carowner more or less frequently, mainly to achieve a finer appearanceof the vehicle rather than for the need for cleanness.In the transport business, the owner's concern is to presentclean and orderly vehicles on the road as a relevant external elementof order, implying good corporate image to customers. Onthe other hand, in dangerous goods transportation there areother reasons requiring special technology of washing, applicableto the transport means used, depending on the change oftype of goods in carriage, the preliminary preparation of a vehicleto load the cargo, or to undergo maintenance.Water applied in the technology of washing collects the residueof goods carried in the vehicle and is polluted to such an extentthat it cannot be discharged into sewers - nor directly into awatercourse - without previous treatment.The paper presents a solution model and a sequence oftechnological procedures involved in an efficient treatment ofthe polluted wastewater in tank wash stations, in which mostlyvehicles carrying ADR goods are washed.

  1. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by

  2. Method of treating the waste liquid of a washing containing a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaguchi, Yusuke; Tsuyuki, Takashi; Kaneko, Masato; Sato, Yasuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To separate waste liquid resulting from washing and which contains a radioactive substance and surface active agent into high purity water and a solid waste substance containing a small quantity of surface active agent. Structure: To waste liquid from a waste liquid tank is added a pH adjusting agent for adjusting the pH to 5.5, and the resultant liquid is sent to an agglomeration reaction tank, in which an inorganic agglomerating agent is added to the waste liquid to cause a major proportion of the radioactive substance and surface active agent to form flocks produced through agglomeration. Then, the waste liquid is sent from the agglomeration reaction tank to a froth separation tank, to which air is supplied through a perforated plate to cause frothing. The over-flowing liquid is de-frothed, and then the insoluble matter is separated as sludge, followed by hydroextraction and drying for solidification. The treated liquid extracted from a froth separation tank is sent to an agglomerating agent recovery tank for separation of the agglomeration agent, and then the residual surface active agent is removed by adsorption in an active carbon adsorption tower, followed by concentration by evaporation in an evaporating can. The concentrated liquid is extracted and then solidified with cement or asphalt. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  4. Qualification testing and full-scale demonstration of titanium-treated zeolite for sludge wash processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, W.J.

    1997-06-30

    Titanium-treated zeolite is a new ion-exchange material that is a variation of UOP (formerly Union Carbide) IONSIV IE-96 zeolite (IE-96) that has been treated with an aqueous titanium solution in a proprietary process. IE-96 zeolite, without the titanium treatment, has been used since 1988 in the West Valley Demonstration Project`s (WVDP) Supernatant Treatment System (STS) ion-exchange columns to remove Cs-137 from the liquid supernatant solution. The titanium-treated zeolite (TIE-96) was developed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Following successful lab-scale testing of the PNL-prepared TIE-96, UOP was selected as a commercial supplier of the TIE-96 zeolite. Extensive laboratory tests conducted by both the WVDP and PNL indicate that the TIE-96 will successfully remove comparable quantities of Cs-137 from Tank 8D-2 high-level radioactive liquid as was done previously with IE-96. In addition to removing Cs-137, TIE-96 also removes trace quantities of Pu, as well as Sr-90, from the liquid being processed over a wide range of operating conditions: temperature, pH, and dilution. The exact mechanism responsible for the Pu removal is not fully understood. However, the Pu that is removed by the TIE-96 remains on the ion-exchange column under anticipated sludge wash processing conditions. From May 1988 to November 1990, the WVDP processed 560,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive supernatant waste stored in Tank 8D-2. Supernatant is an aqueous salt solution comprised primarily of soluble sodium salts. The second stage of the high-level waste treatment process began November 1991 with the initiation of sludge washing. Sludge washing involves the mixing of Tank 8D-2 contents, both sludge and liquid, to dissolve the sulfate salts present in the sludge. Two sludge washes were required to remove sulfates from the sludge.

  5. UO2 production process with methanol washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondermann, T.

    1978-01-01

    The invention refers to a process for the recovery of methanol used for washing the ammonium uranyl carbonate obtained during UO 2 production. The methanol contains about 50% H 2 O, about 10% (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , and is radioactive. According to the invention the methanol is purified at reduced pressure in a distillation unit and then led back to the washing unit. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 MBE [de

  6. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  7. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  8. Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city's sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils

  9. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  10. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  11. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  12. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

    2011-07-08

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non

  13. Fast pyrolysis of corn stover using ZnCl2: Effect of washing treatment on the furfural yield and solvent extraction of furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Choi, Gyung-Goo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2015-01-01

    To produce a bio-oil having a high concentration of furfural, corn stover was fast-pyrolyzed using ZnCl 2 in a fluidized bed reactor at 330–430 °C. The effects of various parameters such as reaction temperature, water- and acid-washing prior to pyrolysis, and ZnCl 2 content on the product and furfural yields were investigated. Moreover, solvent extraction was conducted using toluene at different mass ratios of bio-oil/toluene to recover furfural from the obtained bio-oil. The maximum yield of bio-oil was 59 wt%. The bio-oil mainly comprised acetic acid, α-hydroxyketones, and furfural. The maximum furfural yield was 11.5 wt% when the feed material was water-washed, impregnated with 18.5 wt% ZnCl 2 , and pyrolyzed. Although acid-washing removed alkali and alkaline earth metals much more efficiently than water-washing, water-washing was better than acid-washing for the furfural production. Toluene extraction was very effective to recover furfural from bio-oil. The maximum recovery rate (82%) was achieved at a bio-oil/toluene ratio of 1:4. - Highlights: • Corn stover pretreated and impregnated with ZnCl 2 was successfully pyrolyzed. • Furfural was recovered from bio-oil by extraction using toluene. • Water-washing was better than acid-washing for the furfural production. • The highest furfural yield was 11.5 wt% of the product. • The highest furfural recovery rate was 82%

  14. Effect of acid washing on pyrolysis of Cladophora socialis alga in microtubing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, Hoang Vu; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Jinsoo; Choi, Jae Hyung; Woo, Hee Chul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of macroalgae Cladophora socialis was conducted in micro tubular reactor. • Acid washing affected the pyrolysis behavior of Cladophora socialis. • Pyrolysis of raw and acid washed C. socialis produced bio-oils with different compositions. • Pyrolysis reaction pathway was from C. socialis to liquid and then to gas (C_1–C_4). - Abstract: Cladophora socialis is a unique macroalga that is widely grown in the coastal regions of Vietnam. In this work, the pyrolysis characteristics of C. socialis were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis in a tubing reactor. Macroalgae have a high content of inorganic compounds. These compounds result in high char content during pyrolysis of the macroalgae, which degrades the quality of the product bio-oil. In order to study this effect, C. socialis was demineralized by acid washing to remove the inorganic compounds. The effect of acid washing on the pyrolysis product distribution and the selectivity of composition in pyrolysis oil was carefully investigated. The kinetic parameters and the primary reaction pathways were also determined based on experimental data using nonlinear least-squares regression assuming a first-order kinetics model.

  15. Experimental study of an aircraft fuel tank inerting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Yan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simulated aircraft fuel tank inerting system has been successfully established based on a model tank. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of different operating parameters on the inerting effectiveness of the system, including flow rate of the inert gas (nitrogen-enriched air, inert gas concentration, fuel load of the tank and different inerting approaches. The experimental results show that under the same operating conditions, the time span of a complete inerting process decreased as the flow rate of inert gas was increased; the time span using the inert gas with 5% oxygen concentration was much longer than that using pure nitrogen; when the fuel tank was inerted using the ullage washing approach, the time span increased as the fuel load was decreased; the ullage washing approach showed the best inerting performance when the time span of a complete inerting process was the evaluation criterion, but when the decrease of dissolved oxygen concentration in the fuel was also considered to characterize the inerting effectiveness, the approach of ullage washing and fuel scrubbing at the same time was the most effective.

  16. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  17. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111

  18. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  19. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  20. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118

  1. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  2. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  3. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  4. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  5. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  6. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  7. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  8. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  9. Hydraulic washing removal efficiencies of Orimulsion from rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.R.; Ward, S.; Sergy, G.

    2002-01-01

    Orimulsion is a fuel alternative composed of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. It is shipped from Venezuela to New Brunswick where it is used as fuel oil for power plants. While there have not been any major spills of Orimulsion, it is recognized that very little is known regarding the dispersal and weathering processes of Orimulsion, or the behaviour and cleanup of the product on both rocky and course sediment shorelines. For that reason, this study was conducted to determine the efficiency of hydraulic washing under different water temperatures and pressures to remove bitumen from rocky shorelines. The results of the study make it possible to assess the physical effectiveness of the method and to determine the range of effective operational parameters. The coating protocol was refined to create uniform coating of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen of rock surfaces. The use of a chemical agent for enhancing removal efficiency was also assessed. Orimulsion could reach shorelines as low concentration dispersions of bitumen particles suspended in a water column, or as a high concentration mixture of bitumen, water and air. Granite tiles were coated with uniform coatings of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen. They were then washed under different pressures, temperatures and other treatments. Temperatures of more than 40 degrees C and pressures of more than 76 kPa were needed to effectively remove the bitumen coatings. Weathering significantly increased coating tenacity for dispersed coatings, but did not affect coalesced coating tenacity. Immediate washing was found to be very effective for removing dispersed coating, but not for coalesced coating. Coating tenacity was also affected by submergence times. Pre-treatment of the coating with a dispersion called Corexit significantly improved the removal efficiencies of dispersed coatings, but not coalesced coatings. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Soil washing: From characterization to implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, F.L.; Groenendijk, E.

    1995-01-01

    Only recently has soil washing begun to be applied to remediation of contaminated soils in the US. The experience gained during full-scale and large pilot-scale projects points to the importance of soil and site characterization in correctly evaluating the applicability of soil washing to a site and determining accurate cost estimates for its implementation. This paper will discuss actual case studies of various treatability and pilot study approaches that led to successful evaluation and implementation of soil washing remedies. Soil washing is applicable to a broad variety of chemical contaminants. Target contaminants include metals, radionuclides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as combinations of these contaminants. Because the contaminants noted above are deposited in the soils in a variety of forms, the unit operations necessary to treat the soil vary. It is the diversity of the available treatment alternatives, and the ability to use the units in a variety of process flow configurations that result in a very broad definition of soil washing

  11. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...

  13. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  14. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  15. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  16. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  17. Ultrafiltration to reuse laundering wash water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giagnorio, Mattia; Søtoft, Lene Fjerbæk; Tiraferri, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Laundering industry consumes and discharges large amounts of water and surfactants, and the demand of surface active agents used for washing is increasing worldwide. Some of these substances are considered contaminants of emerging concern, as they persist in the environment. This work aimed...... at evaluating the feasibility of ultrafiltration as a method to treat the wash wastewater and possibly reuse the surfactant-rich permeate stream in laundry facilities. In particular, evaluation of surfactant recovery was performed through analysis of the permeate flux and properties obtained through polymeric...... and ceramic membranes. Wash water samples were collected at an industrial laundering facility for hospital linen and filtered through different ultrafiltration membranes with varying molecular weight cut-off. The critical micelle concentration of the detergent was quantified, and capillarity measurements were...

  18. Separation of oils from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slyke, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for cleaning oil-contaminated particulate solids. It comprises: contacting contaminated solids with a non-aqueous liquid composition comprising a carboxylic acid; then contacting the solids with an aqueous wash containing a reagent for converting the carboxylic acid to a water-soluble carboxylate salt; and removing an aqueous phase containing carboxylate salt and entrained oil

  19. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  20. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  1. ESP's Tank 42 washwater transfer to the 241-F/H tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aponte, C.I.; Lee, E.D.

    1997-12-01

    As a result of the separation of the High-Level Liquid Waste Department into three separate organizations (formerly there were two) (Concentration, Storage, and Transfer (CST), Waste Pre-Treatment (WPT) and Waste Disposition (WD)) process interface controls were required. One of these controls is implementing the Waste the waste between CST and WPT. At present, CST's Waste Acceptance Criteria is undergoing revision and WPT has not prepared the required Waste Compliance Plan (WCP). The Waste Pre-Treatment organization is making preparations for transferring spent washwater in Tank 42 to Tank 43 and/or Tank 22. The washwater transfer is expected to complete the washing steps for preparing ESP batch 1B sludge. This report is intended to perform the function of a Waste Compliance Plan for the proposed transfer. Previously, transfers between the Tank Farm and ITP/ESP were controlled by requirements outlined in the Tank Farm's Technical Standards and ITP/ESP's Process Requirements. Additionally, these controls are implemented primarily in operating procedure 241-FH-7TSQ and ITP Operations Manual SW16.1-SOP-WTS-1 which will be completed prior to performing the waste transfers

  2. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using organic vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks has been identified as a safety issue because expanding gases could potentially affect tank dome integrity. Organic liquid waste has been found in some of the waste tanks, but most are thought to contain only trace amounts. Due to the inhomogeneity of the waste, direct sampling of the tank waste to locate organic liquids may not conclusively demonstrate that a given tank is free of risk. However, organic vapors present above the organic liquid waste can be detected with a high degree of confidence and can be used to identify problem tanks. This report presents the results of a screening test that has been applied to 82 passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site to identify those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. It includes seven tanks not addressed in the previous version of this report, Screening for Organic Solvents in Hanford Waste Tanks Using Total Non-Methane Organic Compound Vapor Concentrations. The screening test is based on a simple model of the tank headspace that estimates the effective surface area of semivolatile organic liquid waste in a tank. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Thirteen tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Most of the tanks identified as containing potentially significant quantities of organic liquid waste are in the 241-BY and 241-C tank farms, which agrees qualitatively with the fact that these tank farms received the majority of the PUREX process organic wash waste and waste organic liquids

  3. Plutonium recovery from carbonate wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Reif, D.J.; Chostner, D.F.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    540Periodically higher than expected levels of plutonium are found in carbonate solutions used to wash second plutonium cycle solvent. The recent accumulation of plutonium in carbonate wash solutions has led to studies to determine the cause of that plutonium accumulation, to evaluate the quality of all canyon solvents, and to develop additional criteria needed to establish when solvent quality is acceptable. Solvent from three canyon solvent extraction cycles was used to evaluate technology required to measure tributyl phosphate (TBP) degradation products and was used to evaluate solvent quality criteria during the development of plutonium recovery processes. 1 fig

  4. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and 137 Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration. - Highlights: • Fine soil erosion showed large impact on radiocaesium wash-off. • Exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and eroded soil. • Radiocaesium concentration in the discharged soil was depending on land use

  5. Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information

  6. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  7. Use of green washing fluids in a washing process for dioxin contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Yotapukdee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High levels of dioxin contamination in soil have significant environmental challenges. Soil washing is a successful remediation process that is primarily used to treat coarse soils. Several literature studies have used various kinds of chemical washing liquids to remove dioxins from soils, though there are secondary environmental effects. This study intends to develop environmentally friendly soil washing methods that are effective in dioxin removal at an acceptable cost. Sugarcane wine, compost leachate, and ground fish broth were chosen as potential washing liquids. Each washing liquid was analyzed to determine its content of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. These compounds are related to their bio-surfactant content. Several of the identified compounds had properties to help remove dioxins from contaminated soil. In the experiments, high removal efficiencies were observed, up to 70%~95% after five to six washes. Although effective removal was observed, a significant amount of wastewater was produced and the problems were not completely resolved. Thus, the optimal washing conditions are necessary to minimize the overall costs, while improving the process effectiveness. Moreover, an appropriate treatment method is required for wastewater containing dioxins.

