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Sample records for oil supplementation induces

  1. Comparative effect of olive oil and fish oil supplementation in combating gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Fouzia; M. Kaleem; Sheema; Bano, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present study is related to the comparative effects of fish oil and olive oil supplementation on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Three treatment groups (Pretrement, Co-treatment and post treatment) were chosen for the study. Nephrotoxicity in rats was induced by intraperitonial administration of gentamicin (80 mg/kg/d) for 3,5,7,10,& 12 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 12 hrs after last treatment in each group. The maximum nephrotoxicity was developed on 10 days tr...

  2. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (ppalm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status.

  3. Effects of Maternal Linseed Oil Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters in Cafeteria Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Nawel; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Narce, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Because linseed oil may influence maternal and fetal metabolisms, we investigated its role in the modulation of lipid metabolism in cafeteria diet-induced obese rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed control or cafeteria food, which were either supplemented or not supplemented with linseed oil (5%) for 1 month before and during gestation. At parturition, serum and tissue lipids and enzyme activities were analyzed. Cafeteria diet induced adverse metabolic alterations in both mothers and offspring. Linseed oil improved metabolic status. In conclusion, linseed oil displayed health benefits by modulating tissue enzyme activities in both obese mothers and their newborns. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Daily sesame oil supplementation mitigates ketoconazole-induced oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and hepatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Srinivasan; Liu, Chuan-Teng; Chien, Se-Ping; Chen, Ying-Chien; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2016-11-01

    Ketoconazole (KCZ) is the most commonly used systemic antifungal drug. However, long-term treatment of KCZ induces hepatic injury. Oxidative stress is involved in KCZ-induced hepatic injury. Oxidative stress plays an important role in apoptosis-associated hepatic damage. Sesame oil is rich in potent antioxidants and antifungal constituents. It attenuates hepatic injury by inhibiting oxidative stress. Thus, sesame oil may protect against KCZ-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and hepatic damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of sesame oil as a nutritional supplement on KCZ-induced hepatic injury in mice. KCZ (300 mg/kg/day) was administered by gastric intubation; 30 min later, sesame oil (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 ml/kg/day; p.o.) was administered to mice for 14 days. Blood and liver tissue were collected. Hepatic injury was evaluated by serum biochemistry and histology. Oxidative stress was evaluated by myeloperoxidase activity, p47-phox, reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione level. Apoptosis was evaluated by p53, caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax and Cyto-C expression. Osteopontin was measured to assess liver healing. Sesame oil attenuated hepatic injury; it also decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis in KCZ-treated mice. Sesame oil may be used as a nutritional supplement with existing antifungal therapies to neutralize the adverse hepatotoxic nature of antifungal drugs by attenuating hepatic apoptosis through redox system to protect and heal liver injury in KCZ-treated mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does supplemental 18:0 alleviate fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2016-02-01

    Supplementation of dairy ewe diet with marine lipids may be an effective strategy for modulating milk fatty acid composition but induces milk fat depression (MFD). This syndrome has been associated with a shortage of 18:0 for uptake and Δ(9)-desaturation that may impair the capacity of the mammary gland to achieve an adequate fluidity for milk fat secretion. On this basis, it was suggested that supplemental 18:0 may contribute to alleviate marine lipid-induced MFD in sheep. To test this hypothesis, 12 lactating ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 lots and used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 28 d each and 3 experimental treatments: a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation (control) or supplemented with 20 g/kg of DM of fish oil alone (FO) or in combination with 20 g/kg of DM of 18:0 (FOSA). Diets were offered ad libitum, and animal performance and rumen and milk fatty acid composition were studied at the end of each period. After completing the Latin square trial and following a change-over design, the in vivo digestibility of supplemental 18:0 was estimated using 6 lactating sheep. As expected, diet supplementation with fish oil increased the milk content of some potentially health-promoting fatty acids (e.g., cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11 18:1, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), but reduced milk fat concentration and yield (-20% in both FO and FOSA treatments). Thus, although reductions in milk 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 output caused by FO (-81 and -51%, respectively) were partially reversed with FOSA diet (-49 and -27%, respectively), the addition of 18:0 to the diet did not prove useful to alleviate MFD. This response, which could not be fully accounted for by the low digestibility coefficient of supplemental 18:0, may challenge the theory of a shortage of this fatty acid as a mechanism to explain fish oil-induced MFD in sheep. Effects of FO and FOSA on rumen and milk fatty acid composition would support that increases in the concentration of some

  6. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet, a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. Supplementation with fish oil and coconut fat prevents prenatal stress-induced changes in early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2011-08-01

    Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil.

  10. Olive Oil-Supplemented Lipid Emulsion Induces CELF1 Expression and Promotes Apoptosis in Caco-2 Cells

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    Jun-Kai Yan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Parenterally-administered lipid emulsion (LE is a key cause of enterocyte apoptosis under total parenteral nutrition, yet the pathogenesis has not been fully understood. CUGBP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1 has been recently identified as a crucial modulator of apoptosis, and thus this study sought to investigate its role in the LE-induced apoptosis in vitro. Methods: Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro model. The cells were treated with varying LEs derived from soybean oil, olive oil or fish oil, and changes in the apoptosis and CELF1 expression were assessed. Rescue study was performed using transient knockdown of CELF1 with specific siRNA prior to LE treatment. Regulation of CELF1 by LE treatment was studied using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results: All the LEs up-regulated CELF1expression and induced apoptosis, but only olive oil-supplemented lipid emulsion (OOLE-induced apoptosis was attenuated by depletion of CELF1. Up-regulation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF was involved in OOLE-induced CELF1 dependent apoptosis. The protein expression of CELF1 was up-regulated by OOLE in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but the mRNA expression of CELF1 was unchanged. Analysis by polysomal profiling and nascent protein synthesis revealed that the regulation of CELF1 by OOLE treatment was mediated by directly accelerating its protein translation. Conclusion: OOLE-induces apoptosis in Caco-2 cells partially through up-regulation of CELF1.

  11. Long-term fish oil supplementation induces cardiac electrical remodeling by changing channel protein expression in the rabbit model.

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    Xulin Xu

    Full Text Available Clinical trials and epidemiological studies have suggested that dietary fish oil (FO supplementation can provide an anti-arrhythmic benefit in some patient populations. The underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We wanted to understand how FO supplementation (for 4 weeks affected the action potential configuration/duration of ventricular myocytes, and the ionic mechanism(s/molecular basis for these effects. The experiments were conducted on adult rabbits, a widely used animal model for cardiac electrophysiology and pathophysiology. We used gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to confirm that FO feeding produced a marked increase in the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipids of rabbit hearts. Left ventricular myocytes were used in current and voltage clamp experiments to monitor action potentials and ionic currents, respectively. Action potentials of myocytes from FO-fed rabbits exhibited much more positive plateau voltages and prolonged durations. These changes could be explained by an increase in the L-type Ca current (I(CaL and a decrease in the transient outward current (I(to in these myocytes. FO feeding did not change the delayed rectifier or inward rectifier current. Immunoblot experiments showed that the FO-feeding induced changes in I(CaL and I(to were associated with corresponding changes in the protein levels of major pore-forming subunits of these channels: increase in Cav1.2 and decrease in Kv4.2 and Kv1.4. There was no change in other channel subunits (Cav1.1, Kv4.3, KChIP2, and ERG1. We conclude that long-term fish oil supplementation can impact on cardiac electrical activity at least partially by changing channel subunit expression in cardiac myocytes.

  12. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  13. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD supplement with perilla oil (POH for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  14. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  15. Dietary olive oil supplemented with fish oil, rich in EPA and DHA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, attenuates colonic inflammation in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuesco, Desirée; Gálvez, Julio; Nieto, Ana; Comalada, Mònica; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Concha, Angel; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies proposed a protective role of the dietary intake of (n-3) PUFA in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but almost no studies have been performed using olive oil. The aims of the present study were to test the beneficial effects of an olive oil-based diet with or without fish oil, rich in (n-3) PUFA, in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of rat colitis and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their potential beneficial effects, with special attention to the production of some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, such as leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO). Rats were fed the different diets for 2 wk before colitis induction and thereafter until colonic evaluation 15 d later. Colitic rats fed the olive oil-based diet had a lower colonic inflammatory response than those fed the soybean oil diet, and this beneficial effect was increased by the dietary incorporation of (n-3) PUFA. A restoration of colonic glutathione levels and lower colonic NO synthase expression occurred in all colitic rats fed an olive oil diet compared with the control colitic group that consumed the soybean oil diet. However, (n-3) PUFA incorporation into an olive oil diet significantly decreased colonic TNFalpha and LTB(4) levels compared with colitic rats that were not supplemented with fish oil. These results affirm the benefits of an olive oil diet in the management of IBD, which are further enhanced by the addition of (n-3) PUFA.

  16. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  17. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  18. POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE PRODUCTION BY Cupriavidus necator SUPPLEMENTED WITH MINIEMULSIFIED SOYBEAN OIL

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    M. Schmidt

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies have shown that the supplementation of vegetable oils, in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate production, provides an increase in the process productivity, besides inducing lipase activity in the medium. The supplementation with miniemulsified oils could potentialize these results. In this work, the influence of supplementation of the medium with soybean oil, without treatment and miniemulsified, on polymerr production was evaluated. The best moment to supplement the medium and its influence on lipase activity were also analyzed. The results showed that the supplementation with miniemulsified soybean oil promoted an increase of 9.7% in polymer content and the productivity increased from 0.58 to 0.63 g.L-1.h-1, when compared with the culture without supplementation. The best time to add the supplement is in the beginning of the production phase. The lipase activity was higher for the culture supplemented with miniemulsified soybean oil, promoting the use of the oil.

  19. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

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    Olawale R. Ajuwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis, red palm oil (RPO (Elaeis guineensis, or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P<0.05 elevation in conjugated dienes (CD and malondialdehyde (MDA levels, significantly (P<0.05 decreased reduced glutathione (GSH and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P<0.05 decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status.

  20. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

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    Ajuwon, Olawale R; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Marnewick, Jeanine L

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status.

  1. Sperm quality improvement after date seed oil in Vitro sup-plementation in spontaneous and induced oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben A.Fatma; Chakroun F.Nozha; Dammak Ines; Attia Hamadi; Hentati Basma; Ammar K.Leila

    2009-01-01

    In vitro supplementation with date seed oil (DSO) can protect spermatozoa against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated damage and can improve sperm function, possibly owing to antioxidant properties. We tested the anti-oxidant effects of DSO on human sperm motility, sperm viability, reacted acrosome and lipid peroxidation assessed in vitro after H2O2-mediated oxidative damage in spermatozoa. Sixteen patients (mean age: 35 years; range: 25-45 years) referred to the Histology-Embryology Laboratory of the Medicine Faculty of Sfax for semen analysis after 12-24 months of sexual intercourse without conception were selected. After spermiogram, sperm selection by two-interface discontinuous Sill Select gradient was performed, and selected spermatozoa were used in four experimen-tal assays: control; incubation with 100 μm H2O2; incubation with 0.1% DSO; and co-incubation with 0.1% DSO and 100 μm H2O2. Motility and viability were determined using World Health Organization criteria. Acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation were assessed by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum and spec-trophotometric measurement of malondialdehyde, respectively. Results showed that incubation with H2O2 alone led to a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (57.83%, P<0.05) associated with a significant decrease in sperm motility, sperm viability (after 30 rain and 24 h) and percentage of reacted acrosome (P<0.05). Date seed oil im-proved sperm motility after 24 h of incubation (P<0.05) and protected spermatozoa against the deleterious effects of H2O2 on motility, viability, acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation. We conclude that supplementation with DSO may have a function in antioxidant protection against male infertility.

  2. Effects of Trang Phuc Linh Plus-Food Supplement on Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced by Mustard Oil.

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    Nguyen, Thong T; Dau, Duong T; Nguyen, Dung C; Nguyen, Huong T T G; Ngo, Phuong T B; Nguyen, Thai Q; Han, Bo; Hoang, Ba X

    2017-04-01

    Trang phuc linh plus (TPLP) is a food supplement product derived from dried extracts of herbal agents Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, Paeonia lactiflora, Phellodendron amurense, and added lactobacillus fermentum lysate (ImmuneGamma(®)) and 5-hydroxytryptophan. TPLP is a functional food used as adjunctive treatment for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However the biological effect and its mechanism of action in IBS have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine the pharmacological activities and mode of action of TPLP on IBS animal models. Mice were given a single administration of 5% mustard oil (MO) intracollonically. Acute colitis induction by MO resulted in later development of an IBS-like accelerated upper gastrointestinal transit in mice. Mice were treated with different does of TPLP and controls. Results showed that TPLP at the dose of 654 mg/kg/day given orally significantly decreased intestinal motility (IM) compared with the control animals. The effect was similar to Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day) (Mebeverine Hydrochloride, an antispasmodic that helps to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with gastrointestinal spasms). Increased TPLP dose (1962 mg/kg/day) had a better effect on relief of IM than Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day). TPLP also reduced peristalsis frequency and decreased fluid volume and electrolytes excretion in intestine tested in ex vivo models. Overall, TPLP may be an effective nutraceutical supplement for IBS.

  3. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Postresistance Exercise Muscle Soreness.

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    Tinsley, Grant M; Gann, Joshua J; Huber, Stefan R; Andre, Thomas L; La Bounty, Paul M; Bowden, Rodney G; Gordon, Paul M; Grandjean, Peter W

    2016-07-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on the magnitude and time-course of postresistance exercise muscle soreness. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Nonresistance trained females were randomized into one of two groups: fish oil supplementation (6 g/day; 5:1 eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA)) or placebo (6 g/day corn/soy oil). After consuming the supplements for one week, participants underwent a single bout of resistance exercise consisting of 10 sets to failure of elbow flexion and leg extension machines. Muscle soreness was measured daily over the next week via grounded visual analog scale while participants continued to consume their assigned supplement. At 48 hours and one week postexercise, soreness during functional movements and limb circumferences were measured. The fish oil group perceived less static and functional muscle soreness than placebo, although the differences were not statistically significant. Effect sizes for resistance exercise-induced static and functional soreness responses were 33 to 42% lower in fish oil versus placebo without changes in upper arm and thigh circumferences. Supplementing the diet with 6 g per day of fish oil may alleviate muscle soreness experienced after resistance training in young untrained females.

  4. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C.; Knab, Amy M.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women. PMID:27187447

  5. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP, F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268, F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273, and cytokines (p > 0.05. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001. Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women.

  6. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt;

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...... interval, CI, -0.42 to -0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; -0.21; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; -0.63; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; -0.17; 95% CI, -0...

  7. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...... interval, CI, -0.42 to -0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; -0.21; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; -0.63; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; -0.17; 95% CI, -0...

  8. Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, de João Pedro; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G.E.; Steegenga, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains show

  9. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  10. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  11. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlory, Chris; Wardle, Sophie L; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; Witard, Oliver C; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; Tipton, Kevin D

    2016-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed a bout of unilateral RE followed by ingestion of 30 g of whey protein. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after supplementation for assessment of muscle lipid composition and relevant protein kinase activities. Infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine was used to measure basal myofibrillar MP Sat rest (REST), in a nonexercised leg following protein ingestion (FED) and following RE and protein ingestion (FEDEX).MPS was significantly elevated above REST during FEDEX in both the FO and CO groups, but there was no effect of supplementation. There was a significant increase in MPS in both groups above REST during FED but no effect of supplementation. Supplementation significantly decreased pan PKB activity at RESTin the FO group but not the CO group. There was a significant increase from REST at post-RE for PKB and AMPKα2 activity in the CO group but not in the FO group. In FEDEX, there was a significant increase in p70S6K1 activity from REST at 3 h in the CO group only. These data highlight that 8 weeks of FO supplementation alters kinase signaling activity in response to RE plus protein ingestion without influencing MPS.

  12. Nigella sativa Fixed and Essential Oil Supplementation Modulates Hyperglycemia and Allied Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tauseef Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent era, diabetes mellitus has emerged as one of the significant threats to public health and this situation demands the attention of the researchers and allied stakeholders. Dietary regimens using functional and nutraceutical foods are gaining wide range of acceptance and some traditional medicinal plants are of considerable importance. The main objective of this instant study was to explore the antidiabetic potential of Nigella sativa fixed oil (NSFO and essential oil (NSEO. Three experimental groups of rats received diets during the entire study duration, that is, D1 (control, D2 (NSFO: 4.0%, and D3 (NSEO: 0.30%. Experimental diets (NSFO & NSEO modulated the lipid profile, while decreasing the antioxidant damage. However, production of free radicals, that is, MDA, and conjugated dienes increased by 59.00 and 33.63%, respectively, in control. On the contrary, NSFO and NSEO reduced the MDA levels by 11.54 and 26.86% and the conjugated dienes levels by 32.53 and 38.39%, respectively. N. sativa oils improved the health and showed some promising anti-diabetic results.

  13. The effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and the vascular wall of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Siti Balkis Budin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fractions on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups: (i normal non-diabetic (NDM, (ii diabetic treated (tocotrienol-rich fractions - TRF and (iii diabetic untreated (non-TRF. The treatment group received oral administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions (200 mg/kg body weight daily for eight weeks. The normal non-diabetic and the diabetic untreated groups were fed standard rat feed. Blood glucose and lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers and morphological changes of the thoracic aorta were evaluated. RESULTS: Tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment reduced serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group also showed significantly lower levels of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride, as compared to the untreated group. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as compared to the untreated group. Superoxide dismutase activity and levels of vitamin C in plasma were increased in tocotrienol-rich fractions-treated rats. The levels of plasma and aorta malondealdehyde + 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA + 4-HNE and oxidative DNA damage were significant following tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment. Electron microscopic examination showed that the normal morphology of the thoracic aorta was disrupted in STZ-diabetic rats. Tocotrienol-rich fractions supplementation resulted in a protective effect on the vessel wall. CONCLUSION: These results show that tocotrienol-rich fractions lowers the blood glucose level and improves dyslipidemia. Levels of oxidative stress markers were also reduced by administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions. Vessel wall integrity was maintained due to the positive effects mediated by tocotrienol-rich fractions.

  14. Fish oil supplementation and physical exercise program: distinct effects on different memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetti, A L F; Arida, R M; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Fernades-Santos, L; Frussa-Filho, R; Gomes da Silva, S; Scorza, F A; Cysneiros, R M

    2013-01-15

    Both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise are able to induce benefits to mental health by providing an improvement in cognitive performance and enhancing neuroplasticity and protection against neurological lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive effects in rats of the: (1) a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation (85 mg/kg/day) initiated from prenatal period to the midlife (300 day/old); (2) moderate physical exercise in treadmill initiated from adolescent period to midlife and (3) association of fish oil supplementation and moderate physical exercise protocol during the same period. Animals were submitted to the habituation in the open-field, object recognition and to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance tasks. Our results demonstrated that a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation can facilitate the persistence of the long-term habituation and recognition memories without, however, affecting the discriminative avoidance memory. Conversely, although the program of physical exercise exerted no effects on habituation or objects recognition, it was able to potentiate the persistence of the discriminative avoidance memory. Such promnestic effects (induced by both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise) were not accompanied by alterations in emotionality or locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that fish oil supplementation, initiated from prenatal period to midlife, and physical exercise program applied throughout the life induced distinctly a better cognitive performance.

  15. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

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    Promise Madu Emeka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ, and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 10 6 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF, NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001 (36.1%. Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20 th and 15 th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001 (93%. Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusion : sThis study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria.

  16. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeka, Promise Madu; Badger-Emeka, Lorina Ineta; Eneh, Chiamaka Maryann; Khan, Tahir Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 106 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001) (36.1%). Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20th and 15th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001) (93%). Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusions: This study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria. PMID:24991115

  17. Changes in chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of chick low- and high-density lipoproteins induced by supplementation of coconut oil to the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, E M; Zafra, M F; Gil-Villarino, A; Pérez, M I; Alvarez-Pez, J M; García-Peregrín, E

    1997-06-01

    Supplementation of coconut oil to the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in 14-day-old chicks. Changes in plasma fatty acid composition correlated positively with those of diets. In this study, we have shown a different response of low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) fractions to dietary saturated fat (coconut oil) rich in lauric and myristic acids. Although all the components of these particles seemed to increase, the percentages of increases found in total (TC), free (FC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) were higher in LDL than in HDL. TC/phospholipid (PL) ratio, considered as an inverse index of membrane fluidity, also increased with the dietary regimen in LDL, while no significant differences were found in HDL. These results suggest that supplementation of coconut oil to the diet decreased the fluidity of LDL. The EC/triglycerides (TG) ratio was also significantly increased in LDL, corroborating the main atherogenic function of this lipoprotein fraction in response to lauric and myristic acids. We have also estimated the lipidic order parameter, S, from the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-labelled low- and high-density lipoproteins. In LDL, temperature dependence of S shows two different behaviour zones at about 20 degrees C. In HDL, the plot of S values versus T is linear. DPH anisotropy and S increased in both LDL and HDL from treated chicks. This increase becomes more evident as temperature rises and also with dietary treatment.

  18. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  19. Supplementation of parenteral nutrition with fish oil attenuates acute lung injury in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohama, Keisuke; Nakao, Atsunori; Terashima, Mariko; Aoyama-Ishikawa, Michiko; Shimizu, Takayuki; Harada, Daisuke; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Yamashita, Hayato; Fujiwara, Mayu; Kotani, Joji

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has diverse immunomodulatory properties and attenuates acute lung injury when administered in enternal nutrition. However, enteral nutrition is not always feasible. Therefore, we investigated the ability of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil to ameliorate acute lung injury. Rats were infused with parenteral nutrition solutions (without lipids, with soybean oil, or with soybean oil and fish oil) for three days. Lipopolysaccharide (15 mg/kg) was then administered intratracheally to induce acute lung injury, characterized by impaired lung function, polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment, parenchymal tissue damage, and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Administration of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil prior to lung insult improved gas exchange and inhibited neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil also prolonged survival. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene B5 secretion was measured in neutrophils from the peritoneal cavity. The neutrophils from rats treated with fish oil-rich parenteral nutrition released significantly more leukotriene B5, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, than neutrophils isolated from rats given standard parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition with fish oil significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats in part by promoting the synthesis of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PMID:24688221

  20. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Kjetil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β were determined by a Luminex™ assay system. Results Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1α and IL-13. Conclusions The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis.

  1. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8 mo

  2. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8

  3. Dietary supplementation with fish oil alters the expression levels of proteins governing mitochondrial dynamics and prevents high-fat diet-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruifang; Wang, Xiaoming; Liu, Yan; Xia, Min

    2014-07-28

    Diets supplemented with fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 PUFA, have been shown to modify several key risk factors for CVD. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of FO supplementation on mitochondrial dynamic protein expression in the endothelium and on endothelial cell function. Male apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice (8 weeks old, n 12 per group) were fed a high-fat diet containing 45% fat (HFD group) or a HFD with partial replacement of lard with 10% (w/w) FO (FO group) (total EPA and DHA content 64.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. ApoE-/- mice in the FO group had a greater endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach) than those in the HFD group. The atherosclerotic lesion volume in the aortic sinus of mice in the FO group was 54% lower than that in the HFD group (Pdiet showed significantly lower levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity (each P< 0.05). Furthermore, FO-fed mice displayed increased NO release and availability and enhanced endothelial NO synthase activity compared with HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which FO protects against endothelial cell dysfunction, which may result in improved mitochondrial dynamics.

  4. Alterations in Lipid Mediated Signaling and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in DMH Induced Colon Cancer on Supplementation of Fish Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevali Kansal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide mediates inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 which catalyzes formation of prostaglandin further activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ and Wnt/β-catenin pathway; and hence plays a critical role in cancer. Therefore, in current study, ceramide, COX-2, 15-deoxy prostaglandin J2(15-deoxy PGJ2, PPARγ, and β-catenin were estimated to evaluate the effect of fish oil on lipid mediated and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon carcinoma. Male Wistar rats in Group I received purified diet while Groups II and III received modified diet supplemented with FO : CO(1 : 1 and FO : CO(2.5 : 1, respectively. These were further subdivided into controls receiving ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and treated groups receiving dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH/week for 4 weeks. Animals sacrificed 48 hours after last injection constituted initiation phase and those sacrificed after 16 weeks constituted postinitiation phase. Decreased ceramide and increased PPARγ were observed in postinitiation phase only. On receiving FO+CO(1 : 1+DMH and FO+CO(2.5 : 1+DMH in both phases, ceramide was augmented whereas COX-2, 15-deoxy PGJ2, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin were reduced with respect to cancerous animals. Decrease was more significant in postinitiation phase with FO+CO(2.5 : 1+DMH. Treatment with oils increased PPARγ in initiation phase but decreased it in postinitiation phase. Hence, fish oil altered lipid mediated signalling in a dose and time dependent manner so as to inhibit progression of colon cancer.

  5. Macadamia Oil Supplementation Attenuates Inflammation and Adipocyte Hypertrophy in Obese Mice

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    Edson A. Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks were divided into four groups: (a control diet (CD, (b HF, (c CD supplemented with macadamia oil by gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week, for 12 weeks (CD + MO, and (d HF diet supplemented with macadamia oil (HF + MO. CD and HF mice were supplemented with water. HF mice showed hypercholesterolemia and decreased insulin sensitivity as also previously shown. HF induced inflammation in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages, as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuated hypertrophy of adipocytes and inflammation in the adipose tissue and macrophages.

  6. Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick; Chappell, Andrew; Jenkinson, Alison McE; Thies, Frank; Gray, Stuart R

    2014-04-01

    Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils-although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

  7. The effect of consuming oxidized oil supplemented with fiber on lipid profiles in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Shafaeizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Pectin consumption could decrease serum malondialdehyde and cholesterol in the diet that contains oxidized oil. Pectin supplementation could decrease the detrimental effects of thermally oxidized oil.

  8. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09. cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially...

  9. The effect of dietary fish oil-supplementation to healthy young men on oxidative burst measured by whole blood chemiluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt, Stine; Timm, Michael; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2008-01-01

    a randomised 2 £ 2-factorial design in which subjects were randomly assigned to 8-week supplementation with capsules containing fish oil (about 29 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or olive oil (control). Subjects were also randomly assigned to household use of oils and fat spreads with a high or a low 18 : 2n-6 content...... by the fish oil-supplementation (P,0001, compared to the olive oil groups). No effect of the intervention was observed on neutrophil count, but one measure of the zymosan-induced oxidative burst was higher in the fish oil groups (P¼003) compared to the olive oil groups. The fat intervention did not in itself...

  10. Fish oil supplementation modulates immune function in healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Lauritzen, L.; Kjaer, T.M.R.;

    2007-01-01

    (n-3) PUFA influence immune function in adults and may also affect immune maturation during development. This randomized trial is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate whether fish oil supplementation in late infancy modifies immune responses. The study was a 2 x 2 intervention in 64 healthy...... Danish infants, who received cow's milk or infant formula alone or with fish oil (FO) (3.4 +/- 1.1 mL/d) from 9 to 12 mo of age. Before and after the intervention, fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes, plasma IgE, C-reactive protein, and soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations were measured. TNF...

  11. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk.

  12. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  13. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayef Golandam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3 relative to omega-6 (n-6 fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. Methods 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflammatory lesion counts, and colorimetry. Findings There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne. Conclusion There is some evidence that fish oil supplementation is associated with an improvement in overall acne severity, especially for individuals with moderate to severe acne. Divergent responses to fish oil in our pilot study indicates that dietary and supplemental lipids are worthy of further investigation in acne.

  14. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayef, Golandam; Young, Julia; Burns-Whitmore, Bonny; Spalding, Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflammatory lesion counts, and colorimetry. There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne. There is some evidence that fish oil supplementation is associated with an improvement in overall acne severity, especially for individuals with moderate to severe acne. Divergent responses to fish oil in our pilot study indicates that dietary and supplemental lipids are worthy of further investigation in acne.

  15. Fish oil supplementation modulates immune function in healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja M.R.

    2007-01-01

    (n-3) PUFA influence immune function in adults and may also affect immune maturation during development. This randomized trial is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate whether fish oil supplementation in late infancy modifies immune responses. The study was a 2 3 2 intervention in 64 healthy......-a, INF-g, and IL-10 concentrations in whole-blood cultures, stimulated for 22 h with LPS1phytohemaglutinin (PHA) or Lactobacillus paracasei, were also determined. IgA was measured in feces when infants were 10 mo of age. FO supplementation effectively raised erythrocyte (n-3) PUFA (P , 0.001), increased......, this study suggests a faster immune maturation with FO supplementation with no apparent reduction in immune activation. The implications for later health need further investigation. J...

  16. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD;

    2007-01-01

    at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  17. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  18. Sows’ parity and coconut oil postnatal supplement on piglets performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan S Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of sows’ of different parities and the supplement of coconut oil for piglets, on the development of litter. Materials and methods. A total of 51 sows of different parities and their 642 piglets were used in the trial. Each piglet was weighed and identified at birth in a sequential order. They were randomly distributed in two treatments (CG=control group and TG=test group. TG piglets had the first access to a dosage of 3.0 ml of coconut oil 12 hours after birth, and the second at 36 h after the first. Piglets were weighed at 21 days. In order to analyze the effect of the coconut oil supplement as a function of the weight at birth, piglets were grouped according to their weight (0.600 to 0.900 kg; 1.000 to 1.499kg; 1.500 to 1.999 kg; and 2.000 to 2.499 kg. Results. Sows parity affected the number and weight of born piglets. Sows in 4th, 5th and 7th parity had a larger litter than those from the 2nd parity. Sows from 2nd and 3rd parity had a lower number of piglets but heavier litter. No effect of the coconut oil supplement on neonatal piglets’ performance was found. Conclusions. The coconut meal was neither beneficial to neonatal piglets nor to those with low weight at birth, which usually present low body energy.

  19. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (Polive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes.

  20. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sustained oil prices significantly above world market levels that would cause sustained material adverse... caused sustained material oil supply shortage or sustained oil prices significantly above world market... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...

  2. Daily sesame oil supplement attenuates joint pain by inhibiting muscular oxidative stress in osteoarthritis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chu, Pei-Yi; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, affecting approximately 15% of the population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sesame oil in controlling OA pain in rats. Rat joint pain was induced by medial meniscal transection in Sprague-Dawley rats and assessed by using hindlimb weight distribution method. Muscular oxidative stress was assessed by determining lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species and circulating antioxidants. Sesame oil significantly decreased joint pain compared with positive control group in a dose-dependent manner. Sesame oil decreased lipid peroxidation in muscle but not in serum. Further, sesame oil significantly decreased muscular superoxide anion and peroxynitrite generations but increased muscular glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels. Further, sesame oil significantly increased nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) expression compared with positive control group. We concluded that daily sesame oil supplement may attenuate early joint pain by inhibiting Nrf2-associated muscular oxidative stress in OA rat model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...... may be related to the lower maternal weight gain during pregnancy and the lower food consumption observed in FO-rats (p 0.1). The findings are compatible with the hypothesis that gestational age...

  4. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  5. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Bengtson Nash

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  6. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  7. Dietary carotenoid-rich oil supplementation improves exercise-induced anisocytosis in runners: influences of haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms in dilutional pseudoanemia (sports anemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptation, whereas exhaustive exercises increase reactive oxygen-species generation, thereby causing oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, fractions susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) is a Brazilian Cerrado fruit containing a carotenoid-rich oil. The aim was to investigate the effects of pequi-oil on exercise-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, after running in the same environment and undergoing weekly training under the same conditions as to type, intensity and length. Evaluations were accomplished after outdoor running on flat land before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi-oil capsules for 14 days. Blood samples were taken after running and submitted to TBARS assay and erythrogram analysis. Haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms were priorly investigated, so as to estimate genetic influence The reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit after pequi-oil treatment was notably associated with higher plasma expansion. Except for MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and RDW (red cell distribution width), the results were influenced by the polymorphisms studied. The best response to pequi-oil was presented by MnSOD Val/Val, CAT AA or AT genotypes and the GPX1 Pro allele. The significantly lower RDW and higher MHCH values were related to pequi-oil protective effects. Pequi oil, besides possessing other nutritional properties, showed protective blood effects. PMID:21637495

  8. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  9. Fish oil supplementation modulates immune function in healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Lauritzen, L.; Kjaer, T.M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Danish infants, who received cow's milk or infant formula alone or with fish oil (FO) (3.4 +/- 1.1 mL/d) from 9 to 12 mo of age. Before and after the intervention, fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes, plasma IgE, C-reactive protein, and soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations were measured. TNF......(n-3) PUFA influence immune function in adults and may also affect immune maturation during development. This randomized trial is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate whether fish oil supplementation in late infancy modifies immune responses. The study was a 2 x 2 intervention in 64 healthy.......02). Feeding milk rather than formula did not affect cytokine production, but plasma soluble IL-2 receptor concentration was greater in the formula group than in the cow's milk group (P = 0.03). Since the capacity to produce INF-gamma has been proposed as a maturation marker for the immune system in early life...

  10. Fish oil supplementation modulates immune function in healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Danish infants, who received cow's milk or infant formula alone or with fish oil (FO) (3.4 6 1.1 mL/d) from 9 to 12 mo of age. Before and after the intervention, fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes, plasma IgE, C-reactive protein, and soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations were measured. TNF......(n-3) PUFA influence immune function in adults and may also affect immune maturation during development. This randomized trial is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate whether fish oil supplementation in late infancy modifies immune responses. The study was a 2 3 2 intervention in 64 healthy.......02). Feeding milk rather than formula did not affect cytokine production, but plasma soluble IL-2 receptor concentration was greater in the formula group than in the cow's milk group (P ¼ 0.03). Since the capacity to produce INF-g has been proposed as a maturation marker for the immune system in early life...

  11. Evaluating daily exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish oil supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J T F; Ward, J S; Schafer, M W; Stapleton, H M; Velinsky, D J

    2010-08-01

    Fish oil supplements have become a popular means of increasing one's dietary intake of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, there is growing concern that the levels and potential health effects of lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may diminish some of the health benefits associated with the daily consumption of fish oil supplements. In this study, ten over-the-counter fish oil supplements available in the United States were analysed for PCBs and PBDEs and daily exposures calculated. Based on manufacturers' recommended dosages, daily intakes of PCBs and PBDEs ranged from 5 to 686 ng day(-1) and from 1 to 13 ng day(-1), respectively. Daily consumption of fish oil supplements expose consumers to PCBs and PBDEs. However, in comparison with fish ingestion, fish supplements may decrease daily PCB exposure and provide a safer pathway for individuals seeking to maintain daily recommended levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  12. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  13. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Sorensen, J.D.; Secher, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    duration, birthweight, and birth length of a fish-oil supplement, a control olive-oil supplement, and no supplementation. 533 healthy Danish women in week 30 of pregnancy were randomly assigned in a ratio of 2/1/1 to fish oil (four 1 g Pikasol capsules [containing 2.7 g n-3 fatty acids] per day), olive oil...... (four 1 g capsules per day), or no supplement. The three groups differed in mean length of gestation (p = 0.006), which was highest in the fish-oil group and lowest in the olive-oil group; the result was similar when the analysis was restricted to women with an estimate of gestation length based...... on early ultrasound findings (443 women). Pregnancies in the fish-oil group were on average 4.0 (95% confidence interval 1.5-6.4) days longer than those in the olive-oil group; the difference in birthweight was 107 (1-214) g. The effect of supplementation on length of gestation was influenced by intake...

