WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil refining industry

  1. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Driven by the steady and rapid development of domestic economy and the rapid growth of oil demand in recent years, China's oil refining industry has overcome the influence of fluctuating international crude oil price and international financial crisis, and witnessed rapid increase in refining capacity and continuous rising of processed crude oil and production of gasoline,

  2. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yun; Zhu He

    2012-01-01

    Prospect of China's oil refining industry during the "12th Five-Year Plan" period The "12th Five-Year Plan" period is critical to China oil refining industry to transform growth mode and grow from big to strong. China oil refining industry will base itself on domestic market demand and maintain rapider development through construction and reconstruction. The total scale will continue to grow, crude runs and product oil output will rise steadily, and the structure and layout of refining units will be further adjusted and optimized. During the period, the number of 10-million-tonnage refineries will rise to about 30, the quality of oil products will be upgraded, overseas interest capability will be improved, and the diversified of oil refining industry will be market competition pattern developed further.

  3. Oil refining industry: Technology complexity and supply flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulli' , F. (Univ. Commerciale L. Bocconi, Milan (Italy). Ist. di Economia delle Fonti di Energia)

    1992-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the rapid shifting of demand towards lighter products (together with a reduction in demand for crude oil), and the new environmental requirements for finished products have imposed a restructuring of the petroleum refining sector, as well as, a larger recourse to technologically more complex types of processes. However, global changes in the crude oil and petroleum products market did not take place in a uniform way; thus, remarkable differences in refining technologies now exist among the refining systems of the USA, Japan and Europe (Italy in particular). In highlighting and evaluating these differences, this paper identifies a clear technological gap between the US industry and the European and Japanese industries due mainly to the strong penetration in the US of conversion processes. In fact, this high conversion capacity is a consequence of the need to adjust the offer to increasing demand for light products. Further changes foreseen in the crude oil supply and finished products market call for greater re-conversion of downstream refining.

  4. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  5. Problems Confronting China's Petroleum Refining Industry During the High Oil Price Period and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lingli; Lü Jiahuan

    2006-01-01

    This article has suggested that high oil price could loom many years in the future and has analyzed the impact of this trend on the oil product mix and petroleum refining industry in China. This article has also put forward measures for sharpening the international competitive edge of China's petroleum refining industry to cope with the challenges of high oil price.

  6. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing...... the problems due to discrepancies between a non-linear and a linearized formulation. The proposed model covers realistic settings by allowing the blending of crude oil in storage tanks, by modeling storage tanks and relevant processing units individually, and by handling more crude oil types and quality...

  7. Smart Manufacturing for the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihong Yuan; Weizhong Qin; Jinsong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Smart manufacturing will transform the oil refining and petrochemical sector into a connected, information-driven environment. Using real-time and high-value support systems, smart manufacturing enables a coordinated and performance-oriented manufacturing enterprise that responds quickly to customer demands and minimizes energy and material usage, while radically improving sustainability, productivity, innovation, and economic competitiveness. In this paper, several examples of the applicatio...

  8. Smart Manufacturing for the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart manufacturing will transform the oil refining and petrochemical sector into a connected, information-driven environment. Using real-time and high-value support systems, smart manufacturing enables a coordinated and performance-oriented manufacturing enterprise that responds quickly to customer demands and minimizes energy and material usage, while radically improving sustainability, productivity, innovation, and economic competitiveness. In this paper, several examples of the application of so-called “smart manufacturing” for the petrochemical sector are demonstrated, such as the fault detection of a catalytic cracking unit driven by big data, advanced optimization for the planning and scheduling of oil refinery sites, and more. Key scientific factors and challenges for the further smart manufacturing of chemical and petrochemical processes are identified.

  9. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  10. On the economics of the oil refining industry in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynk, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The structural changes which have occurred in the oil refinery industry in the UK have been analysed and the input and pricing decisions of refiners have been modelled in the context of petroleum products used as inputs in the production functions of firms and sectors in the economy. Using the model of pricing and input demand, several hypotheses have been tested concerning marginal cost and mark-up pricing, the technology of production, and the speed of adjustment of inputs, particularly refining capacity, toward optimal levels.

  11. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA) and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The r...

  12. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  13. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind......, and how a decision process and corresponding software can be developed from this basis. Building on well-known hierarchical planning concepts, we include the typical anticipation mechanisms used in such systems to be able to decompose planning problems, both from the perspective of the planning problem...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...

  14. Adsorption refinement of waste transformer oil using industrial montmorillonite-containing sorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, Е. О.; Bogomolov, М. S.; Mayer, E. А.; Bondaletov, V. G.

    2007-01-01

    The possibilities of adsorption contact refining of waste transformer oil with active montmorillonite-containing sorbents of «Filtrol» series of BASF Catalysts LLC corporation and Zikeevsk М-80 deposit sorbent have been investigated. Usage of F-160 sorbents of «Filtrol» series in the refinement process allows achieving high quality degree of lean transformer oil, permitting its further use in the equipment with operating voltage to 750 kV.