  8. Influence of the washing program on the blood processing performance of a continuous autotransfusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chiyul; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Jung Chan; Ko, Sung Ho; Ahn, Wonsik; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-03-01

    The continuous autotransfusion system has been widely used in surgical operations. It is known that if oil is added to blood, and this mixture is then processed by an autotransfusion device, the added oil is removed and reinfusion of fat is prevented by the device. However, there is no detailed report on the influence of the particular washing program selected on the levels of blood components including blood fat after continuous autotransfusion using such a system. Fresh bovine blood samples were processed by a commercial continuous autotransfusion device using the "emergency," "quality," and "high-quality" programs, applied in random order. Complete blood count (CBC) and serum chemistry were analyzed to determine how the blood processing performance of the device changes with the washing program applied. There was no significant difference in the CBC results obtained with the three washing programs. Although all of the blood lipids in the processed blood were decreased compared to those in the blood before processing, the levels of triglyceride, phospholipid, and total cholesterol after processing via the emergency program were significantly higher than those present after processing via the quality and high-quality programs. Although the continuous autotransfusion device provided consistent hematocrit quality, the levels of some blood lipid components showed significant differences among the washing programs.

  9. A soil washing pilot plant for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, I.A.; Roehrig, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A soil washing pilot plant was built and tested for its ability to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from certain soils. The ITEX soil washing pilot plant is a trailer mountable mobile unit which has a washing capacity of two tons per hour of contaminated soils. A benchscale study was carried out prior to the fabrication of the pilot plant. The first sample was contaminated with diesel fuel while the second sample was contaminated with crude oil. Various nonionic, cationic and anionic cleaning agents were evaluated for their ability to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from these materials. The nonionic cleaning agents were more successful in cleaning the soils in general. The ultimate surfactant choice was based on several factors including cost, biodegradability, cleaning efficiency and other technical considerations. The soil samples were characterized in terms of their particle size distributions. Commercial diesel fuel was carefully mixed in this sand to prepare a representative sample for the pilot plant study. Two pilot runs were made using this material. A multistage washing study was also conducted in the laboratory which indicates that the contamination level can be reduced to 100 ppm using only four stages. Because the pilot plant washing efficiency is twice as high, it is believed that ultimate contamination levels can be reduced to lower levels using the same number of stages. However, this hypothesis has not been demonstrated to date

  10. The research of full automatic oil filtering control technology of high voltage insulating oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gangjun; Zhang, Tong; Yan, Guozeng; Zhang, Han; Chen, Zhimin; Su, Chang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the design scheme of automatic oil filter control system for transformer oil in UHV substation is summarized. The scheme specifically includes the typical double tank filter connection control method of the transformer oil of the UHV substation, which distinguishes the single port and the double port connection structure of the oil tank. Finally, the design scheme of the temperature sensor and respirator is given in detail, and the detailed evaluation and application scenarios are given for reference.

  11. Tank 241-AP-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-104

  12. Modification of the process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preller, H

    1922-08-30

    A method of carrying out the process according to Patent 400,122 especially for washing oil or bitumen-bearing mineral materials contaminated with more or less clay, marl, and so forth is characterized in that the oil-bearing raw material is first washed in an opposing stream of warm water for separating the larger part of the oil and settling the larger part of the rock. At the same time the fine clay suspended during the washing operation to a large extent and the remaining rock particles, which are unbound from the oil, by means of a regulatable water stream for further washing are carried into a receptacle of greater cross section, where by the very slow rise of the liquid the finer oil particles find an opportunity to ascend.

  13. SOIL-WASHING TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil washing in the United States has been studied and evaluated with increasing thoroughness during the last 15 to 20 years. It is now entering a phase of actual use and acceptance as its applicability and economics become clearer. This paper reviews the principles behind soil...

  14. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study

  15. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  18. A method for treating clayless wash fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deykalo, T A; Dzhumagaliyev, T N; Skvortsov, D S

    1980-02-18

    To increase the heat and salt resistance of a wash fluid, monoethanolamine processed waste of licorice production - grist in a volume of 5-8% by weight, is introduced into it as the disperse phase. The processing of the grist is conducted for 1-2 hours at 20-100/sup 0/C and the volume of the monoethanolamine is 0.05-0.1% by weight. The properties of the washing fluids treated by the grist with the introduction of 20% CaC1/sub 2/ into them were not deteriorated, while complete coagulation was achieved with its introduction into washing fluids on the basis of KMTs. Grist washing liquids do not deteriorate their own properties to a temperature of 200/sup 0/C, do not cause equipment corrosion, are inert to swelling clay rocks and with the introduction of KMTs at a temperature above 130-140/sup 0/C cause insignificant destruction of the reagent which is accompanied by a change in the color of the solutions and a drop in the degree of polymerization and viscosity.

  19. Tank 241-C-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the Tank 241-C-107 (C-107) sampling activities. Currently tank C-107 is categorized as a sound, low-heat load tank with partial isolation completed in December 1982. The tank is awaiting stabilization. Tank C-107 is expected to contain three primary layers of waste. The bottom layer should contain a mixture of the following wastes: ion exchange, concentrated phosphate waste from N-Reactor, Hanford Lab Operations, strontium semi-works, Battelle Northwest, 1C, TBP waste, cladding waste, and the hot semi-works. The middle layer should contain strontium recovery supernate. The upper layer should consist of non-complexed waste

  20. Safety Evaluation of the ESP Sludge Washing Baselines Runs. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical basis for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) Sludge Washing Baseline Runs. The Baseline runs are necessary: to ascertain the mechanical fitness of the equipment and modifications not operated since 1988 and to resolve technical questions associated with process control; i.e., sludge suspension, sludge settling, heat transfer, and temperature control. These issues need to be resolved prior to resumption of normal ESP operations. The equipment used for the Baseline runs are Tanks 42H and 51H and their associated equipment

  1. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  2. Performance of a Small-scale Treatment Wetland for Treatment of Landscaping Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. J.; Fayed, E.; Fish, W.

    2011-12-01

    A large number of lawn mowers and related equipment must be cleaned each day by commercial landscaping operations and state and local highway maintenance crews. Washing these devices produces wastewater that contains high amounts of organic matter and potentially problematic nutrients, as well as oil and grease and other chemicals and metals that come from the machinery itself. Dirty water washes off the mowers, flows off the pavement and into nearby storm drains without any kind of treatment. A better idea would be to collect such wastewater, retain it in an appropriate catchment such as an engineered wetland where natural processes could break down any pollutants in the wash water, and allow the water to naturally evaporate or percolate into the soil where it could recharge ground water resources safely. This research examines the performance of a small-scale treatment wetland tailored to remove nitrogen from landscaping wash water by incorporating both aerobic and anaerobic phases. Contaminants are analyzed through physical and chemical methods. Both methods involve collection of samples, followed by standardized, validated analytical laboratory tests for measuring total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease, and metals (Zn and Cu). High levels of total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease are found. Zinc and copper levels are low. Wetland treatment removes 99% total solids, 77% total kjeldahl nitrogen, 100% nitrates, 94% total phosphorus, 86% dissolved phosphorus, 94% COD, 97% BOD, and 76% oil and grease. The results will be a critical step towards developing a sustainable low-energy system for treating such wastewater that could be used by private landscaping companies and government agencies.

  3. Extended tank use analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFigh-Price, C.; Green, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site were originally designed for open-quotes temporaryclose quotes use. The newer double-shell tanks were designed for 50 years of use. A number of single-shell tanks failed their original design criteria to contain liquid waste soon after they were constructed. These single-shell and double-shell tanks now will be required to contain semi-solid high-activity waste well beyond their design lives. It must be determined that the waste contained in these tanks will remain stable for up to an additional 30 years of storage. This paper describes the challenge of demonstrating that the tanks that have exceeded or will exceed their design lifetime can safely store high-level waste until planned disposal actions are taken. Considerations will include structural and chemical analyses

  4. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  5. Integrity assessment of a storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Osorio Correa; Santos, Jose Henrique Gomes dos; Carvalho, Alexis Fernandes [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the last internal inspection of a 5000 bbl freshwater storage tank located in a shipping terminal, widespread pitting corrosion was detected on the shell courses. In some of these pits, its depth was such that the remaining thickness was bellow the minimum thickness required according to the design code. Nevertheless, this approach is overly conservative since it does not consider the pits size, depth and spacing. Thanks to advances in stress analysis, new tools are available for the evaluation of damaged equipment widely employed in the oil industry such as pressure vessels, piping and storage tanks. In the present work, the authors present the integrity assessment performed on this tank using the Fitness for Service approach using the methods and procedures contained in the document API RP 579 (Fitness-for-service). (author)

  6. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-09-03

    Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants).Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with

  7. Safe jack-up method permits repairs of tank bottoms and foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Wit, J.

    1991-01-01

    The oil and chemical industries use many thousands of steel tanks to store crude oil, oil products, and chemical liquids. The majority of these tanks are 30-40 years old. Tank bottoms are likely to begin leaking in the coming years, as these tanks get older. The European technique of jacking up a tank and repairing its foundation allows the thorough inspection of the underside of the tank bottom and the removal of saturated foundation material. And the possibility of soil and groundwater pollution is reduced to a minimum. With good, regular maintenance, the lifetime of a storage tank is very long. But experience has shown that special attention should be paid to the tank's bottom. Tank bottoms are only 5 or 6 mm thick, and in the last 10 years, an increasing number of leaks in tank bottoms have been reported. Tank foundations are affected by these leaks. This article describes the resulting procedure, which is used successfully in many European countries, but is not yet common in the U.S

  8. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water separators. 60.692... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards: Oil-water separators. (a) Each oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary equipment subject to the...

  9. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  10. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni; Louwagie, Johanna; Pigeon, Olivier; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th) Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient. Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography. The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide. Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be effectively

  11. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Nabléni Ouattara

    Full Text Available One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1 and a domestic washing (method-2 on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient.Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography.The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide.Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be

  12. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important

  13. Residual diesel measurement in sand columns after surfactant/alcohol washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, R.; Gelinas, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new simple gravimetric technique has been designed to determine residual oil saturation of complex hydrocarbon mixtures (e.g., diesel) in sand column experiments because reliable methods are lacking. The He/N 2 technique is based on drying of sand columns by circulating helium gas to drag oil droplets in a cold trap (liquid nitrogen). With this technique, residual diesel measurement can be performed easily immediately after alcohol/surfactant washing and in the same lab. For high residual diesel content in Ottawa sand (25 to 30 g/kg), the technique is much more accurate (± 2% or 600 mg/kg) than the standard analytical methods for the determination of mineral oil and grease. The average relative error on partial diesel dissolution in sand column estimated after alcohol/surfactant flooding (residual saturation of 10 to 15 g/kg) is as low as 5%. The precision of the He/N 2 technique is adequate to compare relative efficiency of washing solutions when partial extraction of residual oil in Ottawa sand columns is performed. However, this technique is not adapted for determination of traces of oil in sediment or for environmental control of contaminated soils. Each diesel determination by the He/N 2 technique costs less than $8 in chemical products (helium and liquid nitrogen). A simple laboratory drying setup can be built for less than $400 which makes this technique valuable for diesel analyses when a large number of tests are required

  14. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  15. Levitating Drop in a Tilted Rotating Tank - Gallery of Fluid Motion Entry V044

    OpenAIRE

    White, Andrew; Swan, David; Ward, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A cylindrical acrylic tank with inner diameter D = 4 in. is mounted such that its axis of symmetry is at some angle measured from the vertical plane. The mixing tank is identical to that described in [1] The tank is filled with 200 mL of 1000 cSt silicone oil and a 5 mL drop of de-ionized water is placed in the oil volume. The water drop is allowed to come to rest and then a motor rotates the tank about its axis of symmetry at a fixed frequency = 0.3 Hz. Therefore the Reynolds number is fixed...

  16. Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-12-19

    Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

  17. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely ... East African Medical Journal ... There was a high uptake of households with treated drinking water (92%), availability of hand washing facilities in ...

  18. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Health Journal ... Rates of hand washing are low world wide even amongst health care workers who are should know about its importance. The aim of ... The greatest motivation for hand washing was fear of contracting disease, whilst ...