  14. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V M Montori; A Farmer; P C Wollan; S F Dinneen

    2000-01-01

    Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. V M Montori , A Farmer , P C Wollan and S F Dinneen Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Olmsted Medical Center, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Abstract OBJECTIVE...

  15. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  16. Effects of sesame oil on the reproductive parameters of diabetes mellitus-induced male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza Fatemi; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Barati, Farid; Morovvati, Hasan

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of sesame oil on the reproductive parameters of diabetic male Wistar rats. The adult male rats in a split plot design were divided into normal (n=10), normal 5% (n=5; 5% sesame oil enriched diet), diabetic (Streptozocin induced diabetes; n=9), diabetic 5% (n=9; 5% sesame oil enriched diet), and diabetic 10% (n=9; 10% sesame oil enriched diet) groups. Diet supplementation continued for 56 days. Sesame oil supplementation did not reduce the plasma glucose concentration of rats in the diabetic groups (p>0.05). The total spermatogonia, spermatocytes, Leydig cells/tubule, and the germ cell to Sertoli cell ratio were lower in the diabetic rats than the normal ones (psesame oil to the diet (psesame oil supplementation did not improve them. Incorporation of sesame oil into the diet improved the plasma testosterone concentration of the diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner (psesame oil supplementation improved the reproductive parameters of diabetic rats at the levels of the testicular microstructure and function, but was not effective in protecting the epididymal sperm.

  17. Fish oil supplementation and insulin sensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huanqing; Geng, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Qinghua

    2017-07-03

    Fish oil supplementation has been shown to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome and benefit a wide range of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and several types of cancers. However, the evidence of fish oil supplementation on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still controversial. This meta-analysis summarized the exist evidence of the relationship between fish oil supplementation and insulin sensitivity and aimed to evaluate whether fish oil supplementation could improve insulin sensitivity. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase database for the relevant studies update to Dec 2016. Two researchers screened the literature independently by the selection and exclusion criteria. Studies were pooled using random effect models to estimate a pooled SMD and corresponding 95% CI. This meta-analysis was performed by Stata 13.1 software. A total of 17 studies with 672 participants were included in this meta-analysis study after screening from 498 published articles found after the initial search. In a pooled analysis, fish oil supplementation had no effects on insulin sensitivity compared with the placebo (SMD 0.17, 95%CI -0.15 to 0.48, p = 0.292). In subgroup analysis, fish oil supplementation could benefit insulin sensitivity among people who were experiencing at least one symptom of metabolic disorders (SMD 0.53, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.88, p oil supplementation or duration of the intervention. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were robust. Short-term fish oil supplementation is associated with increasing the insulin sensitivity among those people with metabolic disorders.

  18. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisitiporn Suksombat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO, or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO, or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS. All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05. To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (p<0.05 and n-3 fatty acids (FA (p<0.01, particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05 while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA (p<0.05. Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01. In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA

  19. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  20. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Ramchani-Ben Othman

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD. For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  1. Dietary Supplement Enriched in Antioxidants and Omega-3 Protects from Progressive Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration. PMID:26042773

  2. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  3. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  4. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    Full Text Available Krill oil (KO is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  5. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  6. Supplementing oregano essential oil to boar diet with strengthened fish oil: Effects on semen antioxidant status and semen quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Duan, R J; Zhou, Y F; Wei, H K; Peng, J; Li, J L

    2017-02-22

    Previous research has shown benefits of dietary fish oil supplementation on semen quality of boars. However, little is known about how antioxidant protects lipid peroxidation on spermatozoa from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) addition. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) supplementation on semen antioxidant status and semen quality in boars fed a diet enriched with fish oil. Thirty-four mature boars of proven fertility, received daily 2.5 kg basal diet top-dressed with 45 g soybean oil and 15 g fish oil to meet the n-3 PUFA requirement of spermatozoa, randomly allocated to one of four groups supplemented with 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) (control), or 250 or 500 or 750 mg OEO kg(-1) for 16 weeks. Semen was collected at weeks 0, 8, 12 and 16 for measurements of sperm production, motion characteristics, sperm α-tocopherol content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Sperm production and motion characteristics were similar (p > .05) among groups throughout the experimental week 16, but increased (p oil has a positive effect on antioxidant capacity in boar when used fish oil.

  7. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction from extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates acute ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Villegas, I; Rosillo, M A; de la Lastra, C Alarcón

    2013-02-14

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has demonstrated immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties in murine experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). In addition to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content, evidences have accumulated on the favorable properties of minor, although highly bioactive, components present in the unsaponifiable fraction (UF). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary EVOO's UF supplementation on acute UC. C57BL/6 mice were fed from weaning with sunflower oil (SD), EVOO diet and UF-enriched SD at 5% oil (SD+UF). After 30 days, mice were exposed to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days developing acute colitis. After 4 days of DSS removal, animals were sacrificed and colons were histological and biochemically processed. Disease activity index and microscopic damage score were significantly improved in EVOO and SD+UF dietary groups versus SD group. In addition, both dietary treatments significantly induced decreases in MCP-1 and TNF-α levels, iNOS and COX-2 overexpression and p38 MAPKs activation in colon mucosa. Moreover, an upregulation of IκB expression was also observed after feeding the animals with both diets. However, no statistically differences between data from mice fed with EVOO or UF+SD diets were observed. Dietary enrichment with EVOO's UF reduces the damage in acute colitis model, alleviating the oxidative events and returning proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 MAPK and NFκB signalling pathways. EVOO's UF diet might provide a basis for developing a new strategy in dietary supplementation for the prevention of UC.

  8. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Pdiet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Pdiet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (Pdiet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (Pdiet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems.

  9. Supplementary catechins attenuate cooking-oil-fumes-induced oxidative stress in rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Huei; Lin, Chun-Yao; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Liou, Shaw-Yih; Li, Ping-Chia; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2009-06-30

    Cooking-oil-fumes containing toxic components may induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to oxidize macromolecules and lead to acute lung injury. Our previous study showed that a decaffineated green tea extract containing (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate can inhibit oxidation, inflammation, and apoptosis. We determined whether the catechins supplement may reduce cooking-oil-fumes-induced acute lung injury in rat. In the urethane-anesthetized Wistar rat subjected to 30-120 min of cooking-oil-fumes exposure, blood ROS significantly increased in the recovery stage. After 30-min cooking-oil-fumes exposure, the enhanced blood ROS level further increased in a time-dependent manner during the recovery stage (321 +/- 69 counts/10 s after 1 h, 540 +/- 89 counts/10 s after 2 h, and 873 +/- 112 counts/10 s after 4 h). Four hours after 30-min cooking-oil-fumes exposure, lung lavage neutrophils and ROS as well as lung tissue dityrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal increased significantly. Two weeks of catechins supplememnt significantly reduced the enhanced lavage ROS, lung dityrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal level. Cooking-oil-fumes-induced oxidative stress decreased lung Bcl-2/Bax ratio and HSP70 expression, but catechins treatment preserved the downregulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and HSP70 expression. We conclude that catechins supplement attenuates cooking-oil-fumes-induced acute lung injury via the preservation of oil-smoke induced downregulation of antioxidant, antiapoptosis, and chaperone protein expression.

  10. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and allergic respiratory disease in the adult offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    randomly assigned to receive fish oil during the third trimester of pregnancy, olive oil, or no oil in the ratio 2:1:1. The offspring were followed in a mandatory national prescription register, with complete follow-up for prescriptions related to the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis as primary...... in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.54, 95% CI, 0.32-0.90; P = .02). The probability of having had allergic rhinitis medication prescribed was also reduced in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.70, 95% CI, 0.47-1.05; P = .09......), but the difference was not statistically significant. Self-reported information collected at age 18 to 19 years supported these findings. No associations were detected with respect to lung function outcomes or allergic sensitization at 18 to 19 years of age. Conclusion Maternal supplementation with fish oil might...

  11. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia M M; Ferreira, Célia C D; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Low SFA (linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (Plinseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat.

  12. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  13. Improving oxidative stability of liquid fish oil supplements for pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Griinari, Mikko; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have produced beneficial health effects in animals and are recommended by veterinaries to pet patients suffering from osteoarthritis. However, these oils are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. The objectives of this study were to improve oxidative stability...... on the results of this study performed better than other commercial marine oils tested. Practical applications: In some commercial oil blends for pets, a high level of vegetable oils is included in order to increase oxidative stability. In this study, vegetable oils are included at 30% level. At this level...... demonstrates how the oxidative stability of omega-3 PUFA formulations for pets can be improved by combining fish oil with vegetable oils and by adding an antioxidant blend consisting of high concentrations of rosemary extract and tocopherol. The results are also of relevance to the manufacturers of dietary...

  14. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  15. Pollock oil supplementation modulates hyperlipidemia and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatanaka Akimasa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperlipidemia associated with obesity is closely related to the development of atherosclerosis. Both n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs; i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers supplementation modulate risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the restoration of impaired lipid metabolism. We therefore examined the effects of pollock oil, which contains a considerable amount of n-3 PUFAs as well as long-chain MUFAs, on plasma hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice (24-26 g were divided into two groups (n = 10/group and were fed a high-fat diet containing 32% lard (control group or 17% lard plus 15% pollock oil (experimental group for 6 weeks. For both groups, fat comprised 60% of the total caloric intake. Results Although body and liver masses for the two groups did not differ significantly, hepatic lipids concentrations (triglycerides and total cholesterols were lower (P P P P SREBP2, HMGCR, and ApoB and lipogenesis (SREPB1c, SCD-1, FAS, and Acacα was suppressed in the experimental group, and may have favorably affected hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis induced by the high-fat diet. Conclusions We demonstrated that pollock oil supplementation effectively improved hyperlipidemia, attenuated hepatic steatosis, and downregulated the express of hepatic genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in mice with diet-induced obesity.

  16. First joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, proceedings supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The First Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the US Department of Energy was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Besides the thirty-three technical papers which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery and were published in the Proceedings, the Symposium included a session on Enhanced Oil Recovery Incentives where ten papers were presented which discussed the status of enhanced oil recovery technology, and included papers on incentive programs of the United States, Canada and Venezuela. These papers are published in this Proceedings Supplement under the following titles: Federal Government Role in enhanced Oil Recovery; Financial Realities of an Adequate Petroleum Supply; Major Technology Constraints in Enhanced Oil Recovery; Decontrol-Opportunities and Dangers; Status of EOR Technology; Impact of Federal Incentives on US Production; Canadian Incentives Program; and Heavy Oil Incentives in Venezuela.

  17. Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury Are Differently Impacted by Coconut, Fish and Olive Oil-Rich diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in fish oil supplements are proposed to offer cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against the adverse health effects induced by exposure to air pollution. Ozone, an ubiquitous air p...

  18. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD

    2007-01-01

    )) from around week 20 (groups 1 and 2) or 6.3 g n-3 PUFA from week 33 (group 3). The control regimen was capsules with olive oil. Effect on timing of spontaneous delivery was examined by Cox regression, assuming elective delivery (occurring in 40%) as a censoring event. Analyses of effect of fish oil......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  19. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation of Ration Supplemented with Protected Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hidayah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of protected vegetable oils supplementation on in vitro fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population, and methane production in cattle. The treatments were arranged in a complete randomized block design involving 2 factors i.e. oil type (sesame, canola, and flaxseed and protection methods (non protected, calcium soap, and microencapsulation. Variables observed were rumen pH, N-NH3, total and molar proportion of VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility, population of protozoa and total bacteria, methane production, and hydrogen balance. Data were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the differences among treatments means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The oil type did not affect all variables measured. The protection method using microencapsulation significantly increased N-NH3 concentration. There was an interaction between oil type and protection method on total VFA concentration, molar proportion of VFA, and methane production. The supplementation of calcium soap-flaxseed oil significantly increased total VFA production, while the supplementation of microencapsulated flaxseed oil had the highest propionate concentration and H2 utilization, the lowest A:P ratio, and methane production. It is concluded that microencapsulated flaxseed oil was the best treatment to optimize rumen fermentation.

  20. The Effect of Krill Oil Supplementation on Exercise Performance and Markers of Immune Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariasole Da Boit

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a rich source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which may alter immune function after exercise. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of krill oil supplementation on post exercise immune function and performance.Nineteen males and 18 females (age: 25.8 ± 5.3 years; mean ± S.D. were randomly assigned to 2 g/day of krill oil (n = 18 or placebo (n = 19 supplementation for 6 weeks. A maximal incremental exercise test and cycling time trial (time to complete set amount of work were performed pre-supplementation with the time trial repeated post-supplementation. Blood samples collected pre- and post- supplementation at rest, and immediately, 1 and 3h post-exercise. Plasma IL-6 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS concentrations and, erythrocyte fatty acid composition were measured. Natural killer (NK cell cytotoxic activity and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production were also measured.No effects of gender were noted for any variable. PBMC IL-2 and NK cell cytotoxic activity were greater (P < 0.05 3h post exercise in the krill oil compared to the control group. Plasma IL-6 and TBARS, PBMC IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production, along with performance and physiological measures during exercise, were not different between groups.Six weeks of krill oil supplementation can increase PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity 3h post-exercise in both healthy young males and females. Krill oil does not modify exercise performance.

  1. Daily sesame oil supplementation attenuates local renin-angiotensin system via inhibiting MAPK activation and oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2017-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by which increases cardiac morbidity and mortality. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and oxidative stress are important in RAS-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Sesame oil, a potent antioxidant, attenuates hypertension-dependent LVH. We examined the protective role of sesame oil on RAS-mediated MAPK activation and oxidative stress in rats. We induced LVH using a hypertensive model by subcutaneously injecting deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 15 mg/ml/kg in mineral oil; twice weekly for 5 weeks) and supplementing with 1% sodium chloride drinking water (DOCA/salt) to uninephrectomized rats. Sesame oil was gavaged (0.5 or 1 ml/kg/day for 7 days) after 4 weeks of DOCA/salt treatment. Cardiac histopathology, RAS parameters, expression of MAPKs, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were assessed 24 h after the last dose of sesame oil. Sesame oil significantly decreased the size of cardiomyocytes and the levels of cardiac renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II. In addition, sesame oil down-regulated the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor, JNK and p38 MAPK and apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1, c-Fos and c-Jun in rats receiving DOCA/salt. Furthermore, the induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation by DOCA/salt were inhibited by sesame oil. Sesame oil modulates cardiac RAS to ameliorate LVH by inhibiting MAPK activation and lowering oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microalgal Oil Supplementation Has an Anti-Obesity Effect in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jin-Seon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of microalgal oil (MO) on body weight management in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity was induced for 8 weeks and animals were orally supplemented with the following for 8 additional weeks: beef tallow (BT), corn oil, fish oil (FO), microalgal oil (MO), or none, as a high fat diet control group (HD). A normal control group was fed with a normal diet. After completing the experiment, the FO and MO groups showed significant decreases in body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels compared to the HD and BT groups. A lower mRNA expression level of lipid anabolic gene and higher levels of lipid catabolic genes were observed in both FO and MO groups. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were lower in the MO group. These results indicated that microalgal oil has an anti-obesity effect that can combat high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

  3. Contrasting effect of fish oil supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in murine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zampolli, Antonella; Bysted, Anette; Leth, Torben

    2006-01-01

    ) in two different models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Sixty-three low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and sixty-nine apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice were fed diets without supplementations or supplemented with either 1% fish oil or 1% corn oil. In apoE...... retarded the development of atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice, with a stronger effect seen with n-3 PUFA. There was an important strain-dependence of the effect, with no protection against atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Effects of supplementation with different edible oils on cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Marcela; Do Nascimento, Adriana Paulino; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids are bioactive molecules, but their effects on cutaneous wound healing are not well understood. Our aim was to investigate the effects of supplementation with edible oils on cutaneous healing. Thirty days before wounding, rats were started on daily supplements of sunflower oil, linseed oil, fish oil, or water. Supplementation lasted until euthanasia. On day 0, an excisional wound was made on the back of each animal. Fourteen days later, the animals were euthanized, and the wound and adjacent skin were collected. Wound closure was higher in the control group compared with the other groups at days 7 and 14. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control, linseed, and fish groups, but scarce in the sunflower group. Large numbers of myofibroblasts were observed in the control and sunflower groups. The linseed and fish groups presented a high density of dilated blood vessels. The control and sunflower groups showed a moderate density of collagen fibers; a high density of fibers was observed in the linseed and fish groups. Hydroxyproline levels were lowest in the control and sunflower groups. Supplementation with different types of edible oils delayed wound closure and affected the inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition.

  5. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  6. The effectiveness of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats is limited by an inefficient action on ASM function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, D T S Z; Zanatta, A L; Dias, B C L; Fogaça, R T H; Maurer, J B B; Donatti, L; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2013-09-01

    Episodes of acute exacerbation are the major clinical feature of asthma and therefore represent an important focus for developing novel therapies for this disease. There are many reports that the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, but there are few studies of the action of fish oil on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. In the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation on smooth muscle force of contraction in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Wistar rats, and its consequences on static lung compliance, mucus production, leukocyte chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil supplementation suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in asthmatic animals (2.04 ± 0.19 × 10(6) cells vs. 3.33 ± 0.43 × 10(6) cells in the control asthmatic group; P < 0.05). Static lung compliance increased with fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats (0.640 ± 0.053 mL/cm H2O vs. 0.399 ± 0.043 mL/cm H2O; P < 0.05). However, fish oil did not prevent asthma-associated lung eosinophilia and did not affect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in lung tissue or the proportion of the airways obliterated with mucus. Fish oil had no effect on the force of contraction in asthmatic rats in response to acetylcholine (3.026 ± 0.274 mN vs. 2.813 ± 0.364 mN in the control asthmatic group). In conclusion, although fish oil exerts some benefits in this model of asthma, its effectiveness appears to be limited by an inefficient action on airway smooth muscle function.

  7. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  8. Changes in milk fatty acid profile and animal performance in response to fish oil supplementation, alone or in combination with sunflower oil, in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    Ruminant diet supplementation with sunflower oil (SO) and fish oil (FO) has been reported as a good strategy for enhancing some milk fat compounds such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dairy cows, but no information is available regarding dairy sheep. In this work, ewe diet was supplemented with FO, alone or in combination with SO, with the aim of improving milk nutritional value and evaluating its effect on animal performance. Sixty-four Assaf ewes in mid lactation, fed a high-concentrate diet, were distributed in 8 lots of 8 animals each and assigned to 4 treatments (2 lots/treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 20 g of SO/kg (SO), 10 g of FO/kg (FO), or 20 g of SO plus 10 g of FO/kg (SOFO). Milk production and composition, including a complete fatty acid profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatments. Supplementation with FO tended to reduce dry matter intake compared with the control treatment (-15%), and its use in combination with SO (SOFO) resulted in a significant decrease in milk yield as well (-13%). All lipid supplements reduced milk protein content, and FO also reduced milk fat content by up to 21% alone (FO) and 27% in combination with SO (SOFO). Although the mechanisms involved in FO-induced milk fat depression are not yet well established, the observed increase in some milk trans-FA that are putative inhibitors of milk fat synthesis, such as trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and the 63% decrease in C18:0 (consistent with the theory of reduced milk fat fluidity) may be involved. When compared with the control, lipid supplementation remarkably improved the milk content of rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA; up to 4-fold increases with SO and SOFO diets), whereas FO-containing diets also increased milk n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (with mean contents of 0.29 and 0.38% of total fatty acids for SOFO and FO, respectively), and reduced the n-6:n-3 FA

  9. Emu oil decreases atherogenic plaque formation in cafeteria diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakkannan, Soundararajan; Tirupathi Pichiah, P B; Kalaiselvi, Seenivasan; Arunachalam, Sankarganesh; Achiraman, Shanmugam

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis-induced coronary heart disease - caused by elevated levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and inflammation - is one of the most prevalent diseases. Monounsaturated fatty acids are reported to prevent atherosclerosis; emu oil is a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acid, and we hypothesize that emu oil supplementation could lower inflammation and prevent atherosclerosis in diet-induced obese (DIO) animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6), and fed with normal diet (chow pellet; ND), or with cafeteria diet (CD), or with CD along with emu oil supplementation at three different doses: ED1 (2 mL), ED2 (4 mL) and ED3 (8 mL) kg(-1) body weight (BW), respectively. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and serum was analysed for measuring lipid profile, C-reactive proteins, testosterone and luteinizing hormone. Histopathological studies were performed to observe atherogenic changes in thoracic aorta. Restoration of altered lipid and hormonal profiles, and inhibition of atherogenic changes in thoracic aorta, were observed with supplementation of emu oil, confirming its anti-atherosclerotic activity. The high content of oleic acid in emu oil could have orchestrated - either solely or in combination with linoleic and linolenic acids - causing the upregulation of testosterone biosynthesis and inhibition of atheromatous plaque formation in diet-induced obese animals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and offspring risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Maslova, E.; Hansen, S.

    2013-01-01

    . Objective: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on offspring risk of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Methods: We used data from 397 and 654 singleton offspring of mothers who were randomized to fish oil (providing 1 g/day of DHA) or olive oil during...... of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA Background: Fish oil contains docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant fatty acid in the cerebral cortex. Previous studies have suggested beneficial effects of maternal DHA intake on brain development and psychopathology in the offspring......; for depression corresponding numbers were 46 and 31. In both trials there was a reduced risk of ADHD in the fish oil groups, but this was not statistically significant [OR = 0.73(95% CI: 0.27;1.97), OR = 0.75(95% CI: 0.38;1.50), respectively]. For depression, in the RCT90 there was a non-significant reduced risk...

  11. Effect of sesame seeds or oil supplementation to the feed on some physiological parameters in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total No. of 200 three weeks old Japanese quail from the breeding flock in the Poultry Research Farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt, were used in this study. The quail chicks were randomly allotted equally to five groups (40 birds per each. For 4 weeks experimental period birds were kept in battery cages and water and feed were provided ad libitum. A basal diet of 24% protein and 3000 kcal M.E./Kg was formulated to cover all nutrients needed. The experimental design included five tested groups as follows: group (1: birds fed on the basal diet and served as control. Group (2: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 2% sesame seeds. Group (3: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 4% sesame seeds. Group (4: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 2%sesame oil. Group (5: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 4% sesame oil. The effect of sesame seeds or oil supplementations in feed on some physiological parameters in Japanese quails was investigated. It was observed that the groups of quails supplemented with 4% sesame seeds or 4%oil recorded the lowest body weight. Female and male carcass weight had significant increase in group supplemented with 4% oil as compared to the control group. Total lipids in the eggs significantly decreased in group supplemented with 4% oil as compared to the control group. Cholesterol content in the eggs significantly decreased in group supplemented with 4% sesame seeds while triglycerides in the eggs recorded significant decrease in the group supplemented with 2% sesame seeds. Eggs weight did not significantly change due to the feeding on sesame seeds or oil but, the group supplemented with 4%seeds laid higher number of eggs than other groups. Serum total protein, albumin, alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, urea, creastinine, total triiodothyronine (T3 and total thyroxin(T4 concentrations were

  12. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    supplementation. This work is already a second article in a series of studies conducted using this model of dietary intervention. In the previous study (Vigerust et al., [21]) the effects of fish oil and TTA on the plasma lipids and cholesterol levels as well as key metabolic enzymes in the liver have been...... antioxidant properties of TTA. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA...... studied. In an ongoing study more work is being done to explore in detail for example the link between the down regulation of the components of the respiratory chain (observed in this study) and the strong antioxidant effects of TTA. The reference diet in this study has been designed to mimic an unhealthy...

  13. Effect of linseed oil supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2016-12-01

    Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were used to determine the effects of linseed oil supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Three treatments were as follows: basal diet (56:44 Roughage:concentrate [R:C] ratio, dry matter basis) supplemented with 500 g of palm oil as control (PO), 500 g mixture (1:1, w/w) of palm oil and linseed oil (POLSO) and 500 g of linseed oil (LSO). The LSO supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and milk composition. Compared to control cows, cows supplemented with LSO increased milk concentrations of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 FA (P < 0.05), particularly C18:3n-3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Feeding LSO reduced concentrations of milk short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) while it increased concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Milk proportions of n-3 FA increased, whereas n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the LSO as compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows' diet based on corn silage with LSO at 500 g/day could improve the nutritional value of milk with potential health-beneficial FA without detrimental effect on milk composition or cow's performance. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  15. Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Lactoferrin, Fish Oil, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 for Treating Dry Eye: A Rat Model and Human Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Nakamura, Shigeru; Izuta, Yusuke; Inoue, Sachiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of a combined dietary supplement containing fish oil, lactoferrin, zinc, vitamin C, lutein, vitamin E, γ-aminobutanoic acid, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on dry eye. A preliminary study in a rat model and a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans were conducted. Forty Japanese volunteers aged 22 to 59 years were randomized into combined dietary supplement (2 capsules/day; 20 participants) and placebo (vehicle; 19 participants) groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks. Rats received the combined dietary supplement components (10 or 50 mg/kg orally) or vehicle (2% DMSO), and dry eye was mechanically induced for 2 days. Tear production was measured in rats after dry eye was induced. Humans were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 post-supplementation based on keratoconjunctival epithelial damage; fluorescein tear film breakup time; tear production; biochemical data; information regarding subjective dry eye symptoms by answering a questionnaire; and information regarding adverse events via medical interviews. Supplementation dose-dependently mitigated the decrease in tear production in rats. Among subjects with confirmed dry eye, clinical symptoms improved at weeks 4 and 8 more significantly in the supplementation group than in the placebo group (P<.05). The rate of increase in the Schirmer value was greater in the supplementation group. No adverse events occurred. Supplementation improved objective and subjective dry eye symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 7440 - Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Forest Service Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental... report to the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest Final Environmental... considered, the FS must receive written comments on the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by...

  17. Edible oils for liver protection: hepatoprotective potentiality of Moringa oleifera seed oil against chemical-induced hepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Blowi, Ali S; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Ahmed, Atallah F; Rafatullah, Syed

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, antioxidative stress and hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil (Ben oil; BO) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage in rats. The oil at 0.2 and 0.4 mL/rat was administered orally for 21 consecutive days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT) and bilirubin levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the oil. There was a significant elevation in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in the liver tissue. The results obtained indicated that BO possesses potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4) -induced hepatic damage by lowering liver marker enzymes, MDA concentration, and elevating NP-SH and TP levels in liver tissue. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver. The results of this study showed that treatment with Ben oil or silymarin (as a reference) appears to enhance the recovery from hepatic damage induced by CCl(4) . The pentobarbital induced narcolepsy prolongation in mice was retarded by the Ben oil. Acute toxicity test in mice showed no morbidity or mortality. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linolic acid assay tests of the BO exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity in both tests used. The possible mechanism(s) of the liver protective activity of Ben oil activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of antioxidant component(s) in the oil. Consequently, BO can be used as a therapeutic regime in treatment of some hepatic disorders.

  18. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  19. Antioxidant and haematological biomarkers in different groups of horses supplemented with polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélo, S K M; Diniz, A I A; de Lira, V L; de Oliveira Muniz, S K; da Silva, G R; Manso, H E C da C C; Manso Filho, H C

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been correlated with pathologies that impair the performance of athlete horses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with a mixture of polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E on the antioxidant and haematological biomarkers of horses. Horses under maintenance care (n = 6) and horses in training (n = 10) received 100 and 300 ml of the oil mixture respectively. Supplementation was provided for a period of 8 weeks, together with isocaloric inclusion. Blood samples were collected at three time periods (pretest, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks) to analyse the following: the red blood cell count (RBCc); haemoglobin (Hb); haematocrit (HT); leucocytes; lymphocytes; platelets; the mean corpuscular volume (MCV); the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); the standard deviation of the red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD); the coefficient of variation of the red blood cell distribution width (RDW-CV); glutathione peroxidase (GPx); superoxide dismutase (SOD); uric acid (UrAc); total plasma proteins (TPP); and creatine kinase (CK). After the 8 weeks of supplementation, animals under maintenance care exhibited significant increases in SOD, UrAc, the white blood cell count (WBCc), the RDW-SD and the RDW-CV (p supplementation with polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E increases blood antioxidants among animals under maintenance and in training, with different trends, while contributing to the fight against oxidative stress in each group analysed.

  20. Dietary red palm oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in an isolated perfused rat heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterhuyse Adriaan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that dietary red palm oil (RPO supplementation improves functional recovery following ischaemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RPO supplementation on myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of dietary RPO supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 activation and PKB/Akt phosphorylation were also investigated. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a standard rat chow diet (SRC, a SRC supplemented with RPO, or a SRC supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, for a five week period, respectively. After the feeding period, hearts were excised and perfused on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. Hearts were subjected to thirty minutes of normothermic global ischaemia and two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was collected for the first ten minutes of reperfusion in order to measure MMP2 activity by gelatin zymography. Results Dietary RPO-supplementation decreased myocardial infarct size significantly when compared to the SRC-group and the SFO-supplemented group (9.1 ± 1.0% versus 30.2 ± 3.9% and 27.1 ± 2.4% respectively. Both dietary RPO- and SFO-supplementation were able to decrease MMP2 activity when compared to the SRC fed group. PKB/Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308 was found to be significantly higher in the dietary RPO supplemented group when compared to the SFO supplemented group at 10 minutes into reperfusion. There was, however, no significant changes observed in ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions Dietary RPO-supplementation was found to be more effective than SFO-supplementation in reducing myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Both dietary RPO and SFO were able to reduce MMP2 activity, which suggests that MMP2 activity does not play a major role in

  1. Marine Oil Supplements for Arthritis Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna K. Senftleber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched systematically (24 February 2015. We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML-based meta-regression analysis. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE was used to rate the overall quality of the evidence. Forty-two trials were included; 30 trials reported complete data on pain. The standardized mean difference (SMD suggested a favorable effect (−0.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, −0.42 to −0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; −0.21; 95% CI, −0.42 to −0.004 and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; −0.63; 95% CI, −1.20 to −0.06, but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; −0.17; 95% CI, −0.57–0.24. The evidence for using marine oil to alleviate pain in arthritis patients was overall of low quality, but of moderate quality in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  2. Effect of chronic fish oil supplementation on renal function of normal and cachectic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernandez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the effect of chronic diet supplementation with n-3 PUFA on renal function of healthy and cachectic subjects by providing fish oil (1 g/kg body weight to female rats throughout pregnancy and lactation and then to their offspring post-weaning and examined its effect on renal function parameters during their adulthood. The animals were divided into four groups of 5-10 rats in each group: control, control supplemented with fish oil (P, cachectic Walker 256 tumor-bearing (W, and W supplemented with fish oil (WP. Food intake was significantly lower in the W group compared to control (12.66 ± 4.24 vs 25.30 ± 1.07 g/day. Treatment with fish oil significantly reversed this reduction (22.70 ± 2.94 g/day. Tumor growth rate was markedly reduced in the P group (16.41 ± 2.09 for WP vs 24.06 ± 2.64 g for W. WP group showed a significant increase in mean glomerular filtration rate compared to P and control (1.520 ± 0.214 ml min-1 kg body weight-1; P < 0.05. Tumor-bearing groups had low urine osmolality compared to control rats. The fractional sodium excretion decreased in the W group compared to control (0.43 ± 0.16 vs 2.99 ± 0.87%; P < 0.05, and partially recovered in the WP group (0.90 ± 0.20%. In summary, the chronic supplementation with fish oil used in this study increased the amount of fat in the diet by only 0.1%, but caused remarkable changes in tumor growth rate and cachexia, also showing a renoprotective function.

  3. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A;

    1990-01-01

    as a double-blind randomized controlled study in which 11 women were allocated to magnesium and 7 to placebo treatment. The treatment comprised a 48-hour intravenous magnesium/placebo infusion followed by daily oral magnesium/placebo intake until one day after delivery. Magnesium supplement increased birth....... There was no significant difference when the magnesium group, the placebo group and the control group were compared separately. The present study suggests that magnesium supplement has a beneficial effect on fetal growth in pregnancy-induced hypertension. With regard to the light and electron microscopic changes we were...... unable to demonstrate any significant difference between the magnesium, placebo and control groups....

  4. Neutralization of Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate for Vitamin Supplement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelem Iribarrem Benites

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD, a byproduct of the soybean oil refining process, is a complex mixture of compounds, such as free fatty acids (FFA, hydrocarbons, and sterols, such as tocopherols, a class of major natural antioxidants with vitamin E activity. As the utilization of SODD for tocopherol extraction is shown to be not economically viable, SODD in the semirefined form (neutral is an interesting alternative to animal and possibly human diet enrichment. This study aimed to evaluate the SODD neutralization process varying the alkali (Na2CO3 concentration, temperature, and homogenization time. The optimal conditions for the neutralizing process, in order to obtain the greatest reduction in FFA content, the lowest leaching of tocopherols, and the greatest yield, were the following: Na2CO2 concentration of 4.34 N, temperature of 45.8°C, and homogenization time of 3 min 20 s. The FFA content was reduced from 53.4% to 6.1% after the initial neutralization, thus requiring a second neutralization step. The final FFA content was of 1.8% and total tocopherol (TT accounted for about 11% of SODD.

  5. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montori, V M; Farmer, A; Wollan, P C; Dinneen, S F

    2000-09-01

    To determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on lipid levels and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Lilacs, the Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry bibliographies of relevant papers, and expert input updated through September 1998 was undertaken. All randomized placebo-controlled trials were included in which fish oil supplementation was the only intervention in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Three investigators performed data extraction and quality scoring independently with discrepancies resolved by consensus. Eighteen trials including 823 subjects followed for a mean of 12 weeks were included. Doses of fish oil used ranged from 3 to 18 g/day The outcomes studied were glycemic control and lipid levels. Meta-analysis of pooled data demonstrated a statistically significant effect of fish oil on lowering triglycerides (-0.56 mmol/l [95% CI -0.71 to -0.41]) and raising LDL cholesterol (0.21 mmol/l [0.02 to 0.41]). No statistically significant effect was observed for fasting glucose. HbA1c total cholesterol, or HDL cholesterol. The triglyceride-lowering effect and the elevation in LDL cholesterol were most marked in those trials that recruited hypertriglyceridemic subjects and used higher doses of fish oil. Heterogeneity was observed and explained by the recruitment of subjects with baseline hypertriglyceridemia in some studies. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes lowers triglycerides, raises LDL cholesterol, and has no statistically significant effect on glycemic control. Trials with hard clinical end points are needed.