  15. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States). ITT Research Institute; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G. [Bonner and Moore Management Science, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  16. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-01-15

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  17. Modelling and allocation of CO{sub 2} emissions in a multiproduct industry: The case of oil refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel [IFP, Institut Francais du Petrole, 228 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2007-07-15

    As oil refining is a multiproduct industrial activity, there are innumerable ways to allocate a refinery's CO{sub 2} emissions among the various refined products. The linear-programming models used to manage refineries may serve to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO{sub 2} emissions of the refinery. We show that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating all the refinery's CO{sub 2} emissions. The application of this allocation rule leads to interesting results which can be used in a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment. In fact, this allocation rule holds rigorously if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is certainly not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity of processing units. To extend the application field of our approach, we therefore suggest three distinct solutions, inspired by economic theory: applying the Aumann-Shapley cost-sharing method, or adapting the Ramsey pricing-formula, or using proportionally-adjusted marginal contributions. A numerical application to a simplified refining model is presented. (author)

  18. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN-2050-AE78 Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials..., Earthjustice, 21 Ocean Avenue, Marblehead, MA 01945. Dear Ms. Evans: This is in response to the petition for... slagging inorganic feed at temperatures above 2,000 degrees C. (Petition at pg. 10) (3) You assert that the...

  19. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  20. Liquid rheology study on refined rapeseed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其梅; 罗迎社; 殷水平; 陈胜铭; 张党权; 彭万喜

    2008-01-01

    The rapeseed oil extracted from the mature seeds was purified by refining processing,and the rheological characteristic analysis of the viscosity and dynamic shear rate at gradient temperatures was made.The result shows that at 20,40,60 and 80 ℃ respectively,when the shear rate gradually rises,the torque increases accordingly but its viscosity does not vary distinctly.The result suggests that when rapeseed oil is used as the raw of edible oils and industries,the working procedures at high temperature will not influence its rheological characteristic distinctly.

  1. China Expands Oil Refining Capacity to Meet Rising Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yin

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the booming of China's auto market, the oil refining industry is falling over itself to boost capacity in the coastal regions. Sinochem Corporation is the latest out of the starting blocks. Its new oil refining project in southeastern Fujian Province will see it move into territory already occupied by the nation's big-three oil companies - China National Petrochemical Corporation(Sinopec), China's largest oil refiner,China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),the largest crude producer in the country, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation(CNOOC), the giant offshore oil player.

  2. 亚洲炼油行业面临的机遇和挑战%Opportunities and challenges of Asian oil refining industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪静; 李振宇; 张璐瑶

    2012-01-01

    在欧美等发达国家经济停滞的后金融危机时代,中国、印度等亚洲国家炼油业保持了平稳增长势头,总炼油能力已占世界份额的28%,成为了推动世界炼油业发展的生力军。本文分析了中国、印度等亚洲新兴国家的炼油企业面临的国内经济快速发展、石油需求迅速增长的有利机遇和原油资源对外依存度高、炼油产能过剩、来自中东的竞争压力显现、二氧化碳减排压力增大等挑战,提出了扩大原料来源、强化炼化一体化、加强技术创新、减少二氧化碳排放等发展对策。%In the post-financial crisis era,the economics and refining sectors of the developed countries seemed to be at a standstill,on the other hand,the oil refining industries of China,India,and other Asian emerging economies maintained steady growth momentum,the new additional capacity is in the front row,the current total refining capacity have accounted for 28% of the whole world,promoting global refining industry progress.This paper analyzes the favorable opportunities which China,India refining enterprise is facing,such as the rapid development of the economy and domestic oil rapid growth of demand,and also presented the series of challenges including the tighten supply of crude oil,high crude oil external dependence,oil refining overcapacity,Middle East competition and carbon dioxide emissions pressures,it is advisable to take the following measures:expanding the oil sources to realize the resource diversity,strengthen the refining-chemical integration,focusing on the technology innovation and reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

  3. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yew-Ai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  4. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.

  5. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France)

    2004-07-15

    The INERIS established during the year 2003 a report on the problems about the fuel oils which may occurred in the context of the sustainable development of the refining sector. This presentation discusses the report and more precisely two chapters and the conclusion. The two chapters concern the french situation (demand, supply and and exports of fuel oils) and the evaluation of the world situation. They propose some hypothesis on the fuel market evolution. (A.L.B.)

  6. Recent Development and Status of CNPC's Refining and Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weiyong

    1997-01-01

    @@ In the past one and halfyear since carrying China National Petroleum Corporation's (CNPC) Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), CNPC's oil refining and chemical industry has made considerable progress.

  7. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  8. China Becomes Globe's Second Largest Oil Refiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weijun

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's refining capacity of crude oil reached 477 million tons by the end of last year,ranking the second in the world.CNPC and Sinopec now own 27 percent of the country's oil refineries with a combined refining capacity amounting to 76 percent of the country's total.As the country's biggest oil refiner,Sinopec's refining ability has increased 72.8 percent in the past ten years with a growth rate of 6.3 percent per year,ranking the third in the world,according to statistics released by Sinopec.Meanwhile,China's local oil refining enterprises' total capacity has reached 88 million tons per year.According to Sinopec,China has built 17 ten-million-ton-oil refineries which amount to half of the country's total capacity.

  9. Computer technology in oil refining: cost or benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B. (KBC Process Technology (GB))

    1990-04-01

    There is undoubtedly a commitment in the oil refining industry to computerise wherever possible, and to develop advanced mathematical modelling techniques to improved profitability. However, many oil refiners are now asking themselves whether computer solutions are a cost, or are truly a benefit to their organisation. Problems have been caused by distributed computing running out of control in many organisations. This has been partly brought to reign recently, by advanced networking of PCs along with mainframe facilities, and development of management information systems with common data bases for all users to build their applications on. Implementation of information technology strategies helped many refiners to plan the way ahead for the future. The use of computers across the refining sector in the current marketplace is reviewed. The conclusion drawn is that although computer technology is a cost it can also be ranked as a significant benefit and success in the refining industry at present. (author).

  10. Oil Refining Giants to Cut Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dingmin

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's refined oil product output rose slightly in the first five months of this year on strong demand,but the two biggest domestic producers plan to cut production rates in an attempt to bolster the sluggish price.