  19. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14

    A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-0-3 wt % La.sub.2O.sub.3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO.sub.2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO.sub.4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-3-40% TiO.sub.2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  20. HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, K.D.; Wessman, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is in the process of closing two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 1.14 million liter (300,000 gallon) tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities. The basic tank closure sequence is as follows: Empty the tank to the residual heel using the existing jets; Video and sample the heel; Replace steam jets with new jet at a lower position in the tank, and remove additional material; Flush tank, piping and secondary containment with demineralized water; Video and sample the heel; Evaluate decontamination effectiveness; Displace the residual heel with multiple placements of grout; and Grout piping, vaults and remaining tank volume. Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in June 2002. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system is cost-effective since it also utilizes existing waste transfer technology (steam jets), to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and

  1. Washing scaling of GeneChip microarray expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohn Knut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-hybridization washing is an essential part of microarray experiments. Both the quality of the experimental washing protocol and adequate consideration of washing in intensity calibration ultimately affect the quality of the expression estimates extracted from the microarray intensities. Results We conducted experiments on GeneChip microarrays with altered protocols for washing, scanning and staining to study the probe-level intensity changes as a function of the number of washing cycles. For calibration and analysis of the intensity data we make use of the 'hook' method which allows intensity contributions due to non-specific and specific hybridization of perfect match (PM and mismatch (MM probes to be disentangled in a sequence specific manner. On average, washing according to the standard protocol removes about 90% of the non-specific background and about 30-50% and less than 10% of the specific targets from the MM and PM, respectively. Analysis of the washing kinetics shows that the signal-to-noise ratio doubles roughly every ten stringent washing cycles. Washing can be characterized by time-dependent rate constants which reflect the heterogeneous character of target binding to microarray probes. We propose an empirical washing function which estimates the survival of probe bound targets. It depends on the intensity contribution due to specific and non-specific hybridization per probe which can be estimated for each probe using existing methods. The washing function allows probe intensities to be calibrated for the effect of washing. On a relative scale, proper calibration for washing markedly increases expression measures, especially in the limit of small and large values. Conclusions Washing is among the factors which potentially distort expression measures. The proposed first-order correction method allows direct implementation in existing calibration algorithms for microarray data. We provide an experimental

  2. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  3. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  4. 33 CFR 157.410 - Emergency lightering requirements for oil tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK... Petroleum Oils § 157.410 Emergency lightering requirements for oil tankers. Each oil tanker, to which this...

  5. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  6. The effect of silica in washing with geothermal water, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindal, B.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial washing operation using geothermal water in Iceland are reported and testing designed to explain the beneficial effect of geothermal water for washing described. The findings indicate, that the silica content of the water may be the principal component for a superior washing quality

  7. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  8. Assessment of sludges and tank bottoms treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutto, A.W.; Bazmi, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The petroleum refining industries generate considerable amounts of sludge and tank bottoms as waste. Petroleum refinery receives crude oil containing emulsified water and solids. As the crude oil storage tanks are repeatedly filled and emptied, the water and solids settle towards the bottom as sludge. For tanks that have been in service for several years, the sludge accumulation becomes several feet deep, results in a loss of ullage in refinery crude storage tanks. The accumulation of crude storage tank bottoms is a serious problem experienced by local refineries. The refinery sludge waste is categorized as hazardous waste, which is at present buried in the tankform ground. Since the no hazardous material land filling option available, the disposal of these hazardous materials has become a major problem because of the ISO-14000 certification requirements and expectation of stakeholder. To maximize the waste oil recovery from sludge and tank bottoms and to minimize the volume of the hazardous waste, a number of waste recovery and treatment processes are available. The process designs and unit operations of each process are different and each has its own merits, in terms of the technical complexity, operation friendliness, and costs and economics. A study on each of these technologies and the subsequent tide-up to the existing unit operations is conducted, and the associated technical comparisons are made. (author)

  9. Cathodic Protection Design Algorithms for Refineries Aboveground Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosay Abdul sattar Majbor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Storage tanks condition and integrity is maintained by joint application of coating and cathodic protection. Iraq southern region rich in oil and petroleum product refineries need and use plenty of aboveground storage tanks. Iraq went through conflicts over the past thirty five years resulting in holding the oil industry infrastructure behind regarding maintenance and modernization. The primary concern in this work is the design and implementation of cathodic protection systems for the aboveground storage tanks farm in the oil industry. Storage tank external base area and tank internal surface area are to be protected against corrosion using impressed current and sacrificial anode cathodic protection systems. Interactive versatile computer programs are developed to provide the necessary system parameters data including the anode requirements, composition, rating, configuration, etc. Microsoft-Excel datasheet and Visual Basic.Net developed software were used throughout the study in the design of both cathodic protection systems. The case study considered in this work is the eleven aboveground storage tanks farm situated in al-Shauiba refinery in southern IRAQ. The designed cathodic protection systems are to be installed and monitored realistically in the near future. Both systems were designed for a life span of (15-30 years, and all their parameters were within the internationally accepted standards.

  10. WVNS Tank Farm Process Support: Experimental evaluation of an inert gas (nitrogen) to mitigate external corrosion of high-level waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    Corrosion of the carbon steel waste storage tanks at West Valley Nuclear Services continues to be of concern, especially as the planned duration of waste storage time increases and sludge washing operations are conducted. The external surfaces of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 have been exposed for more than 10 years to water that has intruded into the tank vaults. Visual inspection of the external tank surfaces using a remote video camera has shown indications of heavy corrosion in localized areas on the tank walls. Tests on mild steel specimens under simulated tank vault conditions showed that corrosion is related to the availability of oxygen for the corrosion reactions; consequently, removing oxygen as one of the reactants should effectively eliminate corrosion. In terms of the waste tanks, excluding oxygen from the annular vault space, such as by continuous flushing with an inert gas, should substantially decrease corrosion of the external surfaces of the mild steel tanks (100% exclusion of oxygen is probably not practicable). Laboratory corrosion testing was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to give a preliminary assessment of the ability of nitrogen-inerting to reduce steel corrosion. This report summarizes test results obtained after 18-month corrosion tests comparing open-quotes nitrogen-inertedclose quotes corrosion with open-quotes air-equilibratedclose quotes corrosion under simulated tank vault conditions

  11. Remediation of cadmium contamination in paddy soils by washing with chemicals: Selection of washing chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Sugahara, Kazuo; Sakurai, Yasuhiro; Takano, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Sasaki, Kouta; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The efficiencies of neutral salts, strong acids, and chelates were tested for extracting cadmium (Cd) from three paddy soils. The higher the selectivity of the cations of the added neutral salts toward soil adsorption sites, the lower the pH in the extracts and the more soil Cd could be extracted. In addition, soil carbon and nitrogen contents and mineral composition were closely associated with the amount of Cd extracted. Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were selected as wash chemicals to restore Cd-contaminated paddy soils in situ. Washing with calcium chloride led to the formation of Cd chloride complexes, enhancing Cd extraction from the soils. The washing also substantially decreased soil levels of exchangeable and acid-soluble Cd, which are the major forms of bioavailable Cd for rice (Oryza sativa L.). The optimum conditions for in situ soil washing were also determined for calcium chloride. - Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were useful for the in situ washing of Cd-contaminated paddy soils

  12. Radiotracer study of wash load movement in a drum-type fabric washing machine using a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balt, A.P.; Brekel, L.D.M. van den; Vandecasteele, C.; Kolar, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the movement of the wash loads in a drum-type washing machine. For this purpose a sup(99m)Tc source was attached to one or two separate textile pieces and the subsequent source positions were determined by means of a gamma-camera. The wash load movement pattern appears to depend on the type of textile material and its amount, as well as on the volume of water present in the washing machine.

  13. Radiotracer study of wash load movement in a drum-type fabric washing machine using a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balt, A.P.; Brekel, L.D.M. van den; Vandecasteele, C.; Kolar, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the movement of the wash loads in a drum-type washing machine. For this purpose a sup(99m)Tc source was attached to one or two separate textile pieces and the subsequent source positions were determined by means of a gamma-camera. The wash load movement pattern appears to depend on the type of textile material and its amount, as well as on the volume of water present in the washing machine. (author)

  14. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  15. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  16. Tank 241-AX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-104

  17. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-102

  18. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  19. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  20. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  1. Recovering oil from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahey, T; Wilson, H

    1920-11-13

    To recover oil free from inorganic impurities and water, and utilize the oil vapor and tarry matter for the production of heat, shale is heated in a retort at a temperature of not less than 120/sup 0/C. The vapors pass by a pipe into a water jacketed condenser from which the condensate and gas pass through a pipe into a chamber and then by a pipe to a setting chamber from where the light oils are decanted through a pipe into a tank. The heavy oil is siphoned through a pipe into a tank, while the gas passes through a pipe into a scrubber and then into a drier, exhauster and pipe to the flue and ports, above the fire-bars, into the retort. Air is introduced through a pipe, flue, and ports.

  2. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and (137)Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of pulsed neutron logging to evaluate perforation washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimon, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of pulsed neutron logging techniques before and after perforation washing operations are performed to evaluate the degree of success of the perforation washing operations. Well logging operations of a type designed to respond to the difference between a formation immediately behind the well sheath and voids in the formation are performed both before and after the perforation washing operation. differences between the two resulting logs are then indicative of voids created by perforation washing. In a preferred embodiment, pulsed neutron logging is used as the logging technique, while a weighted brine having a high absorption cross section to pulsed neutrons is used as the perforation washing fluid

  4. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29

    sludge and the level of dilution for the mixture. (5) Blending the size-reduced zeolite into larger quantities of sludge can reduce the amount of preferential settling. (6) Periodic dilution or resuspension due to sludge washing or other mixing requirements will increase the chances of preferential settling of the zeolite solids. (7) Mixtures of Purex sludge and size-reduced zeolite did not produce yield stresses greater than 200 Pascals for settling times less than thirty days. Most of the sludge-zeolite blends did not exceed 50 Pascals. These mixtures should be removable by current pump technology if sufficient velocities can be obtained. (8) The settling rate of the sludge-zeolite mixtures is a function of the ionic strength (or supernate density) and the zeolite- sludge mixing ratio. (9) Simulant tests indicate that leaching of Si may be an issue for the processed Tank 19 mound material. (10) Floating zeolite fines observed in water for the jet-eductor system and size-reduced zeolite were not observed when the size-reduced zeolite was blended with caustic solutions, indicating that the caustic solutions cause the fines to agglomerate. Based on the test programs described in this report, the potential for successfully removing Tank 18/19 mound material from Tank 7 with the current slurry pump technology requires the reduction of the particle size of the Tank 18/19 mound material.

  5. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. -- Highlights: • The alternative and advancement in extraction agents to remove PAHs from soil using soil washing technology is summarised. • The soil regulations for PAH level in various countries are summarized for reference to researchers. • The concentration levels of PAHs in soil at present and the need for soil remediation is presented. -- The efficiency of the extraction agent plays a significant role in soil washing of PAH-contaminated soil

  6. Heavy Oil Recovery Ohmsett Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    U.S. The first phase of separation is to refloat the oil for physical collection using a conveyor belt or rope mop oil skimmer. The open discharge is...inverted cone-shroud installed in the Frac tank for physical collection using a conveyor belt or rope mop oil skimmer. Heavy Oil Recovery Ohmsett Test...develop and test viable designs for systems which can detect and recover oil from subsurface environments. This is the second major report within this

  7. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  8. Oil price shocks and policy implications the emergence of U.S. tight oil production: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Voth, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-01-01

    How have shocks to supply and demand affected global oil prices; and what are key policy implications following the resurgence of oil production in the United States? Highlights: − The recent collapse in global oil prices was dominated by oversupply. − The future of tight oil in the United States is vulnerable to obstacles beyond oil prices. − Opinions on tight oil from the Top 25 think tank organizations are considered. Global oil prices have fallen more than fifty percent since ...

  9. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  10. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  11. Prediction of parameters affecting the safety of tank farms in case of emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorev Vyacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article demonstrates that the physical nature of blow-out of oil products burning in the tank is connected with overheating and fast vaporization of bottom water accumulated in the tank or on a surface of internal floating roof. It is shown that the period of time, during which the homothermal layer of oil, heated up to the boiling point while burning in the tank, reaches the level of bottom water or the water added in the tank in the process of extinguishing depends on the heat losses into environment through the side surface of the tank. It is determined that blow-out time depends on the water cooled surface area of the tank. It is shown that intensive water cooling extremely decreases the rate of formation of homothermal layer with increasing of its thickness.

  12. Seletividade de cultivares de soja RR® submetidos a misturas em tanque de glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl associadas a óleo mineral e inseticidas selectivity of soybean RR® genotypes submitted to glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl tank mixtures associated to mineral oil and insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de glyphosate para o controle de plantas daninhas em soja RR® apresenta características essenciais no conceito de praticabilidade. Entretanto, apesar de não permitido na legislação brasileira, tem-se aumentado a associação com outros herbicidas para manejo de espécies de difícil controle, assim como a sua mistura em tanque em combinação com inseticidas e adjuvantes. Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade de cultivares de soja RR® submetidos a misturas em tanque de formulações de glyphosate (Polaris®, Roundup Ready® e Roundup WG® com chlorimuron-ethyl (Classic®, e suas associações com óleo mineral (Joint Oil® e inseticidas novaluron (Gallaxy 100 EC®, permethrin (Piredan® e methomyl (Lannate BR®, um experimento foi conduzido a campo na cidade de Maracaí-SP, na safra 2006/2007. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 16 x 4, sendo 16 as associações das misturas em tanque entre as formulações de glyphosate, óleo mineral e inseticidas e quatro cultivares: Monsoy 7210RR®, Monsoy 7979RR®, BRS 245RR® e CD 214RR®. Sintomas visuais de intoxicação inicial dos cultivares estudados foram caracterizados por clorose e encarquilhamento nas folhas para todas as misturas em tanque das formulações de glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl, associadas ou não ao óleo mineral e inseticidas novaluron, permethrin e methomyl. Todas as misturas em tanque não promoveram reduções significativas de produtividade para os cultivares Monsoy 7210RR®, Monsoy 7979RR® e BRS 245RR® e controlaram Ipomoea spp. com eficácia apenas satisfatória a partir dos 21 DAA (dias após aplicação.The use of glyphosate for weed control in soybean RR® presents essential practical characteristics. However, although not allowed by the current Brazilian legislation, the association with other herbicides has been increasing for species of difficult control, as well as the use of tank

  13. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Sloshing in Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaas, F

    1996-12-31

    For oil cargo ship tanks and liquid natural gas carriers, the dimensions of the tanks are often such that the highest resonant sloshing periods and the ship motions are in the same period range, which may cause violent resonant sloshing of the liquid. In this doctoral thesis, linear and non-linear analytical potential theory solutions of the sloshing problem are studied for a two-dimensional rectangular tank and a vertical circular cylindrical tank, using perturbation technique for the non-linear case. The tank is forced to oscillate harmonically with small amplitudes of sway with frequency in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequency of the fluid inside the tank. The method is extended to other tank shapes using a combined analytical and numerical method. A boundary element numerical method is used to determine the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the problem. These are used in the non-linear analytical free surface conditions, and the velocity potential and free surface elevation for each boundary value problem in the perturbation scheme are determined by the boundary element method. Both the analytical method and the combined analytical and numerical method are restricted to tanks with vertical walls in the free surface. The suitability of a commercial programme, FLOW-3D, to estimate sloshing is studied. It solves the Navier-Stokes equations by the finite difference method. The free surface as function of time is traced using the fractional volume of fluid method. 59 refs., 54 figs., 37 tabs.