  6. Microbial population in the rumen of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilajun, R; Wanapat, M

    2013-06-01

    Four, rumen fistulated swamp buffalo bulls were used to study microbial populations in the rumen when supplemented with coconut oil and mangosteen peel. Animals were randomly assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four treatments were un-supplemented (Control), supplementation with coconut oil at 50 g/kg (CO5), supplementation with mangosteen peel at 30 g/kg (MP3) and supplementation with CO5 and MP3 (COM), of total DM intake. Animals received concentrate at 10 g/kg of BW, and rice straw was given ad libitum. Abundance of total bacteria was increased by CO5 supplementation, whereas populations of protozoa and Fibrobacter succinogenes were reduced by CO5 and COM supplementation. Dietary supplementation did not affect methanogen, Ruminococcus flavefaciens or Ruminococcus albus abundances. Dietary treatments changed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band patterns of methanogens and protozoa when compared with the control group, especially when supplemented with MP3. Supplementation of COM resulted in the greatest difference in pattern of DGGE bands for total bacteria compared with the control. Coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation resulted in changing of rumen microbial abundances and communities; however, combination of them could be more benefit to improve rumen fermentation of swamp buffalo fed on rice straw.

  7. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino APA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ana Paula A Avelino,1 Gláucia MM Oliveira,1 Célia CD Ferreira,2 Ronir R Luiz,3 Glorimar Rosa1,4 1Post-Graduate Program of Medicine-Cardiology, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 3Institute of Public Health Studies, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Josué de Castro Nutrition Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA.Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value.Results: Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020. The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (P<0.050, suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol.Conclusion: The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed

  8. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  9. Loss of Bone Mineral Density Associated with Age in Male Rats Fed on Sunflower Oil Is Avoided by Virgin Olive Oil Intake or Coenzyme Q Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F2-isoprostanes were measured. Aged animals fed on virgin olive oil showed higher BMD than those fed on sunflower oil. In addition, CoQ10 prevented the age-related decline in BMD in animals fed on sunflower oil. Urinary F2-isoprostanes analysis showed that sunflower oil led to the highest oxidative status in old animals, which was avoided by supplementation with CoQ10. In conclusion, lifelong feeding on virgin olive oil or the supplementation of sunflower oil on CoQ10 prevented, at least in part mediated by a low oxidative stress status, the age-related decrease in BMD found in sunflower oil fed animals. PMID:28661441

  10. Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Naiane F B; Porpino, Suênia K P; Monteiro, Matheus M O; Gomes, Enéas R M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148 ± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47 ± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622 ± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454 ± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR.

  11. Flavonoids, the emerging dietary supplement against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athira, K V; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-03-25

    The letter illustrates the emerging potential of flavonoids as dietary supplement to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and refers to the recent article on ''Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on cisplatin-induced renal injury in the rat'' by Chtourou et al. They demonstrated that supplementation of naringin, a flavanone glycoside, found in grape and citrus fruit species, can attenuate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction via restoration of redox balance and suppression of inflammation, NF-κB activation and apoptosis. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin has always compelled the researchers to find solution to ameliorate its side effects. In recent years, numerous candidates have been evaluated for their protective potential against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and flavonoids have come up with promising results. The future prospects might be promising with a proper refinement and collective integration of the preclinical and clinical research in the field of flavonoid supplementation to cisplatin therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Milk yield and composition, body condition, rumen characteristics, and blood metabolites of dairy cows fed diet supplemented with palm oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirovski, Danijela; Blond, Bojan; Katić, Marko; Marković, Radmila; Šefer, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplement of palm oil on milk production, milk composition, rumen characteristics, and metabolic variables of early lactating dairy cows...

  13. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  14. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  15. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  16. Dual effects of a dispersant and nutrient supplementation on weathered Endicott oil biodegradation in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves R. Personna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the biodegradation of physically (WAF and chemically dispersed (CEWAF Endicott oil in seawater (salinity: 29.1‰ from Prince William Sound, Alaska, under low nutrient (LN (background seawater and high nutrient (HN (addition of 100 mg NO3-N/L and 10 mg PO4-P/L to background seawater at 15 ± 0.5 °C for 42 days. The dispersant was Corexit 9500. The dispersed oil concentration of the WAF (0.019 g/L ± 0.002 was an order of magnitude lower than that in the CEWAF (0.363 g/L ± 0.038. While remaining negligible in the WAF, the total oil removal in the CEWAF was 26% and 44% in LN and HN treatments, respectively. Nutrient supplementation significantly accelerated the rate of oil biodegradation as confirmed by ANOVA coupled with Tukey’s test at 95% confidence intervals (α = 0.05. GC/MS analyses revealed that biodegradation affected mainly alkane compounds. In the CEWAF, O2 consumption, CO2 production and biomass were much larger in HN than in LN treatments, which suggests that chemical dispersion of oil coupled with high nutrient concentration could be very useful in terms of remediation strategies and effective responses to oil spill at sea.

  17. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy and early lactation on the n-3 fatty acid content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, J.; Jensen, Benny; Salvig, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    week 30 of gestation (FO-group) or to a control regimen (olive oil or no oil; controls). The FO-group was randomly subdivided into women stopping fish oil supplementation at delivery [FO(pregn)], and women continuing supplementation for an additional 30 d [FO(pregn/lact)]. Thirty-six women agreed......The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation, in the third trimester of pregnancy and early lactation period of healthy pregnant Danish women. Forty-four pregnant women were randomly allocated to fish oil supplementation (1.3 g EPA and 0.9 g DHA per day) from...

  19. Effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation on the lipid metabolism in hepatoma-bearing rats with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Miura, Yutaka; Funabiki, Ryuhei; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    The effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid (L-methionine and L-cystine) supplementation on serum lipid concentrations and various parameters related to the lipid metabolism were studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with an ascites hepatoma cell line, AH109A. A diet containing 10% fish oil was found to reduce serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, (very-low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in these animals, and dietary supplementation of 1.2% L-methionine and L-cystine also suppressed these serum lipid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid synthesis and the availability of serum NEFA were decreased, and epididymal adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was elevated by dietary fish oil, while LPL activity in various tissues and hepatic fatty acid oxidation were increased by dietary sulfur amino acids, resulting in a reduction in the serum triglyceride concentration by dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acids, respectively. Dietary fish oil suppressed the hepatoma-induced increase in cholesterogenesis in the host liver, and dietary methionine and cystine enhanced bile acid excretion into feces, which were the causes of the hypocholesterolemic effect. In these serum lipid concentrations, there were significant effects of fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation, but no significant interaction between these two factors was seen. These results indicate that dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acid, L-methionine and L-cystine, have hypolipidemic effects in cancer-related hyperlipidemia, and that the effects of these two factors on the decrease in these serum lipid concentrations are additive; these two factors may affect the lipid metabolism via different pathways and mechanisms.

  20. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  1. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  2. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis crude oils (EuO supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS without EuO (T1 and with EuO (T2 supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS without EuO (T3 and with EuO (T4 supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p0.05 affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01 by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas

  3. Monensin sodium and functional oil as additive in protein-energy supplement for pasture-fed heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Mano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of functional oil as an additive is a potential alternative to replace inorganic antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding functional oil consisting of cashew and castor oil or monensin sodium to protein-energy supplement on the performance of 14-month-old Nellore x Red Angus heifers (initial mean body weight [BW] of 246 kg raised on Tifton 85 pasture. The animals were randomly assigned to four treatments: 1 control (no supplementation; 2 addition of 2 g functional oil/animal/day, composed of 70% cashew oil and 30% castor oil; 3 addition of 4 g functional oil/animal/day, composed of 70% cashew oil and 30% castor oil, and 4 addition of 0.2 g monensin sodium/animal/day. The biomass availability and forage on offer were 5,940 kg dry matter/ha and 7.0 kg dry matter/100 kg BW/day, respectively. The average proportion of leaf blade, sheath plus stem and senescent material was 17.6%, 55.0% and 27.4%, respectively. The mean whole-plant contents of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro dry matter digestibility were 8.5%, 72.3% and 42.7%, respectively. A significant effect was observed for average daily gain of heifers receiving monensin (0.576 g/day compared to those that did not receive the protein-energy supplement (0.290 g/day. In contrast, the supplement containing the functional oil composed of cashew and castor oil provided weight gains (0.426 g/day similar (P>0.05 to that of the supplement with monensin (0.576 g/days. Under the conditions of this experiment, only the supplement with monensin resulted in a higher average daily gain than that observed for unsupplemented animals (control, while animals fed the supplement with functional oil composed of cashew and castor oil (2 or 4 g/animal/day did not exhibit differences in daily gain when compared to the other supplements.

  4. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00...

  5. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.;

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00...

  6. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy and early lactation on the n-3 fatty acid content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, J.; Jensen, Benny; Salvig, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    week 30 of gestation (FO-group) or to a control regimen (olive oil or no oil; controls). The FO-group was randomly subdivided into women stopping fish oil supplementation at delivery [FO(pregn)], and women continuing supplementation for an additional 30 d [FO(pregn/lact)]. Thirty-six women agreed...

  7. Dietary fish oil modulates the effect of dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmy, G. E.; Khalil, W. K. B.; Moharib, S. A.; Kawab, A. A.; Jwanny, E. W.

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group). The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH17 group). Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group) or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group). At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH. (Author) 70 refs.

  8. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Lactococcus garvieae, a fish pathogenic bacteria causing lactococcosis. Of all the tested oils, clove oil had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an intraperitoneal infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with L. garvieae was performed, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined to be 1.78x10(2) CFU/fish. For an in vivo trial, no mortality was apparent in fish fed on the fish diets supplemented with 3% (w/w) of clove oil and with 0.5% (w/w) of oxytetracycline 5 d prior to the infection with L. garvieae. These results indicate that clove oil had a protective effect on experimental L. garvieae infection in tilapia and the potential to replace antibiotics for controlling the disease.

  9. Protein and Chlorophyll Contents of Solanum melongena on Diesel Oil Polluted Soil Amended with Nutrient Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Akujobi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the remediation effect of nutrient amendments of diesel oil polluted soil on protein and chlorophyll contents of eggplant (Solanum melongena. Soil samples were polluted and amended separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples were also polluted with diesel oil without amendment to achieve 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% pollution. Samples were analyzed at two weeks interval for sixteen weeks. The plant protein and chlorophyll were affected adversely by the diesel oil pollution and the higher the level of pollution, the more the effect. The nutrient amendments were able to remedy the effect of the diesel oil pollution. The remediation effect was nutrient weight dependent and the best remediation effect was observed in poultry waste amended samples. This study has shown that diesel oil contaminated soil may have adverse effect on the protein and chlorophyll contents of plants, but this can be remedied by addition of organic nutrient supplements especially poultry waste.

  10. Health Food Supplements (“Health Food” Highly Nutritious From Chlorella And Oil Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of microalgae as a food ingredient considered effective, because in addition to alternativefood sources also contains nutrients chlorella microalgae in particular is very good for health. This microalgaerich in protein (60.5%, fat (11%, carbohydrates (20.1%, water, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals Besidesthese microalgae contain pigments (chlorophyll, tocopherol and the active component (antimicrobial andantioxidants. This is what underlies microalgae is very useful to be used as a source of raw materials ofhealth food supplements. Currently the health food supplements have become a necessity for people tomaintain their health in order to remain vibrant. This study aims to produce high nutritious health foodsupplements from raw material chlorella enriched with fish protein concentrate and oil catfish. The methodused in the manufacture of high nutritious health food supplement is a method of microencapsulation withdifferent formulations. The results showed that the best formulations based on the profile of amino acids,fatty acids and standards AAE per day especially essential fatty acids oleic and linoleic is formulation B(chlorella 2%, 1% fish oil and fish protein concentrate 1%.

  11. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  12. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kowalski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products.A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material.In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas.

  13. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  14. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A;

    1990-01-01

    The placenta and the umbilical cord obtained from 18 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were investigated by light microscopy. The umbilical artery was studied by electron microscopy. 10 placentae and umbilical cords from normal pregnancies served as controls. The study was performed...... fibrosis or intervillous fibrin. Ultrastructurally, the endothelial cells of the umbilical arteries from women with pregnancy-induced hypertension showed a significant increase in the amount of dilated endoplasmic reticulum and basal laminae thickness when all 18 cases were compared with the controls....... There was no significant difference when the magnesium group, the placebo group and the control group were compared separately. The present study suggests that magnesium supplement has a beneficial effect on fetal growth in pregnancy-induced hypertension. With regard to the light and electron microscopic changes we were...

  15. No Protection against DSS-induced Colitis by Short-term Pretreatment with Seal or Fish Oils in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülen Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have modulating effects in several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether prior short-term dietary supplementation with n-3 (fish or seal oil or n-6 (soy oil PUFA rich oils would protect the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in rats.Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: no intervention, sham, DSS, seal oil + DSS, fi sh oil +DSS and soy oil + DSS. Following 7 days of acclimatisation, 1 mL oil (seal, fish or soy or distilled water (sham was administered by gavage day 8 to 14. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water from day 15 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 23. Histological colitis (crypt and inflammation scores, faecal granulocyte marker protein (GMP and quantitative fatty acid composition in red blood cells were measured.Results: Pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not significantly influence DSS induced inflammation. In fact, all the oils tended to exacerbate the inflammation. Soy oil increased the mean crypt score (P < 0.04, but not the inflammation score or GMP. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs was 11 to 1 and 10 to 1 in standard diet and in red blood cells of control rats, respectively. Following administration of DSS, the ratio fell in all treatment groups (P < 0.001. The lowest ratios were seen in the groups receiving DSS + fi sh or seal oils (around 6 to 1.Conclusion: Short-term pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not protect against subsequent induction of colitis by DSS in this rat model. Whether the high ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs in the standard diet concealed effects of n-3 FA supplementation should be further investigated.

  16. Fibre degradability of oil palm frond pellet, supplemented with Arachis pintoi in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodee Khamseekhiew

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of Arachis pintoi (AP supplementation on rumen environment [(rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3N and volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentration] and degradability of oil palm frond (OPF. Three Kedah-Kelantan (KK cattle of about 2 1/2 years of age with an average body weight (BW173±17.2 kg, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used. The cattle were kept in individual pens and fed the treatment diets at 1.5% of BW. The diets comprised the following four OPF:AP ratios; 80:20 (L20, 70:30 (L30, 60:40 (L40, 50:50 (L50 in a 4 × 4 incomplete Latin Square Design. The DM an NDF degradation rates of OPF were significantly affected by AP supplementation. Ruminal pH was not significantly different (p>0.05 among the four different diets. The concentration of NH3N was significantly (p<0.05 higher in cattle fed L50 than those in L40, L30 and L20. Similarly, increasing levels of AP supplementation significantly increased the total VFAs concentration from 59.9 mmol/L for L20 to 69.2 mmol/L for L50. It is suggested that AP can be used as a protein supplement to improve fibre degradability of OPF in cattle.

  17. Prenatal Fish Oil Supplementation and Allergy: 6-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Karen P; Sullivan, Thomas; Palmer, Debra; Gold, Michael; Kennedy, Declan John; Martin, James; Makrides, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials in early infancy suggest that prenatal supplementation with Ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) reduces the incidence of allergic disease characterized by an immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. We aimed to determine whether protective effects were evident in the 6-year-old offspring of women supplemented with n-3 rich fish oil during pregnancy. Six-year follow-up of children (n = 706) with a family history of allergic disease from the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial. Women were randomly allocated to receive n-3 LCPUFA-rich fish oil capsules (800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid DHA and 100mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) or vegetable oil capsules (without n-3 LCPUFA). Allergic disease symptoms including eczema, wheeze, rhinitis, and rhino-conjunctivitis, were assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and sensitization to allergens was measured by skin prick test. There was no difference in the percentage of children with any IgE-associated allergic disease between the n-3 LCPUFA and control groups (116/367 [31.5%] vs 106/336 [31.5%]; adjusted relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.33; P = .73). There was a reduction in the percentage of children sensitized to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (49/367 [13.4%] vs 68/336 [20.3%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.67, 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.00; P = .0495). Prenatal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not reduce IgE-associated allergic disease at 6 years of age. Secondary outcomes were suggestive of a protective effect of the intervention on the incidence of D. farinae sensitization. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g center dot d(-1) of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in the highest quartile were included as reference group. The effect of the resulting increase in infant......Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers...

  19. Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zil Hayatullina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx, and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO. Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  20. Virgin coconut oil supplementation prevents bone loss in osteoporosis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatullina, Zil; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO). Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  1. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  2. Linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality traits and intramuscular fatty acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitunart Noosen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality trait and intramuscular fatty acid (FA profiles. All steers were fed 14% CP concentrate. The treatments included: (1 7 kg/d concentrate; (2 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d palm oil (PO; (3 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 100 g/d PO and 100 g/d linseed oil (LSO; and (4 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d LSO. The animals in the treatment 1 were fed ad libitum rice straw (RS, whereas the animals in other treatments were fed ad libitum fresh grass (FG. Dietary treatments had no effect on nutrient intake while oil supplement decreased dry matter intake (DMI. Inclusion of LSO did not negatively affect carcass quality, but increasing amount of LSO supplement increased the n-3 fatty acids and lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in beef

  3. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  4. Sunflower oil supplementation alters meat quality but not performance of growing partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülşen, N; Umucalilar, H D; Kirikçi, K; Hayirli, A; Aktümsek, A; Alaşahan, S

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil supplementation (0%, 3%, 6% and 9%) to partridge chicks (Alectoris chukar) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics. Feed consumption and live weight gain were responsive to dietary sunflower oil inclusion during the starter period, but not during the grower period. Increasing sunflower oil level linearly increased crude protein and fat digestibilities. Except for abdominal fat, weights of inedible parts and edible organs remained unchanged by the diets. The treatments linearly decreased weight and efficiency of carcass and weights of wings and breast and did not alter weights of thighs and neck. Breast meat saturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 17.9% and unsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 10.6%, as sunflower oil level increased in the diets. Monounsaturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 27.3%, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 51%. Overall, n-3 (0.78% vs. 0.59%) and n-6 (42.6% vs. 29.8%) were greater in breast meat in treatment groups than in control group. In conclusion, sunflower addition into diets has minimal effects on performance of growing partridges, but significantly alters meat fatty acid composition.

  5. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils.

  6. Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a 12 year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne; Dunstan, Janet A; Foster, Jonathan K; Simmer, Karen; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-03-20

    A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years) of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant's mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age).

  7. Protective effect of some plant oils on diazinon induced hepatorenal toxicity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and exposure to environmental pollutants are still some of the major global health issues. Pesticides have been linked to a wide range of health hazards. The toxicity of pesticides depends on several factors such as its chemical properties, doses, exposure period, exposure methods, gender, genetics, age, nutritional status and physiological case of exposed individuals. Medicinal plants, natural products and nutrition continue to play a central role in the healthcare system of large proportions of the world’s population. Alternative medicine plays an important role in health services around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive, sesame and black seed oils on hepatorenal toxicity induced by diazinon (DZN in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. The first group served as control. The second group was exposed to DZN. The third group was treated with olive oil and DZN. Rats of the fourth group were subjected to sesame oil and DZN. Rats of the fifth group were exposed to black seed oil and DZN. The sixth, seventh and eighth groups were supplemented with olive, sesame and black seed oils respectively. Rats of the ninth group were treated with corn oil. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in rats exposed to DZN. Moreover, levels of serum glutathione and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. Several histopathological changes were observed in the structures of liver and kidney due to DZN exposure. This study showed that these oils attenuated the physiological disturbances and histopathological alterations induced by DZN intoxication. Moreover, the antioxidant properties of these oils support the bioactive roles of its protective effects on DZN toxicity. This study therefore

  8. Argan oil reduces, in rats, the high fat diet-induced metabolic effects of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sour, S; Belarbi, M; Sari, N; Benammar, C H; Baghdad, C H; Visioli, F

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder which is of worldwide concern. In addition to calorie control, some specific dietary components might help resolving some of the complication of obesity, by providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effect of argan oil supplementation on plasma lipid profile and oxidant-antioxidant status of rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity compared with rats fed a normal diet (ND). We used an animal model of high fat diet-induced obesity to study the metabolic effects of argan oil and we measured several markers lipid and redox statuses. Consumption of a high-fat diet led to an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TAG) concentrations; however, argan oil blunted the increases of TC, LDL-C and TG, glucose, and insulin. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower, whereas plasma hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, and susceptibility of LDL to copper-induced oxidation were higher in obese rats compared with normal rats. Administration of argan oil ameliorated all these indices of redox status. Proper diet and lifestyle should be foremost implemented to reduce the lipoprotein metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant status alterations brought about by obesity. In addition, argan oil reduces the metabolic effects of obesity and its use might be promoted within the context of a balanced diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered gene expression of epigenetic modifying enzymes in response to dietary supplementation with linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M

    2017-05-01

    Recently we showed that 5% linseed oil (LSO) and 5% safflower oil (SFO) supplementation of cow's diets reduced milk fat yield by 30·38 and 32·42% respectively, accompanied by differential expression of genes and regulation by microRNAs (miRNA). This research communication addresses the hypothesis that epigenetic regulation could be involved in the observed milk fat reduction. Thus, this study investigated the gene expression pattern of major epigenetic modifying enzymes in response to dietary supplementation with LSO or SFO. Twenty-six Canadian Holstein cows in mid lactation were randomly assigned to two groups (13/group) and fed a control diet for 28 d (day -28 to -1) (control period- CP) followed by a treatment period (TP) (control diet supplemented with 5% LSO (LSO treatment) or 5% SFO (SFO treatment) of 28 d (day +1 to +28). After treatment, cows in the two groups were returned to the control diet for another 28 d (day +29 to +56) (post treatment period-PTP). Milk samples were collected on day -1 (CP), +7, +28 (TP) and +56 (PTP) for RNA isolation and measurement of the expression of thirteen epigenetic modifying genes including two DNA methytrasferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A), four histone acetylases (HAT1, KAT2A, KAT5 and CREBBP), five histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, SIRT1 and SIRT2) and two histone methytransferases (EHMT2 and PRMT1) by qPCR. Linseed oil supplementation significantly repressed the expression of EHMT2, HDAC2 and HDAC3 on day +7 (P < 0·05) and KAT2A and SIRT2 on day +28 (P < 0·05) as compared with the control period (day -1) while SFO had no effect. When LSO was withdrawn, the expression of some of the genes increased slightly but did not reach control (day -1) levels at the end of the PTP. Our study demonstrated a significant role of LSO in the epigenetic regulation of fatty acid synthesis as compared to SFO. The effect of LSO may be related to its higher degree of unsaturation and might represent a different regulatory mechanism which

  10. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Baum,1 Richard D Telford,2 Ross B Cunningham,3 1Trainingsinstitut Prof Baum, Köln, Germany; 2College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Objective: Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL® on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods: Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53 was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour-1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour-1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful. Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results: The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41 compared to the placebo (P < 0.05, the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05. CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05, but trends toward lower CK in the

  11. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  12. Fish Oil Supplementation in Humans: Effects on Platelet Responses, Phospholipid Composition and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, Clark Murray

    Platelets are believed to play a significant role in the development of occlusive vascular diseases. Epidemiological reports have correlated the high intake of marine foods, rich in omega3 fatty acids, with diminished platelet responses and a low incidence of arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The activation of platelet responses is mediated by the accelerated metabolism of membrane phospholipid; therefore, it was of interest to examine, in human volunteers, the effect of a dietary fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA), enriched in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on platelet aggregation and phospholipid composition/metabolism. For the complete separation of cellular phospholipids, a one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography system using silica-gel pre-coated glass plates was developed. The solvent system consisted of CHCl_3/CH_3OH/CH _3COOH/H_2O (50/37.5/3.5/2.0, by vol), required approximately 90-120 minutes for full phospholipid separation, and was highly reproducible even under conditions of variable humidity and temperature. The consumption of a fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA) for 6 weeks (3.6 g of 20:5omega 3 and 2.4 g of 22:6omega3 per day) diminished both the collagen- and platelet activating factor-induced maximum aggregation responses in washed human platelet suspensions by 50.1% and 27.2%, respectively, as compared to initial unsupplemented baseline responses. Thrombin -induced aggregation remained unchanged. Thrombin stimulation of intact human platelets produced a significant decrease in the mass of phosphatidylinositol in plasma membrane. In platelets pre-labelled with (2-^3H) glycerol and stimulated with either thrombin or low-dose collagen, the loss of (^3H) phosphatidylinositol did not differ between those subjects consuming olive oil or fish oil. Likewise, the thrombin-stimulated accumulation of diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C, was unaffected by fish oil consumption. The ratio of collagen -induced increase in radioactivity

  13. A Pilot Study: Effects of Dietary Supplementation with α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Perilla Seed Oil on Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozo Ashida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available N-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, have been reported to have some beneficial effects in patients with bronchial asthma. The effects of dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil rich in a-linolenic acid (α-LNA, parent n-3 fatty acid, were studied in five patients with asthma. The symptoms of asthma and mean peak flow rates (PFR both early in the morning and in the evening were improved 2 weeks after dietary supplementation and the increases in PFR were significant (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 by peripheral leukocytes stimulated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was significantly suppressed from 77.6 to 41.6 ng/5Xl06 cells by dietary supplementation (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 by leukocytes was also significantly suppressed from 64.0 to 38.8 ng/5x106 cells after supplementation with perilla seed oil (P<0.05. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil is beneficial for the treatment of asthma.

  14. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.;

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  15. Enriching the diet with menhaden oil improves peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Obrosov, Alexander; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and other morbidities. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of supplementing their diet with 25% menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Both prevention and intervention protocols were used. Endpoints included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal and mechanical sensitivity, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and hindpaw. Diabetic neuropathy as evaluated by the stated endpoints was found to be progressive. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels. Diabetic rats at 16-wk duration were thermal hypoalgesic and had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and skin were impaired. These endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil treatment following the prevention or intervention protocol. We found that supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil improved a variety of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy. These results suggest that enriching the diet with n-3 fatty acids may be a good treatment strategy for diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers.

  17. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, P; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Pacetti, D; Frega, N G; Diez, O; Ojeda, M; Gagliardi, R; Parra, L; Angel, M

    2016-01-01

    This study examines, for the first time, the effect of hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipids related to CVD risk factors. One hundred sixty eligible participants were randomized and assigned to one of the two treatments: 25 mL hybrid palm oil (HPO group) or 25 mL extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group) daily for 3 months. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months for measurement of plasma lipids (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TAGs). Changes in body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed. Although there was an overall reduction in TC (7.4%, p palm oil can be seen as a "tropical equivalent of olive oil".

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T1, T2, T3 and T4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, phenolic glycoside k and phenolic

  19. Linseed, microalgae or fish oil dietary supplementation affects performance and quality characteristics of light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus de la Fuente-Vazquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the fatty acid profile of meat from light lamb, frequently reared in Spain and in other Mediterranean countries. A total of 44 light lambs fed different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids sources were studied: control (C (palm oil, extruded linseed (L, extruded linseed mixed with microalgae (LM and fish oil (FO. The productive performance from 14.7 to 26.2 kg of live weights and meat quality characteristics during refrigerated storage were assessed. Lambs fed FO showed lower feed intake (p <0.001, average daily gain (p <0.001 and higher feed conversion ratio (p <0.001 than lambs from the other treatments. Fish oil meat had the lowest (p <0.01 protein proportion and the highest (p <0.001 C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 proportions, while L or LM produced the highest (p <0.001 C18:3n-3 deposition. Fish oil meat had higher (p <0.05 L* and lower (p <0.001 a* than meats from the other treatments. After 7 days of storage, FO meat showed the highest TBARS (p <0.001, while C meat showed similar value to 0 days of storage. Additionally, FO underwent higher microbial growth after 7 days of storage as compared to the other treatments. Dietary supplementation with L and LM leads to C18:3n-3 meat enrichment and to a microbial load and colour characteristics similar to those of C, without adverse effect on lamb performance. However the use of FO improves the fatty acid profile of meat, but negatively affects lamb performance and meat quality.

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Pumpkin oil (Cucurbita pepo on Performance and Blood Fat of Broiler Chickens during Finisher Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Using most of antibiotic growth promoters as feed additives has been banned by the European Union due to cross-resistance against pathogens and residues in tissues; and scientists search for alternatives to antibiotics, two days. In this view, medicinal plants and essential oils extracted are becoming more important due to their antimicrobial and stimulating effects on animal digestive systems. Approach: This study was conducted to evaluate the use of Pumpkin oil in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance and its effect on abdominal and blood fat. A total of 144 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 3 replicates. The experiment was conducted from 29-49 d of age. The main ingredients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The pumpkin oil levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control, 5.00 and 10.00 g kg−1 DM. Results: Pumpkin oil supplementation up to 5.00 g kg−1 DM diet had not significant effect on broilers performance, but supplementation in higher level (10.00 g kg−1 DM significantly decreased broilers performance. Pumpkin oil supplementation decreased bird’s mortality. Adding pumpkin oil had not any significant effect on abdominal fat pad and carcass composition, however cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in plasma decreased at 49 days of age (PConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation of diets with 5.00 g kg−1 DM pumpkin oil in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet can be profitable because it reduced broiler chicken’s mortality and it did not have any adverse effect on bird’s performance.

  1. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  2. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown in sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aires da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas oleovorans were grown on sugary cassava extracts supplemented with andiroba oil for the synthesis of a mediumchain- length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA MCL. The concentration of total sugars in the extract was approximately: 40 g/L in culture 1, 15 g/L in cultures 2 and 3, and 10 g/L in culture 4. Supplementation with 1% andiroba oil and 0.2 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed 6.5 hours after growth in culture 3, and supplementation with the same amount of andiroba oil and 2.4 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed at the beginning of growth in culture 4. The synthesis resulted mainly in 3-hydroxy-decanoate and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoate units; 3-hydroxy-butyrate, 3-hydroxy-hexanoate; and 3-hydroxy-octanoate monomers were also produced but in smaller proportions. P. oleovorans significantly accumulated PHA MCL in the deceleration phase of growth with an oxygen limitation but with sufficient nitrogen concentration to maintain cell growth. The sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil proved to be a potential substrate for PHA MCL production.

  3. Effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk Fatty Acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (poil from whole linseed should be used to lactating dairy cows' diets.

  4. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonica; Chhibber, Sanjay; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj

    2013-07-01

    The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host.

  5. Linseed Oil Supplementation of Lambs’ Diet in Early Life Leads to Persistent Changes in Rumen Microbiome Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tamsin; Boland, Tommy; Storey, Sean; Doyle, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased. Twenty-seven new-born lambs were allocated to one of three dietary treatments; a control group receiving standard lamb meal, a group receiving lamb meal supplemented with 40 g kg-1 DM of linseed oil and a group receiving the supplement pre-weaning and standard lamb meal post-weaning. The supplement had no effect on average daily feed intake or average daily weight gain of lambs. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was significantly (p = 0.033 and 0.005, respectively) different in lambs fed linseed oil throughout the study compared to lambs on the control diet. Succinivibrionaceae, succinate producers, and Veillonellaceae, propionate producers, were in a higher relative abundance in the lambs fed linseed oil while Ruminococcaceae, a family linked with high CH4 emitters, were in a higher relative abundance in the control group. The relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter was reduced in the lambs receiving linseed compared to those that didn’t. In contrast, the relative abundance of Methanosphaera was significantly higher in the animals receiving the supplement compared to animals receiving no supplement (40.82 and 26.67%, respectively). Furthermore, lambs fed linseed oil only in the pre-weaning period had a bacterial community composition significantly (p = 0.015) different to that of the control group, though archaeal diversity and community structure did not differ. Again, Succinivibrionaceae

  6. Linseed Oil Supplementation of Lambs' Diet in Early Life Leads to Persistent Changes in Rumen Microbiome Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tamsin; Boland, Tommy; Storey, Sean; Doyle, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased. Twenty-seven new-born lambs were allocated to one of three dietary treatments; a control group receiving standard lamb meal, a group receiving lamb meal supplemented with 40 g kg(-1) DM of linseed oil and a group receiving the supplement pre-weaning and standard lamb meal post-weaning. The supplement had no effect on average daily feed intake or average daily weight gain of lambs. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was significantly (p = 0.033 and 0.005, respectively) different in lambs fed linseed oil throughout the study compared to lambs on the control diet. Succinivibrionaceae, succinate producers, and Veillonellaceae, propionate producers, were in a higher relative abundance in the lambs fed linseed oil while Ruminococcaceae, a family linked with high CH4 emitters, were in a higher relative abundance in the control group. The relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter was reduced in the lambs receiving linseed compared to those that didn't. In contrast, the relative abundance of Methanosphaera was significantly higher in the animals receiving the supplement compared to animals receiving no supplement (40.82 and 26.67%, respectively). Furthermore, lambs fed linseed oil only in the pre-weaning period had a bacterial community composition significantly (p = 0.015) different to that of the control group, though archaeal diversity and community structure did not differ. Again, Succinivibrionaceae

  7. Influence of fish oil supplementation on in vivo and in vitro oxidation resistance of low-density lipoprotein in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.; Petersen, M.; Major-Pedersen, A.;

    2003-01-01

    patients were randomized to vitamin E standardized (53.6 mg/day) supplementation (capsules) with 4 g daily of either fish oil (n = 23) or corn oil (n = 21) for 8 weeks preceded by a 4 week run-in period of corn oil supplementation. LDL was isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and oxidized...... to clarify the clinical importance of this finding. Sponsorship: Financially supported by The Danish Heart Association and Dansk Droge A/S. Dansk Droge A/S generously provided the fish oil and corn oil capsules....

  8. Chemomodulatory Potential of Flaxseed Oil Against DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Ritu; Goyal, P K

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of flaxseed oil to prevent chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Cancer was induced on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis model by single topical application of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA), as, initiator, and two weeks later it was promoted by croton oil treatment thrice a week on the dorsal surface of mice for 16 weeks. Flaxseed oil (FSO; 100µL/animal/d) was orally administered 1 week before and 1 week after DMBA application (Peri-initiation stage). The animals of the FSO-administered group showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence (76.67%), cumulative number of tumors (37), tumor yield (3.7), and tumor burden (4.81) when compared with the carcinogen-treated control animals. Biochemical parameters in skin and liver tissue such as LPO and phase I enzymes were significantly (P croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

  9. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  10. Can fish oil supplementation improve endothelial function in asymptomatic offspring of patients with peripheral arterial disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spark JI

    2013-07-01

    maintain a diary of fish oil consumption on a daily basis, and fish oil returned will be measured to confirm adherence. Participants will complete validated surveys to determine background diet and physical activity levels.Discussion: This study will examine the effectiveness of a moderate-dose fish oil intervention in reversing endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic offspring of patients with peripheral arterial disease. It provides the opportunity to delay the progression of peripheral arterial disease using a cheap and readily available dietary supplement that has minimal side effects compared with synthetic vasoactive pharmacological medications.Keywords: omega 3 fatty acids, endothelial function, peripheral arterial disease

  11. Electrically induced displacement transport of immiscible oil in saline sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukcu, Sibel; Shrestha, Reena A; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Mateus, Eduardo P

    2016-08-01

    Electrically assisted mitigation of coastal sediment oil pollution was simulated in floor-scale laboratory experiments using light crude oil and saline water at approximately 1/10 oil/water (O/W) mass ratio in pore fluid. The mass transport of the immiscible liquid phases was induced under constant direct current density of 2A/m(2), without water flooding. The transient pore water pressures (PWP) and the voltage differences (V) at and in between consecutive ports lined along the test specimen cell were measured over 90days. The oil phase transport occurred towards the anode half of the test specimen where the O/W volume ratio increased by 50% over its initial value within that half-length of the specimen. In contrast, the O/W ratio decreased within the cathode side half of the specimen. During this time, the PWP decreased systematically at the anode side with oil bank accumulation. PWP increased at the cathode side of the specimen, signaling increased concentration of water there as it replaced oil in the pore space. Electrically induced transport of the non-polar, non-conductive oil was accomplished in the opposing direction of flow by displacement in absence of viscous coupling of oil-water phases.