  11. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  12. Review on the Trend for Development of World's Petroleum Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shude

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the situation related with the increasingly deteriorating crude quality,the demand for cleaner transportation fuels and clean production processes that the world's petroleum refining industry is faced with.This article also suggests that the trend for future development of global refining industry is focused on the economy of scale for the refineries and the oil processing units,the refining structure readjustment,integration of the oil refining and chemical production and formation of Oil refining bases.The oil refining industry will uninterruptedly rectify its industry allocation and processing unit configuration and strive for the reduction of production cost through technical progress and management innovations to reduce the production cost,boost the profitability and sharpen the market competitive edge.

  13. 光皮树油工厂化精炼及理化性质分析%Industrial Refining and Physicochemical Characteristics of Fruit Oil from Swida wilsoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章挺; 周文才; 徐海宁; 江香梅

    2012-01-01

    将从于都具收集到的光皮树干果压榨出毛油后,通过工厂化精炼,最终得到光皮树精炼油,并对其脂肪酸成分以及理化进行分析。结果表明,光皮树油最主要的3种脂肪酸为亚油酸(34.69%)、油酸(34.47%)、棕榈酸(22.37%)。对光皮树毛油与精炼油比较发现,毛油颜色深(黄77,红12,蓝8.7),高酸值(15.3mg KOH/g)和高过氧化值(76.9meq/kg),精炼后得到很大程度改善;一些营养成分(碳水化合物、水分、β-胡萝卜素、VE、尼克酸、硫胺素)和微量元素(钾、钠、镁、磷)在毛油中均有存在,经精炼后,碳水化合物、水分、β-胡萝卜素、钾、镁、磷含量显著下降,V E含量变化不大,尼克酸、硫胺素和钾含量均低于检测下限。%Crude oil was squeezed from Swida wilsoniana fruits grown in Yudu county,Jiangxi province and refined.The fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of refined oil were analyzed.The most predominant fatty acids in Swida wilsoniana fruit oil were linoleic acid(34.69%),oleic acid(34.47%) and plamtic acid(22.37%).Crude oil had a very dark color(77Y+12R+8.7B),high acid value(15.3 mg KOH/g) and high peroxide value(76.9 meq/kg),but it was greatly improved after refining.Several nutrients(carbohydrates,water,β-carotene,tocopherols,nicotinic acid and thiamine) and minerals(potassium,sodium,magnesium and phosphorus) were detected in crude oil.The refining process could result in significant reduction in the contents of carbohydrates,water,β-carotene,sodium,magnesium and phosphorus although the content of vitamin E did not exhibit an obvious change.Moreover,nicotinic acid,thiamine and potassium were undetectable in refined oil.

  14. Detoxification and safety evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using alkali refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ning; Diao, Enjie; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Zheng; Dong, Haizhou

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) is often detected in peanut oil, which comes from contaminated peanuts. AFB1 in peanut oil seriously threatens the health of consumers. However, there are few methods to effectively remove AFB1 in peanut oil. This study aimed to use an alkali-refining method to degrade AFB1 in peanut oil efficiently without increasing the equipment of oil and fat refining. The optimum detoxifying conditions of AFB1 in peanut oil with alkali refining were established using response surface methodology (RSM), and the safety of peanut oil after being refined with alkali was evaluated based on the Ames tests and HepG2 cell viability. The results showed that AFB1 in peanut oil was decreased from 34.78 to 0.37 µg kg(-1) (98.94% reduction) under the optimum detoxifying conditions, i.e. when the initial temperature of alkali refining was 43.51 °C, the amount of excess alkali was 0.30%, the content of alkali solution was 23.42% and the end temperature of alkali refining was 77.07 °C. The acid value and color of peanut oil refined by alkali were improved significantly, while the peroxide value was increased within an acceptable level. The safety of peanut oil contaminated by AFB1 was improved significantly after being refined with alkali. These results indicate that alkali refining is an effective method for removing AFB1 in peanut oil. The optimum detoxifying conditions of AFB1 in peanut oil with alkali refining could be used to guide the production of oil companies for ensuring food safety. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Latest Development in China's Oil Refining & Petrochemical Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zuhua

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's big-three oil companies-CNPC, Sinopec and CNOOC-have intensified their competition in the domestic oil refining and petrochemical sector in recent years so as to better position themselves in the oil products market at home.

  16. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  17. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasan, M.; Gecgel, U.; Demirci, M.

    2011-07-01

    Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 {+-} 0.41, 0.51 {+-} 0.24, 1.27 {+-} 0.57, and 0.26 {+-} 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used. (Author) 28 refs.

  18. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  19. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  20. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  1. Wavelets in oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the role of wavelet methods applied to identification and characterization of oil reservoir is elaborated. The market rate of petroleum product is very much related to exploration, drilling and production cost. The main goal of researchers working in oil industry is to develop tools and techniques for minimizing cost of exploration and production. Efforts of researchers working in applications of wavelet methods in different parts of the world to achieve this goal is reviewed. Wavelet based solution of Buckley-Leverett equation modelling reservoir is discussed. Variants of Buckley-Leverett equations including its higher dimension versions are introduced. Wavelet methods for inverse problems associated with Buckley-Leverett equation, which are quite useful for oil recovery, are also explained in this chapter.

  2. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  3. Outlook for developing the Hungarian oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsengeller, I.

    1984-01-01

    Reports from the 72nd general meeting of the Hungarian state society of miners and metallurgists are presented. Half of the need for energy supply is provided by oil and natural gas. The annual extraction is 2 million T of oil and 7 billion mT of natural gas. The discovered reserves guarantee extraction for 10-30 years. The need is stressed for using new methods in oil refining to extract more valuable products. World Bank credit also has to be used for development of the industry.