  14. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Sloshing in Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaas, F.

    1995-12-31

    For oil cargo ship tanks and liquid natural gas carriers, the dimensions of the tanks are often such that the highest resonant sloshing periods and the ship motions are in the same period range, which may cause violent resonant sloshing of the liquid. In this doctoral thesis, linear and non-linear analytical potential theory solutions of the sloshing problem are studied for a two-dimensional rectangular tank and a vertical circular cylindrical tank, using perturbation technique for the non-linear case. The tank is forced to oscillate harmonically with small amplitudes of sway with frequency in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequency of the fluid inside the tank. The method is extended to other tank shapes using a combined analytical and numerical method. A boundary element numerical method is used to determine the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the problem. These are used in the non-linear analytical free surface conditions, and the velocity potential and free surface elevation for each boundary value problem in the perturbation scheme are determined by the boundary element method. Both the analytical method and the combined analytical and numerical method are restricted to tanks with vertical walls in the free surface. The suitability of a commercial programme, FLOW-3D, to estimate sloshing is studied. It solves the Navier-Stokes equations by the finite difference method. The free surface as function of time is traced using the fractional volume of fluid method. 59 refs., 54 figs., 37 tabs.

  15. Comparative investigations of oiled seabirds and beaches in the Netherlands, Denmark, and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlmann, G.; Timm, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Oiled Seabirds project (January 3, 1990, to March 31, 1993) consisted of two parts: regular surveillance of the beaches in the Netherlands, Denmark, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and sampling and analysis. The aims of the project were: To identify and compare the main sources of oil pollution in the countries involved; To trace definite sources (i.e., particular ships), in more severe cases, to promote prosecution of the offenders; and To gauge the efficiency of countermeasures, e.g., the joint material surveillance in the countries involved. Although the term open-quotes oiledclose quotes was used in the project title, the investigations were not restricted to petroleum. An attempt was made to identify all the products that could have caused the deaths of seabirds. The major sources of oil pollution in the Netherlands and Germany appear to be from normal shipping operations, e.g. engine room residues, while in Denmark the major component of chronic oil pollution is crude oil from tank washings of tanker ships

  16. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  17. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  18. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  19. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  20. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  1. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    Within the Marine Corps' tank battalions is a unique asset that is often improperly employed and not well known within the other components of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF): the scout platoon...

  2. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  3. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system; Comparación entre métodos de extracción líquido-líquido y en fase sólida previos a la identificación de la fracción fenólica presente en las aguas residuales procedentes del lavado del aceite de oliva obtenido mediante el sistema de extracción de aceite de oliva en dos fases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-07-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [Spanish] Los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las aguas residuales de la industria oleícola (OMW) se caracterizan por una gran actividad antioxidante. Por otra parte, suponen un problema medioambiental debido a que son difíciles de degradar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la identificación de estos compuestos biológicamente activos que se encuentran en las OMW generadas del proceso de obtención del aceite de oliva por el sistema de dos fases, para así convertir un residuo contaminante en una fuente de antioxidantes naturales. Tras optimizar el proceso de extracción de los compuestos fenólicos utilizando extracción líquido-líquido (LLE) y extracción en fase sólida (SPE), se obtuvo que la secuencia más apropiada comprendió una centrifugación previa para eliminar la fracción lipídica, seguida de una extracción líquida con acetato de etilo o una SPE. Los compuestos más importantes identificados en las aguas residuales del lavado del aceite

  4. Aqueous treatment of water-sensitive paper objects: capillary unit, blotter wash or paraprint wash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkx, H.; Iedema, P.; Reissland, B.; van Velzen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Blotter washing andwashing with the capillary unit are both methods used for aqueoustreatment of water-sensitive paper objects. The challenge of thistreatment is to remove water-soluble products while keeping thewater-sensitive medium in its place. In this article the two methodsare compared, along

  5. Enhanced salmonella reduction on tomatoes washed in chlorinated water with wash aid T-128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine is widely used by the fresh and fresh-cut produce industries to reduce microbial populations and to prevent potential pathogen cross contamination during produce washing. However, the organic materials released from produce quickly react with chlorine and degrade its efficacy for pathogen i...

  6. Increasing the effectiveness of purification of wash water discharge during placer mining. Povyshenie effekitivnosti ochistki promstokov pri razrabotke rossypei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, V M; Matveev, A A

    1981-01-01

    In the book research results are generalized for processes of water supply and purification of wash water discharges from dredge mining of placer deposits. Aspects of the geological and mineralogical structure of the solid phase of dredge waste waters and regularities in its influence on the sedimentation capacity of the suspended matter are examined. On the basis of a study of distinctive features in the hydrodynamic processes occurring in dredge sludge-settling tanks, a method is proposed for calculation of the settling tank parameters, allowing their areas of application for wash water discharge clarification to be determined reliably. Results are reported for a study of methods of intensification of the deposition of suspended clay particles in dredge waste waters, (methods) based on the use of both a series of coagulants and flocculants producible by industry and various production wastes. Aspects of the theory and practice of organizing circulating water supply for dredges are examined. The influence of wash water discharges forming during placer mining on the environment is assessed.

  7. Process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preller, H

    1921-02-24

    A process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, bitumen from oil-chalk, oil-shale, and coal, according to Patent 400,122, is described. It is characterized in that the mined material falling on account of its weight is exposed to the running hot water in circulation through the wash-chamber and the clarifying chamber arranged separate or built on (circulation) being obtained by pumps or injectors in a regulatable motion.

  8. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, E.G.; Leshikar, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Okuba, Tomoaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2001-01-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and offshore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analysed for hopanes and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east cost seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photo-oxidation. (Author)

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M P; Okuda, T; Takada, H

    2001-12-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation.

  11. 100 Areas soil washing tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    The complex nature of cost analysis and systems work demands a level of effort to ensure that decisions made support the best interests of all parties. This tradeoff study will act as a formal decision analysis method for the evaluation of many variables. The documentation of the decision rationale and system design is essential for successful planning and implementation of any system. The Hanford Site offers unique problems for economic analysis of remediation alternatives. The variations in the size of sites, geographic locations, and possible cleanup scenarios all add to the complexity of the tradeoff analysis. A thorough examination of all alternatives must be held to a level of detail appropriate to current regulatory and budgetary considerations. This study will compare the economics of two specific alternatives for remediation of soils at the Hanford Site. Remove and dispose is compared to remove, treat, and dispose. The treatment analyzed in this study is volume reduction through soil washing

  12. 75 FR 76742 - Detecting Oil Leaks From Vessels Into the Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... to detect leaks from oil tanks into the water? (E) What is the threshold for detection, accuracy... than leak detection from oil cargo tanks into the water? (H) Are methods or equipment being applied for... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2010-1085] Detecting Oil Leaks From...

  13. Innovative Technology for Preparing Washing Liquid During Well Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydenko A.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Technology of washings liquid preparation is worked out. Prospects of the hydrodynamic supercavitation use for preparation of washing liquids during well drilling are substantiated. Theoretical research make it possible to set parameters and work out the construction of cavitational dispergator. The results of theoretical research found their confirmation during practical examinations and became the basis for creation of the technique of washing liquid preparation and construction of cavitational dispergator tested in production conditions.

  14. Cross-flow filtration during the washing of a simulated radioactive waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARK R., DUIGNAN

    2005-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. has been contracted by the Department of Energy to design a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to stabilize liquid radioactive waste that is stored at the Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project (RPP). Because of its experience with radioactive waste stabilization, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company is working with Bechtel and Washington Group International, to help design and test certain parts of the waste treatment facility. One part of the process is the separation of radioactive solids from the liquid wastes by cross-flow ultrafiltration. To test this process a cross-flow filter was used that was prototypic in porosity, length, and diameter, along with a simulated radioactive waste slurry, made to prototypically represent the chemical and physical characteristics of a Hanford waste in tank 241-AY-102/C-106. To mimic the filtration process the waste slurry undergoes several steps, including dewatering and washing. During dewatering the concentration of undissolved solids (UDS) of the simulated AY102/C106 waste is increased from 12 wt percent to at least 20 wt percent. Once at the higher concentration the waste must be washed to prepare for its eventual receipt in a High Level Radioactive Waste Melter to be vitrified. This paper describes the process of washing and filtering a batch of concentrated simulated waste in two cycles, which each containing 22 washing steps that used approximately 7.7 liters of a solution of 0.01 M NaOH per step. This will be the method used by the full-scale WTP to prepare the waste for vitrification. The first washing cycle started with the simulated waste that had a solids concentration of 20 wt percent UDS. This cycle began with a permeate filter flux of 0.015 gpm/ft2 (3.68 cm/hr) at 19.6 wt percent UDS with a density of 1.33 kg/L, and yield stress of 8.5 Pa. At the end of the 22 washing steps the permeate filter flux increased to

  15. Performance evaluation of corrosion probes in simulated WVNS tank 8D-2 waste: WVNS tank farm process support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.

    1994-07-01

    Five corrosion probes were received from West Valley Nuclear Services for evaluation in simulated tank 8D-2 3rd-stage sludge wash slurry. The same waste slurry simulated was also used in a series of ongoing corrosion studies assessing the effects of in-tank sludge washing on the integrity of tank 8D-2. Two of the corrosion probes were installed in the coupon corrosion test vessels operating at ∼150 degrees F to compare performance of the probes with that observed by coupon tests conducted in the same vessels. Corrosion rate data calculated from electrical resistance measurements of the corrosion probes were evaluated for this study using two slightly different approaches. One approach uses the total length of exposure of the probe to give a ''time-averaged'' value of the corrosion rate. The other approach uses a shorter period of time (relative to the length of the test) in the calculation of corrosion rate, and is referred to as the ''instantaneous'' rate. The interpretation of the probe data and the implications of corrosion rates calculated with either of these methods are discussed in this report

  16. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on Sludge Batch 3 as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing and immobilizing radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF has already processed three sludge batches (Sludge Batch 1A, Sludge Batch 1B, and Sludge Batch 2) and is currently processing the fourth sludge batch (Sludge Batch 3). A sludge batch is defined as a single tank of sludge slurry or a combination of sludge slurries from different tanks that has been or will be qualified before being transferred to DWPF. As a part of the Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) qualification task, rheology measurements of the sludge slurry were requested at different insoluble solids loadings. These measurements were requested in order to gain insight into potential processing problems that may occur as the insoluble solids are adjusted up or down (by concentration or dilution) during the process. As a part of this study, a portion of the ''as received'' SB3 sample was washed with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO2) to target 0.5M Na versus a measured 1M Na in the supernate. The purpose of the ''washing'' step was to allow a comparison of the SB3 rheological data to the rheological data collected for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and to determine if there was a dependence of the yield stress and consistency as a function of washing. The ''as received'' SB3 rheology data was also compared to SB3 simulants prepared by the Simulant Development Program in order to provide guidance for selecting a simulant that is more representative of the rheological properties of the radioactive sludge slurry. A summary of the observations, conclusions are: (1) The yield stress and plastic viscosity increased as the weight percent insoluble solids were increased for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples, at a fixed pH. (2) For the same insoluble solids loading, the yield stress for the SB2 sample is approximately a factor of three higher than the ''as received'' SB3 sample. There also appears to be small

  17. WASH and gender in health care facilities: The uncharted territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Petra; Renggli, Samuel; Lüthi, Christoph

    2017-11-08

    Health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries are high-risk settings, and face special challenges to achieving sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services. Our applied interdisciplinary research conducted in India and Uganda analyzed six dimensions of WASH services in selected health care facilities, including menstrual hygiene management. To be effective, WASH monitoring strategies in health care facilities must include gender sensitive measures. We present a novel strategy, showing that applied gender sensitive multitool assessments are highly productive in assessments of WASH services and facilities from user and provider perspectives. We discuss its potential for applications at scale and as an area of future research.

  18. Recovery of plutonium from solvent wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    A number of potential alternatives to the acid hydrolysis recovery of Pu were investigated. The most promising alternative for short-term use appears to be an anion exchange process that would eliminate the long boiling times and the multiple-pass concentration steps needed with the solvent extraction process because it separates the Pu from the dibutyl phosphate (DBP) while at the same time concentrating the Pu. However, restart of the Primary Recovery Column (PRC) to process this solution would require significant administrative effort. The original boiling recovery by acid hydrolysis followed by solvent extraction is probably the most expedient way to process the Pu-DBP-carbonate solution currently stored in tank 13.5 even with its long processing times and dilute product concentration. Anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution is a more efficient process, but requires restart of the PRC. Extended-boiling acid hydrolysis or anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution provide two well developed alternatives for recovery of the Pu from the tank 13.5 carbonate. Further work defining additional recovery processes is not planned at this time

  19. Thermal analysis elements of liquefied gas storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanvarev, I. A.; Krupnikov, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    Tasks of solving energy and resource efficient usage problems, both for oil producing companies and for companies extracting and transporting natural gas, are associated with liquefied petroleum gas technology development. Improving the operation efficiency of liquefied products storages provides for conducting structural, functional, and appropriate thermal analysis of tank parks in the general case as complex dynamic thermal systems.

  20. 33 CFR 183.514 - Fuel tanks: Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.514 Fuel tanks... accelerations the statement, “Must be installed aft of the boat's half length.” (c) Each letter and each number... water, oil, salt spray, direct sunlight, heat, cold, and wear expected in normal operation of the boat...