  12. Performance of broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil (Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Silva Vázquez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO in broiler diets on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacrol. Nine treatments were prepared by the combinations of MOO1 + MOO2 (0, 400, and 800 mg kg−1; added per kg of feed respectively: 0+0, 0+400, 0+800, 400+0, 400+400, 400+800, 800+0, 800+400, and 800+800. Eighteen chicks per treatment were divided in a completely randomized design into nine cages. Broiler weights were altered by the treatments at 21 d, when 400+400 had the highest weight, and on day 39, when the greatest weight was seen in broilers on treatments 800+0 and 800+400. Feed intake was affected by treatment on day 39, with broilers on 800+0 exhibiting the highest values. Water intake was influenced by the treatments on days 14, 21, 35, and 39, when 0+0 represented the lowest. Feed efficiency was altered by the treatments on days 14, 28, 35, and 39, whereas average daily gain was affected from days 14 to 39. Supplementation of Mexican oregano oil has beneficial effects on broiler weight, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and feed and water intakes. Combinations of thymol and carvacrol levels have varying effects on these parameters. The higher relative body weights of groups 400+0, 800+0, and 800+400 suggest positive market value effects of these combinations of Mexican oregano oil.

  13. Female Leuciscus lepidus May Be a New Alternative for Fish Oil Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of male and female Leuciscus lepidus in Beyşehir Lake was investigated. The fatty acid profiles of total lipid, phospholipid, and triacylglycerol in muscle and liver of male and female L. lepidus were evaluated by gas chromatography. Proximate analyses showed that meat of male and female L. lepidus had 15.13 ± 0.04 and 18.75 ± 0.11% fat, 20.42 ± 0.45 and 22.21 ± 0.56% protein, 65.47 ± 1.37 and 61.28 ± 1.03% moisture, and 1.51 ± 0.05 and 1.50 ± 0.03% ash, respectively. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids was higher in liver than in muscle, whereas the total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content was the lowest in all fatty acid profiles. The phospholipids contained more PUFAs than triacylglycerol. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P<0.05 between male (47.51% and female (49.98% muscle PUFAs in total lipid. The proportion of omega 3 (ω3 to omega 6 (ω6 fatty acids of total lipid was 3.15 in male and 3.68 in female. The ratio is an important indicator for comparing the value of fish oil. Therefore, it was concluded that L. lepidus was considered to be a high quality product for healthy food choice. Additionally, female L. lepidus may especially be used to produce fish oil supplements from freshwater fish combined with vegetable oils.

  14. Perinatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid induces lipolysis in adipose tissue of coconut oil-fed mice but not soy oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Hadenfeldt, T J; Miner, J L; Hargrave-Barnes, K M

    2011-09-01

    Mice fed diets containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are leaner than mice not fed CLA. This anti-obesity effect is amplified in mice fed coconut oil-containing or fat free diets, compared to soy oil diets. The present objective was to determine if CLA alters lipolysis in mice fed different base oils. Mice were fed diets containing soy oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), or fat free (FF) for 6 weeks, followed by 10 or 12 days of CLA or no CLA supplementation. Body fat, tissue weights, and ex vivo lipolysis were determined. Relative protein abundance and activation of perilipin, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) were determined by western blotting. CLA feeding caused mice to have less (P oil source, P oil source interaction on lipolysis as CO + CLA and FF + CLA-fed mice had increased (P < 0.05) rates of lipolysis but SO + CLA-fed mice did not. However, after 12 days of CLA consumption, activated perilipin was increased (P < 0.05) only in SO + CLA-fed mice and total HSL and ATGL were decreased (P < 0.05) in CO + CLA-fed mice. Therefore, the enhanced CLA-induced body fat loss in CO and FF-fed mice appears to involve increased lipolysis but this effect may be decreasing by 12 days of CLA consumption.

  16. Reducing methane emissions and the methanogen population in the rumen of Tibetan sheep by dietary supplementation with coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuezhi; Long, Ruijun; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Xiaodan; Guo, Xusheng; Mi, Jiandui

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of dietary coconut oil on methane (CH(4)) emissions and the microbial community in Tibetan sheep. Twelve animals were assigned to receive either a control diet (oaten hay) or a mixture diet containing concentrate (maize meal), in which coconut oil was supplemented at 12 g/day or not for a period of 4 weeks. CH(4) emissions were measured by using the 'tunnel' technique, and microbial communities were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Daily CH(4) production for the control and forage-to-concentrate ratio of 6:4 was 17.8 and 15.3 g, respectively. Coconut oil was particularly effective at reducing CH(4) emissions from Tibetan sheep. The inclusion of coconut oil for the control decreased CH(4) production (in grams per day) by 61.2%. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the number of methanogens and the daily CH(4) production (R = 0.95, P coconut oil supplemented at 12 g/day decreases the number of methanogens by 77% and a decreases in the ruminal fungal population (85-95%) and Fibrobacter succinogenes (50-98%) but an increase in Ruminococcus flavefaciens (25-70%). The results from our experiment suggest that adding coconut oil to the diet can reduce CH(4) emissions in Tibetan sheep and that these reductions persist for at least the 4-week feeding period.

  17. Feeding value of supplemental curcas crude oil in finishing diets for feedlot lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Bernal, J A; Estrada-Angulo, A; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Castro-Pérez, B I; Landeros-López, H; López-Soto, M A; Barreras, A; Zinn, R A; Plascencia, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the feeding value of a mechanically extracted nontoxic variety of oil (JCO) as source of energy for feedlot lambs. Twenty Pelibuey × Katahdin lambs were individually fed a dry-rolled-corn-based finishing diet supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, or 6% JCO (diet dry matter basis). Supplemental JCO replaced dry rolled corn in the basal diet. Fatty acid composition of JCO was C16:0, 14.0%; C18:0, 8.2%; C18:1, 26.0%; C18:2, 50.3%, and C18:3, 0.4%. Daily intakes of JCO averaged 24.7, 51.1, and 77.3 g/day or 0.57, 1.08, and 1.62 g/kg LW for the 2%, 4%, and 6% levels of supplementation, respectively. Supplemental JCO did not affect ( = 0.33) dry matter intake (DMI), but tended to increase (linear effect, = 0.06) average daily gain, efficiency of gain (linear effect, JCO corresponds closely (0.99) to the NE value assigned by current standards (), and this NE value decreased linearly as the inclusion level of JCO increased. There were not treatment effects on plasma metabolites. Across treatments, the concentrations of hemoglobin (11.64 ± 1.08 g/dL), hematocrit (39.15 ± 3.67%), glucose (85.2 ± 17.64 mg/dL), creatinine (1.43 ± 0.28 mg/dL), and urea (20.70 ± 4.35 mg/dL) were within normal (9-15 g/dL, 27%-40%, 50-90 mg/dL, 1.0-1.8 mg/dL, and 15-50 mg/dL, for hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, creatinine, and urea, respectively) ranges for healthy lambs. Based on DMI, performance and plasma metabolites observed in this study, nontoxic JCO is a suitable source of energy in finishing diets for lambs.

  18. Different gene expression profiles in normo- and dyslipidemic men after fish oil supplementation: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Simone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on cardiovascular health, but only limited data are available describing n-3 PUFA regulated pathways in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA administration on whole genome expression profiles in the blood of normo- and dyslipidemic subjects. Methods Differentially expressed genes were detected after four hours, one week and twelve weeks of supplementation with either fish oil (FO or corn oil in normo- and dyslipidemic men using whole genome microarrays. Results Independent of the oil, a significantly higher number of genes was regulated in dyslipidemic subjects compared to normolipidemic subjects. Pathway analyses discovered metabolisms dominantly affected by FO after twelve weeks of supplementation, including the lipid metabolism, immune system and cardiovascular diseases. Several pro-inflammatory genes, in particular, were down-regulated in dyslipidemic subjects, indicating the immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory capability of FO and its bioactive FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Conclusions This is the first study showing significant differences in gene expression profiles between normo- and dyslipidemic men after FO supplementation. Further studies need to clarify the exact role of n-3 PUFAs in pathways and metabolisms which were identified as being regulated after FO supplementation in this study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01089231

  19. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Arruda, Fernanda C O; Reis, Patrícia P; Felix, Tainara F; Santos, Priscila P; Rafacho, Bruna P; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Claro, Renan T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415-539); T group: 273 (258-297) µm²; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement.

  20. Effects of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the lipid profile, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball athletes before and after acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Camila Garcia; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Jacintho, Thiago Manzoni; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on the lipid profile, levels of plasma inflammatory mediators, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball players before and after acute exercise. We evaluated 8 male basketball wheelchair athletes before and after acute exercise both prior to (S0) and following (S1) FO supplementation. The subjects were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 30 days. The following components were measured: the plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), plasma inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α), markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), and neutrophil function (cytokine production, phagocytic capacity, loss of membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, neutral lipid accumulation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Acute exercise increased the plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDH, IL1ra, and IL-6, led to the loss of membrane integrity, ROS production, and a high mitochondrial membrane potential in neutrophils, and reduced the phagocytic capacity and IL-6 production by the neutrophils (S0). However, supplementation prevented the increases in the plasma levels of LDH and IL-6, the loss of membrane integrity, and the alterations in ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential in the neutrophils that were induced by exercise (S1). In conclusion, DHA-rich FO supplementation reduces the markers of muscle damage, inflammatory disturbances, and neutrophil death induced by acute exercise in wheelchair athletes.

  1. Haematological parameters, serum lipid profile, liver function and fatty acid profile of broiler chickens fed on diets supplemented with pomegranate seed oil and linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterys, A; Franczyk-Zarow, M; Czyzynska-Cichon, I; Drahun, A; Kus, E; Szymczyk, B; Kostogrys, R B

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine effect of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and linseed oil (LO) on haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes as well as fatty acids profile of adipose tissue in broilers. Broilers (n = 400) were fed on diets containing graded PSO levels (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) with or without 2% LO. After 6 weeks of feeding, 6 male broilers from each group were slaughtered and abdominal fat, liver and blood samples were collected. Mixtures of pomegranate seed oil (0.5%, 1%) with linseed oil increased white blood cell level in broilers. Total cholesterol was elevated after LO supplementation whereas administration of PSO (1.5%) significantly decreased this parameter. PSO administration caused c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration-dependent deposition in adipose tissue. By LO addition α-linolenic acid (ALA) content was enhanced, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio. PSO and ALA also affected oleic acid proportion in adipose tissue. Neither pomegranate seed oil nor linseed oil had any effect on liver parameters. Pomegranate seed oil had no negative effects on broiler health status and can be considered as a functional poultry meat component.

  2. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Eng, Y.; F. E. Olumese; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the gro...

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid fish oil dietary supplements contain saturated fats and oxidized lipids that may interfere with their intended biological benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R Preston; Sherratt, Samuel C R

    2017-01-29

    Widely available fish oil dietary supplements (DS) may contain fats and oxidized lipids in addition to the beneficial omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) for which they are purchased. Little is known about the potential biological effects of these oxidized lipids. The objective of this study was to assess the fatty acid content, oxidation products, and biological effects of leading fish oil DS available in the United States. Three top-selling fish oil DS in the US were included in this analysis. Fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography. Lipid oxidation (primary and secondary products) was measured by spectroscopy in both DS and a prescription OM3FA product. OM3FAs were also isolated and concentrated from DS and were tested for the ability to inhibit copper-induced oxidation of human small dense low-density lipoprotein particles (sdLDL) in vitro. Fish oil DS were found to contain more than 30 different fatty acids, including 10 to 14 different saturated species comprising up to 36% of the total fatty acid content. Levels of OM3FAs also varied widely among DS (33%-79%). Primary (peroxide), secondary (anisidine), and total oxidation products exceeded maximum levels established by international standards of quality in the DS but not the prescription OM3FA product. Oxidation of sdLDL was inhibited by >95% (P saturated fat and oxidized OM3FAs found in common DS may interfere with their intended/potential biological benefits.

  4. Fish oil supplementation during late pregnancy does not influence plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels in young adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Dorte; Schmidt, Erik B; Bech, Bodil H; Christensen, Jeppe H; Henriksen, Tine B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2011-12-01

    Nutritional influences on cardiovascular disease operate throughout life. Studies in both experimental animals and humans have suggested that changes in the peri- and early post-natal nutrition can affect the development of the various components of the metabolic syndrome in adult life. This has lead to the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy may have a beneficial effect on lipid profile in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplementation with n-3 fatty acids during the third trimester of pregnancy on lipids and lipoproteins in the 19-year-old offspring. The study was based on the follow-up of a randomized controlled trial from 1990 where 533 pregnant women were randomized to fish oil (n = 266), olive oil (n = 136) or no oil (n = 131). In 2009, the offspring were invited to a physical examination including blood sampling. A total of 243 of the offspring participated. Lipid values did not differ between the fish oil and olive oil groups. The relative adjusted difference (95% confidence intervals) in lipid concentrations was -3% (-11; 7) for LDL cholesterol, 3% (-3; 10) for HDL cholesterol, -1% (-6; 5) for total cholesterol,-4% (-16; 10) for TAG concentrations, 2%(-2; 7) for apolipoprotein A1, -1% (-9; 7) for apolipoprotein B and 3% (-7; 15) in relative abundance of small dense LDL. In conclusion, there was no effect of fish oil supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy on offspring plasma lipids and lipoproteins in adolescence.

  5. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S.; Gunn, Bridget; Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the effects of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage following high-force eccentric exercise in men randomly administered Cr or placebo. Results indicated that 5 days of Cr supplementation did not reduce indirect makers of muscle damage or enhance recovery from high-force eccentric exercise.…

  6. Effect of dietary linseed oil and Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves supplementation on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of natural antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative stress induced by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in rabbit diets. Forty-eight SIKA rabbits (24 male, 24 female were penned individually and after a 5-d adaptation period divided into 4 homogeneous groups (2.58±0.3 kg. The CONT– group received a diet with 60 g/kg palm fat, while the other 3 groups received a diet with 60 g/kg linseed oil which was either unsupplemented (CONT+ or supplemented with 10 g/kg of Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI or 10 g/kg of olive leaves (OLIVE. Rabbits were euthanised at 102 d of age, 22 d after the start of the experiment. Live weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were recorded. The fatty acid composition of back (M. longissimus dorsi and hind leg muscle (thigh muscle, adipose tissue (abdominal fat and liver were determined. To evaluate the oxidative status of rabbits, the malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in the plasma, liver and both muscles was measured. DNA damage in the leukocytes was measured. Linseed oil addition increased the PUFA ratio and decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in all tissues (P<0.001, with no detrimental effect on productive performance of rabbits compared to palm fat. Linseed oil also reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in all tissues (P<0.001. However, linseed oil addition increased the oxidative stress by increasing MDA concentrations in the liver and muscles (P<0.001, but did not affect the plasma MDA concentrations and the extent of DNA damage in the blood leukocytes compared to palm fat. Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver compared to CONT+ (P=0.059, with no effect of Ganoderma lucidum.

  7. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. (Pennsylvania College of Podiatric Medicine, Philadelphia (United States))

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  8. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a

  9. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during...... pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P higher...

  10. Fish Oil and Olive Oil Supplementation in Late Pregnancy and Lactation Differentially Affect Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Sows and Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Li, Jian; Wu, De

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of fish oil and olive oil supplementation in late pregnancy and during lactation on oxidative stress and inflammation in sows and their piglets. A total of 24 sows were fed a basal diet supplemented with additional corn starch (CON), fish oil (FO) or olive oil (OO). Sows fed an OO diet during late gestation had a higher piglet birth weight compared with CON-fed and FO-fed sows (P sows from the OO group had a higher milk fat content than sows from CON and FO groups, and a lower pre-weaning mortality of piglets was observed in the OO group (P sow plasma, colostrum, milk and piglet plasma than in CON and OO groups (P Sows fed an OO diet had significantly decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in milk compared with CON and FO fed sows (P sows. However, FO increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress in sows and piglets.

  11. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise

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    NATHÁLIA M. RESENDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group, G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm. The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  12. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  13. Zinc supplementation prolongs the latency of hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, L; Erdem, S R; Yazıcı, C

    2016-03-01

    Some studies have shown a relationship between febrile seizures and zinc levels. The lowest dose zinc supplementation in pentylenetetrazole seizure model has a protective effect. But, zinc pretreatment has no effect in maximal electroshock model. However, it is unclear how zinc supplementation affects hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation on febrile seizures in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Zinc supplementation was commenced 5 days prior to febrile seizure induction by placing the animals in a water bath at 45°C. We measured the rectal temperature and determined the febrile seizure latency, duration, and stage. In the zinc-supplemented group, both the seizure latency and the rectal temperature triggering seizure initiation were significantly higher than in the other groups. We suggest that zinc supplementation can positively modulate febrile seizure pathogenesis in rats.

  14. Effects of plant extracts and essential oils as feed supplements on quality and microbial traits of rabbit meat

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    A. P. Kone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of onion, cranberry,  strawberry and essentials oils on meat quality were analysed. Five groups of 48 Grimaud female weaned rabbits received the supplemented or the control ration; the experimental unit was a cage of 6 rabbits. Each experimental diet contained 10 ppm of added active ingredients.  Rabbits were fed with the experimental diets for 4 wk before determining slaughter and carcass traits and determining the pH at 1 and 24 h post mortem (pHu of the Longissimus dorsi (LD and the Biceps femoris (BF muscle, left and right, respectively. Cooking loss, drip loss and L*, a* and b* color parameters were obtained of the right LD and for ground meat and antioxidant status (TBARS, DNPH, Folin Ciocalteu. Only the pHu of the LD muscle for the strawberry supplemented group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (P=0.04. However, we note that for the pH of the LD, the average was less than 6 for the meat of animals who received a diet enriched in polyphenols, compared to the control group. Plant extract supplementation did not influence meat quality traits, growth performance or oxidative stability. But under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, our results indicate that diet supplementation with extracts rich in polyphenols, especially with essential oils, had a small bot sporadic positive effect in reducing bacterial microflora compared to the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, plant extracts and essential oils can be used in a rabbit diet without adverse effects on performance and meat quality traits. This effect could be optimized by investigating higher doses.

  15. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy: A 12 Year Follow-Up of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Meldrum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant’s mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Osman; Yıldız, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails.

  17. Resting blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity to mental arithmetic in mild hypertensive males supplemented with blackcurrant seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deferne, J L; Leeds, A R

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of a supplement of blackcurrant seed oil (BSO), a rich source of gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) on the resting blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular reactivity to a psychological stress in borderline hypertensive individuals. Twenty-seven male volunteers found to have a BP lying persistently within the borderline range, were allocated randomly to one of two groups at the end of a 4-week baseline period. The first group received a daily supplement of 6 g safflower oil for the consecutive 8 weeks while the second the same dose of blackcurrant seed oil. In addition to weekly measurements of resting BP, BP and heart rate reactivity to a standardised 5-min test of mental arithmetic were recorded before, and at the end of the supplementation period. BSO inhibited BP reactivity by over 40% (ANOVA for repeated measures diastolic (D) BP P = 0.026, systolic (S) BP P = 0.021). The decrease in DBP for the subjects on BSO was significantly different from the slight changes observed in the safflower group (ANOVA for repeated measures P = 0.018 for time-treatment interaction). We conclude that gamma-linolenic-rich fatty acid preparations are likely to influence cardiovascular control, by mechanisms yet to be clarified.

  18. Carcass traits and meat quality of pigs fed on fodder supplemented with sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel NEVRKLA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare meat and fat content and meat quality of pigs fed diet supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and animals not receiving the supplement SFO or CLA (control group. The experiment consisted of 116 pigs, divided into three groups: two experimental (n = 40 where animals were fed feed supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and control (n = 36. Fattening pigs were kept and fed in standardized conditions. The animals were slaughtered at a body weight of 120 kg. Meat quality traits (pH, drip loss, backfat fat content, colour, MLLT muscle dry matter content, fat in the dry matter, IMF in MLLT were determined. Summarizing obtained results it should be concluded that 2% sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid did not affect the meat quality. The experimental animals were characterized by high meat content (58.26% - SFO addition; 57.63% - CLA addition; 57.99% C group and low fat content (from 14.35 mm in SFO group up to 14.70 mm in CLA group.

  19. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF KAPOK (Ceiba pentandra SEED OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON CELLULOLYTIC ENZYME AND RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LOCAL SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Widiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation oncellulolytic enzyme and microbial fermentation activity. Sheep rumen fluid was used as enzyme sourceand inoculant, whereas carboxymethylcellulose (CMC was used as the substrate. There were 4 levels ofKSO supplementation as treatment, i.e. : 0% (T0, 5% (T1, 10% (T2, and 15% (T3. Two measuredvariables were reduced sugar production rate and gas fermentation production. The data were analyzedby analysis of variance in completely randomized design. The result showed that reduced sugarproduction rate in T0, T1, T2 and T3 treatment groups were 2.58; 2.93; 2.08 and 1.58 mg/gCMC/minute, respectively, whereas gas production were : 15.97; 13.26; 10.54 and 7.57 mg/g CMC,respectively. Kapok seed oil supplementation up to 5% DM of cellulose substrate (CMC did notinfluence the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity. The KSO supplementation level 10% - 15%decreased the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity.

  1. Adding Fish Oil to Whey Protein, Leucine and Carbohydrate Over a 6 Week Supplementation Period Attenuates Muscle Soreness Following Eccentric Exercise in Competitive Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Jordan D; Donnelly, Chris; Walshe, Ian H; Dick, James; Galloway, Stuart D R; Tipton, Kevin D; Witard, Oliver C

    2017-09-05

    Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil-derived n-3PUFA, protein and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine and carbohydrate containing beverage over a 6 week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over 3 days following eccentric exercise. Competitive soccer players were assigned to one of three conditions (2 × 200mL): FO (n=10) contained n-3PUFA (1100mg DHA/EPA - approx. 550mg DHA, 550mg EPA), whey protein (15g), leucine (1.8g) and carbohydrate (20g); PRO (n=10) contained whey protein (15g), leucine (1.8g) and carbohydrate (20g) and CHO (n=10) contained carbohydrate (24g). Eccentric exercise consisted of unilateral knee extension/flexion contractions on both legs separately. Maximal force production was impaired by 22% during the 72 hour recovery period following eccentric exercise (peccentric exercise in competitive soccer players.

  2. Effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during pregnancy, on neonatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; van der Klis, FRM; van der Dijs, FPL; van Beusekom, CM; Landman, H; Capello, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    2001-01-01

    Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) status during pregnancy is important. We studied the effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during uncomplicated pregnancy, on neonatal LCP status at term delivery. Supplements were administered from the second trimester to de

  3. The potential benefits and adverse effects of phytic Acid supplement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, F O; Budiaman, A; Eng, Y; Olumese, F E; Hoesel, J L; Ejilemele, A; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1 β level was significantly (P phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation.

  4. Optimal dose of zinc supplementation for preventing aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lu; Yugang Jiang; Jianyang Hu; Jing Li; Wei Pang; Yandan Hu; Hongpeng Yang; Wenjie Li; Chengyu Huang; Mingman Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc supplementation can help maintain learning and memory function in rodents. In this study, we hypothesized that zinc supplementation could antagonize the neurotoxicity induced by aluminum in rats. Animals were fed a diet containing different doses of zinc (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) for 9 weeks, and oral y administered aluminum chloride (300 mg/kg daily) from the third week for 7 consecutive weeks. Open-field behavioral test results showed that the number of rearings in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement was significantly increased compared with the group given the 50 mg/kg zinc supplement. Malondialdehyde content in the cerebrum was significantly decreased, while dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels were increased in the groups given the diet plemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc, compared with the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc. The acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrum was significantly decreased in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed evident patho-logical damage in the hippocampus of rats in the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc, but the damage was attenuated in the groups given the diet supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc. Our findings suggest that zinc is a potential neuroprotective agent against alumi-num-induced neurotoxicity in rats, and the optimal dosages are 100 and 200 mg/kg.

  5. Dietary palm olein oil augments cardiac antioxidant enzymes and protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, D; Sood, S; Thomas, M; Dinda, A K; Maulik, S K

    2005-11-01

    Wistar rats, 150-200 g, of either sex, were fed daily with commercial rat diet supplemented with palm olein oil in two doses (5% v/w (n = 16) and 10% v/w (n = 16) of diet) for 30 days. Control rats (n = 16) were fed with normal diet. On the 29(th) and 30(th) days, 8 rats from each group were administred isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c., 24-h interval). On the 31(st) day, all rats were sacrificed and myocardial tissues were studied for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidant enzymes and light microscopic changes, along with the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). A significant rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and FRAP level were observed in rats fed with palm olein oil. Isoproterenol caused an increase in myocardial oxidative stress in control rats, as evidenced by an increase in myocardial TBARS level, reduction in FRAP and myocardial SOD, catalase and GPx activity, along with focal necrosis of cardiac muscle fibres on light microscopy. The rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of SOD and catalase activity following isoproterenol administration were prevented in palm-olein-oil-supplemented diet-fed rats at both doses. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial light-microscopic changes were also prevented in the treated groups. The results suggest that dietary palm olein oil caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidant enzymes and protected against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis and associated oxidative stress.

  6. Effects of Sesame Butter (Ardeh) versus Sesame Oil on Metabolic and Oxidative Stress Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Zarei, Mehdi; Gorji, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is related to oxidative-stress-induced diseases. Given the role of dietary antioxidants in the control and prevention of diabetes, this study aimed to examine the effects of sesame butter versus sesame oil on the serum levels of glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress biomarkers in diabetic rats. Forty male albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into 4 groups (i.e., nondiabetic control rats, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with sesame butter, and diabetic rats treated with sesame oil). Experimental diabetes was induced with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Sesame butter (1.25 g/kg) and sesame oil (0.5 g/kg) were given by oral gavage to the diabetic rats for 6 weeks. Finally, serum glucose, lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured and analyzed statistically. Our data showed that the diabetic groups treated with sesame butter and sesame oil had significantly lower levels of glucose and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein than did the diabetic control group at the end of the study (PSesame butter supplementation also increased TAC and decreased MDA concentrations significantly in the diabetic rats (Psesame butter make it an excellent candidate for future human studies on diabetes, although further research is needed to determine the exact dose and duration of supplementation.

  7. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...

  8. Influence of fish oil supplementation on in vivo and in vitro oxidation resistance of low-density lipoprotein in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.; Petersen, M.; Major-Pedersen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Fish oil supplement has been proposed as a non-pharmacological strategy to correct the atherogenic lipid profile associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, fish oil may have deleterious effects on lipid peroxidation and glycemic control.Design: In this study, 44 type 2 diabetic...

  9. Effect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelrich, B; Dewell, A; Gardner, C D

    2013-04-01

    The well-established triglyceride (TG) lowering effect of fish oil is accompanied by an increase in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Less is known about the differential impact on LDL particle distribution - the smaller particles being associated with a greater risk for atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine the changes in serum concentrations of four subclasses of LDL particles as well as shifts in LDL phenotype patterns (A, B, AB) among hypertriglyceridemic adults. This was a secondary analysis from a double-blind, parallel design, placebo controlled trial with 42 adults that experienced significant TG lowering and modest increases in total LDL-C concentrations after 12 weeks of 4 g/d EPA + DHA. Reduction in serum TG concentrations (mean ± SEM) was -26 ± 4% (-0.81 ± 10.12 mmol/L), p < 0.0001. Total LDL-C concentration increased by 13 ± 3% (+0.31 ± 0.08 mmol/L), p < 0.0001. The 12-week changes in concentrations of LDL1, LDL2, LDL3 and LDL4 were +0.06 ± 0.02 mmol/L [+2.2 ± 0.7 mg/dL], +0.07 ± 0.03 mmol/L [+2.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL], +0.16 ± 0.05 mmol/L [+6.3 ± 1.8 mg/dL], and +0.04 ± 0.04 mmol/L [+1.4 ± 1.7 mg/dL], respectively (+20 ± 5%, +64 ± 13%, +26 ± 6%, and +17 ± 9%), p < 0.05 for all but LDL4. Changes in LDL phenotype patterns A, B and A/B were negligible and not statistically significant. In this population of hypertriglyceridemic adults, dietary supplementation with fish oil resulted in an increase in total LDL-C concentration which was distributed relatively evenly across the range of smaller and more atherogenic as well as larger and less atherogenic LDL particles. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. In vivo evidence of hepato- and reno-protective effect of garlic oil against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Agmy, Sherif M; Gaur, Rajiv L; Fernando, Augusta; Raj, Madhwa Hg; Ouhtit, Allal

    2009-01-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2), a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as hepatic AST and ALT. However, significant decrease was recorded in liver ALP activity, glycogen content, and renal urea and creatinine levels. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in glutathione content and catalase activity were observed in the liver and the kidney. However, garlic oil supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that garlic is a phytoantioxidant with powerful chemopreventive properties against chemically-induced oxidative stress.

  11. In vivo evidence of hepato- and reno-protective effect of garlic oil against sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa A Hassan, Sherif M El-Agmy, Rajiv L Gaur, Augusta Fernando, Madhwa HG Raj, Allal Ouhtit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite (NaNO2, a food color fixative and preservative, contributes to carcinogenesis. We investigated the protective role of garlic oil against NaNO2-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters and oxidative status in male albino rats. NaNO2 treatment for a period of three months induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as hepatic AST and ALT. However, significant decrease was recorded in liver ALP activity, glycogen content, and renal urea and creatinine levels. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and a decrease in glutathione content and catalase activity were observed in the liver and the kidney. However, garlic oil supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that garlic is a phytoantioxidant with powerful chemopreventive properties against chemically-induced oxidative stress.

  12. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice

  13. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Maruyama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5 μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice.

  14. Evaluation of Spirulina Supplementation on Intermittent Binge Ethanol - Induced Neurotoxicity in Dentate Gyrus of Rats

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    M A Asari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Spirulina is a widely used nutritional supplement which is rich in antioxidants and proteins.  Studies have shown that intermittent binge-like ethanol consumption during adolescent period caused neuronal damage in specific parts of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. It has been suggested that antioxidant therapy may provide some level of protection against neurotoxicity of ethanol at cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effects of spirulina supplementation on ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given ethanol (10 g/kg/day, intermittent binge model, or spirulina platensis (1000 mg/kg/day or both from postnatal day 30 for two weeks duration. The cerebral hemispheres were processed for routine histological staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-GFAP antibody.  Ethanol-treated group showed significant deficit in the numbers of granule cells and hilar neurons of the dentate gyrus when compared to the control group. Spirulina supplementation failed to provide protection against ethanol-induced neuronal loss. Spirulina supplementation also failed to alter increased expression of GFAP immunoreactivity induced by ethanol exposure. In conclusion, these findings indicate that spirulina supplementation is not effective in reducing the ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Industrial Relevance. Spirulina is one of the widely used nutritional supplements particularly in Asian population. Being a strong antioxidant, spirulina has been shown to have many therapeutic effects in human. However, the question of whether spirulina supplementation is able to mitigate the effect of ethanol neurotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that spirulina supplementation is able to provide some protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a rat model

  15. SHORT AND LONGER-TERM EFFECTS OF CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE

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    John Rosene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d-1 for 7 d followed by 6g.d-1 for 23 d = 30 d. Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d-1 of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage

  16. The effects of the avilamycin, Protexin® and basil essential oil supplements on ileal bacteria of broiler chickens

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    Seyyed Reza Riyazi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of probiotic (Protexin®, Protexin Veterinary, Somerset, UK, medicinal plant (basil essential oil and an antibiotic growth promoter (avilamycin as broiler feed additives on ileal bacteria of broilers were studied. A total of 600 Arian broilers were divided into 6 treatments, with 4 replicates of 25 birds. Treatments were a plant essential oil in 3 level (200, 400 and 600 ppm, the probiotic (150 ppm, an antibiotic (150 ppm and a control group with no additives. Birds in different treatments received the same diets during the experimental period. The results showed that probiotic treatment significantly decreased total bacteria counts (P<0.05. Any of the supplements did not affect colony-forming units of lactobacilli (P>0.05. The lowest and highest lactic acid bacteria in ileum were obtained by the control group and in birds receiving 400 ppm basil essential oil, respectively. Moreover, addition of 600 ppm of basil essential oil into diet decreased the number of E.coli colonies as compared to other treatments (P<0.05. Our results suggest that basil essential oil and Protexin could be of value to replace the antibiotics that have been banned as growth promoter in animal feeds.

  17. Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil

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    Hubert Cormier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to test whether gene expression of selected inflammatory genes was altered following an n-3 PUFA supplementation and to test for gene–diet interactions modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. (2 Methods: 191 subjects completed a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil. Gene expression of TNF-α and IL6 was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs using the TaqMan technology. Genotyping of 20 SNPs from the TNF-LTA gene cluster, IL1β, IL6 and CRP genes was performed. (3 Results: There was no significant reduction of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP levels after the 6-week fish oil supplementation. TNF-α and IL6 were slightly overexpressed in PBMCs after the supplementation (fold changes of 1.05 ± 0.38 and 1.18 ± 0.49, respectively (n = 191, but relative quantification (RQ within the −0.5 to 2.0 fold are considered as nonbiologically significant. In a MIXED model for repeated measures adjusted for the effects of age, sex and BMI, gene by supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs1143627, rs16944, rs1800797, and rs2069840 on IL6 levels, for rs2229094 on TNF-α levels and for rs1800629 on CRP levels (p < 0.05 for all. (4 Conclusions: This study shows that a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil did not alter gene expression levels of TNF-α and IL6 in PBMCs and did not have an impact on inflammatory biomarker levels. However, gene–diet interactions were observed between SNPs within inflammation-related genes modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels.

  18. Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-03-15

    (1) BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs) from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to test whether gene expression of selected inflammatory genes was altered following an n-3 PUFA supplementation and to test for gene-diet interactions modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. (2) METHODS: 191 subjects completed a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil. Gene expression of TNF-α and IL6 was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using the TaqMan technology. Genotyping of 20 SNPs from the TNF-LTA gene cluster, IL1β, IL6 and CRP genes was performed. (3) RESULTS: There was no significant reduction of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after the 6-week fish oil supplementation. TNF-α and IL6 were slightly overexpressed in PBMCs after the supplementation (fold changes of 1.05 ± 0.38 and 1.18 ± 0.49, respectively (n = 191)), but relative quantification (RQ) within the -0.5 to 2.0 fold are considered as nonbiologically significant. In a MIXED model for repeated measures adjusted for the effects of age, sex and BMI, gene by supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs1143627, rs16944, rs1800797, and rs2069840 on IL6 levels, for rs2229094 on TNF-α levels and for rs1800629 on CRP levels (p < 0.05 for all). (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil did not alter gene expression levels of TNF-α and IL6 in PBMCs and did not have an impact on inflammatory biomarker levels. However, gene-diet interactions were observed between SNPs within inflammation-related genes modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels.