  4. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  5. Refined Aluminum Industry Suffers From Deficit and Western Investment Accelerates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Under the backdrop of loss of the entire refined aluminum industry,the investment in electrolytic aluminum accelerates.The reporter learnt from a recent survey that,many companies including Shandong Xinfa Group,East Hope

  6. The Level/Preventive Approach to Solving Technical and Economic Tasks as One of Directions in Development of the Enterprises of Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damineva, R.; Daminev, R.; Karimov, O.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, as a tool of strategy generation in development of industrial enterprise, a methodological approach is considered, that allows the choosing the best path of development among many solutions of technical and economic tasks, taking into account both the interests of enterprises and of society as a whole.

  7. Fiscal 1997 report on the model project for the effective energy consumption in developing countries. Survey of changes of energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the oil refining industry in Japan; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo (Nippon sekiyu seiseigyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taisaku gijutsu no hensen chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For global scale measures to be taken for environmental protection, it becomes more and more important in the future to positively transfer and spread energy conservation technologies of Japan to overseas countries. Especially, it is effective for both economic growth in the Asian region and global environmental protection to transfer technologies which the oil refining industry has been developing and accumulating. Energy conservation in the oil refining industry means the energy conservation by strengthening the operational control at the first and second oil crises in the first stage, the energy conservation in the second stage which was accompanied by small and medium scale plant/equipment investments during several years after the first stage, and the energy conservation in the third stage which was accompanied by large scale investments from the first half of the 1980s to the present, resulting in improvement of 40% over before the first oil crisis. As to environmental protection measures, measures to reduce waste from oil refinery against air pollution and water pollution were prepared by the first half of the 1970s, and technologies were established of waste water treatment, flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. A lot of facilities for improvement of product quality and for low pollution were installed. In addition to environmental technologies, also in other industries, there were seen the heightening of thermal efficiency of kiln and thermal efficiency of cooling technique of clinker cooler in the cement industry and the improvement of productivity in the paper/pulp industry. 360 figs., 62 tabs.

  8. Thermodynamic Properties for the Simulation of Crude Oil Primary Refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gutierrez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, the use of simulators in the industry is performed without having a proper theoretical support. Sometimes this situation is a consequence of both, lack of time and the dairy dynamism required in the refinery industries. Particularly, the application of thermodynamic models is often not properly considered for the specific process under analysis. An undesirable fact can appear, for example, when a wrong properties package is chosen or even more when this selection step is completely ignored. The aim of this article is to prove that the habitual selection of the thermodynamic models is appropriate or not for the primary refining process. For the purpose, two available simulation softwares and thermodynamic models have been analyzed. The research paper focuses on establishing a guide for plant operators with information that has been previously proven, with theoretical support. In particular, for the oil crude atmospheric distillation (Topping, engineers use almost by default the Peng– Robinson thermodynamic package in Aspen Hysys simulator and Chao–Seader in Aspen Plus. Although the use of the thermodynamic property packages involves a whole theoretical support, this is not considered at the time of their election.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Rocca; Dario Viberti

    2013-01-01

    Similarly to most industrial activities, the oil industry can affect the environment at several stages. The greatest impact is the release of waste into the environment in concentrations that are not natural. Virtually in all cases, the adverse impact can be minimized or eliminated through the implementation of a proper waste management plan. Over the past few years the oil industry has placed greater emphasis on minimizing the environmental impact of its operations in all the main phases of ...

  10. China Cut Tariffs on Refined Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China has cut import tariffs on gasoline, diesel, aviation kerosene, and fuel oil significantly since July 1 this year. According to the information released by the Ministry of Finance, the rate of import tariffs on motor gasoline and aviation gasoline was reduced from 5% to 1%; the rates of import tariffs on aviation kerosene and light diesel were reduced from 9% and 6% to 0 separately; the rate of import tariffs on 5"-7" fuel oil was reduced from 6% to 1%.

  11. Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of equipment...

  12. Crisis and Survival in Western European Oil Refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, David A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, oil refining in Western Europe has experienced a period of intense contraction. Discussed are the nature of the crisis, defensive strategies that have been adopted, the spatial consequences of the strategies, and how effective they have been in combatting the root causes of crises. (RM)

  13. Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Lips, S.J.J.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre

  14. Refining oil production in the latter stage of developing deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhakiyev, K.T.; Balgimbayev, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Certain characteristics of the Emba high viscosity oil deposits are examined. Experience in the development of the deposits which are in the latter stage show that despite the high relationships of the viscosities of the oil and water in the examined deposits, quite high values have been achieved. An orderly approach to refining the balanced reserves based on factual data from exploitation of the deposits is approached. The relationship between the accumulated withdrawals of oil and fluid, acquired as applied to Emba deposits, and the displacement factor, determined from factual data on the basis of a theory of full scale modeling, are used for this purpose.

  15. Current and Future Nanotech Applications in the Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cocuzza Matteo; Pirri Candido; Rocca Rocca Vera; Verga Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Nanotech applications in the oil industry are not completely new: nanoparticles have been successfully used in drilling muds for the past 50 years. Only recently all the other key areas of the oil industry, such as exploration, primary and assisted production, monitoring, refining and distribution, are approaching nanotechnologies as the potential Philosopher's stone for facing critical issues related to remote locations (such as ultra-deep water and artic environments), ha...