  1. Low cost anaerobic system for Indonesia: single baffled septic tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, G; Mathew, K; Ho, Goen

    2003-01-01

    The insertion of a single baffle into a laboratory septic tank to mix incoming feed with sludge has been shown to improve anaerobic degradation of the feed. This is particularly true of soluble organic matter such as glucose. Oil or cellulose fed separately does not undergo degradation. It is expected however that a balanced feed such as sewage will be better degraded.

  2. Upgrading a 1950s tank farm to meet the environmental standards of the 1990S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.F.; Peterson, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Texaco Inc. Research and Development (Texaco) facility in Beacon, New York includes an above ground storage tank (AST) farm, known as Tank Farm No. 1, which consists of eighteen tanks with capacities ranging from 10,000 to 21,000 gallons. A second tank farm, at the Texaco, Beacon facility, designated as the Boiler House Tank Farm, includes three additional tanks with capacities from 10,000 to 44,900 gallons. The Tank Farm No. 1 AST systems are all vertical, carbon steel tanks which were initially installed in several phases in the 1950s. The Boiler House Tank Farm ASTs are also vertical, carbon steel tanks, including one riveted construction tank that was installed in 1931. Each of the Texaco ASTs are used to store a variety of petroleum products, including diesel fuel, stoddard solvent, used oil, and various grades of gasoline and gasoline components. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) has established regulations for petroleum bulk storage in 6 NYCRR Parts 612 through 614. These regulations include requirements for monitoring and inspecting AST systems, including a rigorous ''out of service'' inspection, to be completed at least once every ten years. Although several revisions had been completed at Tank Farm No. 1 in recent years, including installation of a reinforced concrete secondary containment dike system and new above ground piping, the tank shells and most appurtenances (e.g. water drawoff valves), were unmodified since they were initially installed. On this basis, Texaco decided to upgrade the AST systems in conjunction with the NYSDEC ten-year inspections, by installing reinforced fiberglass liners in the tank floors, and by removing and/or replacing tank appurtenances to meet current industry standards and fire code requirements. This paper presents a summary of the program implemented to upgrade the Texaco, Beacon tank farm AST systems

  3. Selective Leaching of Chromium from Hanford Tank Sludge 241-U-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the oxidants permanganate, MnO4-, and peroxynitrite, ONOO-, as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed 241-U-108 tank sludge under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time. The mass changes and final sludge compositions were evaluated using glass-property models to ascertain the relative impacts of the various oxidative alkaline leach conditions on the amount of borosilicate glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 Hanford tank sludge. Only permanganate leaching removes sufficient chromium to make the chromium concentration in the oxidatively alkaline leached solids non-limiting. In the absence of added oxidants, continued washing or caustic leaching have no beneficial effects. Peroxynitrite addition reduces the amount of glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 tank sludge by approximately a factor of two. Depending on the leach conditions and the exact chromium concentration limits, contact with alkaline permanganate solutions reduces the amount of immobilized high-level waste glass by a factor of 10 to 30

  4. Selective Leaching of Chromium from Hanford Tank Sludge 241-U-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-09-09

    This study evaluated the oxidants permanganate, MnO4-, and peroxynitrite, ONOO-, as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed 241-U-108 tank sludge under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time. The mass changes and final sludge compositions were evaluated using glass-property models to ascertain the relative impacts of the various oxidative alkaline leach conditions on the amount of borosilicate glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 Hanford tank sludge. Only permanganate leaching removes sufficient chromium to make the chromium concentration in the oxidatively alkaline leached solids non-limiting. In the absence of added oxidants, continued washing or caustic leaching have no beneficial effects. Peroxynitrite addition reduces the amount of glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 tank sludge by approximately a factor of two. Depending on the leach conditions and the exact chromium concentration limits, contact with alkaline permanganate solutions reduces the amount of immobilized high-level waste glass by a factor of 10 to 30.

  5. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Pickenheim, B.; Bannochie, C.; Billings, A.; Bibler, N.; Click, D.

    2010-10-01

    Prior to initiating a new sludge batch in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is required to simulate this processing, including Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation, waste glass fabrication, and chemical durability testing. This report documents this simulation for the next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). SB6 consists of Tank 12 material that has been transferred to Tank 51 and subjected to Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), Tank 4 sludge, and H-Canyon Pu solutions. Following LTAD and the Tank 4 addition, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided SRNL a 3 L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB6 qualification. Pu solution from H Canyon was also received. SB6 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of Pu from H Canyon), DWPF CPC simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass characterization and chemical durability evaluation. The following are significant observations from this demonstration. Sludge settling improved slightly as the sludge was washed. SRNL recommended (and the Tank Farm implemented) one less wash based on evaluations of Tank 40 heel projections and projections of the glass composition following transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40. Thorium was detected in significant quantities (>0.1 wt % of total solids) in the sludge. In past sludge batches, thorium has been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), seen in small quantities, and reported with the radionuclides. As a result of the high thorium, SRNL-AD has added thorium to their suite of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) elements. The acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing of 115%, or 1.3 mol acid per liter of SRAT receipt slurry, was adequate to accomplish some of the goals of SRAT processing: nitrite was destroyed to below 1,000 mg/kg and mercury was removed to

  6. Record of Decision Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact of groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank far soil and groundwater at INTEC.

  7. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  8. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  9. Underground or aboveground storage tanks - A critical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. It should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. The greatest interest in AGSTs comes from managers with small volumes of used oil, fresh oil, solvents, chemicals, or heating oil. Dealing with small capacity tanks is not so different than large bulk storage - and, in fact, it lends itself to more options, such as portable storage, tank within tank configurations and inside installations. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this presentation are: (1) safety; (2) product losses; (3) cost comparison of USTs vs AGSTs; (4) space availability/accessibility; (5) precipitation handling; (6) aesthetics and security; (7) pending and existing regulations

  10. Eye wash water flow direction study: an evaluation of the effectiveness of eye wash devices with opposite directional water flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt, Jennifer S; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A; Barr, Joseph T

    2018-01-01

    New designs of eye wash stations have been developed in which the direction of water flow from the fountain has been reversed, with two water streams originating nasally in both eyes and flowing toward the temporal side of each eye. No study has been done to determine the ideal direction of water flow coming from the eye wash in relation to the eye. Ophthalmic eye examinations were conducted before and after the use of two eye wash stations with opposite water flow directionality. Fluorescein was instilled in both eyes before using an eye wash to measure the effectiveness of the water flow. Subjects were surveyed upon their experiences using the eye washes. Ophthalmic examination found no significant difference in the efficacy of the eye washes with nasal-to-temporal water flow when compared to temporal-to-nasal water flow direction.

  11. Rapid washing of filter paper discs in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay with a constant flow washing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, D.M.; West, F.B.

    1982-01-01

    A machine has been developed for the rapid washing of the cellulose filter paper discs that are used in a number of radioimmunoassays. The machine is simple in design, easy to use, and is capable of washing 96 filter paper discs simultaneously. The efficiency of the machine is demonstrated by a RAST assay for measuring IgE antibodies to the venom. Time taken to wash the discs was reduced 3-fold without loss of sensitivity or reproducibility. (Auth.)

  12. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  13. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  14. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  15. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  16. Hand Washing Practices and Compliance among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand washing is the simplest, most inexpensive and most effective method of reducing the incidence of hospital-acquired infections in the Intensive Care Unit. Several reports have shown a relationship between improved hand washing practices and reduced infection rates. We conducted a prospective, ...

  17. Evaluation of washing machine load potential for smart grid integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, E.A.M.; Kobus, C.B.A.; Huijkelom, M.; Frunt, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned from a smart wash pilot, conducted with 24 employees of distribution system operator Enexis, who were equipped with an energy computer, smart washing machine, photovoltaic panels and smart meter. The pilot goal was to gain experience and knowledge about the

  18. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  20. Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

  1. Genesis Eco Systems, Inc. soil washing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cena, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Genesis soil washing system is an integrated system of modular design allowing for maximum material handling capabilities, with optimized use of space for site mobility. The Surfactant Activated Bio-enhanced Remediation Equipment-Generation 1 (SABRE-1, Patent Applied For) modification was developed specifically for removing petroleum byproducts from contaminated soils. Scientifically formulated surfactants, introduced by high pressure spray nozzles, displace the contaminant from the surface of the soil particles into the process solution. Once the contaminant is dispersed into the liquid fraction of the process, it is either mechanically removed, chemically oxidized, or biologically oxidized. The contaminated process water is pumped through the Genesis Biosep (Patent Applied For) filtration system where the fines portion is flocculated, and the contaminant-rich liquid portion is combined with an activated mixture of nutrients and carefully selected bacteria to decompose the hydrocarbon fraction. The treated soil and dewatered fines are transferred to a bermed stockpile where bioremediation continues during drying. The process water is reclaimed, filtered, and recycled within the system

  2. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  3. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  4. Wash-off effects in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Steger, F.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of the activity distributed in urban areas in three Austrian cities after a radioactive fall-out, by run-off and wash-off effects from stabilised surfaces and the resulting dose reduction to the population were investigated four years after the Chernobyl fall-out to predict the long term external exposure of the population. The measurements were performed in cities with different fractions of dry and wet deposition after the Chernobyl accident in order to determine whether any differences in radionuclide removal with regard to wet and dry fall-out was observable. High resolution in situ gamma spectroscopy was employed to measure the gamma flux from 137 Cs and 134 Cs at points over stabilised surfaces, which was then compared with undisturbed grass surfaces. The average reduction of the place activity on stabilised surfaces amounted to a factor of 10±5 compared to the original deposition after the fall-out. Asphalt showed the highest reduction factor (11.4), concrete less (8.1), stone slabs and cobblestone only about 4.5 and gravel virtually no reduction (1.1). Only very little variation of this reduction with dry or wet deposition was observed. (author)

  5. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  6. System design specification for the 1/4-scale tank and ancillary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Waters, E.D.; Heimberger, D.T.

    1993-09-01

    The Fluid Dynamic Test Facility (FDTF) is located in the 336 Building at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The FDTF will contain tanks that model the average internal diameter and height of a 3875 m 3 (1-million-gal) double-shell tank at both 1/12- and 1/4-scale, as well as ancillary equipment required to store, mix, and transport waste simulants. Experiments to be conducted in this facility will include investigations of sludge mobilization, slurry uniformity, aerosol generation, sludge washing, and instrumentation development to support start-up of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project. This facility will also be used to model concepts and mitigating strategies to be used in the resolution of tank safety issues and the retrieval of waste from watch-list tanks

  7. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  8. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  9. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using plain water with surfactants as an enhancer was used to study the remediation of soil contaminated with (i an organic contaminant (engine lubricant oil and (ii an inorganic contaminant (heavy metal. The lubricant engine oil was used at different percentages (by dry weight of the soil to artificially contaminate the soil. It was found that geotechnical properties of the soil underwent large modifications on account of mixing with the lubricant oil. The sorption experiments were conducted with cadmium metal in aqueous medium at different initial concentration of the metal and at varying pH values of the sorbing medium. For the remediation of contaminated soil matrices, a nonionic surfactant was used for the restoration of geotechnical properties of lubricant oil contaminated soil samples, whereas an anionic surfactant was employed to desorb cadmium from the contaminated soil matrix. The surfactant in case of soil contaminated with the lubricant oil was able to restore properties to an extent of 98% vis-à-vis the virgin soil, while up to 54% cadmium was desorbed from the contaminated soil matrix in surfactant aided desorption experiments.

  10. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  11. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  12. SRS Tank Structural Integrity Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryak, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Structural Integrity Program is to ensure continued safe management and operation of the waste tanks for whatever period of time these tanks are required. Matthew Maryak provides an overview of the Structural Integrity Program to open Session 5 (Waste Storage and Tank Inspection) of the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange.

  13. Sliding behaviors of elastic cylindrical tanks under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.

    1993-01-01

    There is a paper that reports on the occurrence of sliding in several oil tanks on Alaskan earthquake of 1964. This incident appears to be in need of further investigation for the following reasons: First, in usual seismic designing of cylindrical tanks ('tanks'), sliding is considered to occur when the lateral inertial force exceeds the static friction force. When the tank in question can be taken as a rigid body, this rule is known to hold true. If the tank is capable of undergoing a considerable amount of elastic deformation, however, its applicability has not been proved. Second, although several studies have been done on the critical conditions for static sliding the present author is unaware of like ones made on the dynamic sliding, except for the pioneering work of Sogabe, in which they have empirically indicated possibility of sliding to occur under the force of sloshing. Third, this author has shown earlier on that tanks, if not anchored properly, will start rocking, inducing uplifting of the base plate, even at a relatively small seismic acceleration of 10 gal or so. The present study has been conducted with these observations for the background. Namely, based on a notion that elastic deformation given rise to by rocking oscillation should be incorporated as an important factor in any set of critical conditions for the onset of sliding, a series of shaking table experiments were performed for rigid steel block to represent the rigid tanks ('rigid model') and a model tank having a same sort of plate thickness-to-diameter ratio as industrial tanks to represent the elastic cylindrical tanks ('elastic model'). Following observations have been obtained for the critical condition of the onset of sliding: (1) sliding of rigid tanks will occur when the lateral force given rise to by oscillation exceeds the static, or the Coulombic, friction force. (2) if vertical oscillation is imposed on the lateral oscillation, the lateral force needed to induce sliding of a

  14. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on the Defense Waste Processing Facility's Sludge Slurry Feed as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, T. L.; Howard, S.J.; Lee, M.C.; Galloway, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently pursuing an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To create a batch of feed for the DWPF, several tanks of radioactive sludge slurry are combined into one of the million gallon (i.e. 3.79 E06 liters) feed tanks for DWPF. Once these sludge slurries are combined, the soluble sodium and weight percent total solids are adjusted by a 'washing' process. The 'washing' process involves diluting the soluble sodium of the sludge slurry with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO 2 ) and allowing the sludge slurry to settle into two layers. The two layers in the tank consist of a clear supernate on top and a layer of settled sludge solids on the bottom. The clear supernate layer is then decanted to another hold tank. This 'washing' process is repeated until the desired wash endpoint (i.e. sodium concentration in the supernate) and weight percent total solids are achieved. A final washed batch of feed consists of approximately 500,000 gallons (i.e. 1.89 E06 liters). DWPF has already processed three batches of feed and is currently processing a fourth. Prior to processing a batch of feed in the DWPF, it must be well characterized. Samples of the prepared feed batch are sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for this characterization. As a part of the SRNL characterization for the fourth batch, rheology measurements were performed. Measurements were performed at different weight percent insoluble solids loadings to mimic potential facility processing scenarios (i.e. mixing/pumping of concentrated sludge slurry). In order to determine the influence of the soluble Na on the rheological properties of the sample, the supernate of the 'as received' sample was adjusted from 1 M soluble Na to 0.5 M soluble Na by using a lab scale version of the 'washing' process. Rheology

  15. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatla, M.N; El Hady, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  16. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  17. Hydrodynamic calculation of a filter washing in liquids type used in containment venting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes G, A. A.; Sainz M, E.; Ortiz V, J.