  19. Creatine supplementation reduces doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocellular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Lucia; Darrabie, Marcus D; Mantilla, Jose Gabriel; Mishra, Rajashree; Feger, Bryan J; Jacobs, Danny O

    2015-04-01

    Heart failure is a common complication of doxorubicin (DOX) therapy. Previous studies have shown that DOX adversely impacts cardiac energy metabolism, and the ensuing energy deficiencies antedate clinical manifestations of cardiac toxicity. Brief exposure of cultured cardiomyocytes to DOX significantly decreases creatine transport, which is the cell's sole source of creatine. We present the results of a study performed to determine if physiological creatine supplementation (5 mmol/L) could protect cardiomyocytes in culture from cellular injury resulting from exposure to therapeutic levels of DOX. Creatine supplementation significantly decreased cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production caused by DOX. The protective effect was specific to creatine and depended on its transport into the cell.

  20. Supplementation with fish oil and genistein, individually or in combination, protects bone against the adverse effects of methotrexate chemotherapy in rats.

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    Rethi Raghu Nadhanan

    Full Text Available Cancer chemotherapy has been shown to induce long-term skeletal side effects such as osteoporosis and fractures; however, there are no preventative treatments. This study investigated the damaging effects of anti-metabolite methotrexate (MTX subcutaneous injections (0.75 mg/kg BW for five days and the potential protective benefits of daily oral gavage of fish oil at 0.5 mL/100 g BW (containing 375 mg of n-3 PUFA/100 g BW, genistein (2 mg/100 g BW, or their combination in young adult rats. MTX treatment alone significantly reduced primary spongiosa height and secondary spongiosa trabecular bone volume. Bone marrow stromal cells from the treated rats showed a significant reduction in osteogenic differentiation but an increase in adipogenesis ex vivo. Consistently, stromal cells had significantly higher mRNA levels of adipogenesis-related proliferator activator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ and fatty acid binding protein (FABP4. MTX significantly increased the numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and marrow osteoclast precursor cell pool while significantly enhancing the mRNA expression of receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG ratio, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in the bone. Supplementary treatment with fish oil and/or genistein significantly preserved trabecular bone volume and osteogenesis but suppressed MTX-induced adipogenesis and increases in osteoclast numbers and pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine expression. Thus, Fish oil and/or genistein supplementation during MTX treatment enabled not only preservation of osteogenic differentiation, osteoblast number and bone volume, but also prevention of MTX treatment-induced increases in bone marrow adiposity, osteoclastogenic cytokine expression and osteoclast formation, and thus bone loss.

  1. Supplementation with linoleic acid-rich soybean oil stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via increased oxidative stress and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-mediated triglyceride biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Jeries, Helana; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael

    2017-01-02

    During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice. Lipid peroxidation and triglyceride mass in aortas from SO or LA supplemented mice were dose-dependently and significantly increased. In MPM from SO or LA supplemented mice, lipid peroxides were significantly increased and a marked accumulation of cellular triglycerides was found in accordance with enhanced triglyceride biosynthesis rate and overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. In cultured J774A.1 macrophages treated with SO or LA, triglyceride accumulated via increased oxidative stress and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated overexpression of DGAT1. Accordingly, anti-oxidants (pomegranate polyphenols), inhibition of p38 MAPK (by SB202190) or DGAT1 (by oleanolic acid), all significantly attenuated SO or LA-induced macrophage triglyceride accumulation. These findings reveal novel mechanisms by which supplementation with SO or LA stimulate macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for overconsumption of SO or LA. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):100-116, 2017.

  2. Time Trend Investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Selected n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Rich Dietary Fish Oil and Vegetable Oil Supplements; Nutritional Relevance for Human Essential n-3 Fatty Acid Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, M.N.; Covaci, A; Gheorghe, A; Schepens, P

    2004-01-01

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionallyas dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeuticbenefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, aswell as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However,fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals tha...

  3. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  4. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  5. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  6. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross‑sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

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    Marleen A.H. Lentjes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplement users (SU make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK. Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent, such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions: What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? And what is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements--ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to ten de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice.

  8. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

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    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  9. Neem oil limonoids induces p53-independent apoptosis and autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Pragya; Yadav, Neelu; Lella, Ravi; Schneider, Andrea; Jones, Anthony; Marlowe, Timothy; Lovett, Gabrielle; O’Loughlin, Kieran; Minderman, Hans; Gogada, Raghu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9,...

  10. Tea Tree Oil-Induced Transcriptional Alterations in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Cuaron, Jesus A.; Dulal, Santosh; Song, Yang; Singh, Atul K; Montelongo, Cesar E.; Yu, Wanqin; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K.; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a steam distillate of Melaleuca alternifolia that demonstrates broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. This study was designed to document how TTO challenge influences the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome. Overall, bioinformatic analyses (S. aureus microarray meta-database) revealed that both ethanol and TTO induce related transcriptional alterations. TTO challenge led to the down-regulation of genes involved with energy-intensive transcription and translation, and alt...

  11. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindel, Annemarie; Staps, Frank; Kuhnt, Katrin

    2013-11-14

    Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status.The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective FA in blood fractions indicate the cheek

  12. Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation and Aspirin Use on Arteriovenous Fistula Failure in Patients Requiring Hemodialysis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Ashley B; Viecelli, Andrea K; Hawley, Carmel M; Hooi, Lai-Seong; Pascoe, Elaine M; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Badve, Sunil V; Mori, Trevor A; Cass, Alan; Kerr, Peter G; Voss, David; Ong, Loke-Meng; Polkinghorne, Kevan R

    2017-02-01

    Vascular access dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients requiring hemodialysis. Arteriovenous fistulae are preferred over synthetic grafts and central venous catheters due to superior long-term outcomes and lower health care costs, but increasing their use is limited by early thrombosis and maturation failure. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oils) have pleiotropic effects on vascular biology and inflammation and aspirin impairs platelet aggregation, which may reduce access failure. To determine whether fish oil supplementation (primary objective) or aspirin use (secondary objective) is effective in reducing arteriovenous fistula failure. The Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular Access Outcomes in Renal Disease (FAVOURED) study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial that recruited participants with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease from 2008 to 2014 at 35 dialysis centers in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Participants were observed for 12 months after arteriovenous fistula creation. Participants were randomly allocated to receive fish oil (4 g/d) or matching placebo. A subset (n = 406) was also randomized to receive aspirin (100 mg/d) or matching placebo. Treatment started 1 day prior to surgery and continued for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was fistula failure, a composite of fistula thrombosis and/or abandonment and/or cannulation failure, at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. Of 1415 eligible participants, 567 were randomized (359 [63%] male, 298 [53%] white, 264 [47%] with diabetes; mean [SD] age, 54.8 [14.3] y). The same proportion of fistula failures occurred in the fish oil and placebo arms (128 of 270 [47%] vs 125 of 266 [47%]; relative risk [RR] adjusted for aspirin use, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.23; P = .78). Fish oil did not reduce fistula thrombosis (60 [22%] vs 61 [23%]; RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0

  13. Effect of dietary corn oil supplementation on equine gastric fluid acid, sodium, and prostaglandin E2 content before and during pentagastrin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargile, Jana L; Burrow, James A; Kim, Inyoung; Cohen, Noah D; Merritt, A M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of corn oil (approximately 60% [wt/vol] linoleic acid) dietary supplementation on various components of equine gastric secretion was studied by use of a repeated-measures experimental design. Four healthy adult ponies were surgically fitted with gastric cannulas. The ponies were then fed a free-choice hay diet for 5 weeks, which was followed by 5 weeks of the same diet supplemented with 45 mL of corn oil daily. Gastric contents were analyzed under basal and pentagastrin-stimulated conditions once weekly during the latter 2 weeks on each diet. Gastric contents were collected at 30-minute intervals, and volume, hydrogen ion concentration, sodium content, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content were measured. Data were analyzed by a linear fixed-effect modeling procedure. During the diet supplemented with corn oil, the ponies had, under basal and pentagastrin-stimulated conditions, significantly decreased acid output and significantly increased PGE2 and sodium outputs compared to those measured before corn oil supplementation. We conclude that corn oil supplementation may be an effective and inexpensive way to increase the protective properties of equine glandular gastric mucosa. This could be particularly helpful in reducing the chances of ulceration associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration.

  14. High potency fish oil supplement improves omega-3 fatty acid status in healthy adults: an open-label study using a web-based, virtual platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Ritz, Barry W

    2013-08-08

    The health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are well known, and fish oil supplements are used widely in a preventive manner to compensate the low intake in the general population. The aim of this open-label study was to determine if consumption of a high potency fish oil supplement could improve blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and impact SF-12 mental and physical health scores in healthy adults. A novel virtual clinical research organization was used along with the HS-Omega-3 Index, a measure of EPA and DHA in red blood cell membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids that has been shown to correlate with a reduction in cardiovascular and other risk factors. Briefly, adult subjects (mean age 44 years) were recruited from among U.S. health food store employees and supplemented with 1.1 g/d of omega-3 from fish oil (756 mg EPA, 228 mg DHA, Minami Nutrition MorEPA Platinum) for 120 days (n = 157). Omega-3 status and mental health scores increased with supplementation (p virtual, web-based platform shows considerable potential for engaging in clinical research with normal, healthy subjects. A high potency fish oil supplement may further improve omega-3 status in a healthy population regularly consuming an omega-3 supplement.

  15. Donepezil-induced response of Spirulina supplemented rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurullahoglu-Atalik, K E; Okudan, N; Gokbel, H; Nurullahoglu, Z U

    2013-01-01

    At present, very little is known about the effects of donepezil on vascular reactivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the responses of rat urinary bladder to donepezil (10-10-3x10-4 M) and the role of Spirulina supplementation in these effects. Animals were divided into the two groups of six animals in each group. The first group received only distilled water daily as vehicle for six weeks and served as the control. The second group received Spirulina 750 mg kg -1 orally, daily for six weeks and served as the spirulina group. Preparations of rat urinary bladder were used from both groups. Donepezil produced concentration dependent relaxation of rat urinary bladder preparations pre-contracted with KCl.The pIC50 value, but not the maximal response of donepezil, was significantly lower (pSpirulina supplemented group. These results demonstrated for the first time that spirulina treatment can affect urinary bladder activity (Fig. 1, Ref. 20).

  16. CASE REPORT ON ITCHING AND GIDDINESSS INDUCED BY IRON SUPPLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARDESHNA A NISHITA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dengue is a break bone fever caused by virus leading to low levels of blood counts affecting organs like liver and bone marrow. Treatment is essential as it develops life-threatening dengue shock syndrome. Case: A patient aged 16years, gender female was admitted with the complaint of a headache and loss of appetite & was diagnosed as dengue with thrombocytopenia. Iron deficiency was confirmed by blood reports. Method: Patient was treated with IV antibiotics like ceftriaxone, IV fluids, and other symptomatic treatments. Iron profile showed iron deficiency anemia, due to which iron supplements was started [Inj ferric carboxy maltose]. As she had adverse drug reaction: itching and giddiness after the administration of iron supplements, the drug was stopped. Inj Pheniramine maleate was started because of the reaction. The patient was doing well and discharged with Hb level of 9.9mg/dL, platelet count of 105,000 cells/cumm and other medications was continued.Conclusion: Medications and the related adverse reactions are to be considered important which emphasizes the reporting, analysis and prevention of medication error are to be given topmost importance for patient safety.

  17. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition and CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badee, Ghlailat; Hidaka, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    Quality food for human consumption will always be the aim for animal producers. Quantity and composition of fat deposits (fatty acid profile) strongly influences meat quality in ruminants, especially via increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, which is known to have beneficial anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and cholesterol reduction properties for human health. Awassi lambs are one of the main and most consumed meat sources in the Middle East area; however, studies addressing the fat content of CLA and methods to enhance its concentrations in this breed are still rare. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding two different oil sources (soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at two levels (1.8 and 3%)) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of fat in Awassi lambs. Oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance or carcass characteristics, while fatty acid composition changed according to the site of extraction. CLA concentrations were increased in the tail fat deposit, with 1.8% SBO and in intermuscular fat deposit with 3% SFO. Intermuscular fat is the one most naturally consumed by humans, serving to improve food quality.

  18. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-02-07

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  20. Acute fish oil and soy isoflavone supplementation increase postprandial serum (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and isoflavones but do not affect triacylglycerols or biomarkers of oxidative stress in overweight and obese hypertriglyceridemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanwell, Heather E C; Kay, Colin D; Lampe, Johanna W; Holub, Bruce J; Duncan, Alison M

    2009-06-01

    Chronic consumption of fish and fish oil high in (n-3) PUFA reduces triacylglycerols (TG) but may increase oxidative stress, whereas consumption of soy isoflavones may reduce oxidative stress. Elevated serum TG and oxidative stress are considered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the effects of acute (n-3) PUFA and soy isoflavones on these CVD risk factors are unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of acutely supplementing a high-fat, high-fructose meal with fish oil and isoflavone placebo (FO) and fish oil placebo and soy isoflavones (ISO). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 10 overweight or obese men consumed a high-fat, high-fructose meal with 4 dietary supplement combinations: fish oil placebo and isoflavone placebo (placebo); fish oil and isoflavone placebo (FO); fish oil placebo and isoflavones (ISO); and fish oil and isoflavones (FO + ISO). Serum collected at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially was analyzed for fatty acids, isoflavones, TG, and oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid hydroperoxides, oxidized-LDL, total antioxidant status). FO significantly increased serum (n-3) PUFA and ISO increased serum isoflavones. The study meal significantly increased serum total fatty acids and TG without affecting oxidative stress biomarkers. Serum TG and oxidative stress biomarkers did not differ between treatments. The FO and ISO were bioavailable but did not attenuate the postprandial rise in serum TG. Neither the study meal nor the FO or ISO induced significant changes in oxidative stress biomarkers. The current study adds to a limited literature on the acute effects of FO and ISO interventions on postprandial biomarkers of CVD risk.

  1. A study of effect of Nigella sativa oil in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik S. Ghadlinge

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that NS oil has hepatoprotective effect. NS oil administration can prevent or reverse the hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 539-546

  2. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced neural tube defects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Chen, Xue; Dong, Xu-Ting; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Hua; Wu, Shu-Xian; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-13

    Folic acid is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Increasing evidence demonstrates that physiological supply of folic acid during pregnancy prevents folic acid deficiency-related neural tube defects (NTDs). Previous studies showed that maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure caused NTDs in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-dose folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced NTDs. Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (20 μg/kg/d) from gestational day (GD) 8 to GD12. As expected, a five-day LPS injection resulted in 19.96% of fetuses with NTDs. Interestingly, supplementation with folic acid (3mg/kg/d) during pregnancy significantly alleviated LPS-induced NTDs. Additionally, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and skeletal malformations. Additional experiment showed that folic acid attenuated LPS-induced glutathione (GSH) depletion in maternal liver and placentas. Moreover, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental MyD88. Additionally, folic acid inhibited LPS-induced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in placentas. Correspondingly, folic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in placentas, maternal serum and amniotic fluid. In conclusion, supplementation with high-dose folic acid during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced NTDs through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  3. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Jover, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Richard, Sylvain; Virsolvy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD), have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. Objective We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. Design and results The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L.) Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Conclusions Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome–induced cardiovascular trouble. PMID:27834185

  4. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Jover, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Richard, Sylvain; Virsolvy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD), have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L.) Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome-induced cardiovascular trouble.

  5. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD, have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. Objective: We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. Design and results: The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L. Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Conclusions: Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome–induced cardiovascular trouble.

  6. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  7. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  8. Skeletal and hepatic changes induced by chronic vitamin A supplementation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J; Tryfonidou, M A; Grinwis, G C M; Schotanus, B; Molenaar, M R; Voorhout, G; Vaandrager, A B; Heuven, H C M; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation influenced the effects of high vitamin A intake on new bone formation in adult cats. The second aim was to determine whether high vitamin A intake in cats caused liver pathology and, if so, whether the current upper limit for the dietary intake of vitamin A for healthy adult cats would be safe. Twenty-four healthy adult cats were divided into four groups that received a control diet supplemented with peanut oil (control), or peanut oil containing a 100-fold increase in vitamin A (HA), or a 100-fold increase in vitamin A and a fivefold increase in vitamin D (HAMD), or a 100-fold increase in vitamin A and a 65-fold increase in vitamin D (HAHD) over a period of 18 months. Cats did not show abnormal locomotion or clinical signs of liver failure after 18 months of supplementation but did show subtle skeletal changes and liver pathology, suggesting that the current National Research Council (2006) safe upper limit for vitamin A for cats is too high. The addition of vitamin D did not seem to influence bone pathology. While moderately elevated dietary vitamin D levels (HAMD) seemed to protect cats against the liver pathology caused by the consumption of large amounts of vitamin A, higher dietary levels of vitamin D (HAHD) did not seem to be protective.

  9. Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: Influence on LDL oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Vissers, M.N.; Schuurbiers, J.A.E.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Wiseman, S.A.; Put, van de F.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Phenols present in olive oil may contribute to the health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Olive oil antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation in vitro, but human intervention studies have failed to demonstrate similar consistent effects. To

  10. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  11. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Markers of the Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, C.; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fish oil affects cardiovascular risk factors during the adolescent growth spurt. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 78 boys age 13-15 years with a mean body fat percentage of 30% +/- 9% were randomly assigned to consume fish oil (providing 1.5 g of n-3 long-chain polyunsat...

  12. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (Poil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research.

  13. Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: Influence on LDL oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Vissers, M.N.; Schuurbiers, J.A.E.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Wiseman, S.A.; Put, van de F.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Phenols present in olive oil may contribute to the health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Olive oil antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation in vitro, but human intervention studies have failed to demonstrate similar consistent effects. To bett

  14. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  15. Sesame Oil and Rice Bran Oil Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats: Distinguishing the Role of Minor Components and Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Nayana Venugopal; Sadashivaiah; Ramaiyan, Breetha; Acharya, Pooja; Belur, Lokesh; Talahalli, Ramaprasad Ravichandra

    2016-12-01

    Though present in small amounts, the minor constituents of dietary oils may supplement the dietary therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, in the present study, we assessed the effect of minor constituents from sesame oil (SO) and rice bran oil (RBO) and their fatty acids on the severity of adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats. Rats were gavaged with 1 mL of SO or RBO or groundnut oil (GNO, control) with or without its minor components for a period 15 days before and 15 days after the induction of arthritis. Oxidative stress, markers of RA, eicosanoids, cytokines, paw swelling and joint integrity were measured in experimental and control rats. Results demonstrated that native SO and RBO but not SO and RBO stripped of their minor components decreased severity of paw inflammation, oxidative stress (lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide), RA markers (RF and CRP), inflammatory eicosanoids (PGE2, LTB4 and LTC4) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α) compared to control rats. Native SO and RBO inhibited hydrolytic enzymes (collagenase, elastase and hyaluronidase) in the synovial tissue compared to SO and RBO without minor components. The arthritic scores assessed based on the digital and X-ray images indicated that native oils but not those without their minor components reduced the paw swelling and bone loss. Our results indicated that minor components of SO and RBO possess a significant degree of an anti-arthritic effect and are responsible for down regulating inflammation in the experimentally induced arthritis in rats.

  16. Protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamou, Fouzia; Nemmiche, Saïd; Meziane, Radjaa Kaouthar; Didi, Amal; Yazit, Sidi Mohamed; Chabane-Sari, Daoudi

    2015-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants. It is accumulated particularly in liver and kidney. The present study examined the possible protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil consumption against Cd-induced damage on plasma lipids and stress biochemical parameters of rats. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each and treated orally with Cd (50 mg/l), olive oil and colocynth oil (4%) alone or in combination with cadmium for 8 weeks. It was shown that Cd exposure induced significant increases in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lipid peroxidation levels (MDA) and protein carbonyl contents in exposed groups of rats compared to control group while the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and vitamins (C, A and E) were significantly decreased. Co-treatment with olive oil or colocynth oil significantly improved the oxidative damage induced by Cd. The antioxidant potential in plasma and liver were markedly restored with a significant decline in MDA levels and activity of transaminases. In conclusion, these results suggest that olive oil or colocynth oil consumption could protect the rat liver against Cd-induced injury by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing oxidative stress.

  17. Oats supplementation prevents alcohol-induced gut leakiness in rats by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yueming; Forsyth, Christopher B; Banan, Ali; Fields, Jeremy Z; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2009-06-01

    We reported previously that oats supplementation prevents gut leakiness and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) in our rat model of alcoholic liver disease. Because oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of both alcohol-induced gut leakiness and ASH, and because oats have antioxidant properties, we tested the hypothesis that oats protect by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative damage to the intestine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged for 12 weeks with alcohol (starting dose of 1 g/kg increasing to 6 g/kg/day over the first 2 weeks) or dextrose, with or without oats supplementation (10 g/kg/day). Oxidative stress and injury were assessed by measuring colonic mucosal inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) (by immunohistochemistry), nitric oxide (colorimetric assay), and protein carbonylation and nitrotyrosination (immunoblotting). Colonic barrier integrity was determined by assessing the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton (immunohistochemistry) and the integrity of tight junctions (electron microscopy). Oats supplementation prevented alcohol-induced up-regulation of iNOS, nitric oxide overproduction in the colonic mucosa, and increases in protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine levels. This protection was associated with prevention of ethanol (EtOH)-induced disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and disruption of tight junctions. We conclude that oats supplementation attenuates EtOH-induced disruption of intestinal barrier integrity, at least in part, by inhibiting EtOH-induced increases in oxidative stress and oxidative tissue damage. This inhibition prevents alcohol-induced disruption of the cytoskeleton and tight junctions. This study suggests that oats may be a useful therapeutic agent--a nutraceutical--for the prevention of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and organ dysfunction.

  18. Dietary Fisetin Supplementation Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2016-10-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species is associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Plant polyphenols have been used as dietary interventions for multiple diseases including ALD. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with fisetin, a novel flavonoid, exerts beneficial effect on alcohol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol (EtOH) diet for 4 weeks with or without fisetin supplementation at 10 mg/kg/d. Alcohol feeding induced lipid accumulation in the liver and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, which were attenuated by fisetin supplementation. The EtOH concentrations in the plasma and liver were significantly elevated by alcohol exposure but were reduced by fisetin supplementation. Although fisetin did not affect the protein expression of alcohol metabolism enzymes, the aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased by fisetin compared to the alcohol alone group. In addition, fisetin supplementation remarkably reduced hepatic NADPH oxidase 4 levels along with decreased plasma hydrogen peroxide and hepatic superoxide and 4-hydroxynonenal levels after alcohol exposure. Alcohol-induced apoptosis and up-regulation of Fas and cleaved caspase-3 in the liver were prevented by fisetin. Moreover, fisetin supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis through increasing plasma adiponectin levels and hepatic protein levels of p-AMPK, ACOX1, CYP4A, and MTTP. This study demonstrated that the protective effect of fisetin on ALD is achieved by accelerating EtOH clearance and inhibition of oxidative stress. The data suggest that fisetin has a therapeutical potential for treating ALD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689

  20. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivi, M Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M S; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-10-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease.

  1. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah Bivi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3% was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA] (5.0% followed by T1 (5.5%, T5 (5.8%, T3 (8.3%, T6 (8.3%, T4 (13.3%, and T2 (15.8% treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease.

  2. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  3. Dietary copper supplementation reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy induced by chronic pressure overload in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustained pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. We show here that dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper (Cu) reverses pre-established hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the presence of pressure overload induced by ascending aor...

  4. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2016-01-01

    between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also......Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed...

  5. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation during Lactation May Adversely Affect Long-Term Blood Pressure, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity of 7-Year-Old Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    . Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7......Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children...

  6. Neem oil limonoids induces p53-independent apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Yadav, Neelu; Lella, Ravi; Schneider, Andrea; Jones, Anthony; Marlowe, Timothy; Lovett, Gabrielle; O'Loughlin, Kieran; Minderman, Hans; Gogada, Raghu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2012-11-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9, whereas caspase-8 was also activated late during neem-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cancer cells with pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD inhibited activities of both initiator caspases (e.g., caspase-8 and -9) and executioner caspase-3. Neem induced the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of both caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis. p21 deficiency caused an increase in caspase activities at lower doses of neem, whereas p53 deficiency did not modulate neem-induced caspase activation. Additionally, neem treatment resulted in the accumulation of LC3-II in cancer cells, suggesting the involvement of autophagy in neem-induced cancer cell death. Low doses of autophagy inhibitors (i.e., 3-methyladenine and LY294002) did not prevent accumulation of neem-induced LC3-II in cancer cells. Silencing of ATG5 or Beclin-1 further enhanced neem-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or autophagy inhibitors increased neem-induced caspase-3 activation and inhibition of caspases enhanced neem-induced autophagy. Together, for the first time, we demonstrate that neem induces caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis, and autophagy in cancer cells.

  7. Effect of feeding thoroughbred horses a high unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet for 6 months following a 10 month fat acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P A; Pagan, J D; Crandell, K G; Davidson, N

    1999-07-01

    This study looked at the effect of feeding diets supplemented with either a predominantly saturated or unsaturated vegetable oil over a prolonged period to exercising horses. Eight Thoroughbred horses were assigned to 2 diet treatments and for 10 months were fed Timothy hay and oats, together with a fortified sweet feed supplemented with either a predominantly unsaturated (Un) or a saturated (S) vegetable oil so that approximately 19% DE (Digestible Energy) came from dietary fat and approximately 12% from either the Un or S source (AC). An increased amount of Un or S fortified sweet feed, replacing the oats, was then fed for a further 6 months (HF) so that approximately 27% DE came from fat and approximately 20% from the Un or S vegetable oil. Standardised incremental treadmill exercise (8-12 m/s) tests (STEP) and duplicate oral glucose tolerance tests (TOL) were carried out after 3, 6 and 9 months of the AC diet and after 3 and 6 months on the HF diet. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment or when the tests were undertaken (time) on the insulin or lactate responses to the STEP tests. Overall there was a significant (P supplemented with either an unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil for 6 months at approximately 20% DE after 10 months at approximately 12% DE were identified and there were no apparent disadvantages of feeding a saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet compared with an unsaturated one.

  8. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam S. Vafa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control, 2% fish oil (FO, 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO, or 2% canola oil (CO according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001 and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05, but dry matter intake (DMI was lower (p0.05. The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids of short chain fatty acids (SCFA decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA increased (p0.05. The proportion of trans(t-18:1 increased (p<0.01 in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c-11 18:1 (p<0.01. The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 increased (p<0.05 in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of milk.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Tsuji, Tomoko

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans by a double- blind, randomized, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled trial. In the Active group, eleven subjects ingested a supplement containing omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (docosahexaenoic acid 783 mg/day, eicosapentaenoic acid 162 mg/day), bilberry extract (anthocyanidin 59 mg/day), and lutein (17.5 mg/day) in soft gel capsule form, every day for 4 weeks. In the Placebo group, nine subjects ingested placebo capsules. Before and after supplementation, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their asthenopia symptoms and were also assessed for mental fatigue symptom by the visual analog scale (VAS) test. Asthenopia symptoms such as "stiff shoulder, low back pain", "frustration", "dry-eye", and "stuffy head" were improved in the Active group. Furthermore, a score of mental fatigue was improved after 4 weeks of supplementation, and no side effects were observed after the 4-week supplementation and a 2-week washout period in the Active group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with the combination of omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein may safely improve subjective symptoms of asthenopia and mental fatigue in humans.

  10. Melatonin Supplementation Decreases Aerobic Exercise Training Induced-Lipid Peroxidation and Malondialdehyde in Sedentary Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaadini Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Five percent of consumed oxygen produces a number of reactive oxygen species (ROS including free radicals and other chemical products such as malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA increases lipid peroxidation such as low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-c. Melatonin can decrease MDA and lipid peroxidation, but there are limited data about melatonin supplementation on MDA and lipid peroxidation of women. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin supplementation on exercise-induced MDA and lipid peroxidation of sedentary young women. Twenty sedentary young (20–25 years old women were selected and randomly divided into two exercise training-supplement (n=10 and exercise training (n=10 groups. Pretest/posttest body mass, BMI, rest heart rate (RHR, body fat percent, menstrual cycle, blood sampling for MDA and lipid profile were collected. Aerobic exercise training was performed for 8 weeks, triple weekly. Melatonin supplementation was ingested at 3 mg/day for exercise training-supplement. Results showed that the long term exercise training increased MDA concentrations, and melatonin supplementation significantly suppressed MDA surge (−25.2±2.87; 95% CI=−30.91 to −19.49. Moreover, post-exercise training LDL-c levels significantly declined due to melatonin supplementation in sedentary young women (19.5±2.41; 95% CI=12.272 to 25.728. We concluded that 3 mg melatonin supplementation following aerobic exercise training would attenuate ROS and improve lipid profile of young sedentary women.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH FISH OIL ON RENAL-FUNCTION AND THE COURSE OF EARLY POSTOPERATIVE REJECTION EPISODES IN CYCLOSPORINE-TREATED RENAL-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHEIDE, JJH; BILO, HJG; DONKER, AJM; WILMINK, JM; SLUITER, WJ; TEGZESS, AM

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized prospective coconut oil (daily 6g [63% C8:0 and 36% C10:0] [EPA-] [n=48])-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a one-month dietary supplementation with daily 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 and 20% C22:6 omega-3 as their methyl esthers [EPA+] [n=40]) on the incidence and c

  12. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction of extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates lung injury and DNA damage of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Chaâbane, Mariem; Boudawara, Ons; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-10-01

    Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR) are well known as environmental pollutants inducing oxidative stress. Our study investigated the effects of these contaminants and if the hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil was able to prevent lung oxidative stress and DNA damage. Animals were divided into four groups of six each: group 1, serving as controls, received distilled water; group 2 received in drinking water aluminum chloride (50 mg/ kg body weight) and by gavage acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight); group 3 received both aluminum and acrylamide in the same way and the same dose as group 2 and hydrophilic fraction from olive oil (OOHF) (1 ml) by gavage; group 4 received only OOHF by gavage. Exposure of rats to both aluminum and acrylamide provoked oxidative stress in lung tissue based on biochemical parameters and histopathological alterations. In fact, we have observed an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPSH), and vitamin C levels. Activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also decreased. Histopathological changes in lung tissue were noted like emphysema, vascular congestion, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel in the lung of AlCl3 and acrylamide (ACR)-treated rats. Co-administration of OOHF to treated rats improved biochemical parameters to near control values and lung histoarchitecture. The smear formation of genomic DNA was reduced. The hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil might provide a basis for developing a new dietary supplementation strategy in order to prevent lung tissue damage.

  13. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M; Armentano, L E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association

  14. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  15. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribb Paul J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen untrained male participants (22.1 ± 2.3 yrs, 173 ± 7.7 cm, 76.2 ± 9.3 kg were randomly separated into 2 supplement groups: i Cr and carbohydrate (Cr-CHO; n = 7; or ii carbohydrate (CHO; n = 7. Participants consumed their supplement for a period of 5 days prior to, and 14 days following a resistance exercise session. Participants performed 4 sets of 10 eccentric-only repetitions at 120% of their maximum concentric 1-RM on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were assessed as relevant blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results The Cr-supplemented group had significantly greater isokinetic (10% higher and isometric (21% higher knee extension strength during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, plasma CK activity was significantly lower (by an average of 84% after 48 hrs (P Conclusion The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.

  16. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A

    1990-01-01

    The placenta and the umbilical cord obtained from 18 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were investigated by light microscopy. The umbilical artery was studied by electron microscopy. 10 placentae and umbilical cords from normal pregnancies served as controls. The study was performed...... weight and placental weight significantly. Light microscopic study of the placentae and the umbilical cord arteries showed no difference between the three groups concerning the occurrence of infarctions, cytotrophoblastic hyperplasia, vasculo-syncytial membranes, basement membrane thickening, stromal...... fibrosis or intervillous fibrin. Ultrastructurally, the endothelial cells of the umbilical arteries from women with pregnancy-induced hypertension showed a significant increase in the amount of dilated endoplasmic reticulum and basal laminae thickness when all 18 cases were compared with the controls...

  17. Effect of Long-Term Fish Oil Supplementation on Semen Quality and Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Male Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risso Analía

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Manipulating the dietary fatty acid (FA content can alter FA profiles of reproductive tissues. Numerous researchers have evaluated the effect of fish oil (FO supplementation on reproductive characteristics in domestic animals, but reliable information concerning dietary FO effects on semen quality and testosterone concentrations in dogs has not been reported. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of dietary FO on semen quality and serum testosterone concentrations in dogs. Materials and Methods In this cross-over experimental study, 5 male dogs consumed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 54 mg FO/kg metabolic body weight (BW for 120 days. After the 120-day wash-out period, control (C dogs received FO and FO-fed dogs consumed the control diet. In the first period, 2 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 3 to the C group. In the second period, 3 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 2 to the C group. Semen samples collected on days 0, 60, 90 and 120 were evaluated by standard methods. Day 120 semen samples were analyzed for FA profiles. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 to measure serum testosterone concentrations. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS (version 9.0, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Animals and period of time (first or second 120 days were random variables; and treatment, time, and the treatment by time interaction were considered fixed effects. Results FO supplementation increased the percentage of motile sperm (P=0.02, total sperm count (P<0.01, total sperm viability (P<0.01, and total morphologically normal sperm (P<0.01. Supplementation decreased the percentage of viable sperm (P=0.03 and serum testosterone concentration (P<0.01. FO supplementation also increased the percentage of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA and total n-3 in semen samples (P≤0.05. Conclusion These results

  18. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  19. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  20. Randomised clinical trials of fish oil supplementation in high risk pregnancies. Fish Oil Trials In Pregnancy (FOTIP) Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S F; Secher, N J; Tabor, A;

    2000-01-01

    To test the postulated preventive effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on pre-term delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, and pregnancy induced hypertension.......To test the postulated preventive effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on pre-term delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, and pregnancy induced hypertension....

  1. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  2. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevents prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Y L; Sheen, J M; Chen, C C; Yu, H R; Tiao, M M; Kuo, H C; Huang, L T

    2014-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to premature infants to accelerate pulmonary maturation. In experimental model, prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) results in reduced nephron number and adulthood hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause oxidative stress and is involved in the development of hypertension. L-citrulline can be converted to l-arginine (the substrate for NOS) in the body. Thus we intended to determine if maternal L-citrulline therapy can prevent prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension by restoration ADMA/nitric oxide (NO) balance, alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sodium transporters, and epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, pregnancy rats received intraperitoneal DEX (0.2 mg/kg body weight) daily on gestational days 15 and 16 (DEX), pregnancy rats received 0.25% L-citrulline in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period (CIT), and DEX + CIT. We found DEX group developed hypertension at 16 weeks of age, which was prevented by maternal L-citrulline therapy. Prenatal DEX exposure increased plasma ADMA concentrations and reduced renal NO production. However, L-citrulline reduced plasma ADMA level and increased renal level of NO in DEX + CIT group. Next, prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension is related to increased mRNA expression of angiotensin and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and class I HDACs in the kidney. Prenatal DEX exposure increased renal protein abundance of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which was prevented by L-citrulline therapy. The beneficial effects of L-citrulline therapy include restoration of ADMA/NO balance and alteration of NCC, to prevent the prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension.