  16. How toxic is oil? Investigating specific receptor-mediated toxic effects of crude and refined oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrabie, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crude oils and refined oil products are major pollutants of the environment. Large oil spills, such as the recent blowout of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico, raise concerns about the long term health effects of petroleum hydrocarbon exposure on wildlife and humans. In the environmental r

  17. Impact of Crude Oil Quality on the Refining Conditions and Composition of Nutraceuticals in Refined Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Klicia A; Ayala, Jose Vila; Van Hoed, Vera; Monteiro, Simone; Ceriani, Roberta; Verhé, Roland; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6.0%) on the quality of the refined product. The results revealed that initial palm oil acidity is a statistically important parameter to obtain commercially acceptable values for final FFA content. The increase of temperature presented the most important effect on the reduction of all nutraceutical compounds. The highest tocopherols (88%), phytosterols (98%), and squalene retention (84%) was obtained when applying the mildest temperature (200 °C). From the experimental results, 3 equations were generated enabling the prediction of the free fatty acids content, the tocols content, and the losses of neutral oil. Therefore, this work contributes to the understanding and optimization of the process for the production of palm oil with high nutraceutical quality and low free fatty acid contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Application of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials in Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhani, Nader; Emami, Milad; Moghadam, A. B. Taghavi

    2011-12-01

    Micro and nano technologies have already contributed significantly to technological advances in a number of industries, including electronics, biomedical, pharmaceutical, materials and manufacturing, aerospace, photography and more recently the energy industries. Micro and nanotechnologies have the potential to introduce revolutionary changes in several areas of the oil and gas industries such as exploration, drilling, production, refining and distribution. For example, nanosensors might provide more detailed and accurate information about reservoirs and smart fluids for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling. This paper examines and documents applicable nanotechnology base products that can improve the competitiveness of the oil and gas industry. The future challenges of nanotechnology application in the oil and gas industry are also discussed.

  19. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  20. The refined of waste oil as sustainable solution: Ecoroil project; El re-refinamiento como solucion sostenible para el aceite usado: proyecto Ecoril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torras, J. M.

    1999-11-01

    Waste oil must be re-refined at all? Or simply burn it all and forget about it? Today`s waste oil is burnt and dumped, thus causing serious and unnecessary pollution of the environment, contamination of the rivers, seas, water sources, soil and atmosphere. Industry and government, both, have fundamental responsibility to use every option to them to reduce pollution and to re-use and recycle before producing more. One of the most effective recycling possibilities is the re-refining. The lubricating oil business is large, profitable and complex. The new technologies in re-refining produce base oils of highest quality which can equal the performance of virgin oil. The ECOROIL Project carried forward by three companies from different sectors, F. L. Iberia - Infineum -Cator, S. A. - has demonstrated it. The paper also provides some light aspects about waste oil and re-refined oils in the last years in Spain. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Rocca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to most industrial activities, the oil industry can affect the environment at several stages. The greatest impact is the release of waste into the environment in concentrations that are not natural. Virtually in all cases, the adverse impact can be minimized or eliminated through the implementation of a proper waste management plan. Over the past few years the oil industry has placed greater emphasis on minimizing the environmental impact of its operations in all the main phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir life: from appraisal to field development, from production and recovery to reservoir decommissioning. As a consequence, the oil industry is facing important technical challenges, approaching with great interest and expectation new emerging technologies, such as nanotechnologies and alternative solutions, like CO2 underground storage. This study provides an overview of the most interesting solutions that have been proposed and critically highlights their potential benefits and drawbacks. The following paper focuses on some of the new approaches that have already changed the routine operation workflow, while others are currently being tested and may yet require further improvement.

  2. The effect of consecutive steps of refining on squalene content of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergiz, Cevdet; Celikkale, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of refining steps on the squalene content of some vegetable oils. A comparison has been made between the crude oils and consecutive steps of refining process (neutralization, bleaching, deodorization, winterization) in the amounts of squalene of the oil samples. Among the oils, virgin and refined olive oils contained higher amounts of squalene. A mean of 491.0 ± 15.55 mg/100 g squalene was found in virgin olive oil samples. While appreciable quantities of squalene has been reduced during refining, considerable level of squalene were still present in refined olive oils (290.0 ± 9.89 mg/100 g). The squalene content of crude seed oils varied from 13.8 ± 0.39 mg/100 g to 26.2 ± 0.08 mg/100 g as average. It has been determined that refining process reduced the level of squalene in examined oils. The highest reduction in squalene content of the oils was detected during deodorization. The effect of refining steps on the amount of squalene in vegetable oils was found to be significant (p oil has been considered an important source of squalene, even after it has been refined, compared to seed oils.

  3. Unilever food safety assurance system for refined vegetable oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Duijn Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unilever Food Safety Assurance system for refined oils and fats is based on risk assessments for the presence of contaminants or pesticide residues in crude oils, and refining process studies to validate the removal of these components. Crude oil risk assessments were carried out by combining supply chain visits, and analyses of the contaminant and pesticide residue levels in a large number of crude oil samples. Contaminants like poly-aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons of mineral origin, and pesticide residues can largely be removed by refining. For many years, this Food Safety Assurance System has proven to be effective in controlling contaminant levels in refined vegetable oils and fats.

  4. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Ragothaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world.

  5. Using melted media in processes of oil refining and petrochemistry. Primeniniye rasplavlennykh sred v protsessakh neftepererabotki i neftekhimii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygin, Ye.A.; Raud, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The review is dedicated to rapidly developing trend in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, to the processes of processing a hydrocarbon raw material and oil products in the presence of melted mediums of metals, salts and oxides. The methods developed in the USSR and abroad for processing in melted mediums are analyzed, along with the industrial layouts, the modal parameters, the equipment formulation and experimental data for different large tonnage processes in oil refining and petrochemistry. Equipment designs are cited for different methods for placing the hydrocarbons in contact with the melts and for different methods of heat supply. The specifications which must be met by the melts used in processing a hydrocarbon raw material and oil products are systemtized. The compositions and basic physical properties of the most common and promising melted mediums are cited.