    2015-09-01

    From the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, the European nuclear power plants have chosen to install filters on the venting pipes of the containment, whose function is to help to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident, by controlled depressurization of the containment passively through a filtered venting of the containment system. These systems are designed to relieve the internal pressure of the containment by means of the deliberate opening of pressure relief devices, either a valve or rupture disc during a severe accident and be channeled to the filter unit. In this paper the hydraulic response of a filter system of gases washing by liquid is evaluated, due to this information is necessary to estimate the effect that has the pressure increase of the contention on the discharge capacity of the venting pipes. By simulation of computational of fluid dynamics with the programs: CAELINUX-2014 and OpenFOAM, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Multi Venturi System for gases washing from the containment, which could be included in the general model of the venting pipe, were obtained. Representative models of the Venturi tubes of each concentric area that forming the washing system were generated; and using parametric calculations the average mass flow rate established through each venturi, depending on its size and depth in which it is located inside the tank was estimated. Also, the pressure and mass flow rate required to activate each concentric area depending on the pressure and mass load from the containment were calculated, to estimate the maximum flow that is established through the filter. Finally, the velocity profiles and the characteristic pressure at which each area operates as well as the pressure drop of local and global discharge also were calculated. (Author)

  18. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  19. Oil production from bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotting, H E.B.; Gotting, L K

    1940-07-30

    The material such as shale, coal, lignite and the like, is heated in an externally heated retort and the generated gas is passed to a series of cells comprising a bubble tower, the cells of which are separated by plates, through which pipes, with perforated caps pass, also overflow pipes. The gas passing through the cell produces further oil vapour, and is decomposed by heated oil into lighter fractions, till it passes out of the tower through a pipe and through condensing coil to receiving vessels for the oil. Fixed gas passes to cylindrical wash vessels, the back pressure inducing the required pressure in the retort.

  20. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.J.

    1995-08-17

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing.

  1. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCadbe, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing

  2. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  3. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel de Oliveira da Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroflotation method (EFM for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it is possible to remove these heavy metals by electrocoagulation/electroflotation (ECF attaining 97% of removal using stainless steel mesh electrodes with a power consumption of 14 kWh m−3. The optimal conditions of treatment were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in a molar ratio 3:1, current density around 350 A m−2, ionic strength 3.2 × 10−3 M, pH = 10.0 and 20 min of ECF. This study newly indicated that the proposed method is adequate to simultaneously treat the common heavy metals found in the drilling fluids oil wells.

  4. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  5. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water: preliminary design and performance report. Volume I. Technical report. Aerotherm report TR-76-219. [For can washing at Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-10-14

    The design and performance of a solar hot water system for can washing at the Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento, California, are presented. The collector field is located on the roof of the finished products warehouse of the Campbell Soup Sacramento plant. Water is supplied from a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) supply line which is located directly below an existing roof access hatch. A supply pipe will be brought up through that hatch. The water flow will then be split into two manifold lines which supply the dual rows of flat plate collectors. The preheated water from the flat plates is then passed into six sets of parallel connected concentrators. Each set consist of eight 1.83 x 3.05 m (6 x 10 foot) modules connected in series. The water from these units is gathered in a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) insulated pipe which transports it to the storage tank. This pipe will be attached to an existing pipe run until it reaches the can washing building. From there the pipe will follow the can washing building around to the storage tank. The storage tank is a 75,200 1 (20,000 gal) steel tank which is coated internally with a USDA approved phenolic liner. The outside of the tank is insulated. A 2.2 kw (3 hp) motor is used to pump the stored water for the tank into the can washing line. Detail drawings and descriptions of the collector field, installation, piping, controls, data acquisition equipment, and roof structure are included. Furthermore, a program schedule with equipment and manpower costs for successfully completing Phase II of this contract is included. Also included is an organization chart of the Phase II program personnel. (WHK)

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND SETTLING TESTS WITH TANK 51H SLURRY SAMPLES HTF-076-081

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAY, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) is the next sludge batch being prepared for feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SB4 includes sludge from Tanks 5F, 6F, and 11H and heels from Tanks 7F and 51H. In preparation of SB4, sludge was transferred from Tank 11H to Tank 51H. The sludge currently in Tank 51H has been found to settle at slower rates than previous sludge batches. The slow sludge settling in Tank 51H impacts the ability to wash SB4 to the desired final weight percent insoluble solids and sodium endpoint. This could impact the ability to have SB4 ready on time to support DWPF and result in increased recycle back to the Tank Farm, reduced waste loading at DWPF, and lengthened cycle time in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to characterize and investigate the slower settling rate with six slurry dip samples of Tank 51H sludge. The filtered supernate and the total dried solids of the sludge were analyzed and summaries of the results published in the references listed below. The sludge composition was found to be consistent with H-Area high aluminum sludge. Difficulties were encountered with dissolving all of the material in the dried sludge solids. An analysis of the undissolved material from the digestions found the main constituent was Boehmite (AlO(OH)). This report provides all of the compositional data and an analysis of the data with recommended values to use for the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Tables 3-2 through 3-4 provide the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Settling tests conducted with the Tank 51H sludge showed a much slower settling rate than with the sludge in Sludge Batch 3 (SB3). A mixture of Tank 51H and sludge from SB3 was prepared to mimic the projected final composition of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The mixture showed minimal improvement in the settling rate versus Tank 51H sludge alone. An attempt to

  7. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  8. Bunker C tank cars derailment in remote region of Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, I.; Preziosi, L.

    1995-01-01

    Methods of cleaning up following a 1994 train derailment involving six Bunker C tank cars in a remote region of Labrador were described. 345,000 litres of Bunker C spilled in a ditch, through a culvert and into a section of the Summit River. Methods used in the reclamation of the bunker oil from the tank cars, from inside the culvert, and from the bottom of the Summit River were also reviewed.Principal problems encountered in the clean-up included severe winter conditions, remoteness of the spill site, and the onset of spring breakup. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell

    2008-08-01

    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors.

  10. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  11. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  12. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks. ...

  13. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  14. Hydrogen generation in SRAT with nitric acid and late washing flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Melter feed preparation processes, incorporating a final wash of the precipitate slurry feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and a partial substitution of the SRAT formic acid requirement with nitric acid, should not produce peak hydrogen generation rates during Cold Chemical Runs (CCR's) and radioactive operation greater than their current, respective hydrogen design bases of 0.024 lb/hr and 1.5 lb/hr. A single SRAT bench-scale process simulation for CCR-s produced a DWPF equivalent peak hydrogen generation rate of 0.004 lb/hr. During radioactive operation, the peak hydrogen generation rate will be dependent on the extent DWPF deviates from the nominal precipitate hydrolysis and melter feed preparation process operating parameters. Two actual radioactive sludges were treated according to the new flowsheets. The peak hydrogen evolution rates were equivalent to 0.038 and 0.20 lb/hr (DWPF scale) respectively. Compared to the formic acid -- HAN hydrolysis flowsheets, these peak rates were reduced by a factor of 2.5 and 3.4 for Tank 15 and Tank 11 sludges, respectively

  15. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Riemath, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  16. The impact of WASH-1400 on reactor safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Trends in reactor safety evaluation in France following the publication of WASH-1400 (the Rasmussen Report) are presented. What is called 'the meteorite case' is first schematically presented as follows: WASH-1400 shows nuclear risk equivalent to meteorite risk and reasonable corrections cannot make many orders of magnitude, consequently present safety rules are adequate. The very impact of WASH-1400 on safety approach is then discussed as for: assistance to deterministic safety analysis, introduction of probabilistic safety criteria, acceptable level of risk, and the use of results in research and reactor operating experience

  17. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  18. A science think tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, F [The Australian, (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning.

  19. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  20. Remediation of cadmium-contaminated paddy soils by washing with calcium chloride: Verification of on-site washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki; Sasaki, Kouta; Maejima, Yuji; Sugahara, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    We developed a new, three-step soil-wash method to remediate Cd-contaminated paddy fields. The method comprises (1) chemically washing the field soil with a CaCl 2 solution; (2) washing the treated soil with water to eliminate residual Cd and CaCl 2 ; and (3) on-site treatment of wastewater using a portable wastewater treatment system. Cd concentrations in the treated water were below Japan's environmental quality standard (0.01 mg Cd L -1 ), and the removal of Cd from the exchangeable fraction was 55% and from the acid-soluble fraction 15%. While soil fertility properties were affected by the soil washing, adverse effects were not crucial and could be corrected. The washing had no affect on rice growth, and reduced the average Cd concentration in rice grains by about two-thirds compared to a control plot. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the soil-wash method in remediating Cd-contaminated paddy fields. - In situ soil washing in a paddy field using an on-site wastewater treatment system resulted in an effective decrease of Cd in soil and rice grains without affecting rice yield

  1. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tank type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Fumio.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a tank type reactor capable of securing reactor core integrity by preventing incorporation of gases to an intermediate heat exchanger, thgereby improving the reliability. In a conventional tank type reactor, since vortex flows are easily caused near the inlet of an intermediate heat exchanger, there is a fear that cover gases are involved into the coolant main streams to induce fetal accidents. In the present invention, a reactor core is suspended by way of a suspending body to the inside of a reactor vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger and a pump are disposed between the suspending body and the reactor vessel, in which a vortex current preventive plate is attached at the outside near the coolant inlet on the primary circuit of the intermediate heat exchanger. In this way vortex or turbulence near the inlet of the intermediate heata exchanger or near the surface of coolants can be prevented. Accordingly, the cover gases are no more involved, to insure the reactor core integrity and obtain a tank type nuclear reactor of high reliability. (I.S.)

  3. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    . Originality/value - Many different Solar Combisystem designs have been commercialized over the years. In the IEA-SHC Task 26, twenty one solar combisystems have been described and analyzed. Maybe the mantle tank approach also for solar combisystems can be used with advantage? This might be possible...... if the solar heating system is based on a so called bikini tank. Therefore the new developed solar combisystems based on bikini tanks is compared to the tank-in-tank solar combisystems to elucidate which one is suitable for three different houses with low energy heating demand, medium and high heating demand.......Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...

  4. Oil well spill trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigington, J.R. Sr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process involving an oil well and rig having a casing, a platform on the rig extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in pulling the tubing from the casing; disconnecting joints of tubing thereby; and spilling liquids from the casing, catching spilled liquids from the casing in a basin below the platform, draining the basin substantially simultaneously; connecting the drain hole to a tank, and reducing the pressure in the tank to less than atmospheric pressure. This paper also describes an oil well and rig having a casing; the rig having a platform extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in a basin surrounding the casing and connected thereto, the basin below the platform, a drain connection in the lower part of the basin, a conduit connected to the drain, and means for applying a suction to the conduit

  5. Process Development for Permanganate Addition During Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tanks Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.; Peterson, Reid A.; Blanchard, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI)-sponsored studies have targeted optimizing sodium permanganate for the selective oxidation of chromium from washed Hanford tank sludges (Rapko et al. 2004; Rapko et al. 2005). The recommendation from previous work was that contact with sodium permanganate in a minimally caustic solution, i.e., 0.1 to 0.25 M [OH-] initially, provided maximum Cr dissolution while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution. At the request of BNI, further work on oxidative alkaline leaching was performed

  6. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Example of a Procedure for... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. D Appendix D to Part 157—Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations 1. Source. The example procedure for dedicated clean...

  7. Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). N Barro, AR Bello, A Savadogo, CAT Ouattara, AJ Iiboudo, AS Traoré ...

  8. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  9. Overview of JGC soil washing and site stabilization (SWSS) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S.; Fujimura, Y.; Sauda, K.; Yagi, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1991-01-01

    The JGC Soil Washing and Site Stabilization (SWSS) concept is to wash heavy metal and uranium-contaminated soils using well demonstrated techniques, and to follow that process with its innovative stabilization process, to fix the remaining contaminates within a stable matrix. In addition, the solution used to wash the soil is stripped of contaminates, so that it can be reused. This process reduces the total amount of wastes generated from washing the soil, since not only can the solution be reused, but often the extracted contaminates can be recovered for industrial use. The stabilization portion of the concept is based on a family of proprietary fixing agents which can render the remaining contaminates insoluble. These agents are significantly different from other (generally silicate) agents used for stabilizing contaminated soils in that they appear to bond more strongly to heavy metal contaminants than the silicate-based reagents, resulting in improved leach-rate performance when combined with bentonite or portland cement stabilization

  10. Why Is Hand Washing So Important? (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand washing a rule for everyone, especially: before eating and cooking after using the bathroom after cleaning around the house after touching animals, including family pets before and after visiting or ...

  11. Little Puerco Wash-Catalpa Canyon Floodplain Management Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The City of Gallup requested the Soil Conservation Service, through the McKinley Soil and Water Conservation District, to conduct a study of the Little Puerco Wash...

  12. Selected Hydrologic Data for Sand Cove Wash, Washington County, Utah

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norton, Aaron; Susong, David D

    2004-01-01

    .... Hydrologic data collected in this study are described and listed in this report. Six boreholes were drilled in Sand Cove Wash to determine the vertical and spatial distribution of the alluvial deposits and their hydrologic...