  3. Gene expression and biological pathways in tissue of men with prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of lycopene and fish oil supplementation.

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    Mark Jesus M Magbanua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that micronutrients may modify the risk or delay progression of prostate cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We examined the effects of lycopene and fish oil on prostate gene expression in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Eighty-four men with low risk prostate cancer were stratified based on self-reported dietary consumption of fish and tomatoes and then randomly assigned to a 3-month intervention of lycopene (n = 29 or fish oil (n = 27 supplementation or placebo (n = 28. Gene expression in morphologically normal prostate tissue was studied at baseline and at 3 months via cDNA microarray analysis. Differential gene expression and pathway analyses were performed to identify genes and pathways modulated by these micronutrients. RESULTS: Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant individual genes that were associated with high intake of fish or tomato at baseline or after 3 months of supplementation with lycopene or fish oil. However, exploratory pathway analyses of rank-ordered genes (based on p-values not corrected for multiple comparisons revealed the modulation of androgen and estrogen metabolism in men who routinely consumed more fish (p = 0.029 and tomato (p = 0.008 compared to men who ate less. In addition, modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism (p = 0.01 was observed after 3 months of fish oil supplementation compared with the placebo group; and modulation of nuclear factor (erythroid derived-2 factor 2 or Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response for either supplement versus placebo (fish oil: p = 0.01, lycopene: p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We did not detect significant individual genes associated with dietary intake and supplementation of lycopene and fish oil. However, exploratory analyses revealed candidate in vivo pathways that may be modulated by these micronutrients. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  4. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was designed to examine the cardiovascular effects of ozone and the efficacy of FO and OO-rich diets in attenuating these effects of ozone exposure in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet (ND), or a diet enriched with 6% FO or OO starting at 4 weeks of age. Eight weeks following the start of the diet, animals were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 0.8 ppm ozone, 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Immediately after exposure, cardiac responses were assessed ex vivo using a Langendorff heart preparation with a protocol consisting of 20 min of global ischemia followed by 2 hr reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured as the index of left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin) before ischemia. Upon reperfusion after ischemia, the recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and infarct size were examined. Results: The pre-ischemic LVDP, dP/dtmax, and dP/dtmin were lower after ozone exposure when compared to the FA control in the rats fed ND but not FO and OO. OO diet shortened the time to ischemic contracture of the hearts after FA exposure compared to ND. Ozone exposure increased pre-ischemic heart rate and the time to ischemic contractur

  5. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

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    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  6. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A.; Bombach, R.; Hubschmid, W.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    We report on measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air at atmospheric pressure in an industrial premixed gas turbine burner. The concentration of the vaporized fuel oil was measured with laser induced fluorescence. We reason that the fuel oil concentration can be considered with good accuracy as proportional to the fluorescence intensity. (author) 6 fig., 3 refs.

  7. Comparative antilipidemic effect of N-acetylcysteine and sesame oil administration in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice

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    Karatzas Theodoros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of novel antilipidemic therapies under consideration. The putative hypolipidemic effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC and sesame oil was studied in a mouse model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Methods Male C57bl/6 mice were assigned to the following groups: (NC control group, (HC group receiving test diet supplemented with 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 8 weeks, (HCN group receiving the test diet with NAC supplementation (230 mg/kg p.o. and (HCS group fed the test diet enriched with 10% sesame oil. Total serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Total peroxides and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured in the serum at the end of the experiment. Hepatic and aortic lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Results Higher serum levels of total and LDL-cholesterol were recorded in all groups fed the high cholesterol diet. The HCN group presented reduced lipid levels compared to HC and HCS groups. No differences were observed between HCS and HC groups. Peroxide content in serum was markedly increased in mice consuming high cholesterol diet. NAC and sesame oil administration led to a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation in the levels of control group, whereas only NAC restored NO bioavailability. In terms of liver histology, the lesions observed in HCN group were less severe than those seen in the other high cholesterol groups. Conclusion Co-administration of NAC, but not sesame oil, restored the disturbed lipid profile and improved hepatic steatosis in the studied diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice. Both agents appear to ameliorate serum antioxidant defense.

  8. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    expression and fatty acid synthesis. Research in normal cells has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA ...particularly omega -3 fatty acids , inhibits SREBP-1 activation, resulting in a decreased transcription of FAS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer...Lipid Medtabolism, Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO2/kg) was observed in T4, which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO2/kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and improved

  10. Protective potential ofα-tocopherol supplementation against ethanol-induced dysmorphogenesis in postimplantation murine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SiaAleli JillianL; RamosGliceriaB; deVeraMiriamP

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the protective potential ofα-tocopherol on ethanol-induced dysmorphogenesis in 10.5 embryonic day (ED) mouse embryos.Methods: Forty female mice were randomly assigned into control (CON), positive control (ETOH), low-, medium and high-α-tocopherol-supplemented-Ethanol groups (LTOC, MTOC, HTOC respectively). CON received drinking water without ethanol, ETOH LTOC, MTOC and HTOC groups received 20% ethanol in drinking water. The supplemented groups were given respective dosages ofα-tocopherol, 0.410, 0.819 and 1.640 mg/g body weight, at 14 days before mating until the 9th day of gestation. The 10.5 ED embryos were assessed for embryo weight, head- and crown-rump length, and morphological scoring of brain and sensory vesicles, flexion and somites. The embryo yield was assessed by counting the number of full-term developed embryos from the bulging implantation sites while resorption was assessed by counting the bulging implantation sites but without formed embryos.Results:The weight and head- and crown-rump length of the embryos from theα-tocopherol supplemented groups were comparable to the control. These were significantly higher than that of positive control (P<0.05). Overall morphological scores of the hindbrain and sensory vesicles were significantly higher in the supplemented and control groups than that of the positive control (P<0.05). The number of full-term developed embryos was neither affected by ethanol alone nor with supplementation withα-tocopherol. Resorption was significantly lower in the supplemented groups than that of positive control (P<0.05).Conclusion:The medium and high dosages ofα-tocopherol exhibited a protective effect on ethanol-induced dysmorphogenesis.

  11. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  12. Protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against genotoxicity induced by azathioprine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Elfiky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin is a leafy green vegetable; it belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Pumpkin seed oil supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of azathioprine. Oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment of azathioprine was effective in the reduction of the frequencies of Mn-PCEs, decreased the DNA fragmentation, total sperm abnormalities and significantly increased sperm count, percentage of PCEs, and enhanced the ratio of PCEs to NCEs. However, random amplified polymorphism of DNA (RAPD showed distinct differences in animal groups intoxicated with azathioprine before and after pumpkin seed oil treatment, which reflected a DNA protective effect of pumpkin seed oil. Depletion of glutathione content in the testis was also observed in azathioprine treated mice, which was improved by an oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment with azathioprine.

  13. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  14. American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Chen Hsu; Min-Chen Ho; Li-Chin Lin; Borcherng Su; Mei-Chich Hsu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether American ginseng (AG, Panax quinquefolium) supplementation was able to improve endurance exercise performance.METHODS: Thirteen physically active male college students were divided into two groups (AG or placebo)and received supplementation for 4 wk, before the exhaustive running exercise. Treadmill speed was increased to a pace equivalent to 80% VO2max of the subject. A 4-wk washout period followed before the subjects crossed over and received the alternate supplement for the next 4 wk.They then completed a second exhaustive running exercise. The physiological variables that were examined included time to exhaustion and oxygen pulse. Moreover,the plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate were measured prior to the exercise, at 15 and 30 min during exercise,immediately after exercise, and 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after exercise.RESULTS: The major finding of this investigation was that the production plasma CK during the exercise significantly decreased for group AG than for group P. Secondary physiological finding was that 80% VO2max running was not improved over a 4-wk AG supplementation regimen.CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AG for 4 wk prior to an exhaustive aerobic treadmill running reduced the leakage of CK during exercise, but did not enhance aerobic work capacity. The reduction of plasma CK may be due to the fact that AG is effective for the decrease of skeletal muscle cell membrane damage, induced by exercise during the high-intensity treadmill run.

  15. Effect of Cu supplementation on genomic instability in chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowska Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation (copper or copper and resveratrol on the intensity of carcinogenesis and the frequency of microsatellite instability in a widely used model of mammary carcinogenesis induced in the rat by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA. Methods DNA was extracted from rat mammary cancers and normal tisues, amplified by PCR, using different polymorphic DNA markers and the reaction products were analyzed for microsatellite instability. Results It was found that irrespectively of the applied diet there was no inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in the rats due to DMBA. Besides, in the groups supplemented with Cu (II or Cu (II and resveratrol the tumor formation was clearly accelerated. Unlike the animals that were fed with standard diet, the supplemented rats were characterized by the loss of heterozygosity of microsatellite D3Mgh9 in cancer tumors (by respectively 50 and 40%. When the animals received Cu (II and resveratrol supplemented diet the occurrence of genomic instability was additionally found in their livers in the case of microsatellite D1Mgh6 (which was stable in the animals without dietary supplementation. Conclusions Identification of the underlying mechanisms by which dietary factors affect genomic stability might prove useful in the treatment of mammary cancer as well as in the incorporation of dietary factors into mammary cancer prevention strategies.

  16. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-02-01

    Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P iodine supplementation and high serum TSH in the neonates was further substantiated by an inverse correlation between thyroglobulin and TSH in cord blood (P iodine intake in both mothers and neonates. The results suggest that the fetal thyroid, at least in areas of mild iodine deficiency, is more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of iodine than hitherto anticipated.

  17. Dietary rapeseed/canola-oil supplementation reduces serum lipids and liver enzymes and alters postprandial inflammatory responses in adipose tissue compared to olive-oil supplementation in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Michael; von Loeffelholz, Christian; Hoffmann, Daniela; Pohlmann, Antje; Seltmann, Anne-Cathrin; Osterhoff, Martin; Hornemann, Silke; Pivovarova, Olga; Rohn, Sascha; Jahreis, Gerhard; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is associated with hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and low-grade inflammation. Studies have shown that MUFA as well as PUFA have beneficial effects on blood lipids and the inflammatory state. This study investigates the effects of a daily supplementation of either 50 g of rapeseed/canola (RA) or olive (OL) oil over 4 wk on serum lipids, serum liver enzymes, and inflammatory gene expression in subcutaneous (s. c.) adipose tissue in obese men. Consuming RA resulted in increased serum n-3 fatty acids and a reduction in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and serum aspartate aminotransferase compared to OL. In s. c. adipose tissue, gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL6 was reduced in RA compared to OL. However, after 4 h after a test meal, containing the appropriate oil, white bread, and 400 mL of liquid diet drink (835 kcal in total), gene expression of IL6, IL1B, and EMR1 (egf-like module containing Mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1) was increased in RA and of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2) in both RA and OL. This demonstrates that consuming RA for 4 wk improves serum lipids, liver enzymes, and basal inflammation in s. c. adipose tissue, but it mediates an acute pro-inflammatory response in adipose tissue upon consuming a meal. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fish oil supplementation is beneficial on caloric intake, appetite and mid upper arm muscle circumference in children with leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Zaid, Zalina; Shahar, Suzana; Jamal, A Rahman A; Mohd Yusof, Noor Aini

    2012-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the effect of supplementation of fish oil among 51 children with leukaemia aged 4 to 12 years on appetite level, caloric intake, body weight and lean body mass. They were randomly allocated into the trial group (TG) and the control group (CG). At baseline, 30.8% of TG subjects and 44.0% of CG subjects were malnourished and 7.7% of subject from TG and 28.0% from CG were classified as stunted. The majority of subjects from TG and CG were in the mild malnutrition category for mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC)-for-age. The TG group showed significant increment in MUAMC (0.13 cm vs -0.09 cm) compared with CG at 8 weeks (pappetite level (0.12±0.33) (pappetite level, caloric intake and MUAMC among children with leukaemia.

  19. Deep sequencing shows microRNA involvement in bovine mammary gland adaptation to diets supplemented with linseed oil or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Ammah, Adolf A; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M

    2015-10-30

    Bovine milk fat composition is responsive to dietary manipulation providing an avenue to modify the content of fatty acids and especially some specific unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) isomers of benefit to human health. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression but their specific roles in bovine mammary gland lipogenesis are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the expression pattern of miRNAs following mammary gland adaptation to dietary supplementation with 5 % linseed or safflower oil using next generation RNA-sequencing. Twenty-four Canadian Holstein dairy cows (twelve per treatment) in mid lactation were fed a control diet (total mixed ration of corn:grass silages) for 28 days followed by a treatment period (control diet supplemented with 5 % linseed or safflower oil) of 28 days. Milk samples were collected weekly for fat and individual fatty acid determination. RNA from mammary gland biopsies harvested on day-14 (control period) and on days +7 and +28 (treatment period) from six randomly selected cows per treatment was subjected to small RNA sequencing. Milk fat percentage decreased significantly (P linseed and safflower oil treatments, respectively. Seven miRNAs including six up-regulated (bta-miR-199c, miR-199a-3p, miR-98, miR-378, miR-148b and miR-21-5p) and one down-regulated (bta-miR-200a) were found to be regulated (P < 0.05) by both treatments, and thus considered core differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs. The gene targets of core DE miRNAs have functions related to gene expression and general cellular metabolism (P < 0.05) and are enriched in four pathways of lipid metabolism (3-phosphoinositide biosynthesis, 3-phosphoinositide degradation, D-myo-inisitol-5-phosphate metabolism and the superpathway of inositol phosphate compounds). Our results suggest that DE miRNAs in this study might be important regulators of bovine mammary lipogenesis and metabolism. The novel miRNAs identified in this study will further enrich the bovine mi

  20. Dietary linseed oil supplemented with organic selenium improved the fatty acid nutritional profile, muscular selenium deposition, water retention, and tenderness of fresh pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Tang, Xinyue; Xue, Yan; Lin, Gang; Xiong, Youling L

    2017-09-01

    Cross-bred pigs were fed a control diet (with 0.3ppm sodium selenite and 1.5% soybean oil) or organic selenium diets (0.3ppm Se-Yeast with 1.5% soybean or linseed oil) to investigate nutrient supplement effects on meat quality and oxidative stability. The organic selenium diets increased muscular selenium content up to 54%, and linseed oil increased n-3 fatty acids two-fold while lowering the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio from 13.9 to 5.9 over the selenite control diet (POrganic selenium yeast treatments with linseed oil reduced pork drip loss by 58-74% when compared with diets with soybean oil. Lightness of fresh pork was slightly less for organic selenium groups than inorganic (P0.05) between diets, in agreement with the lack of notable difference in endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity between these meat groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  2. Restoration of depressed prostanoid-induced ileal contraction in spontaneously hypertensive rats by dietary fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Glen S; Adams, Michael J; Dallimore, Julie A; Rogers, Paul F; Topping, David L; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y

    2005-01-01

    We have reported that dietary fish oil (FO) rich in n-3 PUFA modulates gut contractility. It was further demonstrated that the gut of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has a depressed contractility response to prostaglandins (PG) compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We investigated whether feeding diets supplemented with n-3 PUFA increased gut contractility and restored the depressed prostanoid response in SHR gut. Thirteen-week-old SHR were fed diets containing fat at 5 g/100 g as coconut oil (CO), lard, canola oil containing 10% (w/w) n-3 FA as alpha-linolenic acid (1 8:3n-3), or FO (as HiDHA, 22:6n-3) for 12 wk. A control WKY group was fed 5 g/100 g CO in the diet. As confirmed, the SHR CO group had a significantly lower gut response to PGE2 and PGF2alpha compared with the WKY CO group. Feeding FO increased the maximal contraction response to acetylcholine in the ileum compared with all diets and in the colon compared with lard, and restored the depressed response to PGE2 and PGF2alpha in the ileum but not the colon of SHR. FO feeding also led to a significant increase in gut total phospholipid n-3 PUFA as DHA (22:6n-3) with lower n-6 PUFA as arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Canola feeding led to a small increase in ileal EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA and in colonic DHA without affecting contractility. However, there was no change in ileal membrane muscarinic binding properties due to FO feeding. This report confirms that dietary FO increases muscarinic- and eicosanoid receptor-induced contractility in ileum and that the depressed prostanoid response in SHR ileum, but not colon, is restored by tissue incorporation of DHA as the active nutrient.

  3. Effect of soluble fiber or fructooligosaccharide supplementation upon trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad-Regadas Sthela Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of soluble fiber or fructooligosaccharide (FOS supplementation upon trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: 64 Wistar rats were given water, soluble fiber or FOS intragastrically during 14 days prior to colitis induction with TNBS (n=48 or rectal enema with water (n=16; control group. On the 7th or 14th day following colitis induction the rats were weighed and euthanized in order to determine the colon weight/length ratio and macroscopic and microscopic scores. RESULTS: On the 7th day following colitis induction the body weight had decreased significantly, the colon weight/length ratio had increased and macroscopic and microscopic colon lesions were observed. On the 14th day following colitis induction no difference in body weight was observed, in spite of the persistence of macroscopic and microscopic lesions and increased colon weight/length ratio. Supplementation with soluble fiber or FOS did not revert colon lesions or any of the study parameters. Supplementation with FOS, but not with fiber, was associated with increased colon weight/length ratio on the 14th day. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with soluble fiber or FOS produced no significant impact on TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

  4. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  5. Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

  6. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g center dot d(-1) of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in the highest quartile were included as reference group. The effect of the resulting increase in infant...

  7. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  8. New methods and antioxidants to prevent oxidation of omega-3 oil supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 oils have gained much attention recently due to their beneficial health effects. However, their polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) are so prone to oxidation in the presence of oxygen, heat, light, and metal ions that a strong antioxidant is needed to prevent oxidation during manufacturing processe...

  9. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity

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    Ashley Richard A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been important both socially and economically as an ingredient in incense and perfumes for thousands of years. Frankincense oil is prepared from aromatic hardened gum resins obtained by tapping Boswellia trees. One of the main components of frankincense oil is boswellic acid, a component known to have anti-neoplastic properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate frankincense oil for its anti-tumor activity and signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells. Methods Frankincense oil-induced cell viability was investigated in human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal bladder urothelial UROtsa cells. Temporal regulation of frankincense oil-activated gene expression in bladder cancer cells was identified by microarray and bioinformatics analysis. Results Within a range of concentration, frankincense oil suppressed cell viability in bladder transitional carcinoma J82 cells but not in UROtsa cells. Comprehensive gene expression analysis confirmed that frankincense oil activates genes that are responsible for cell cycle arrest, cell growth suppression, and apoptosis in J82 cells. However, frankincense oil-induced cell death in J82 cells did not result in DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis. Conclusion Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis proposed multiple pathways that can be activated by frankincense oil to induce bladder cancer cell death. Frankincense oil might represent an alternative intravesical agent for bladder cancer treatment.

  10. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

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    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  11. Recognition of edible oil by using BP neural network and laser induced fluorescence spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Zhang, Hong-yan; Liu, Xiao-hua; Wang, Yuan; Bu, Zhi-chao

    2013-09-01

    In order to accomplish recognition of the different edible oil we set up a laser induced fluorescence spectrum system in the laboratory based on Laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology, and then collect the fluorescence spectrum of different edible oil by using that system. Based on this, we set up a fluorescence spectrum database of different cooking oil. It is clear that there are three main peak position of different edible oil from fluorescence spectrum chart. Although the peak positions of all cooking oil were almost the same, the relative intensity of different edible oils was totally different. So it could easily accomplish that oil recognition could take advantage of the difference of relative intensity. Feature invariants were extracted from the spectrum data, which were chosen from the fluorescence spectrum database randomly, before distinguishing different cooking oil. Then back propagation (BP) neural network was established and trained by the chosen data from the spectrum database. On that basis real experiment data was identified by BP neural network. It was found that the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 83.2%. Experiments showed that the laser induced fluorescence spectrum of different cooking oil was very different from each other, which could be used to accomplish the oil recognition. Laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology, combined BP neural network,was fast, high sensitivity, non-contact, and high recognition rate. It could become a new technique to accomplish the edible oil recognition and quality detection.

  12. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

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    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  13. Transcriptome-based identification of antioxidative gene expression after fish oil supplementation in normo- and dyslipidemic men

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    Schmidt Simone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, especially in dyslipidemic subjects with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, are widely described in the literature. A lot of effects of n-3 PUFAs and their oxidized metabolites are triggered by regulating the expression of genes. Currently, it is uncertain if the administration of n-3 PUFAs results in different expression changes of genes related to antioxidative mechanisms in normo- and dyslipidemic subjects, which may partly explain their cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on expression changes of genes involved in oxidative processes. Methods Ten normo- and ten dyslipidemic men were supplemented for twelve weeks with fish oil capsules, providing 1.14 g docosahexaenoic acid and 1.56 g eicosapentaenoic acid. Gene expression levels were determined by whole genome microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results Using microarrays, we discovered an increased expression of antioxidative enzymes and a decreased expression of pro-oxidative and tissue enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes and matrix metalloproteinases, in both normo- and dyslipidemic men. An up-regulation of catalase and heme oxigenase 2 in both normo- and dyslipidemic subjects and an up-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A2 only in dyslipidemic subjects could be observed by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions Supplementation of normo- and dyslipidemic subjects with n-3 PUFAs changed the expression of genes related to oxidative processes, which may suggest antioxidative and potential cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFAs. Further studies combining genetic and metabolic endpoints are needed to verify the regulative effects of n-3 PUFAs in antioxidative gene expression to better understand their beneficial effects in health and disease prevention. Trial registration Clinical

  14. Thermal Degradation and Isomerization of β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-03-09

    The goal of this study was to see the impact on the retention and isomerization of encapsulated β-carotene (BC) in nanoemulsions fortified with natural antioxidants (α-tocopherol (AT) and l-ascorbic acid (AA)). The physical stability of nanoemulsion, oxidative stability, and isomerization of all-trans-β-carotene (BC) in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions were determined in the presence or absence of natural antioxidants at 25 and 50 °C at certain intervals of time by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier, and corn oil (CO) was more protective than medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and used for isomerization studies. Mean diameters of control (without antioxidants) and AA- and AT-fortified particles were similar. Mean particle diameter of nanoemulsions increased from 10 to 25 nm at 25 °C and from 40 to 50 nm at 50 °C during 30 days of storage. The isomerization from all-trans-BC to cis-BC isomers was inhibited by antioxidants. The isomerization rates were in the following order: 13-cis-BC > 15-cis-BC > 9-cis-BC. AT had better antioxidant activities than AA in inhibiting BC degradation in O/W nanoemulsions. The results indicated that BC encapsulated in nanoemulsions supplemented with antioxidants could significantly improve BC's chemical stability.

  15. Cysteine dietary supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I induced by methionine restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A; Gomez, J; Lopez Torres, M; Naudi, A; Mota-Martorell, N; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2015-06-01

    It has been described that dietary cysteine reverses many of the beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction in aging rodents. In this investigation male Wistar rats were subjected to diets low in methionine, supplemented with cysteine, or simultaneously low in methionine and supplemented with cysteine. The results obtained in liver showed that cysteine supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS generation induced by methionine restriction at complex I. Methionine restriction also decreased various markers of oxidative and non-oxidative stress on mitochondrial proteins which were not reversed by cysteine. Instead, cysteine supplementation also lowered protein damage in association with decreases in mTOR activation. The results of the present study add the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production to the various beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction that are reversed by cysteine dietary supplementation.

  16. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

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    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  17. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation in ileum myenteric neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    SILVERIO, Sonia M.; Mari,Renata B.; Clebis,Naianne K.; SCOZ, Juliana R.; Germano,Ricardo de M.; Major,José A.A.; Pedro P. Bombonato; Sandra R. Stabille

    2009-01-01

    The exacerbation of the oxidative stress and of the polyol pathway which impair damage myenteric plexus are metabolic characteristics of diabetes. The ascorbic acid (AA) is an antioxidant and an aldose reductase inhibitor, which may act as neuroprotector. The effects of AA supplementation on the density and cellular body profile area (CP) of myenteric neurons in STZ-induced diabetes in rats were assessed. Four groups with five animals each were formed: normoglycemic (C); diabetic (D); AA-trea...

  18. DRUG REACTION WITH HERBAL SUPPLEMENT: A POSSIBLE CASE OF DRUG INDUCED LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

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    AZIZ NA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old lady presented with four days history of fever, non-pruritic rash, ankle pain and swelling. She had consumed herbal supplement five days before the onset of symptoms. Examinations revealed erythematous maculo-papular lesions of varying sizes on sun exposed areas. Patient was suspected to have Drug Induced Lupus Erythematosus (DILE and subsequently symptoms subsided rapidly on withholding the herbal medication.

  19. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21...

  20. Dietary supplementation with fish oil modifies renal reserve filtration capacity in postoperative, cyclosporin A-treated renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan van der Heide, J J; Bilo, H J; Donker, A J; Wilmink, J M; Sluiter, W J; Tegzess, A M

    1990-10-01

    The effect of a daily supplementation of 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 = EPA and 20% C22:6 omega-3 = DHA) for 1 month on renal function variables was investigated in a placebo-controlled (6 g coconut oil), prospective, randomized, double-blind study in acute postoperative cyclosporin A (CyA)-treated renal transplant recipients. Seventeen patients ingested placebo capsules (EPA-) and 14 patients fish oil (EPA+). Renal function tests were performed using the simultaneous determination of 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran clearances for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), respectively. Renal reserve filtration capacity was assessed by dopamine infusion, amino acid infusion, and a combination of both stimuli. After 1 month there were no significant differences in rejection episodes, CyA dose, or CyA levels. In contrast to our earlier observations, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, GFR, and ERPF did not differ between the EPA- and EPA+ groups. Filtration fraction (FF) differed significantly, being 0.21 in the EPA- group versus 0.26 in the EPA+ group. To exclude the possible influence of a rejection episode, the nonrejecting patients were analyzed separately, creating the subgroups EPA + re - and EPA - re -. These two groups were comparable in age, donor age, and GFR. The EPA + re-group had a significantly lower ERPF (164 ml/min per 1.73 m2) than the EPA-re- group (262 ml/min per 1.73 m2). FF was significantly higher in the EPA+ re-group (0.26) than in the EPA-re-group (0.21).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Colostrum supplementation protects against exercise - induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukutty Mahenderan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise –induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42. Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exercise—induced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise.

  2. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood rheology in NOS inhibition-induced hypertension model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Melike; Ülker, Pinar; Üyüklü, Mehmet; Yaraş, Nazmi; Özen, Nur; Aslan, Mutay; Özyurt, Dilek; Basralı, Filiz

    2016-01-27

    This study investigated the effects of magnesium on blood rheological properties and blood pressure in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced hypertension model. Hypertension was induced by oral administration of the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 25 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks and systolic blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. The groups receiving magnesium supplementation were fed with rat chow containing 0.8% magnesium oxide during the experiment. At the end of experiment, blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta, using ether anesthesia. Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels were determined by the atomic absorption spectrometer. RBC deformability and aggregation were determined by rotational ektacytometry. Plasma fibrinogen concentration was evaluated by ELISA. Whole blood and plasma viscosities were determined by viscometer and intracellular free Ca++ level was measured by using spectroflurometric method. Blood pressure was elevated in hypertensive groups and suppressed by magnesium therapy. Plasma viscosity and RBC aggregation were found to be higher in hypertensive rats than control animals and these parameters significantly decreased in magnesium supplemented hypertensive animals. Other measurements were not different between experimental groups. These results confirm that blood pressure, plasma viscosity and RBC aggregation increased in NOS inhibition-induced hypertension model and oral magnesium supplementation improved these parameters.

  3. A dual investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation with licorice flavonoid oil on anthropometric and biochemical markers of health and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomer Richard J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Licorice flavonoid oil (LFO has been reported to minimize visceral adipose tissue gain in obese mice and to result in a decrease in body weight and body fat in humans; the effects of which may be more pronounced when administered in an overfed state. Methods We investigated the effects of LFO in two separate studies. Study 1 included a sample of overweight or grade I-II obese men and women (N = 22 who followed their usual dietary and physical activity programs. Study 2 included a sample of athletic men who followed their usual dietary and physical activity programs but consumed a daily supplemental meal (25% above daily energy requirements in an attempt to induce a state of overfeeding. In both studies, subjects were randomly assigned (double-blind to either LFO or a placebo for eight weeks, and anthropometric and multiple biochemical outcomes (e.g., markers of oxidative stress, markers of insulin sensitivity, blood lipids, etc. were obtained before and following the intervention. Results No differences of statistical significance were noted between LFO and placebo for any measured variable in Study 1 or Study 2. When investigating the percent change from baseline for data in Study 2, although not of statistical significance, subjects in the LFO condition experienced less overall fat gain, as well as attenuation in the elevation in selected blood lipids (e.g., cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides. Conclusion These combined data indicate little effect of LFO supplementation within a sample of overweight/obese men and women or athletic men, with the possible exception of attenuation in body fat gain and selected components of the blood lipid panel in response to an overfeeding condition.

  4. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C Control, E Exercise, (E1 Exercise with one week to recover, (ES Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1 Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031, reactive oxygen species (ROS production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003 and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041 of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05. Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  5. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-10-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  6. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs

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    Skalny Andrey A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals’ organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data

  7. Effect of grapeseed oil on diazinon-induced physiological and histopathological alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Atef Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    The pollution of environment by toxic chemicals is a global and chronic problem. Human health risk due to exposure to chemical pollutants is constantly increasing. Pesticides form major toxic chemicals in environment. Scientifically, there is an obviously correlation between the exposure to pesticides and appearance of many diseases. Currently, the significance of natural products for health and medicine has been formidable. The present study investigated the effect of grapeseed oil in male rats exposed to diazinon. The experimental rats were divided into five groups. The rats of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were exposed to diazinon (DZN). The animals of the third group were supplemented with grapeseed oil and treated with DZN. The rats of the fourth group were supplemented with grapeseed oil. The experimental rats of the fifth group were supplemented with corn oil. Hematobiochemical and histopathological evaluations were chosen as indicators of DZN toxicity and protective role of grapeseed oil. In rats exposed only to DZN, the levels of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine, urea nitrogen, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were statistically increased, while the level of serum total protein was significantly decreased. Moreover, the histopathological evaluations of the liver, kidney and testis showed that DZN causes several severe alterations. Pretreatment with grapeseed oil exhibited a protective role against DZN toxicity which confirmed by the inhibition of hematobiochemical and histopathological changes due to DZN exposure. Additionally, the present study suggests that the effect of grapeseed oil supplementation against DZN toxicity may be attributed to the antioxidant role of its constituents.

  8. Olive oil abrogates acrylamide induced nephrotoxicity by modulating biochemical and histological changes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Fendri, Nesrine; Mnif, Héla; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Grati Kamoun, Naziha; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-11-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is one of the most important contaminants occurring in foods heated at high temperatures. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective efficacy of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a main component of the Mediterranean diet, against nephrotoxicity induced by ACR. Rats have received by gavage during 21 days either ACR (40 mg/kg body weight) or ACR-associated with EVOO (300 μl) or only EVOO (300 μl). Acrylamide induced nephrotoxicity as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), protein carbonyls (PCOs) and a decrease in glutathione, non-protein thiols (NPSHs), and vitamin C levels. Activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also decreased. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, creatinine, urea, and uric acid, urinary volume and creatinine clearance levels were modified. EVOO supplementation improved all the parameters indicated above. Kidney histoarchitecture confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO. EVOO, when added to the diet, may have a beneficial role against kidney injury by scavenging free radicals and by its potent antioxidant power.

  9. Studies on the protective effect of dietary fish oil on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Khan, Md Wasim; Rizwan, Sana; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Khan, Farah

    2012-02-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a major antineoplastic drug for the treatment of solid tumors, however, dose dependent nephrotoxicity remains the major concern for its long term use. Several agents/strategies were attempted to prevent CP nephrotoxicity but were not found suitable for clinical practice. Dietary fish oil (FO) enriched in ω-3 fatty acids has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain types of cancers, cardiovascular and renal disorders. The present study was undertaken to see whether FO can prevent CP-induced nephrotoxic and other deleterious effects. Rats were prefed experimental diets for 10days and then received a single dose of CP (6mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally while still on diet. Serum/urine parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM) and oxidative stress in rat kidney were analyzed. CP nephrotoxicity was recorded by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. CP decreased the activities of metabolic enzymes, antioxidant defense system and BBM enzymes. In contrast, FO alone increased enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism and brush border membrane (BBM). FO feeding to CP treated rats markedly enhanced resistance to CP-elicited deleterious effects. Dietary FO supplementation ameliorated CP induced specific metabolic alterations and oxidative damage due to its intrinsic biochemical antioxidant properties.

  10. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  11. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; De Geest, Bart

    2017-07-18

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64) during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold (p oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density (p oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold (p oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower (p oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  12. Nutritional supplementation with arginine protects radiation-induced effects: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Flavia Cristina Morone, E-mail: fcmorone@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Campos-Silva, Pamella; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco Jose Barcellos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of L-arginine on the prostate (nonneoplasic) of rats with radiation-induced injury. Methods: Twenty-nine Wistar rats, male adult, allocated into three groups: Control group (C) was not exposed to irradiation (n=10); Radiated group (R) had undergone pelvic irradiation (n=10); Supplemented and radiated group (R+S) had undergone pelvic irradiation plus L-arginine supplementation (n=9). The animals were observed for signs of toxicity. After euthanization, the prostate was dissected under magnification and stained by hematoxylin and eosin to study acinar structures and stained with Picrosirius red for collagen analysis. Results: After radiation exposure, all animals presented diarrhea, but supplementation with L-arginine reduced this effect. The weight gain in the R+S group was significantly higher than in the C and R groups. In the R+S group the collagen density and the prostate acinar area was similar to the R and C groups. Epithelial height was significantly reduced in group R compared with group C (p<0.0001). When comparing the group R+S with R, a statistical difference was observed to be present (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation promotes systemic effects and some structural modifications in the ventral prostate of rats. These modifications can be prevented by oral supplementation with L-arginine. (author)

  13. 鱼油在鲤饲料中的适宜用量%Optimum level of fish oil supplementation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任泽林; 郭庆; 霍启光; 卢建军

    2001-01-01

    在高蛋白质半纯化饲料中分别添加0、30、50、70、90 g/kg的未加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油,投喂58 g左右2龄鲤(Cyprinus carpio)鱼种46 d,结果表明:添加新鲜鱼油量为30 g/kg时,鲤生产性能最佳;鲤肝体比(HSI)、肝胰脏脂肪含量、肌肉营养不良症和肌肉渗出性损失随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续上升,而肌肉和肾脏氧化稳定性则随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续下降,当添加鱼油量升至30、70、70、50、70、70 g/kg时,上述6项指标与对照组差异显著(P<0.05)。综合各项指标,未添加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油在高蛋白质鲤饲料中适宜用量以不超过30 g/kg为宜。%Juvenile carp of 58 g were fed a high protein semi-purified feed supplemented with 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 g/kg fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant (Peroxide value,POV,0.64 mmol/kg ) for 46 days. The results showed that the carp had the best performance at 30 g/kg supplementation of fish oil. With the increment of fish oil supplementation, hepatopancreas somatic indices (HSI), fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy and muscular exudative losses were increased, while oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney were reduced. There were significant differences in fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy, and oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney between the control group (no fish oil supplementation) and the 70 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). HSI of the control group was significantly different with that at 30 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the muscular exudative losses was significantly different at 50 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups(P<0.05). In conclusion, fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant should be supplemented in carp feed with high protein at no more than 30 g/kg.