  6. Present and future position of palm oil industry in Malasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Akio

    1988-04-20

    This paper introduces the present and future problems on the palm oil industry in Malaysia. The author was dispatched as an expert to the Malaysia Palm Oil Laboratory which is a governmental investigation organization. The cultivation area of oil palms were increased with the production of palm oil in 1990 - 1985. The oil mills produce average 20,000 tons/year of raw palm oil. 38 refining factories of the approved 75 factories are in work. The treatment capability of raw palm oil is 8.86 million tons/year. The palm oil is a solid vegetable oil at room temperature. For use the palm oil is fractionated into liquid palm olein, solid palm stearin, and palm oil with an intermediate melting point. About 90% of palm oil is edible. The leaves contain about 0.49% of alpha-tocopherol. The future problems to be solved lie in that the palm oil is improved to have a high liquid content, the production cost is reduced, and new uses for the palm oil are developed. (15 tabs, 37 refs)

  7. Status of China's Refined Oil Products Consumption and Forecast on Demand During the"11th Five-Year Plan" Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Lu

    2007-01-01

    The author used two common methods in this industry.i.e.the"Consumption Coefficient Method"and the"Elasticity Coefficient Trend Method",to forecast the refined oil product demand in 2010.Through analyzing and comparing the two forecast results,it is projected that the demand for finished product oils in 2010 will be in the range of 220 to 240 million tons a year.In addition,out of concern about the total oil products consumption to exceed 600 million tons/year in 2020,the author puts forward suggestions and measures aimed at conservation of oil products and application of alternative fuels.

  8. Tangible Asset Management In Real Sector Companies: A Parallel Between Industry Of Crude Oil Refining And Industry Of Refining Of Non Metallic Mineral In Colombia Gerenciamiento de activos tangibles en empresas del sector real: un paralelo entre industria de refinación de crudos e industria de refinación de minerales no metálicos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Forero Romero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises around of the world are striving to understand and ensure that risks in utilities they govern are effectively managed while they must satisfy all expectations of their stakeholders. For this purpose there are now organisms and standardized management systems to manage financial risks, environmental hazards, industrial safety and occupational health risk. However, operational and reliability risks in the business lack an equivalent oversight body or an organizing framework through which enterprises can asses such risks , or define standards to which can be held accountable.The emergent understanding of asset management across all industry sectors has triggered a subsequent need for a standardized approach. This article identifies the key elements of asset management process and explains the benefits of the application of its elements with reference to two specific cases: the Barrancabermeja Refinery of Ecopetrol S.A. and  Sumicol S.A.Las empresas de todo el mundo se esfuerzan por comprender y asegurar que los riesgosen sus activos tangibles estén regidos bajo una administración eficaz y, a su vez, debenencargarse de cumplir con todas las expectativas de sus grupos de interés. Con estepropósito hoy en día existen organismos y sistemas de gestión estandarizados paraadministrar los riesgos financieros, ambientales, de seguridad de industrial y saludocupacional. Sin embargo, los riesgos operativos y de confiabilidad en el negocio hasta elmomento carecen de un órgano de supervisión equivalente, o un marco de organización através del cual las empresas pueden evaluar estos riesgos o definir las normas a las quepueden ser considerados responsables.El entendimiento emergente de la gestión efectiva de activos en todos los sectoresde la industria ha provocado una necesidad de un enfoque estandarizado. Este artículoidentifica los elementos clave del proceso de gestión de activos y explica los beneficiosde la aplicación de

  9. Corrosion in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brondel, D. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Edwards, R. (Schlumberger Well Services, Columbus, OH (United States)); Hayman, A. (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Hill, D. (Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States)); Mehta, S. (Schlumberger Dowell, St. Austell (United Kingdom)); Semerad, T. (Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc., Sumatra (Indonesia))

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. Attention is paid to how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing. Also the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids is reviewed. Methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion are discussed, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion. 21 figs., 32 refs.

  10. Burgeoning China Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ming; Hou Xiaoying; Xiao Yang

    1996-01-01

    @@ Despite its late inception, China's offshore oil industry has been growing rapidly over the past ten years and has become a new division of the energy sector boasting constant, swift and highly-effective development. Before foreign cooperation was introduced, offshore crude production was only about 100 000 tons per year. In 1996,the total production will surpass 10 million tons, indicating promising prospects for further progress in the future.

  11. Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  12. Analysis of Environment for Development of Oil Refining Business in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Aiping; Yang Weijun

    2006-01-01

    This articles focuses on analysis of the changing trend relating to crude supply and petroleum products demand inside China, while introducing the preliminary progress resulted from restructuring of China' s refining industry and dynamics of competition among Chinese refining enterprises. This article has made a preliminary judgment and analysis on the situation facing China's refining industry and may serve as a reference to refiners intending to develop refining business inside China.