  13. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  14. Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on ... with regard to the optimal retention of the crude protein and fat levels of the dried dagaa. ... are accessible to most of the households involved in dried fish processing.

  15. Short-and long-term effects of discharged OBM cuttings, with and without previous washing, tested in field and laboratory studies on the Dutch continental shelf, 1985-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, A.; Zevenboom, W.; Van Het Groenewoud, H.; Daan, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Dutch programme that was carried out to study the distribution of discharged washed and unwashed oil-containing cuttings in the sediment and waterphase and their effects on selected test species in the Dutch part of the North Sea. The distribution of OBM cuttings in sediment around drilling locations was related to the total amount of oil discharged in the watercolumn. Increased oil contents were found over a range of 1000 to 5000 m in residual current direction. Total oil contents remained high at locations where unwashed OBM cuttings were discharged. At one location oil was found in high concentrations up to 6 years after discharge of OBM cuttings, especially due to the persistence of the oil fractions Other peaks and UCM. Washing of OBM cuttings resulted in lower amounts of oil discharged, lower concentrations in the sediment in the vicinity of the platform (up to 100 m), equal concentrations at 250 m but higher concentrations up to at more than 500 m off the platform when compared with unwashed cuttings and the respective amount of oil discharged. However, within one year, degradation of oil seems to have taken place at one of the washed sites at 5000 m. During discharge in the watercolumn, oil was taken up by Mytilus edulis from washed cuttings as well as from unwashed cuttings. Leaching of oil from the sediment into the waterphase was measurable in the field for only a limited period to time, less than a year after discharge. Several sediment-inhabiting species were tested on their response to oil contamination. Four species tested in experimental boxcosm set-ups, Echinocardium cordatum, Amphiura filiformis, Lagis koreni and Nucula turgida responded to elevated contamination levels by increased mortality

  16. Membrane processes for the reuse of car washing wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Uçar

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates alternative treatments of car wash effluents. The car wash wastewater was treated by settling, filtration, and membrane filtration processes. During settling, total solid concentration decreased rapidly within the first 2 hours and then remained constant. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity were decreased by 10% and 4%, respectively. After settling, wastewater was filtered throughout a 100 μm filter. It was found that filtration had a negligible effect on COD...

  17. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Atadashi, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quali...

  18. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  19. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  20. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Toth, J.J.; Ryan, F.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics 'D' waste codes; and against state waste codes

  1. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl 2 , and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al 2 O 3 .CaCl 2 ) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl 2 . Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl 2 .

  2. A wash fluid for drilling into a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakov, V M; Badzhurak, R F; Koptelova, Ye K; Rogovoy, V K; Sapozhnikov, N G

    1979-01-18

    A wash fluid is proposed, used in drilling wells in water and a content of 3-5% by weight starch products. To speed up destruction of the starch products, to the fluid are added amylolytic enzymes in the amount of 0.01-0.1 percent by weight of the starch products' weight. To lower the use of starch products, up to 3% clay can be added to the fluid. The wash fluid is prepared directly at the work site. Dry powder of modified starch is mixed with cold water until a colloidal solution is obtained. Such a wash fluid preserves the required structural-mechanical properties for 3-5 days, which ensures prompt drilling into the waterbearing layer and installation of the filter. Then, during the work process, 5-6 hours before the moment required for lowering the viscosity, to the wash fluid is added the amylolytic enzyme; under its influence, the starch molecules split up, and the viscosity drops sharply. Using this wash fluid enables a reduction in well construction times from the beginning of drilling to the end of development of the water-bearing layer, and a rise in outputs and well service lives by reducing sedimentation of the water-bearing formation and elimination of down times during work required while waiting for destruction of the starch wash fluid under natural conditions.

  3. 75 FR 44251 - Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0441; FRL-8829-8 Wood Oils and Gums, and... integrated use in tank mixes with chemical fungicides. The Wood Oils and Gums Registration Review Case no longer contains any other wood oils or gums with active ingredients with registered products except for...

  4. Tariff Policy Applied in the Adriatic Oil Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skodlar, Z.; Poljak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The policy of energy costs of crude oil transportation by pipeline strongly encourages an operational regime which results in poor pump efficiency. Oil is being unnecessarily and for too long time retained in oil storage tanks, thus increasing evaporation losses. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Methodology for modeling the disinfection efficiency of fresh-cut leafy vegetables wash water applied on peracetic acid combined with lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haute, S; López-Gálvez, F; Gómez-López, V M; Eriksson, Markus; Devlieghere, F; Allende, Ana; Sampers, I

    2015-09-02

    A methodology to i) assess the feasibility of water disinfection in fresh-cut leafy greens wash water and ii) to compare the disinfectant efficiency of water disinfectants was defined and applied for a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) and lactic acid (LA) and comparison with free chlorine was made. Standardized process water, a watery suspension of iceberg lettuce, was used for the experiments. First, the combination of PAA+LA was evaluated for water recycling. In this case disinfectant was added to standardized process water inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 (6logCFU/mL). Regression models were constructed based on the batch inactivation data and validated in industrial process water obtained from fresh-cut leafy green processing plants. The UV254(F) was the best indicator for PAA decay and as such for the E. coli O157 inactivation with PAA+LA. The disinfection efficiency of PAA+LA increased with decreasing pH. Furthermore, PAA+LA efficacy was assessed as a process water disinfectant to be used within the washing tank, using a dynamic washing process with continuous influx of E. coli O157 and organic matter in the washing tank. The process water contamination in the dynamic process was adequately estimated by the developed model that assumed that knowledge of the disinfectant residual was sufficient to estimate the microbial contamination, regardless the physicochemical load. Based on the obtained results, PAA+LA seems to be better suited than chlorine for disinfecting process wash water with a high organic load but a higher disinfectant residual is necessary due to the slower E. coli O157 inactivation kinetics when compared to chlorine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  7. Floated oil is separated and is recovered; Fujoyu wo bunri{center_dot}kaishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Nisseki MITSUBISHI developed the separation of the oil of the oiliness cutting oil which arose by machine tools, etc. in Kowa Mtech and cooperation jointly with recovery equipment. The same equipment is made to be sales promotion tool of the lubricating oil in the name of [YUNI-CLEAN] and the sole agent sells the Nisseki MITSUBISHI. The price is opened. The result of using the same equipment for besides the recovery of contamination oil which accumulates in tanks such as the machine tool using water-soluble lubricating oil recovery of floated oil of oil separating tank of the waste water treatment process, etc.. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Cold or hot wash: Technological choices, cultural change, and their impact on clothes-washing energy use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-01-01

    Usage pattern of clothes washing (and clothes washers) are strongly related to local cultural practices. Such practices have led to the development of distinctive clothes-washing technologies in the US, Europe, and Japan. In emerging markets such as China, several types of technologies often co-exist. Some use less energy but more water (the impeller type), and some use more energy but less water (the horizontal axis type). The competition between different technologies is thought to lead to better consumer choices. However, it could also lead to changes in clothes-washing habits-from cold to hot wash, and therefore to much higher energy use. This paper examines the standard development process in China to illustrate that adoption of foreign technologies and technical standards, if not carefully calibrated to the local cultural practices, could have unintended consequences for energy use and environment

  9. Sampling and analysis of the inactive waste tanks TH-2, WC-1, and WC-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrey, J.W.; Keller, J.M.; Griest, W.H.; Botts, J.L.; Schenley, R.L.; Sipe, M.A.

    1992-02-01

    Thirty-eight inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste tanks are currently managed by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The contents of these tanks are to be characterized in preparation for future corrective actions and remediation activities as part of compliance with the pending Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Twenty-nine of these tanks were sampled and analyzed in 1989. Three of the tanks (TH-2, WC-1, and WC-15) were not accessible from the surface and thus were not sampled until 1990. This report presents the sampling and analytical results of that campaign. All three tanks in this report had negligible regulatory organic compounds in the samples that were collected. There were no US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List (TCL) constituents for volatile organics detected in any of the aqueous samples. The only semivolatile organics detected were 2-chlorophenol (52 μg/L) in tank TH-2 and dichloroethane (14--15 μg/L) and diethyl either (15--17 μg/L) in tank WC-15. A thin oil layer was discovered floating on top of the aqueous contents in tank WC-15. The analysis of the oil layer detected no volatile organics and showed only one EPA TCL constituent, di-n-butylphthalate, at 1900 μg/L. Low levels of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals were observed in the samples from tank TH-2, but only the mercury level exceeded the RCRA limit. Samples from tank WC-1 had elevated levels of the RCRA metals barium, chromium, and lead. There were also finely suspended particles in one of the samples from tank WC-1, which was filtered and analyzed separately. This solid fines have levels of transuranium elements 238 Pu and 241 Am high enough to classified as transuranic waste

  10. Separation of oil and grease from oil sludge using surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Abdul Aziz; Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Zalina Laili

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiments was to observe the efficiency of the surfactant to remove oil and grease from oil sludges using various surfactant concentration ranging from 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 30 %. The surfactant solution consists of two mixtures of Aqua 2000 and D Bond. The oil sludge were subjected to heating and surfactant treatment process. Remaining oil and grease concentration were observed on the oil sludges after treatment. Small scale experiments were conducted by heating process, without heating process and heating process with addition of sodium chloride. Surfactant solution was added in each process. Results shows that there is separation of oil and grease from the oil sludges. There were formation of mini emulsions (oil in water). The higher the concentration of surfactant used, the higher the concentrations of mini emulsion formed as observed. Solid remains after the treatment process were found to contain lesser oil concentration with presence of bitumen, sediment, organic and inorganic materials. After a washing process using distilled water, the solid was still black but less oily than before the treatment. There is no separation of oil occurred in aqueous solution for the control experiment. (Author)

  11. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be constructed...

  12. Tank Characterization Report for Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  13. Tank Characterization Report for Single-Shell Tank 241-C-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  14. Washing technology development for gravel contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The soil washing method has a short decontamination time and is economical. In addition, methods including phytoremediation, solidification/stabilization and bioremediation exist. Phytoremediation and bioremediation are economical, but have low remedial efficiency. In addition, bioremediation causes washing wastewater because it requires a washing process for the separation of microorganisms from the soils. In addition, solidification/stabilization is a commonly used methods, but eventually increases the volume of wastes. As mentioned above, many researches involved in the decontamination of radioactively contaminated soils have been actively processed. On the other hand, researches for decontaminating radioactively contaminated gravels are not being currently processed. In this study, we performed basic experiments using decontamination methods to decontaminate radioactively contaminated gravel. First, we measured the concentration of uranium in gravel included in uranium-contaminated soils and performed a washing experiment to monitor the tendency of uranium removal. In addition, when managing gravel with a low uranium-decontamination rate, we tried to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal in the wastes (0.4Bq/g or less) by performing a washing experiment after only a physical crushing process. We performed washing experiments to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal (0.4 Bq/g or less) in gravel included in radioactively contaminated soil. We performed washing experiments for gravel whose initial average concentration of uranium was 1.3Bq/g. In addition, the average concentration of uranium was 0.8Bq/g. Too increase the decontamination rate, we crushed the gravel with a jaw crusher and performed the washing experiments. The results were similar to the results without crushing. In addition, it was determined that the smaller the size of the gravel particles, the more efficient the uranium decontamination

  15. Hand washing in operating room: a procedural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Stilo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hand washing has been considered a measure of personal hygiene for centuries and it is known that an improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections. Therefore, surgical hand preparation is a critical element for healthcare safety in order to reduce microbial contamination of  surgical wound in case of non detected break of the gloves. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy three antiseptics: Povi-iodine scrub; EPG (Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Glycerol, recommended by WHO, and common marseille soap type in a liquid formulation. METHODS It was designed a randomized, double-blind, single-center study conducted in the University Hospital of Messina, from January to June 2013. We asked operators to put the fingertips of their right hand (if not left-handed for one minute on the PCA medium, before washing with the three types of antiseptics, and after washing and drying. Drying was made using sterile gauzes or disposable wipes. Then, we measured the number of colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL and calculated the percentage of microbial load reduction. RESULTS 211 samples have been considered for statistical analysis: in 42 samples, in fact, initial microbial load was lower than after washing. Washing with EPG reduced CFU/ml from  a mean of 38,9 to 4,1 (86,5% reduction, washing with povi-iodine scrub from 59,55 to 12,9 (75,9% reduction and washing with Marseille soap from 47,26 to 12,7 (64,3% reduction. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that washing with EPG has superior efficacy in CFU reduction. Antiseptic hand washing, however, cannot be considered the only measure to reduce infections: the anomaly of some results (initial microbial load lower than after washing  demonstrates that drying is an essential phase in the presurgical preparation. Therefore, hand hygiene must be part of a more complex strategy of surveillance and control of nosocomial infections

  16. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  17. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards...

  18. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of the...

  19. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least...

  20. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a minimum... to the fuel tank safety requirements of § 238.223 or § 238.423 of this chapter. The Director of the...

  1. Tal en tanke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik; Hendricks, Vincent

    Den svenske biskop og poet Esais Tegnèr har engang sagt: "Menneskers ord og tanker fødes sammen, at tale uklart er at tænke uklart." Denne lærebog er et lynkursus i at tænke og tale klart - og i at være på vagt over for uklar tænkning og tale, hvor den end optræder.Tal en tanke er hurtigt læst og...

  2. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  3. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  4. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  5. Risk management guidelines for petroleum storage tank sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    These guidelines provide a site management process designed particularly for soil and groundwater pollution originating from existing or former petroleum storage tank (PST) facilities and provide uniform standards for the remediation of polluted PST sites in Alberta. The numerical criteria, risk management objectives and technical information described in this document were compiled from four documents including Remediation Guidelines for Petroleum Storage Tank Sites 1994, the Canada-Wide Standards for Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil, Alberta Soil and Water Quality Guidelines for Hydrocarbons at Upstream Oil and Gas Facilities, and Guidelines for Managing Risks at Contaminated Sites in Alberta. The changes in these updated guidelines reflect new remediation criteria and provide a process for determining alternate site-specific management objectives for more petroleum storage tank sites. The guidelines were developed using a risk-based approach that ensures the protection of human health, safety and the environment. The guidelines apply to aboveground and underground storage tank facilities that contain gasoline, diesel, heating oil, and aviation fuel. The guidelines specify requirements by Alberta Environment and the Alberta Fire Code. The chapter on risk management process included information on site investigation, determination of soil type, pollution source removal, land use assessment, selection of exposure pathways, depth of remediation, human inhalation and groundwater protection pathways, and verification of remediation. figs, 4 tabs., 2 appendices.