  14. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G., E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the Hprt locus were measured in each treatment group in normal human keratinocytes. DNA damage was assessed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of skin sections isolated from SKH-1 hairless mice. Cell-based findings demonstrate that ssUVR-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis are enhanced by arsenite, and supplemental zinc partially reverses the arsenite effect. In vivo studies confirm that zinc supplementation decreases arsenite-enhanced DNA damage in response to ssUVR exposure. From these data we can conclude that zinc offsets the impact of arsenic on ssUVR-stimulated DNA damage in cells and in vivo suggesting that zinc supplementation may provide a strategy to improve DNA repair capacity in arsenic exposed human populations. - Highlights: • Low levels of arsenite enhance UV-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes. • UV-initiated HPRT mutation frequency is enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc supplementation offsets DNA damage and mutation frequency enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc-dependent reduction of arsenite enhanced DNA damage is confirmed in vivo.

  15. Risk factors for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and potential of magnesium supplementation for renal protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kidera

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity remains a problem for patients who receive cisplatin chemotherapy. We retrospectively evaluated potential risk factors for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity as well as the potential impact of intravenous magnesium supplementation on such toxicity.We reviewed clinical data for 401 patients who underwent chemotherapy including a high dose (≥60 mg/m2 of cisplatin in the first-line setting. Nephrotoxicity was defined as an increase in the serum creatinine concentration of at least grade 2 during the first course of cisplatin chemotherapy, as assessed on the basis of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The severity of nephrotoxicity was evaluated on the basis of the mean change in the serum creatinine level. Magnesium was administered intravenously to 67 patients (17%.Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was observed in 127 patients (32%. Multivariable analysis revealed that an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 (risk ratio, 1.876; P = 0.004 and the regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs (risk ratio, 1.357; P = 0.047 were significantly associated with an increased risk for cisplatin nephrotoxicity, whereas intravenous magnesium supplementation was associated with a significantly reduced risk for such toxicity (risk ratio, 0.175; P = 0.0004. The development of hypomagnesemia during cisplatin treatment was significantly associated with a greater increase in serum creatinine level (P = 0.0025. Magnesium supplementation therapy was also associated with a significantly reduced severity of renal toxicity (P = 0.012.A relatively poor performance status and the regular use of NSAIDs were significantly associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, although the latter association was marginal. Our findings also suggest that the ability of magnesium supplementation to protect against the renal toxicity of cisplatin warrants further

  16. Fish oil-supplemented parenteral nutrition could alleviate acute lung injury, modulate immunity, and reduce inflammation in rats with abdominal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhang, Xianxiang; Yang, Enqin; Zhang, Nanyang; Cao, Shougen; Zhou, Yanbing

    2015-09-01

    The objectives were to confirm that intravenous fish oil (FO) emulsions could alleviate acute lung injury, modulate immunity, and reduce inflammation in rats with abdominal sepsis and to explore the mechanisms of these effects. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups randomly. Two days after central venous catheterization, rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture to produce abdominal sepsis. Rats were assigned to receive normal saline or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) containing standard soybean oil emulsions or FO-supplemented TPN at the onset of sepsis for 5 days. A sham operation and control treatment were performed in control group rats. Acute lung injury scores, peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, plasma cytokines, and Foxp3 expression in the spleen were determined. Compared with the normal saline and TPN without FO, FO-supplemented TPN beneficially altered the distributions of the T-lymphocyte subsets and downregulated the acute lung injury scores, plasma cytokines, and expression of Foxp3 due to sepsis. Fish oil-supplemented TPN can decrease acute lung injury scores, alleviate histopathology, reduce the bacterial load in the peritoneal lavage fluid, modulate the lymphocyte subpopulation in the peripheral blood, downregulate Foxp3 expression in the spleen, and reduce plasma cytokines, which means that FO-supplemented TPN can alleviate acute lung injury, modulate immunity, and reduce inflammation in rats with abdominal sepsis.

  17. Supplementation of DHA-rich microalgal oil or fish oil during the suckling period in mildly n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Shiho; Endo, Yasushi; Doisaki, Nobushige; Koriyama, Tsuyoshi; Miyazawa, Teruo; Fujimoto, Kenshiro

    2011-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), particularly arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are considered critical for the development of infants and are commonly supplemented in infant formulae. In this study, two common sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, fish oil (FO) and DHA-rich microalgal oil (DMO), were fed to rat pups of mildly n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in LC-PUFA of tissue phospholipids. The milk from dams fed a n-3 PUFA-deficient diet contained less n-3 LC-PUFA than that of dams fed a control diet (AIN-93G). The pups' were given orally 1 mg/g weight of either FO or DMO for 17 days between the ages of 5 and 21 days, the pups were weaned, and sacrificed 1 week later for analysis of fatty acid compositions of brain, heart, kidney, spleen, and thymus phospholipids. Although both FO and DMO brought about a recovery in the tissue DHA levels compared to those of the control group (pups from AIN-93G-fed dams), DMO was more effective at restoring tissue LC-PUFA status because it was richer in DHA than FO. FO had a slightly lower PUFA level than that required to bring the LC-PUFA status completely to normal levels in this experiment, and EPA did not accumulate in tissues under the conditions tested here. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of ingesting either FO or DMO in the pre-weaning period for improving mild n-3 PUFA deficiency.

  18. Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people: a randomized controlled trial12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Boit, Mariasole; Sibson, Rachael; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Meakin, Judith R; Greig, Carolyn A; Aspden, Richard M; Thies, Frank; Jeromson, Stewart; Hamilton, D Lee; Speakman, John R; Hambly, Catherine; Mangoni, Arduino A; Preston, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Data suggest that long-chain n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may enhance adaptations to resistance exercise in older women. To our knowledge, this possibility has not been investigated in men. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of long-chain n–3 PUFA supplementation on resistance exercise training–induced increases in muscle mass and function and whether these effects differ between older men and women. Design: Fifty men and women [men: n = 27, mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 4.5 y, mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 25.6 ± 4.2; women: n = 23, mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 3.3 y, mean ± SD BMI: 25.3 ± 4.7] were randomly assigned to either long-chain n–3 PUFA (n = 23; 3 g fish oil/d) or placebo (n = 27; 3 g safflower oil/d) and participated in lower-limb resistance exercise training twice weekly for 18 wk. Muscle size, strength, and quality (strength per unit muscle area), functional abilities, and circulating metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Maximal isometric torque increased after exercise training to a greater (P 0.05) between groups in men. In both sexes, the effect of exercise training on maximal isokinetic torque at 30, 90, and 240° s−1, 4-m walk time, chair-rise time, muscle anatomic cross-sectional area, and muscle fat did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. There was a greater (P 0.05). Long-chain n–3 PUFAs resulted in a greater decrease (P 0.05) in glucose, insulin, or inflammatory markers. Conclusion: Long-chain n–3 PUFA supplementation augments increases in muscle function and quality in older women but not in older men after resistance exercise training. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02843009. PMID:27852617

  19. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Capó

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs, soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3 and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin, and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group.

  20. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Riera, Joan; Drobnic, Franchek; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3) and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin), and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group. PMID:27735833

  1. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B.; Rossing, P.; Jensen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    -blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid......Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double...... 6 months. Results: Neither transcapillary escape rate of albumin (7.4 (median) (5.0-9.8) (range) % vs. 7.0 (4.6- 10.6) %) nor prothrombin fragment 1+2 (0.97 (0.72-2.40)nmol/L vs. 1.01 (0.59-3.11)nmol/L) changed after 12 months of fish oil supplementation. Conclusion: Increased transcapillary escape...

  2. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  3. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino APA; Oliveira GMM; Ferreira CCD; Luiz RR; De Rosa G.

    2015-01-01

    Ana Paula A Avelino,1 Gláucia MM Oliveira,1 Célia CD Ferreira,2 Ronir R Luiz,3 Glorimar Rosa1,4 1Post-Graduate Program of Medicine-Cardiology, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 3Institute of Public Health Studies, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Josué de Castro Nutrition Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids...

  4. Effect of fish oil and linseed supplementation on the protein composition of milk from cows with different β-lactoglobulin phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppel, Kamila; Kuczyńska, Beata; Nałęcz-Tarwacka, Teresa; Sakowski, Tomasz; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Kunowska-Slósarz, Małgorzata; Budziński, Arkadiusz; Grodzki, Henryk

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of fish oil and linseed (FOL) supplements on the protein fraction levels of milk from cows with different phenotypes of β-lactoglobulin. After 21 days of supplementation the study showed significantly higher concentrations of whey proteins, especially lysozyme (144% increase) and lactoferrin (45.5% increase), compared with milk from control cows (total mixed ration with no supplemented FOL). A reverse trend was demonstrated for casein, casein index and casein number (lower level). The most favourable change (higher level), in terms of lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin contents in milk, was recorded in cows with the BB variant of β-lactoglobulin. The highest level of lysozyme was recorded in the milk of cows with the AB variant of β-lactoglobulin. The combined supplementation of fish oil and linseed had a positive impact on whey proteins in cow's milk. In addition, the phenotype of β-lactoglobulin also played a role in milk protein composition. There is therefore a clear indication that nutritional experiments should take into account not only food supplements but also the genetic variants of β-lactoglobulin. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The age of cows as a factor shaping the antioxidant level during a nutritional experiment with fish oil and linseed supplementation for increasing the antioxidant value of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppel, Kamila; Nałecz-Tarwacka, Teresa; Kuczyńska, Beata; Gołebiewski, Marcin; Kordyasz, Marta; Grodzki, Henryk

    2012-09-01

    So far, in research studies, the age of cows has not been considered as a factor that may influence the changes in the content of milk ingredients with antioxidant properties modified by the feed supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation on the content of ingredients having antioxidant properties and to determine the influence of the age of cows taking part in the experiment on these changes. The experiment was conducted using 20 Polish Holstein Friesian cows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous. The combined supplementation of fish oil and linseed constituted the experimental factor. The milk of primiparous cows after 21 days of supplementation was characterised by a higher content of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, α-retinol, α-tocopherol and β-lactoglobulin compared to the milk of multiparous cows, in which a higher level of lactoferrin, C20:5 and β-carotene was recorded. In both groups an increase in the total antioxidant status was noted (a higher level in the milk of primiparous cows). Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced antioxidant properties of their milk; however, the response of multiparous and primaparous cows was noticeably different to the supplement introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese.

  7. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High dose zinc supplementation induces hippocampal zinc deficiency and memory impairment with inhibition of BDNF signaling.

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    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose, 60 ppm Zn (high dose or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit.

  9. High dose zinc supplementation induces hippocampal zinc deficiency and memory impairment with inhibition of BDNF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Jing, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Shou-Peng; Gu, Run-Xia; Tang, Fang-Xu; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Xiong, Yan; Qiu, Mei; Sun, Xu-Ying; Ke, Dan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose), 60 ppm Zn (high dose) or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit.

  10. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on digestive enzymes in radiation induced intestinal damage in rats.

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    Anwar, Mumtaz; Nanda, Neha; Bhatia, Alka; Akhtar, Reyhan; Mahmood, Safrun

    2013-12-01

    Intestinal mucosa, a rapidly proliferating tissue, is highly sensitive to radiation and undergoes apoptosis as a consequence of over generation of oxidative free radicals and the lack of the antioxidants. Thus the present study was designed to investigate the intestinal damage induced by radiation and to study if supplementation of the diet with antioxidant vitamins could ameliorate the intestinal damage and its digestive activity, as determined by the expression of various border enzymes. Swiss Albino rats (150-200 g body weight) were divided into six groups. Group I: Control untreated; Group II: Irradiated; Group III: Irradiated + vitamin A; Group IV: Irradiated + vitamin C; Group V: Irradiated + vitamin E; and Group VI: Irradiated + lycopene. Animals were exposed to whole body γ-radiation from (60)Co at the rate of 8 Gy for 15 min/rat. Intestinal morphology and changes in various digestive enzymes together with, DNA damage was studied in six groups and each group consisted of 18 animals. The gastrointestinal toxicity resulted in malabsorption, diarrhoea, weight loss, loss of appetite, abdominal haemorrhage and hair loss. The activities of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase were elevated and those of lactase, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or tranferase (γ-GTP) were markedly reduced. Antioxidant vitamin A, C or E supplementations prevented changes in brush border enzyme activities as compared to lycopene administration in rat intestine by radiation exposure. Intestinal histology showed that the vitamin supplementation to irradiated rats minimized the intestinal damage in rats. These findings suggest that the epithelial lining of the intestine is highly sensitive to radiation exposure and supplementation of antioxidant vitamins is helpful in minimizing the intestinal damage and supplementation by vitamin E was most potent in ameliorating the intestinal aberrations.

  11. Role of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Cardiovascular Function and Oxidative Stress

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    Michael I. C. Kingsley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many degenerative diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress. Creatine has the potential to act as an indirect and direct antioxidant; however, limited data exist to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of creatine supplementation within in vivo human systems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral creatine supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses following exhaustive cycling exercise. Following preliminary testing and two additional familiarization sessions, 18 active males repeated two exhaustive incremental cycling trials (T1 and T2 separated by exactly 7 days. The subjects were assigned, in a double-blind manner, to receive either 20 g of creatine (Cr or a placebo (P for the 5 days preceding T2. Breath-by-breath respiratory data and heart rate were continually recorded throughout the exercise protocol and blood samples were obtained at rest (preexercise, at the end of exercise (postexercise, and the day following exercise (post24 h. Serum hypdroperoxide concentrations were elevated at postexercise by 17 ± 5% above preexercise values (p = 0.030. However, supplementation did not influence lipid peroxidation (serum hypdroperoxide concentrations, resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidative stress (t1/2max LDL oxidation and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, lycopene and vitamin C. Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults.

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    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  13. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows.

  14. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120.

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    Akiko Furutani

    Full Text Available The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA, menhaden oil (standard, and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock.

  15. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Akiko; Ikeda, Yuko; Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock.

  16. Tea tree oil-induced transcriptional alterations in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaron, Jesus A; Dulal, Santosh; Song, Yang; Singh, Atul K; Montelongo, Cesar E; Yu, Wanqin; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E

    2013-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a steam distillate of Melaleuca alternifolia that demonstrates broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. This study was designed to document how TTO challenge influences the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome. Overall, bioinformatic analyses (S. aureus microarray meta-database) revealed that both ethanol and TTO induce related transcriptional alterations. TTO challenge led to the down-regulation of genes involved with energy-intensive transcription and translation, and altered the regulation of genes involved with heat shock (e.g. clpC, clpL, ctsR, dnaK, groES, groEL, grpE and hrcA) and cell wall metabolism (e.g. cwrA, isaA, sle1, vraSR and vraX). Inactivation of the heat shock gene dnaK or vraSR which encodes a two-component regulatory system that responds to peptidoglycan biosynthesis inhibition led to an increase in TTO susceptibility which demonstrates a protective role for these genes in the S. aureus TTO response. A gene (mmpL) encoding a putative resistance, nodulation and cell division efflux pump was also highly induced by TTO. The principal antimicrobial TTO terpene, terpinen-4-ol, altered ten genes in a transcriptional direction analogous to TTO. Collectively, this study provides additional insight into the response of a bacterial pathogen to the antimicrobial terpene mixture TTO.

  17. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

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    Pabon Vanessa A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO on resting metabolic rate (RMR, body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO; or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03, a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04, and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08. No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg, RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05. There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11. There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02 and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001. Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased

  18. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  19. Oral Grapeseed Oil and Sesame Oil in Experimental Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rat

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    Hosseinzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Ulcerative colitis (UC is a multi-factorial disease with unknown etiology and has many clinical manifestations. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of sesame oil (SO and grapeseed oil (GSO on acetic acid-induced UC in rats. Materials and Methods Eighty male rats were divided into eight groups as health control (HC1, received normal saline; HC2, received SO; HC3, received GSO; negative control (NC, UC and normal saline; positive control (PC, UC and mesalamine; SO, UC and SO; GSO, UC and GSO, and SO + GSO. The daily weight changes, serum levels of oxidative stress markers and lipid profile plus colon macroscopic and microscopic histological changes were measured at the end of the seventh day. Results Significant differences were detected between HC1 and PC on the 3rd (P = 0.002, 4th (0.013 and 6th days (0.014 and between HC1 and NC on the 4th day (0.027 in weight of rats. Use of GSO alone or in combination with SO decreased the extent of the changes both in macroscopic and microscopic indices and also at the inflammation level. The most significant decrease in the MDA level and the most obvious increase in the TAC belonged to the GSO group in comparison to the NC group. The lowest cholesterol (51.43 ± 5.62 mg/dL and HDL levels (29.29 ± 6.24 mg/dL were detected in response to SO consumption in comparison to NC group (P = 0.030 and P = 0.257, respectively. Conclusions GSO in combination with SO may be considered as the treatment of choice for UC based on antioxidant and histopathological evaluations.

  20. Randomized controlled trial examining the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipingas, Andrew; Cockerell, Robyn; Grima, Natalie; Sinclair, Andrew; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Myers, Stephen; Croft, Kevin; Sali, Avni; Pase, Matthew P

    2014-05-14

    The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160) were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pipingas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  2. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Dietary supplementation of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil during the lifetime of the rat: its effects on the antioxidant status in liver, kidney and heart tissues.

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    Youdim, K A; Deans, S G

    1999-09-08

    This study aimed not only to identify age-related changes in certain antioxidant systems, but to assess whether dietary supplementation of thyme oil could address the unfavourable antioxidant-pro-oxidant balance that occurs with age. The present study has shown that there were significant declines in the superoxide dismutase activities in the liver and heart of old rats, although kidney showed no decline. Liver glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity was found to have increased significantly in old rats, while a significant decrease was observed in kidney. Heart GSHPX activity was not found to differ significantly between young and old rats. There were also significant declines in the total antioxidant status in each tissue examined. A general feature of these various antioxidant parameters measured was that their activities remained higher in rats whose diets were supplemented with thyme oil, suggesting that they retained a more favourable antioxidant capacity during their life span.

  4. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

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    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  5. Milk fatty acid profile and dairy sheep performance in response to diet supplementation with sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Frutos, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    In an attempt to develop strategies for enhancing the nutritional value of sheep milk fat, dairy ewe diet was supplemented with 3 incremental levels of marine algae (MA), in combination with sunflower oil, to evaluate the effects of these marine lipids on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and animal performance. Fifty Assaf ewes in mid lactation were distributed in 10 lots of 5 animals each and allocated to 5 treatments (2 lots per treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 25 g of sunflower oil/kg of DM plus 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of MA (56.7% ether extract)/kg of DM. Milk production and composition, including FA profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment. Neither intake nor milk yield were significantly affected by lipid addition, but all MA supplements decreased milk fat content from d 14 onward, reaching a 30% reduction after 28 d on SOMA(3). This milk fat depression might be related not only to the joint action of some putative fat synthesis inhibitors, such as trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 and probably trans-10 C18:1, but also to the limited ability of the mammary gland to maintain a desirable milk fat fluidity, that would have been caused by the noticeable increase in trans-C18:1 together with the lowered availability of stearic acid for oleic acid synthesis through Delta(9)-desaturase. Furthermore, all lipid supplements, and mainly MA, reduced the secretion of de novo FA (C6:0-C14:0) without increasing the yield of preformed FA (>C16). Supplementation with sunflower oil plus MA resulted in larger increases in cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 than those observed with sunflower oil alone, achieving a mean content as high as 3.22% of total FA and representing a more than 7-fold increase compared with the control. Vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1) was also significantly enhanced (on average +794% in SOMA treatments), as was C22:6 n-3 (DHA) content, although the transfer efficiency of the latter, from the diets

  6. Clinical and metabolic response to flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Zahra; Hashemdokht, Fatemeh; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-09-01

    Data on the effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in subjects with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) are scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in subjects with DFU. The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 subjects (aged 40-85years old) with grade 3 DFU. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups (30 subjects each group) to receive either 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil supplements or placebo twice a day for 12weeks. After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation resulted in significant decreases in ulcer length (-2.0±2.3 vs. -1.0±1.1cm, P=0.03), width (-1.8±1.7 vs. -1.0±1.0cm, P=0.02) and depth (-0.8±0.6 vs. -0.5±0.5cm, P=0.01). Additionally, significant reductions in serum insulin concentrations (-4.4±5.5 vs. +1.4±8.3 μIU/mL, P=0.002), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-2.1±3.0 vs. +1.0±5.0, P=0.005) and HbA1c (-0.9±1.5 vs. -0.1±0.4%, P=0.01), and a significant rise in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01±0.01 vs. -0.005±0.02, P=0.002) were seen following supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids compared with the placebo. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation significantly decreased serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-25.5±31.5 vs. -8.2±18.9μg/mL, P=0.01), and significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+83.5±111.7 vs. -73.4±195.5mmol/L, Pfatty acids supplementation for 12weeks among subjects with DFU had beneficial effects on parameters of ulcer size, markers of insulin metabolism, serum hs-CRP, plasma TAC and GSH levels. In addition, flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids may have played an indirect role in wound healing due to its effects on improved metabolic profiles. Copyright

  7. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  8. Luteolin supplementation adjacent to aspirin treatment reduced dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Neamt H A; Said, Usama Z; El-Waseef, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Esraa S A

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that aspirin is used in colon cancer treatment. However, long-term of Aspirin usage is limited to gastric and renal toxicity. Luteolin (LUT) has cancer prevention and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LUT supplementation and Aspirin treatment in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis in rats. DMH (20 mg/kg BW/week) treated rats received gavages with Aspirin (50 mg/kg BW/week) and LUT (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) for 15 weeks. DMH injections induce colon polyps and renal bleeding, significantly increasing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative stress, and kidney function tests and reducing antioxidant markers. Either Aspirin or LUT gavages alone or combined produce a significant decrease in colon polyp number and size, significantly decreasing CEA, COX-2, and oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant markers. In conclusion, the supplementations of LUT adjacent to Aspirin in the treatment of DMH-induced carcinogenesis in rats reflect a better effect than the use of Aspirin alone.

  9. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  10. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4 in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  11. The Changes in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Supplemented with Evening Primrose Oil: Behavioural, Morphologic, and Morphometric Analysis

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    Danial Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (1.9±0.031, p<0.05 and the normal and the EPO groups (0.4±0.031, p<0.05 and significant difference between EPO and the control groups (1.5±0.031, p<0.05. Regeneration of axons and myelin in nerve fibre in the EPO-treated group developed better and faster than in the control group. In the control group, the shape of the axon was irregular with a thinner myelin sheath. In the experimental group, the shape of the axons, the thickness of the myelin sheath, and the diameter of the axons were almost the same as in the normal group. In conclusion, EPO supplementation may be beneficial as a therapeutic option for disturbances of nerve interaction.

  12. The Role of FADS1/2 Polymorphisms on Cardiometabolic Markers and Fatty Acid Profiles in Young Adults Consuming Fish Oil Supplements

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    Kaitlin Roke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FAs known to influence cardiometabolic markers of health. Evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2 gene cluster may influence an individual’s response to n-3 FAs. This study examined the impact of a moderate daily dose of EPA and DHA fish oil supplements on cardiometabolic markers, FA levels in serum and red blood cells (RBC, and whether these endpoints were influenced by SNPs in FADS1/2. Young adults consumed fish oil supplements (1.8 g total EPA/DHA per day for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week washout period. Serum and RBC FA profiles were analyzed every two weeks by gas chromatography. Two SNPs were genotyped: rs174537 in FADS1 and rs174576 in FADS2. Participants had significantly reduced levels of blood triglycerides (−13% and glucose (–11% by week 12; however, these benefits were lost during the washout period. EPA and DHA levels increased significantly in serum (+250% and +51%, respectively and RBCs (+132% and +18%, respectively within the first two weeks of supplementation and remained elevated throughout the 12-week period. EPA and DHA levels in RBCs only (not serum remained significantly elevated (+37% and +24%, respectively after the washout period. Minor allele carriers for both SNPs experienced greater increases in RBC EPA levels during supplementation; suggesting that genetic variation at this locus can influence an individual’s response to fish oil supplements.

  13. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Polotow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA. However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation, drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  14. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotow, Tatiana G.; Poppe, Sandra C.; Vardaris, Cristina V.; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F.; Bondan, Eduardo F.; Barros, Marcelo P.

    2015-01-01

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions. PMID:26426026

  15. DIETARY FISH OIL-INDUCED CHANGES IN INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT AND BILE-ACID SYNTHESIS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; TEMMERMAN, AM; WOLTERS, H; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    Hepatic cholesterol metabolism was studied in rats fed purified diets supplemented (9% wt/wt) with either fish oil (FO) (n-3 fatty acids) or corn oil (CO) (n-6 fatty acids) for 4 wk. Rats were equipped with permanent catheters in heart, bile duct, and duodenum to allow studies under normal feeding

  16. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on arsenic induced oxidative stress in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T K; Mani, V; Kaur, H; Kewalramani, N; De, S; Hossain, A; Banerjee, D; Datta, B K

    2012-07-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether supplementation of different levels of vitamin E to long-term arsenic exposed goats affords protection against the oxidative stress caused by the metalloid. Twenty-four crossbred lactating goats were distributed randomly into four groups (control, T(1), T(2) and T(3)) of six in each. The animals in T(1), T(2) and T(3) were given 50 mg/kg DM arsenic daily, while in T(2) and T(3), vitamin E @100 IU and 150 IU/kg DM, respectively, was also supplemented additionally for the period of 12 months. Compared to control, significant (p 63 %), plasma total Ig (22 %) and total antioxidant activity (24 %) was observed in only arsenic treated groups and vitamin E supplementation in both doses produced partial mitigation effect against SOD (23 %, 20 %) and CAT (39 %, 48 %) while complete mitigation against total Ig (16 %, 7 %) and antioxidant activity (10 %, 8 %) was found. Average lymphocyte stimulation index at the end of experiment was (p arsenic exposed groups (1.003 ± 0.01) and significant (p arsenic induced oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in goats.

  17. Dietary fish oil modulates the effect of dimethylhydrazine- induced colon cancer in rats

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    Rasmy, G. E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group, or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group. The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group, or 17 weeks (DMH17 group. Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, malondialdehyde (MDA and alkaline phoshatase (ALP activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH.

    Este estudio fue realizado para examinar la eficacia de la

  18. Evidence for oil-induced oxidative stress to larvae of the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Peter D; Bailey, Peter T; Roush, Richard T

    2002-04-01

    For the purpose of understanding better the mode of action of alkanes on insects, the relationship between mortality, weight loss in oxygen enriched atmospheres and dietary antioxidants was examined using an alkane, C15 Ampol CPD and a spray oil, C23 DC-Tron NR, on lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker, (LBAM). The results showed that the surfactant blend used in CPD was an insignificant contributor to the overall toxicity of dilute oil/water emulsions. Higher weight loss occurred in CPD-dipped larvae than C23 DC-Tron NR-dipped larvae, which suggests that alkanes disrupt tracheal waxes and render insects more prone to desiccation. High levels of oxygen increased the toxicity of CPD to LBAM larvae. In addition, dietary supplements of anti-oxidant, alpha-tocopherol, fed to LBAM larvae were successful in reducing the toxicity of CPD. These results suggest that the alkane may contribute to oxidative injury. The potential role of oil-induced oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxicity in insects is discussed.

  19. Fructose supplementation impairs rat liver autophagy through mTORC activation without inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Miguel; Sangüesa, Gemma; Hutter, Natalia; Sánchez, Rosa M; Roglans, Núria; Laguna, Juan C; Alegret, Marta

    2015-02-01

    Supplementation with 10% liquid fructose to female rats for 2weeks caused hepatic steatosis through increased lipogenesis and reduced peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α activity and fatty acid catabolism, together with increased expression of the spliced form of X-binding protein-1 (Rebollo et al., 2014). In the present study, we show that some of these effects are preserved after sub-chronic (8weeks) fructose supplementation, specifically increased hepatic expression of lipid synthesis-related genes (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, ×6.7-fold; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ×1.6-fold; glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, ×1.65-fold), and reduced fatty acid β-oxidation (×0.77-fold), resulting in increased liver triglyceride content (×1.69-fold) and hepatic steatosis. However, hepatic expression of PPARα and its target genes was not modified and, further, livers of 8-week fructose-supplemented rats showed no sign of unfolded protein response activation, except for an increase in p-IRE1 levels. Hepatic mTOR phosphorylation was enhanced (×1.74-fold), causing an increase in the phosphorylation of UNC-51-like kinase 1 (ULK-1) (×2.8-fold), leading to a decrease in the ratio of LC3B-II/LC3B-I protein expression (×0.39-fold) and an increase in the amount of the autophagic substrate p62, indicative of decreased autophagy activity. A harmful cycle may be established in the liver of 8-week fructose-supplemented rats where lipid accumulation may cause defective autophagy, and reduced autophagy may result in decreased free fatty acid formation from triglyceride depots, thus reducing the substrates for β-oxidation and further increasing hepatic steatosis. In summary, the length of supplementation is a key factor in the metabolic disturbances induced by fructose: in short-term studies, PPARα inhibition and ER stress induction are critical events, whereas after sub-chronic supplementation, mTOR activation and autophagy inhibition are crucial.

  20. Dietary Oil Source and Selenium Supplementation Modulate Fads2 and Elovl5 Transcriptional Levels in Liver and Brain of Meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brito, Francisca; Magnoni, Leonardo J; Fonseca, Sthelio Braga; Peixoto, Maria João; Castro, L Filipe C; Cunha, Isabel; de Almeida Ozório, Rodrigo Otávio; Magalhães, Fernando Antunes; Gonçalves, José Fernando Magalhães

    2016-06-01

    The meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is taking on increasing importance in the aquaculture industry. In view of the limited supply of fish oil (FO) as a feed ingredient, the study of the capacity to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from alternative dietary oil sources is important. We analyzed changes in fatty acid (FA) desaturase 2 (fads2) and FA elongase 5 (elovl5) mRNA levels in livers and brains in response to FO replacement with a blend of vegetable oils (VO) and selenium (Se) supplementation. Fish were fed for 60 days with either a diet containing FO or a diet including VO, each supplemented or not with organic Se. Results showed that fads2 and elovl5 transcription was higher in liver when fish were fed VO diets. The brain mRNA levels of both genes were not affected by the dietary replacement of FO by VO. FA composition in the liver and skeletal muscle was altered by FO replacement, particularly by decreasing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. The α-linolenic, linoleic, and arachidonic acid contents increased in both liver and brain of fish fed VO diets. The effect of Se supplementation on lipid metabolism was evident only in fish fed FO, showing a decrease in the transcription of hepatic fads2. Results indicate that the total replacement of FO by VO in diets modulates the expression of genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in meagre, affecting the FA profile of the fish flesh.

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation of different oils during the first or second half of pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Litten, J C; Dodds, P F; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-07-01

    Poor glucose tolerance may be an under-researched contributory factor in the high (10% to 20%) pre-weaning mortality rate observed in pigs. Insulin resistance commences at around week 12 of gestation in the sow, although there are conflicting reports in the literature about the extent to which insulin resistance is modulated by maternal diet. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with different dietary oils during either the first half or the second half of gestation on the glucose tolerance of the sow. Sows were offered the control (C: n = 5) diet as pellets or the C diet plus 10% extra energy (n = 16 per group) derived from either: (i) extra pellets; (ii) palm oil; (iii) olive oil; (iv) sunflower oil; or (v) fish oil. Experimental diets were fed during either the first (G1) or second (G2) half of gestation. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted on day 108 of gestation by administering 0.5 g/kg glucose i.v. Blood samples were taken every 5 to 10 min for 90 min post administration. The change in body weight and backfat thickness during gestation was similar but both type and timing of dietary supplementation influenced litter size and weight. With the exception of the sunflower oil group, supplementing the maternal diet in G1 resulted in larger and heavier litters, particularly in mothers offered palm oil. Basal blood glucose concentrations tended to be more elevated in G1 than G2 groups, whilst plasma insulin concentrations were similar. Following a GTT, the adjusted area under the curve was greater in G1 compared to G2 sows, despite no differences in glucose clearance. Maternal diet appeared to influence the relationship between glucose curve characteristics following a GTT and litter outcome. In conclusion, the degree of insulin sensitivity can be altered by both the period during which maternal nutritional supplementation is offered and the fatty acid profile of the diet.

  2. Spontaneous oil-in-water emulsification induced by charge-stabilized dispersions of various inorganic colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacanna, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311471676; Kegel, W.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113729464; Philipse, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073532894

    2007-01-01

    Charge-stabilized dispersions of inorganic colloids are shown to induce spontaneous emulsification of hydrophobic (TPM) molecules to stable oil-in-water emulsions, with monodisperse, mesoscopic oil droplet diameters in the range of 30-150 nm, irrespective of the polydispersity of the starting

  3. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  4. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  5. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Hot-nature diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Mehdi, Farhoudi; Mehrangiz, Ebrahimi-Mamaghani; Baradaran, Behzad; Sadeghihokmabad, Elyar; Mostafaei, Somaiyeh; Fazljou, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Torbati, Mohammad-ali; Sanaie, Sarvin; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most chronic and inflammatory disorder. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. This study was aimed to assess the potential therapeutic effects of hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-nature dietary intervention on RRMS patients. In this double blind, randomized trial, 100 MS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into 3 groups: "Group A" who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot-nature diet, "Group B" who received olive oil, "Group C" who received the co-supplemented oils. Mizadj, clinically EDSS and relapse rate as well as immunological factors (IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17) were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25±8.07 years with disease duration 6.80±4.33 years). There was no significant difference in studies parameters at baseline. After 6 months, significant improvements in Mizadj, EDSS and relapse rate were found in the groups A and C, while the group B showed a border significant decrease in relapse rate. Immunological parameters showed improvement in groups A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for group B after the intervention. The co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with Hot-nature diet have beneficial effects in improving of clinical score in RRMS patients which were confirmed by immunological findings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp-seed and evening-primrose oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Baradaran, Behzad; Ali, Torbati Mohammad; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils in multiple sclerosis patients. To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and correlate it with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at baseline after 6 months intervention in MS patients by gas chromatography, in this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSShemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot nature diet. "Group B" received olive oil and "Group C" received the co-supplemented oils. The results showed that the mean follow-up was 180 ± 2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25 ± 8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80 ± 4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. After 6 months, EDSS, Immunological parameters and the erythrocyte cell membrane with regard to specific fatty acids showed improvement in the group A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention. We concluded that Hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils caused an increase PUFAs in MS patients and improvement in the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids composition. This could be an indication of restored plasma stores, and a reflection of disease severity reduction.