  13. Oil price shocks and European industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Yurtsever, Cenk

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the impact of oil price shocks at the industry level in the Euro area for the period 1983-2007. We use different oil price specifications and use dynamic VAR models and multivariate regression to investigate how 38 different industries respond to oil price shocks. We pay specific atte

  14. Oil price shocks and European industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Yurtsever, Cenk

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the impact of oil price shocks at the industry level in the Euro area for the period 1983-2007. We use different oil price specifications and use dynamic VAR models and multivariate regression to investigate how 38 different industries respond to oil price shocks. We pay specific atte

  15. Oil price shocks and European industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Yurtsever, Cenk

    We investigate the impact of oil price shocks at the industry level in the Euro area for the period 1983-2007. We use different oil price specifications and use dynamic VAR models and multivariate regression to investigate how 38 different industries respond to oil price shocks. We pay specific

  16. Sustainability in the Malaysian palm oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, CG; McKay, A

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly growing world population, the demand for palm oil is increasing. In 2010, palm oil accounted for 36.5% of the world's vegetable oil production and it is projected to be the leading vegetable oil in the world by 2016. As the Malaysian palm oil industry is committed to delivering sustainable palm oil products to meet customer demand, this research was to enable identification and prioritisation of areas for improvement. As an example, the Roadmap of Malaysian Palm Oil Industry 20...

  17. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasan, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, and 0.26 ± 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used.

    Cuatro aceites vegetales refinados comerciales diferentes fueron analizados por cromatografía de gases para determinar el contenido en ácidos grasos trans. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el contenido total de los FA trans de aceites refinados de girasol, maíz, soja y avellana fueron 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, y 0.26 ± 0.07% de FA totales, respetivamente. Los ácidos grasos totales trans comprenden a isómeros de FA C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3. Cinco marcas de aceites de girasol refinado y dos marcas de aceite de avellana contenían cantidades no medibles de ácidos trans C18:3 totales. Los ácidos C18:2 trans totales fueron los FA trans predominantes en el aceite de girasol y ma

  18. The Transition of World Oil Market and the Course of Korean Oil Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kye, Deok Nam [Korea National Oil Corporation, Anyang (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Korea lies in portal site to connect a continent and an ocean in a view of geopolitical and natural location. Fortunately, because the geographical condition is located between Japan and China, Korea has a suitable condition to play a center role of the production distribution. The large scale of harbors and plants contributes to saving the production cost and distribution cost. The production competitiveness is superior to Singapore in economy of scale. The condition of the distribution cost and equipment also can supplement the gap of Japan and China in the side of season or quality. Because the oil-refining process generally brings in the return rate at a fixed rate even if there are some differences by raw materials or plants, it is difficult that the types of consuming oil meet to the types of producing oil. That is also caused by the big differences according to the seasonal transition, the character of location, and the development level of industry. Petroleum must be the most fitted to convenience and economical efficiency as we have experienced in 60s{approx}70s. Korean oil-refining industry should promote the export strategy suitable for such an expanding market. Because the surplus capacity (about 20%) has been already over than the limit, the oil-refining industry should pull itself out of a cutthroat competition of the domestic market to impose lots of transportation cost. In the Asia-Pacific age, the future of the oil-refining industry is more optimistic. USA and European countries has already reached to a full moon, but Asian countries have been still in a half moon. That means Asian countries have the possibility of growth for more than 10 years. The surprising high rate of economic growth in China, close to 10% of annual rate, suggests that the energy consumption corresponding to the economic growth is necessary. 2 tabs.

  19. INTEGRATION OF REFINING AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRY ——Development Strategy for Petrochemicals in New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the rapid progress of the national economy in China, petroleum refining and petrochemical industry have grown with leaps and bounds correspondingly in 1990s. The amount of crude oil processed reached 152.39 Mt in 1998, 1.13 times that in 1993.   The refining capacity ranks the fourth in the world. Ethylene production was 3.77 Mt in 1998, 1.87 times that in 1993. The capacity of ethylene ranks the sixth in the world.   It can be expected that the petrochemical industry in China will develop faster than the refining in 21st century. The basic reason therefore is that petrochemical products can not satisfy the demand of domestic market by far so that there should be a great import. In 1998, for example, imported synthetic resin was as much as 11.71 Mt, of which five bulk plastics were 8.03 Mt. Imported synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber and fertilizer were 0.474 Mt, 1.519 Mt and 1392 Mt, respectively. The situation showed that the domestic market in China has an enormous demand for ethylene, i.e. the total demand for ethylene in 2010 is estimated as 17~18 Mt. Even if the production capacity could be 10 Mt, the self-supporting ratio will only be about 55.5%.      Please read the details of this paper in the journal of China Petroleum Processing & Petrochemical Technology.

  20. The refining of soybean oil to optimum quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusell, J.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the American Soybean Association is to improve the quality of soybean and related products in Turkey. In order to achieve this, a number of extraction plants and refineries were visited to enable first hand information to be obtained on the type of equipment used in all unit processes, the methodology employed, quality standards and levels of efficiency. The culmination of the visit was a seminar organised jointly by the American Soybean Association and the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association in Istanbul on 22nd September 1989, at which a paper with the above title was presented. A reproduction of this paper is attached which briefly describes the critical areas of soybean oil processing and includes recommendations for quality improvements. It concludes with the comment that provided proper care is taken and optimum refining processes employed, including hydrogenation where appropriate, an impressive range of oils, margarines and shortenings of high quality can ben produced. The author would like to record his grateful thanks to Dr. R. Leysen of the American Soybean Association for all his help and guidance, to Mr. Kenon Marasoglu, Chairman of the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association and to the management and staff of all the factories visited. Acknowledgement is also made to Dr. D. R. Arickson and Mr. L. H. Wiedermann of the American Soybean Association for the use of some technical information from a paper entitled «Soybean Oil-Modern Processing and Utilisation» which is to be published shortly.