  6. A tank-to-wheel analysis tool for energy and emissions studies in road vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M.; Goncalves, G.A.; Farias, T.L.; Mendes-Lopes, J.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, oil based fuels are the primary energy source of road transport. The growing need for oil independence and CO 2 mitigation has led to the increasing importance of alternative fuel usage. CO 2 is produced not only as the fuel is used in the vehicle (tank-to-wheel contribution), but also upstream, from the fuel extraction to the refueling station (well-to-tank contribution), and the life cycle of the fuel production (well-to-wheel contribution) must be considered in order to analyse the global impact of the fuel utilization. A road vehicle tank-to-wheel analysis tool that may be integrated with well-to-tank models was developed in the present study. The integration in a demonstration case study allowed to perform a life cycle assessment concerning the utilization of diesel and natural gas fuels in a specific network line of a bus transit company operating in the city of Porto, Portugal. (author)

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement

  8. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks. ...

  9. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to...

  10. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the applicable...

  11. CFD Modelling of Adsorption Behaviour in AGN Tank with Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste Based Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Afdhol, M. K.; Sanal, Alristo; Nasruddin

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia imports fuel (fuel oil) in large quantities. Indonesia has reserves of methane gas in the form of natural gas in large numbers but has obstacles in the process of storage. To produce a storage tank to a safe condition then proclaimed to use ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) technology. Manufacture of activated PET based activated carbon for storage of natural gas where technology has been widely studied, but still has some shortcomings. Therefore to predict the performance of ANG technology, modeling of ANG tank with Fluent CFD program is done so the condition inside the ANG tank can be known and can be used to increased the performance of ANG technology. Therefore, in this experiment natural gas storage test is done at the ANG tank model using Fluent CFD program. This experiment is begin with preparation tools and material by characterize the natural gas and activated carbon followed by create the mesh and model of ANG tank. The next process is state the characteristic of activated carbon and fluid in this experiment. The last process is run the simulation using the condition that already been stated which is at 27°C and 35 bar during 15 minutes. The result is at adsorption contour we can see that adsorption is higher at the top of the tank because the input of the adsorbent is at the top of the ANG tank so the adsorbate distribution is uneven that cause the adsorbate concentration at the top of the ANG tank is higher than the bottom tank.

  12. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  13. Safety of atmospheric storage tanks during accidental explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Noret , E.; Prod'Homme , Gaëtan; Yalamas , Thierry; Reimeringer , Mathieu; Hanus , Jean-Luc; Duong , Duy-Hung

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The occurrence of a chain reaction from blast on atmospheric storage tanks in oil and chemical facilities is hard to predict. The current French practice for SEVESO facilities ignores projectiles and assumes a critical peak overpressure value observed from accident data. This method could lead to conservative or dangerous assessments. This study presents various simple mechanical models to facilitate quick effective assessment of risk analysis, the results of which are...

  14. Effect of diluent wash over the removal of aqueous dissolved TBP and DBP in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjula, R.; Dasi, Mahesh; Mohandas, Jaya; Vijaya Kumar, N.; Kumar, T.

    2015-01-01

    In reprocessing of nuclear spent fuels by PUREX process Tri-n-Butyl phosphate diluted with n-Dodecane (nDD) is used as solvent. This solvent undergoes degradation due to radiation yielding degradation products, mainly Di-n-butyl phosphate (HDBP). During extraction steps some amount of these organic gets dissolved in aqueous phase owing to its mutual solubility. Removal of dissolved organic from aqueous streams before evaporation is essential to prevent red oil related disasters. Diluent wash technique employing nDD as diluent is one of the commonly used method for the same. During the continuous operation of this process, the diluent will get loaded with dissolved organic and subsequently the performance of diluent will not remain same as pure diluent. While some reports are available in literature for the efficiency of removal of TBP by nDD, so far no work has been reported for the removal of DBP. The scope of the present work is to ascertain the efficiency of diluent wash technique on the removal of dissolved TBP as well as DBP. The results obtained indicate that the removal of dissolved TBP by nDD decreases with increase in percentage of TBP in nDD. In the case of DBP it is just reverse and the removal becomes more effective when the TBP percentage in the diluent increases. A/O ratio of 6:1 is found to be more suitable. As the DBP is getting extracted very effectively into nDD containing TBP, diluent wash solution should be treated as spent organic and managed accordingly for further utilization

  15. Optimizing electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton process for treating car wash wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedali Mirshahghassemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Car wash wastewater contains several contaminants such as organic matter, oil, grease, detergents and phosphates, all of which are harmful for the environment. In this study, the application of electrocoagulation (EC to treat car wash wastewater has been studied, and the operating parameters optimized. The electro-Fenton (EF for further contaminant removal was also investigated. Methods: In EC process, the effect of pH, current density, and the reaction time of the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, phosphate, and turbidity were investigated using the response surface methodology (RSM. The electrochemical cell consisted of four iron electrodes that were connected to a power supply using a monopolar arrangement. In the EF process, the effect of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on COD removal efficiency were probed. Results: The optimum pH, current density, and the reaction time for the EC process were 7.3, 4.2 mA cm-2 and 20.3 minutes, respectively. Under these conditions, the COD, phosphate, and turbidity removal percentages were 80.8%, 94.9% and 85.5%, respectively, and the specific energy consumption was 1.5 kWh m-3. For the EF process, the optimum pH, reaction time, current and hydrogen peroxide dosage were 3, 10 minutes, 2 A and 500 mg L-1, respectively. The EF showed higher COD removal efficiency (85.6% with a lower specific energy consumption (0.5 kWh m-3 and reaction time compared to the EC. Conclusion: This study shows that both EC and EF can effectively treat car wash wastewater with high removal efficiency within a short reaction time.

  16. Soil washing treatability testing for rad-waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leis, K.S.; Lear, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Soil washing treatability testing was successfully completed on soil contaminated with Ra-226 and Th-232. The objective of the soil washing study was to determine if the radiologically contaminated fraction of the soil could be separated from the bulk of the soil material. The cleanup criteria was 38 microm) fraction was allowed to settle and was washed to separate it from the highly contaminated fine (< 38 microm) fraction. The clean coarse fraction comprised 85.7% of the total solids and had less than 15 pCi/g of Ra-226 and Th-232. This material was to be disposed at a RCRA Subtitle D disposal facility. The suspended fines were flocculated and dewatered to minimize the amount of highly contaminated material produced by the soil washing. The dewatered fines would require disposal at a low-level radiological disposal facility. Mass balance calculations were made to determine production rates and chemical and equipment requirements for the full-scale soil washing treatment

  17. Towards a durability test for washing-machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamminger, Rainer; Tecchio, Paolo; Ardente, Fulvio; Mathieux, Fabrice; Niestrath, Phoebe

    2018-04-01

    Durability plays a key role in enhancing resource conservation and contributing to waste minimization. The washing-machine product group represents a relevant case study for the development of a durability test and as a potential trigger to systematically address durability in the design of products. We developed a procedure to test the durability performance of washing-machines as a main objective of this research. The research method consisted of an analysis of available durability standards and procedures to test products and components, followed by an analysis of relevant references related to frequent failures. Finally, we defined the criteria and the conditions for a repeatable, relatively fast and relevant endurance test. The durability test considered the whole product tested under conditions of stress. A series of spinning cycles with fixed imbalanced loads was run on two washing-machines to observe failures and performance changes during the test. Even though no hard failures occurred, results clearly showed that not all washing-machines can sustain such a test without abrasion or performance deterioration. However, the attempt to reproduce the stress induced on a washing-machine by carrying out a high number of pure spinning cycles with fixed loads did not allow equal testing conditions: the actions of the control procedure regarding imbalanced loads differ from machine to machine. The outcomes of this research can be used as grounds to develop standardised durability tests and to, hence, contribute to the development of future product policy measures.

  18. A novel washing algorithm for underarm stain removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz Tufan, H.; Gocek, I.; Sahin, U. K.; Erdem, I.

    2017-10-01

    After contacting with human sweat which comprise around 27% sebum, anti-perspirants comprising aluminium chloride or its compounds form a jel-like structure whose solubility in water is very poor. In daily use, this jel-like structure closes sweat pores and hinders wetting of skin by sweat. However, when in contact with garments, they form yellowish stains at the underarm of the garments. These stains are very hard to remove with regular machine washing. In this study, first of all, we focused on understanding and simulating such stain formation on the garments. Two alternative procedures are offered to form jel-like structures. On both procedures, commercially available spray or deo-stick type anti-perspirants, standard acidic and basic sweat solutions and artificial sebum are used to form jel-like structures, and they are applied on fabric in order to get hard stains. Secondly, after simulation of the stain on the fabric, we put our efforts on developing a washing algorithm specifically designed for removal of underarm stains. Eight alternative washing algorithms are offered with varying washing temperature, amounts of detergent, and pre-stain removal procedures. Better algorithm is selected by comparison of Tristimulus Y values after washing.

  19. Influence of a big oil spill during the Gulf War on intertidal invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Ryusuke; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hiroo; Hanawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yukiwo

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that a massive oil spill washed ashore from Al Khafji to the west side of the Abu Ali Peninsula in the western Arabian Gulf during the Gulf War. In these areas enormous amounts of oil are still left along most beaches at the high tide level. Surveys were carried out to clarify the effects of the massive oil spill

  20. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  1. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  2. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  3. Solitons in a wave tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment is intended for lecture demonstrations. 19 references, 6 figures

  4. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H; Lahtinen, M [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  5. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report

  6. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  7. Separating cresote from tars, mineral oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1921-01-07

    Phenolic bodies are extracted from tars such as lignite, shale, peat, coal, producer and low temperature tars, and from tar distillates and residues and from mineral oils and distillates by washing with a mixture of acetone and water. Acetone extracts of the tars etc., may be mixed with water or aqueous acetone to cause the separation of the oils, while the creosote remains in solution.

  8. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required

  9. Effect of enzymes on anaerobic digestion of primary sludge and septic tank performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, James; Örmeci, Banu; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    Enzyme additives are believed to improve septic tank performance by increasing the hydrolysis and digestion rates and maintaining a healthy microbial population. Previous studies reported mixed results on the effectiveness of enzymes on mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, and it is not clear whether enzymes would be effective under septic tank conditions where there is no heating or mixing, quantities of enzymes added are small, and they can be washed out quickly. In this study, batch reactors and continuous-flow reactors designed and operated as septic tanks were used to evaluate whether enzymatic treatment would increase the hydrolysis and digestion rates in primary sludge. Total solids, volatile solids, total suspended solids, total and soluble chemical oxygen demand, concentrations of protein, carbohydrate, ammonia and volatile acids in sludge and effluent samples were measured to determine the differences in digestion rates in the presence and absence of enzymes. Overall, no significant improvement was observed in enzyme-treated reactors compared with the control reactors.

  10. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-02-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

  11. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples.

  12. Experimental Study of an On-board Fuel Tank Inerting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Lin, Guiping; Zeng, Yu; Pan, Rui; Sun, Haoyang

    2017-03-01

    A simulated aircraft fuel tank inerting system was established and experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of the system. The system uses hollow fiber membrane which is widely used in aircraft as the air separation device and a simplified 20% scale multi compartment fuel tank as the inerting object. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influences of different operating parameters on the inerting effectiveness of the system, including NEA (nitrogen-enriched air) flow rate, NEA oxygen concentration, NEA distribution, pressure of bleeding air and fuel load of the tank. Results showed that for the multi compartment fuel tank, concentrated flow washing inerting would cause great differences throughout the distribution of oxygen concentration in the fuel tank, and inerting dead zone would exist. The inerting effectiveness was greatly improved and the ullage oxygen concentration of the tank would reduce to 12% successfully when NEA entered three compartments evenly. The time span of a complete inerting process reduced obviously with increasing NEA flow rate and decreasing NEA concentration, but the trend became weaker gradually. However, the reduction of NEA concentration will decrease the utilization efficiency of the bleeding air. In addition, the time span can also be reduced by raising the pressure of bleeding air, which will improve the bleeding air utilization efficiency at the same time. The time span decreases linearly as the fuel load increases.

  13. In-tank photo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods

  14. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  15. Static tilt tests of a full-sized cylindrical liquid storage tank model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is explaining a static tilt test with a full-scaled tank model, the objects of which are the above-ground type LNG,LPG and oil storage tanks. Main points of view to investigate are as follows: Stress and deformation at each part of the tank wall, the bottom plate and the anchor straps in case that the anchor straps are very effective; Behavior in case that the anchor straps are not very effective; Behavior in case of no anchors; Influence of the roof above the shell; and Influence of the foundation rigidity under the bottom plate

  16. Process of decomposing an oil mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubierschky, K

    1917-12-02

    A process is described for the decomposition of oil mixtures, and the like, by means of alcohol, characterized in that the subject mixture is brought into solution in high-grade alcohol, and this solution is washed countercurrent with dilute alcohol.

  17. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  18. Computer Simulation of Bound Component Washing To Minimize Processing Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Janáčová

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focused on the optimization of the washing processes because many technological processes are characterizedby large consumption of water, electrical energy and auxiliary chemicals mainly. For this reason it is very important to deal withthem. For the optimization of process of washing it is possible to set up an access of the indirect modeling that is based on make-up ofmathematical models coming out of study of the physical operation mechanism. The process is diffusion character it is characterizedby the value of diffusion effective coefficient and so called structure power of the removing item to the solid phase. The mentionedparameters belong to input data that are appropriate for the automatic control of washing process.

  19. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Gravity and magnetic study of Yucca Wash, southwest Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data were collected along five traverses across and one traverse along Yucca Wash in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. Two additional ground magnetic profiles were collected approximately 100 m to either side of the longitudinal profile. These data do not indicate major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm 3 along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. A broad magnetic high coincides with the location of the hydrologic gradient. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Yucca Wash is about 2.0 g/cm 3