  7. Maternal PUFA ω-3 Supplementation Prevents Neonatal Lung Injuries Induced by Hyperoxia in Newborn Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyuti Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is one of the most common complications of prematurity, occurring in 30% of very low birth weight infants. The benefits of dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3 during pregnancy or the perinatal period have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation on lung injuries in newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. Pregnant female Wistar rats (n = 14 were fed a control diet (n = 2, a PUFA ω-6 diet (n = 6, or a PUFA ω-3 diet (n = 6, starting with the 14th gestation day. At Day 1, female and newborn rats (10 per female were exposed to hyperoxia (O2, n = 70 or to the ambient air (Air, n = 70. Six groups of newborns rats were obtained: PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30, PUFA ω-6/air (n = 30, PUFA ω-3/O2 (n = 30, PUFA ω-3/air (n = 30, control/O2 (n = 10, and control/air (n = 10. After 10 days, lungs were removed for analysis of alveolarization and pulmonary vascular development. Survival rate was 100%. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization and increased pulmonary vascular wall thickness in both control (n = 20 and PUFA ω-6 groups (n = 60. Maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation prevented the decrease in alveolarization caused by hyperoxia (n = 30 compared to PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30 or to the control/O2 (n = 10, but did not significantly increase the thickness of the lung vascular wall. Therefore, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation may protect newborn rats from lung injuries induced by hyperoxia. In clinical settings, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation during pregnancy and during lactation may prevent BPD development after premature birth.

  8. Acetate supplementation as a means of inducing glioblastoma stem-like cell growth arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Patrick M; Tighe, Scott W; Driscoll, Heather E; Fortner, Karen A; Viapiano, Mariano S; Jaworski, Diane M

    2015-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary adult malignant brain tumor, is associated with a poor prognosis due, in part, to tumor recurrence mediated by chemotherapy and radiation resistant glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). The metabolic and epigenetic state of GSCs differs from their non-GSC counterparts, with GSCs exhibiting greater glycolytic metabolism and global hypoacetylation. However, little attention has been focused on the potential use of acetate supplementation as a therapeutic approach. N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of brain acetate, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis, are significantly reduced in GBM tumors. We recently demonstrated that NAA supplementation is not an appropriate therapeutic approach since it increases GSC proliferation and pursued an alternative acetate source. The FDA approved food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) has been safely used for acetate supplementation therapy in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. This study characterized the effects of GTA on the proliferation and differentiation of six primary GBM-derived GSCs relative to established U87 and U251 GBM cell lines, normal human cerebral cortical astrocytes, and murine neural stem cells. GTA reduced proliferation of GSCs greater than established GBM lines. Moreover, GTA reduced growth of the more aggressive mesenchymal GSCs greater than proneural GSCs. Although sodium acetate induced a dose-dependent reduction of GSC growth, it also reduced cell viability. GTA-mediated growth inhibition was not associated with differentiation, but increased protein acetylation. These data suggest that GTA-mediated acetate supplementation is a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit GSC growth.

  9. Therapeutic effects of sesame oil on monosodium urate crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chen, Si-Jin; Chu, Pei-Yi; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2013-01-01

    Sesame oil has been used in traditional Taiwanese medicine to relieve the inflammatory pain in people with joint inflammation, toothache, scrapes, and cuts. However, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness or action mechanism of sesame oil on relief of pain and inflammation has not been examined experimentally. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of sesame oil on monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats. Air pouch, a pseudosynovial cavity, was established by injecting 24 mL of filtered sterile air subcutaneously in the backs of the rats. At day 0, inflammation in air pouch was induced by injecting MSU crystal (5 mg/rat, suspended in sterilized phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4), while sesame oil (0, 1, 2, or 4 mL/kg, orally) was given 6 h after MSU crystal injection. Parameters in lavage and skin tissue from the air pouches were assessed 6 h after sesame oil was given. Sesame oil decreased MSU crystal-induced total cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels in lavage and pouch tissue. Sesame oil significantly decreased leukocyte and neutrophil counts in lavage compared with MSU crystal alone group. Sesame oil decreased activated mast cell counts in skin tissue in MSU crystal-treated rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and IL-4 level in isolated mast cells from rats treated with MSU crystal. Furthermore, sesame oil decreased lavage complement proteins C3a and C5a levels in MSU crystal-treated rats. In conclusion, sesame oil shows a potent therapeutic effect against MSU crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats.

  10. Therapeutic role of Cuminum cyminum on ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, K; Rukkumani, R; Varma, P Suresh; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-05-01

    Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs, increasing lipid levels in humans and experimental animals. Heating of oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) produces various lipid peroxidative end products that can aggravate the pathological changes produced by ethanol. In the present communication, the effect of Cuminum cyminum was investigated on alcohol and thermally oxidized oil induced hyperlipidaemia. The results showed increased activity of aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids in the plasma of rats given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control group. The levels of tissue (liver and kidney) cholesterol and triglycerides were increased significantly in rats groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control rats. The levels were decreased when cumin was given along with alcohol and thermally oxidized oil. The level of phospholipids decreased significantly in the liver and kidney of groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oridized oil when compared with the normal control rats. The level increased when cumin was administered along with alcohol and thermally oxidized oil. The activity of phospholipase A and C increased significantly in the liver of groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control rats, whereas the activity was decreased with the cumin treatment. The results obtained indicate that cumin can decrease the lipid levels in alcohol and thermally oxidized oil induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Qin; Dang, Rui-Li; Tang, Mi-Mi; Cai, Hua-Lin; Li, Huan-De; Liao, De-Hua; He, Xin; Cao, Ling-Juan; Xue, Ying; Jiang, Pei

    2016-04-23

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg) over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg). Open-field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  12. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Qin Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg. Open-field test (OFT and forced swimming test (FST were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  13. The effect of subchronic supplementation with folic acid on homocysteine induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Markovic, A; Rankov-Petrovic, B; Hrncic, D; Krstic, D; Colovic, M; Macut, Dj; Djuric, D; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2015-06-01

    Influence of folic acid on the CNS is still unclear. Folate has a neuroprotective effect, while on the other hand excess folate can exacerbate seizures in epileptics. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of subchronic administration of folic acid on behavioural and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of DL homocysteine thiolactone induced seizures in adult rats. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase in different brain regions was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups: 1. Controls (C, 0.9% NaCl); 2. DL homocysteine-thiolactone 8.0 mmol/kg (H); 3. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid 5 mg/kg for 7 days (F) and 4. Subchronic supplementation with F + single dose of H (FH). Seizure behaviour was assessed by incidence, latency, number and intensity of seizure episodes. Seizure severity was described by a descriptive scale with grades 0-4. For EEG recordings, three gold-plated recording electrodes were implanted into the skull. Subchronic supplementation with folic acid did not affect seizure incidence, median number of seizure episodes and severity in FH, comparison with H (p > 0.05). The majority of seizure episodes in all groups were of grade 2. There were no significant differences in lethal outcomes at 24 h upon H injection in the FH vs. H group. The activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and Mg²⁺-ATPase was significantly increased in almost all examined structures in the FH vs. H group. Subchronic folic acid administration did not exacerbate H induced seizures and completely recovered the activity of ATPases.

  14. Effect of various ratios of carbohydrate-protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, A; Gaeini, A A; Kordi, M R; Rahimi, M; Rahnama, N; Bambaeichi, E

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that exercise-induced muscle damage might be attenuated by coingestion of protein and carbohydrate supplement. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three various ratios of carbohydrate-protein (CHO+PRO) supplements on resistance exercise-induced muscle damage indices. Twenty-eight untrained male students voluntarily participated in this study and were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: 1) CHO+PRO 2:1 ratio, N.=7; 2) CHO+PRO 3:1 ratio, N.=8; 3) CHO+PRO 4:1 ratio, N.=7; 4) placebo group, N.=6. They performed a single bout of resistance exercise (whole body: 3 set×8-10 reps with 70-75% 1RM), with eccentric concentration. Every group consumed prepared CHO/PRO beverages (9% concentration, 10 mL/kg/bw-1 at different ratios) or the same amount of placebo beverage before and in 15 min intervals during exercise. Blood samples were taken before the exercise bout and also at 1 and 24 h post-exercise. In addition, muscle soreness scores were recorded before and 1, 24, and 48 h postexercise. Repeated measures ANOVA (between-within design) and Bonferroni post hoc test were used to analyze dependent measures (α=0.05). Serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb) increased in all groups compared with pre-exercise but the significant difference among groups was observed in 24 h postexercise, in a way that both CK and Mb levels were higher in placebo group. Muscle soreness increased for all groups from pre to postexercise, but there was not any significant difference among groups at any time point. Findings of this study showed that CHO+PRO decreased serum CK and Mb at 24 h post exercise, but did not affect muscle soreness at any time points after exercise. Moreover, there were no significant differences between various ratios of CHO-PRO supplementation.

  15. Protective role of L-carnitine supplementation against exhaustive exercise induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Síktar, Elif; Ekinci, Deniz; Síktar, Erdinç; Beydemir, Sükrü; Gülçin, Ilhami; Günay, Mehmet

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate temperature dependent effects of oral l-carnitine supplementation on exhaustive exercise induced oxidative damage in rats. 42 male Spraque Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven experimental groups. These groups were formed as three non-carnitine exercise groups, three carnitine-exercise groups and a sedentary group. l-carnitine was given intraperitoneally to the carnitine-exercise groups 1h before the exercise in 100mg/kg. Blood was collected to measure paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol concentrations. These biomarkers were measured in venous blood samples collected before and after the rats swam in pools at different water temperatures (18°C, 28°C and 38°C). In the non-carnitine group, exercise caused a significant decrease in PON1 activity and a significant elevation in MDA concentration at 28°C compared to the sedentary group. No significant alterations were evidenced in LDL and cholesterol concentrations upon exercise. The decrease in PON1 activity became higher with increasing temperature whereas the elevation in MDA levels increased at 18°C. In the l-carnitine supplementation group, recovery in PON1 activity was observed significant at 28°C and very significant at 38°C. MDA concentration was almost the same with that of the non-carnitine group at 18 and 38°C, but it significantly decreased at 28°C. Considering the recovery in PON1 and MDA levels at 28°C, which is the temperature of the sedentary group; our results suggest that l-carnitine supplementation has a protective role on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Findings of this study also demonstrate influences of thermal stress on these parameters during exhaustive exercise.

  16. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  17. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  18. Vitamin D2 supplementation amplifies eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in NASCAR pit crew athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Shanely, R Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei

    2013-12-20

    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n=13) and placebo (n=15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (peccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p=0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, peccentric exercise.

  19. Magnesium Supplementation Prevents and Reverses Experimentally Induced Movement Disturbances in Rats: Biochemical and Behavioral Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbauer, Maikel; Segat, Hecson J; De David Antoniazzi, Caren Tatiane; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Pase, Camila S; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Burger, Marilise E

    2015-08-01

    Reserpine administration results in a predictable animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) that has been largely used to access movement disturbances related to extrapyramidal oxidative damage. Here, OD was acutely induced by reserpine (two doses of 0.7 mg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.)), every other day for 3 days), which was administered after (experiment 1) and before (experiment 2) magnesium (Mg) supplementation (40 mg/kg/mL, peroral (p.o.)). In experiment 1, Mg was administered for 28 days before reserpine treatment, while in experiment 2, it was initiated 24 h after the last reserpine administration and was maintained for 10 consecutive days. Experiment 1 (prevention) showed that Mg supplementation was able to prevent reserpine-induced OD and catalepsy development. Mg was also able to prevent reactive species (RS) generation, thus preventing increase of protein carbonyl (PC) levels in both cortex and substantia nigra, but not in striatum. Experiment 2 (reversion) showed that Mg was able to decrease OD and catalepsy at all times assessed. In addition, Mg was able to decrease RS generation, with lower levels of PC in both cortex and striatum, but not in substantia nigra. These outcomes indicate that Mg is an important metal that should be present in the diet, since its intake is able to prevent and minimize the development of movement disorders closely related to oxidative damage in the extrapyramidal brain areas, such as OD.

  20. Influence of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, T.P.; Peterson, F.; Campbell, T.C.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) induced mammary tumorigenesis was examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were obtained at age 28 days and acclimated until age 50 days when they received a single i.g. dose of 5 mg DMBA dissolved in 1 ml corn oil. Rats were then randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups with 25 rats per group. One group was fed a diet based on fish protein (freeze-dried cod) and corn oil (F/C). The second group received a diet based on fish protein and menhaden oil (F/M). The third group received a casein based diet with corn oil as the lipid source (C/C). The fourth group was fed a casein based diet with menhaden oil as the lipid source (C/M). Both the protein and lipid sources were fed at a level of 20% by weight of the diets. Rats were palpated weekly to check for mammary tumor development and the experiment was terminated 24 weeks after DMBA administration. Rats fed menhaden oil as a lipid source (F/M and C/M groups) developed significantly fewer mammary tumors than animals on the corn oil based diets (F/C and C/C groups, respectively). Thus, menhaden oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, significantly inhibited the development of DMBA induced mammary tumors in this experiment.

  1. Sesame Oil Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Pulmonary Edema and Bronchial Neutrophilic Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dur-Zong Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergic asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of airways. Severe asthma may lead to hospitalization and death. Sesame oil is a natural product with anti-inflammatory property. However, the effect of sesame oil on allergic asthma has never been studied. Objective. We investigate the effect of sesame oil on pulmonary inflammation in allergic asthma model. Methods. Allergic airway inflammation was induced by sensitizing with two doses of 10 mg ovalbumin (OVA and then challenged with 1% OVA nebulizer exposure (1 h/day for 3 days. Sesame oil (0.25, 0.5, or 1 mL/kg/day was given orally 30 min before each challenge. Samples were collected 24 h after the last challenge. Results. Data showed that sesame oil inhibited pulmonary edema and decreased interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in OVA-treated mice. Sesame oil also decreased pulmonary nitrite level, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and neutrophil infiltration induced by OVA. Further, sesame oil decreased serum IgE level in OVA-treated mice. Conclusion. Sesame oil may attenuate pulmonary edema and bronchial neutrophilic inflammation by inhibiting systemic IgE level in allergic asthma.

  2. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil Against Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Roohi, Parnia; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ghannadi, Ali Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Iran. This study investigates the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on an acetic acid-induced colitis model in rats. Ocimum basilicum essential oil with 2 doses (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly ameliorated wet weight/length ratio of colonic tissue compared to the control group. Higher doses of essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly reduced ulcer severity, ulcer area, and ulcer index. On the other hand, histological examination revealed the diminution of total colitis index as a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration in the colonic segments of rats treated with Ocimum basilicum essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). The increased level of myeloperoxidase was significantly decreased after the treatment with the essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). These results suggest that Ocimum basilicum exhibits protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis.

  3. Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Parivash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low density (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also determined. Results: Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.

  4. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Alink, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of r

  5. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilayaraja Muthuramu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05 in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64 during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold (p < 0.01 higher in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density (p < 0.001 was decreased, interstitial fibrosis was 1.88-fold (p < 0.001 higher, and systolic and diastolic function was worse in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold (p < 0.001 higher in coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower (p < 0.05 in coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  6. Influence of Mississippi River induced circulation on the Deepwater Horizon oil spill transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.; Androulidakis, Yannis S.

    2013-08-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion caused ˜7 × 105 m3 of oil gushing from the Northern Gulf of Mexico bottom. The close proximity of the rig to the Mississippi Delta raised early questions from disaster managers about possible influence of river induced circulation on oil patch evolution. In particular, it was hypothesized that the high Mississippi River (MR) discharge in May 2010 might have helped to initially keep oil from reaching coastal marshes. We have explored this intriguing hypothesis, quantifying similar and connecting patterns in the evolution of riverine and oil covered waters. We used numerical simulations, satellite and in situ data to show the unique influence of a large river plume on a surface oil patch resulting from a deep oil release. The MR induced circulation, modified by shelf and slope flows, was found to substantially influence the near surface transport of oil. The MR plume buoyancy-driven effects on oil transport had different aspects east and west of the Mississippi Delta. Anticyclonic circulation within the upstream plume region (east of the Delta, extending over the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida shelf) created a front that restrained onshore transport. Conversely, the shoreward tendency within the downstream plume region (west of the Delta, dominated by the westward, buoyancy-driven narrow coastal current) guided oil transport along the Louisiana-Texas shelf. Periods of low discharge reduced the dominance of buoyancy-driven effects, but an interval of sustained downwelling-favorable winds, combined with river induced stratification, resulted in a strong westward current and surface oil patch extension along the Louisiana coast.

  7. Palliative effects of extra virgin olive oil, gallic acid, and lemongrass oil dietary supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed growing New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Daader, Ahmed H; Gabr, Hassan A; Abd El-Moniem, Elham A

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks. Results revealed that the overall mean of temperature humidity index was 84.67 ± 0.35, reflecting a state of severe heat stress. Moreover, dietary supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO significantly increased live body weight and daily body weight gain but decreased both feed conversion ratio and daily water consumption. Additionally, a significant increase in both organic matter and crude protein digestibility besides a remarkable elevation in the nutritive values of digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients, and digestible energy, as well as an increase in the numbers of WBCs, lymphocytes, and heterophils was significant in EVOO-supplemented rabbits. Supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO in the heat-stressed growing rabbit's diet enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, whereas EVOO-treated rabbits had the highest values. Also, malondialdehyde activity was reduced in response to all tested additives. In conclusion, these findings suggested that addition of EVOO, GA, or LGEO in growing rabbit's diet could be used effectively to alleviate negative impacts of heat stress load on performance, nutrient digestibility, oxidative status, and hemato-biochemical features. Furthermore, among these additives, EVOO achieved the best effects.

  8. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Carvacrol and rosemary oil at higher concentrations induce apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melušová, Martina; Jantová, Soňa; Horváthová, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Natural essential oils are volatile herbal complex compounds which manifest cytotoxic effects on living cells depending on their type and concentration but usually they are not genotoxic. Our previous studies showed that carvacrol (CA) and rosemary essential oil (RO) induced growth inhibition of both human cell lines HepG2 and BHNF-1, with hepatoma HepG2 cells being more sensitive to either compound tested. Cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO induced the formation of DNA strand breaks. Further ex vivo studies showed that extracts prepared from hepatocytes of CA- and RO-supplemented rats did not increase incision repair activity compared to extracts from liver cells of control animals. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO on the cell cycle and the ability of both natural volatiles to induce DNA fragmentation and apoptotic death of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. These effects were measured after 24 h incubation of HepG2 cells with CA and RO using three independent methods - flow cytometry, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (electrophoresis) and micronucleus assay. Evaluation of morphological changes and formation of micronuclei in HepG2 cells showed no increase in the number of micronuclei in cells treated by CA and RO compared to control cells. On the other hand, CA and RO induced morphological changes typical for apoptosis in concentration-dependent manner. The presence of necrosis was negligible. Both natural compounds caused shrinking of cytoplasmic membrane and formation of apoptotic bodies. In addition, the highest concentrations of CA and RO induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (formation of DNA ladder) in HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase, which was accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells in the S phase after 24 h exposure to the substances tested. The cell division was thus slowed down or stopped and this process resulted in cell

  10. Effects of replacing palm oil with maize oil and Curcuma longa supplementation on the performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of the perirenal fat and muscle of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Masoero, G; Meineri, G

    2011-04-01

    An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of the inclusion of plant oil in rabbit diets. This study was aimed at evaluating the beneficial effects of the inclusion of maize oil (MO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), compared to palm oil (PO) containing saturated fatty acids (SFAs), on the meat fatty acid (FA) profile. As UFAs are susceptible to rancidity, Curcuma longa (CL), which is known for its antioxidant properties, was also added (3 g/kg) to the diet with two plant oils. CL contains curcuminoids, volatile oils, sugars, proteins, resins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We also evaluated the influence of CL inclusion in the diet on the FA profile of the meat. Furthermore, the possibility of using these oil-enriched diets and the ability to assimilate CL in rabbits was evaluated by analysing the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the groups concerning the live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The hind legs, forelegs, loins and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs and head were not affected by the oil type or by the inclusion of CL. The chemical composition, pH and oxidative status of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of the rabbits fed the experimental diets were not affected by the oil source or by the CL supplementation. Conversely, it has been shown that it is possible to modify the FA profile of rabbit meat and fat by dietary means. The SFA/PUFA ratio significantly decreased from -18% to -16% in the meat and from -25% to -23% in the perirenal fat of the rabbits fed diets containing MO without or with CL supplementation, respectively, compared to same tissues of the rabbits fed diets containing PO without or with CL supplementation, respectively. Similar trends were found for the atherogenic index, which decreased from -20% to -17% in the meat and from

  11. Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice

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    Cohn Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

  12. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. as essential oils or in form of leaves supplementation on goat's production and metabolic statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeti, Samir; Hajji, Hadhami; Bouzid, Kahena; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Muñoz, Fernando; Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Atti, Naziha

    2015-02-01

    The effects of rosemary supply in form of essential oils (REO) or leaves (RL) on performances of goats were investigated. Thirty goats were allocated into three equal groups, which were fed oat-hay ad libitum and 400 g of concentrate during the two last weeks of pregnancy and 600 g during the first 8 weeks of lactation. Three-control diet (C) was a mixture of barley, soybean meal and mineral vitamin supplement. The experimental concentrates contained the same mixture of the control diet plus 0.6 g/kg of REO or its equivalent supply RL (60 g/kg). Rosemary supply did not affect dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. While urinary nitrogen loss was higher for experimental groups than the C (P = 0.03). Daily milk production was significantly higher (P = 0.007) for rosemary groups (694 and 582 ml for RL and REO, respectively) than C group (442 ml). Rosemary decreased numerically (P > 0.05) the fat content (23, 25 and 26.5 g/l for REO, RL and C groups, respectively) but significantly increased the fat (P = 0.003) and protein content (P = 0.008). The growth rate of kids was significantly higher (P = 0.008) for RL (111 g) than that for REO and C (97 and 83 g, respectively). However, rosemary has not shown significant effect on the plasma metabolite concentrations. Given the facility to obtain the rosemary leaves, this form of rosemary use is recommended as natural alternative to improve the performances of goats.

  13. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs.

  14. Effect of sesame oil against acetaminophen-induced acute oxidative hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Wan, Chang-Hsin; Liu, Li-Lian; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2008-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes acute liver injury or even death in both humans and experimental animals. We investigated the effect of sesame oil on APAP-induced acute liver injury. Male Wistar rats were given APAP (1,000 mg/kg; orally) to induce acute liver injury. Acetaminophen significantly increased aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical generation levels; it also induced glutathione depletion. Sesame oil (8 mL/kg; orally) did not alter the gastric absorption of APAP, but it inhibited all the parameters altered by APAP and protected the rats against APAP-induced acute liver injury. We hypothesize that sesame oil maintained the intracellular glutathione levels, reduced reactive oxygen species levels, and inhibited lipid peroxidation in rats with APAP-induced acute liver injury.

  15. Effect of linseed oil and macadamia oil on metabolic changes induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Helenton C; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Cararra, Marcia A; Marques, Any de Castro R; Schamber, Christiano R; Curi, Rui; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2014-06-01

    The effects of linseed oil (LO) and macadamia oil (MO) on the metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acid were investigated. For the purpose of this study, the vegetable oil present in the HFD, i.e. soybean oil (SO) was replaced with LO (HFD-LO) or MO (HFD-MO). For comparative purposes, a group was included, which received a normal fat diet (NFD). Male Swiss mice (6-week old) were used. After 14 days under the dietary conditions, the mice were fasted for 18 h, and experiments were then performed. The HFD-SO, HFD-LO and HFD-MO groups showed higher glycaemia (p < 0.05 versus NFD). However, no significant effect was observed on glycaemia, liver gluconeogenesis and liver ketogenesis when SO was replaced by either LO or MO. The body weight and the sum of epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and inguinal fat weights were higher (p < 0.05) in the HFD-SO and HFD-MO groups as compared with the NFD group. However, there was no significant difference in these parameters between the NFD and HFD-LO groups. Thus, the protective role of LO on lipid accumulation induced by an HFD rich in saturated fatty acid is potentially mediated by the high content of ɷ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in LO. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Herbal Supplement Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats with CCl4-Induced Liver Cirrhosis

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    Ping-Chun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver cirrhosis model to test the molecular mechanism of action involved in cirrhosis-associated cardiac hypertrophy and the effectiveness of Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE and silymarin against cardiac hypertrophy. We treated male wistar rats with CCl4 and either OGE (0.02 g/kg B.W. or 0.04 g/kg B.W. or silymarin (0.2 g/kg B.W.. Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced by CCl4 along with cirrhosis and increased expression of cardiac hypertrophy related genes NFAT, TAGA4, and NBP, and the interleukin-6 (IL-6 signaling pathway related genes MEK5, ERK5, JAK, and STAT3. OGE or silymarin co-treatment attenuated CCl4-induced cardiac abnormalities, and lowered expression of genes which were elevated by this hepatotoxin. Our results suggest that the IL-6 signaling pathway may be related to CCl4-induced cardiac hypertrophy. OGE and silymarin were able to lower liver fibrosis, which reduces the chance of cardiac hypertrophy perhaps by lowering the expressions of IL-6 signaling pathway related genes. We conclude that treatment of cirrhosis using herbal supplements is a viable option for protecting cardiac tissues against cirrhosis-related cardiac hypertrophy.

  17. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplemented Diet Influences the Orchidectomy-Induced Vascular Dysfunction in Rat Mesenteric Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Diva M.; Navarro, Rocío; del Campo, Lara; Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S.; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the cardiovascular benefits of a high dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been extensively studied. However, many of the molecular mechanisms and effects exerted by PUFAs have yet to be well explained. The lack of sex hormones alters vascular tone, and we have described that a DHA-supplemented diet to orchidectomized rats improve vascular function of the aorta. Based on these data and since the mesenteric artery importantly controls the systemic vascular resistance, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a DHA-supplemented diet on the mesenteric vascular function from orchidectomized rats. For this purpose mesenteric artery segments obtained from control, orchidectomized or orchidectomized plus DHA-supplemented diet were utilized to analyze: (1) the release of prostanoids, (2) formation of NO and ROS, (3) the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh), as well as the involvement of prostanoids and NO in this response, and (4) the vasoconstrictor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), analyzing also the effect of exogenous noradrenaline (NA), and the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The results demonstrate beneficial effects of DHA on the vascular function in orchidectomized rats, which include a decrease in the prostanoids release and superoxide formation that were previously augmented by orchidectomy. Additionally, there was an increase in endothelial NO formation and the response to ACh, in which NO involvement and the participation of vasodilator prostanoids were increased. DHA also reversed the decrease in EFS-induced response caused by orchidectomy. All of these findings suggest beneficial effects of DHA on vascular function by reversing the neurogenic response and the endothelial dysfunction caused by orchidectomy. PMID:28068359

  19. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of lambs supplemented with increasing levels of a tanniferous bush (Cistus ladanifer L.) and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, A; Dentinho, M T; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Fernandes, F; Sengo, S; Jerónimo, E; Oliveira, M A; Costa, P; Sequeira, A; Bessa, R J B; Santos-Silva, J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. (CL) and a vegetable oil blend were evaluated on growth performance,carcass and meat quality of fifty four lambs that were assigned to 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of CL(50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil inclusion (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Treatments had no effects on growth rate. Oil depressed dry matter intake (P = 0.017), carcass muscle (P = 0.041) and increased (P = 0.016) kidney knob channel fat. Chemical and physical meat quality traits were not affected by treatments. Off-flavour perception was higher for 8% of oil (P b 0.001). The level of 100 g/kg DM of CL inclusion improved meat stability after 7 days of storage. Supplementation with linseed and soybean oils (2:1) was a good approach to improve meat nutritional value from feedlot lambs, increasing total n-3 PUFA.

  20. Betaine supplementation prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet: effects on one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; da Silva, Robin P; Lamarre, Simon G; Kelly, Karen B; Jacobs, René L; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of betaine supplementation on the regulation of one-carbon metabolism and liver lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in rats. Rats were fed one of three different liquid diets: control diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet supplemented with betaine. The control and high-fat liquid diets contained, respectively, 35 and 71 % of energy derived from fat. Betaine supplementation involved the addition of 1 % (g/L) to the diet. After three weeks on the high-fat diet the rats had increased total liver fat concentration, liver triglycerides, liver TBARS and plasma TNF-α. The high-fat diet decreased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine concentration and the S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio compared to the control as well as altering the expression of genes involved in one-carbon metabolism. Betaine supplementation substantially increased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine concentration (~fourfold) and prevented fatty liver and hepatic injury induced by the high-fat diet. It was accompanied by the normalization of the gene expression of BHMT, GNMT and MGAT, which code for key enzymes of one-carbon metabolism related to liver fat accumulation. In conclusion, the regulation of the expression of MGAT by betaine supplementation provides an additional and novel mechanism by which betaine supplementation regulates lipid metabolism and prevents accumulation of fat in the liver.

  1. Fish oil supplemented for 9 months does not improve glycaemic control or insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose regulation: a parallel randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Louise F; Thivierge, M C; Kidd, Claire A; McGeoch, Susan C; Abraham, Prakash; Pearson, Donald W M; Horgan, Graham W; Holtrop, Grietje; Thies, Frank; Lobley, Gerald E

    2016-01-14

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on glycaemic control are unclear, and positive effects may occur only when the phospholipid content of tissue membranes exceeds 14% as n-3 PUFA. Subjects (n 36, thirty-three completed) were paired based on metabolic parameters and allocated into a parallel double-blind randomised trial with one of each pair offered daily either 6 g of FO (3·9 g n-3 PUFA) or 6 g of maize oil (MO) for 9 months. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic-euaminoacidaemic (HIEGEAA) clamps (with [6,6 2H2 glucose]) were performed at the start and end of the intervention. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) were each measured after an overnight fast. The primary outcome involved the effect of oil type on insulin sensitivity related to glycaemic control. The secondary outcome involved the effect of oil type on WBPT. Subjects on FO (n 16) had increased erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations >14%, whereas subjects on MO (n 17) had unaltered n-3 PUFA concentrations at 9%. Type of oil had no effect on fasting EGP, insulin sensitivity or total glucose disposal during the HIEGEAA clamp. In contrast, under insulin-stimulated conditions, total protein disposal (P=0·007) and endogenous WBPT (P=0·001) were both increased with FO. In an associated pilot study (n 4, three completed), although n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes increased to >14% with the FO supplement, the enrichment in muscle membranes remained lower (8%; Psupplementation with FO, at amounts near the safety limits set by regulatory authorities in Europe and the USA, did not alter glycaemic control but did have an impact on WBPT.

  2. Topical Administration of Manuka Oil Prevents UV-B Irradiation-Induced Cutaneous Photoaging in Mice

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    Oh Sook Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuka tree is indigenous to New Zealand, and its essential oil has been used as a traditional medicine to treat wounds, fever, and pain. Although there is a growing interest in the use of manuka oil for antiaging skin care products, little is known about its bioactivity. Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is the primary environmental factor causing skin damage and consequently premature aging. Therefore, we evaluated manuka oil for its effects against photoaging in UV-B-irradiated hairless mice. Topical application of manuka oil suppressed the UV-B-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner. Application of 10% manuka oil reduced the average length, depth, and % area of wrinkles significantly, and this was correlated with inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we observed that manuka oil could suppress UV-B-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study provides evidence that manuka oil indeed possesses antiphotoaging activity, and this is associated with its inhibitory activity against skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation.

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Fish Oil Supplementation Improves Body Composition without Influence of the PPARγ Pro12Ala Polymorphism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Anahita; Sotoudeh, Gity; Djalali, Mahmoud; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Keramatipour, Mohammad; Nasli-Esfahani, Ensieh; Shidfar, Farzad; Alvandi, Ehsan; Toupchian, Omid; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to investigate (1) the impact of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil supplementation on body composition, plasma adiponectin level, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) gene expression, and (2) whether the effect of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the aforementioned variables is modulated by PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism. We genotyped PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ala carriers and non-Ala carriers were randomly assigned to DHA-rich fish oil or placebo intake for 8 weeks. Glycemic control was not affected by the intervention. The supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil decreased waist circumference (p Pro12Ala polymorphism did not influence the changes in the desired variables. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry.

  5. Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from...

  6. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  7. [The therapeutic effects of dietary krill oil (Euphausia superba) supplementation on oxidative stress and DNA damages markers in cafeteria diet-overfed rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Z; Agustina, M; Ramirez, M; Pena, K; Arivalo, J

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of dietary krill oil supplementation in modulation of oxidative stress components and DNA oxidative damages marker in cafeteria diet-overfed-rats. Eighteen aging male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six each and were exposed for the ensuing 8 weeks to one of the diets: control group (TS) which was submitted to standard chow (330kcal/100g), containing 24% of proteins, 5% of lipids and 70% of carbohydrates. Cafeteria standard group (TC) exposed to cafeteria diet (420kcal/100g). The last group received a cafeteria diet enriched in oral force-feeding krill oil 2% (CK). The plasma and tissues pro-oxydant status were assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxydes, and isoprostans. The determination of DNA oxidative damages was evaluated by the measurement of the major products of DNA oxidation (8-OHdG). Exposure to a cafeteria diet increases the metabolic response to the radical attack and DNA oxidative damages in both plasma and key tissues involved in antioxidant defense. Krill oil supplementation in cafeteria diet relieves oxidative stress and DNA damages by lowering several lipid peroxidation components and the main marker of DNA oxidation in obese rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of linseed oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E supplementation in lactating ewes' diets on meat fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation from their milk fed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, B; Manca, M G; Mantecón, A R; Nudda, A; Manso, T

    2015-04-01

    Forty-eight Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were separated into four dietary treatments: Control (without added fat), LO (with 3% linseed oil), LO-Syn E (LO plus 400 mg/kg TMR of synthetic vitamin E) and LO-Nat E (LO plus 400 g/kg TMR of natural vitamin E). Linseed oil caused an increase in trans-11 C18:1 (VA), trans-10 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (RA), trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and C18:3 n-3 (ALA) in milk fat compared to the Control. The addition of vitamin E to the LO diets did not influence significantly the majority of milk fatty acids compared with the LO diet alone. Trans-10 C18:1, VA, RA, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and LA levels were higher in intramuscular lamb fat from treatments with linseed oil. No statistically significant differences were observed in these FA due to vitamin E supplementation or the type of vitamin E (synthetic vs. natural). Vitamin supplementation resulted in lipid oxidation levels below the threshold values for detection of rancidity in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fish oil supplementation alters the plasma lipidomic profile and increases long-chain PUFAs of phospholipids and triglycerides in healthy subjects.

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    Inger Ottestad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While beneficial health effects of fish and fish oil consumption are well documented, the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipid classes is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the plasma lipidomic profile in healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, healthy subjects received capsules containing either 8 g/d of fish oil (FO (1.6 g/d EPA+DHA (n = 16 or 8 g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO (n = 17 for seven weeks. During the first three weeks of intervention, the subjects completed a fully controlled diet period. BMI and total serum triglycerides, total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were unchanged during the intervention period. Lipidomic analyses were performed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS, where 568 lipids were detected and 260 identified. Both t-tests and Multi-Block Partial Least Square Regression (MBPLSR analysis were performed for analysing differences between the intervention groups. The intervention groups were well separated by the lipidomic data after three weeks of intervention. Several lipid classes such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and triglycerides contributed strongly to this separation. Twenty-three lipids were significa