    Uno de los objetivos de la Asociación Americana de Soja en Turquía es mejorar la calidad de la soja y de los productos relacionados. En orden a conseguir esto, diversas plantas de extracción y refinerías fueron visitadas para permitir obtener de primera mano información sobre el tipo de equipo usado en todas las unidades de proceso, la metodología empleada, los estándar de calidad y los niveles de eficacia. La

  1. Current and Future Nanotech Applications in the Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocuzza Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nanotech applications in the oil industry are not completely new: nanoparticles have been successfully used in drilling muds for the past 50 years. Only recently all the other key areas of the oil industry, such as exploration, primary and assisted production, monitoring, refining and distribution, are approaching nanotechnologies as the potential Philosopher's stone for facing critical issues related to remote locations (such as ultra-deep water and artic environments, harsh conditions (high-temperature and high-pressure formations, non-conventional reservoirs (heavy oils, tight gas, tar sands. The general aim is to bridge the gap between the oil industry and nanotechnology community using various initiatives such as consortia between oil and service companies and nanotechnology excellence centres, networking communities, workshops and conferences and even dedicated research units inside some oil companies. Quite surprisingly, even if a lot of discussion is taking place, no substantial research on these topics is currently being undertaken around the world by the petroleum industry. A very different attitude is demonstrated by other industries and the advances they achieved are outstanding. Approach: This study provides an overview of the most interesting nanotechnology applications and critically highlights the potential benefits that could come from transposing the same-or adapted-solutions to the oil industry. Results/Conclusion: As extensively illustrated, some technologies which are already available off-the-shelf can offer real improvements in dealing with some specific issues of the oil industry. Other technologies can require further elaboration before direct use, but their potential is enormous.

  2. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  3. Condition stabilization and improving the quality of oil refining at the Osinsk Administration for Oil and Gas Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.; Zapopzchenko, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the preceding destabilization of conditions and oil refining quality at the Osinsk Administration for Oil and Gas Extraction and on the physiochemical characteristics of the product from producing wells, the probable causes of the breakdown in the dehydration conditions are established. Experiments and field tests are used to estimate the contribution of each factor to the destabilization of oil refining. The engineering and technological measures aimed at stablizing the equipment are given.

  4. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  5. China Offshore Oil Industry and Foreign Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Ke

    1994-01-01

    @@ Offshore Oil and CNOOC The history of China's offshore oil industry can be traced back to late 1950's when geophysical surveys started in limited offshore areas. Then, in 1960's and 1970's, a few exploratory wells scattered from north down to south were drilled resulting in a number of discoveries with the total proven oil in place being merely 40 million tons. In fact, the China's offshore oil industry in a real sence did not emerge on the horizon until early 1980's when China opened its door to outside world and the China National Offshore Oil Corporation(CNOOC) was born.

  6. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-07-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  7. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  8. Effect of the refining process on Moringa oleifera seed oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Servín de la Mora-López, Gabriela; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process. Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, and bleaching. Four samples were analyzed, corresponding to each step of the processed and crude oil. Increases in the density, viscosity, saponification value and oxidation of the oil were detected during the refining, while the peroxide value and carotenoid content diminished. Moreover, the refractive index and iodine content were stable throughout the refining. Nine fatty acids were detected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmitic acid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed high primary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence of secondary oxidation.

  9. Oil Price Fluctuations and Industry Stock Return

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tahmoorespour; Marjan Rezvani; Meysam Safari; Elias Randjbarand

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of oil price variation on 14 industries in six markets, including Canada, China, France, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Panel weekly data were collected from June 1998 to December 2011. The results indicate that price fluctuations primarily affect the Oil and Gas as well as the Mining industries and have the least influence on the Food and Beverage industry. Furthermore, in three out of six of these countries (Canada, France, and the U.K.)...

  10. Computer technology explodes into the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-12

    This article presents a look at some of the specialized computer systems available to all segments of the oil and gas industry. Information on computer systems was gathered from a survey of more than 200 hardware and software suppliers. Suppliers were asked to submit information on products available specifically to the various segments of the industry. The information presented is designed to give brief details of some of the innovative and powerful applications, and to illustrate the wide range of capabilities some of these systems possess. Where possible, the equipment, computing power, and peripheral equipment required to effectively operate the various systems are given. The article is divided into three sections: upstream---exploration, drilling, and production; down-stream---refining, petrochemical, and gas processing, and pipeline; and a general section that covers generic hardware and software that have capabilities that may be useful to the oil and gas industry.

  11. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  12. Status and tasks of oil refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, I.M. [Korea Petroleum Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The oil refinery industry is currently undergoing more difficulties than other industries. Since crude oil is all imported, whose import amount is the biggest as single item, and usance financing that once extended up to one hundred eighty (180) days is not easy to get under the current exchange and financial crisis, there are many hardships in import of crude oil. With this, domestic petroleum products demand shows sudden decline trend while competition gets more intensified due to remarkable regulation relief and liberalization measures in oil refinery industry such as the liberalization of domestic oil prices, etc. It is estimated that it entered the low growth stage as high-growth age of double-digit ends due to several complicated factors and rapid changes of economic environment. Under these crisis situations, domestic oil refinery industry drives super retrenchment management and restructuring for survival, but they are bombarded with piled up tasks while faced with liberalization and outward opening of imminent oil refinery business and domestic petroleum market. Domestic oil refinery industry should provide petroleum energy, which is blood of national economy and industries steadily without interruption overcoming wisely the worst management crisis with collective wisdom based on the accumulated management know-how and experience for the past first generation, and I also firmly believe that they can do that. 21 tabs.

  13. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry--Part XXII: Health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, M A

    1996-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether has caused the following cancers in rats and mice: kidney, testicular, liver, lymphomas, and leukemias. Thus, in the absence of adequate data on humans, it is biologically plausible and prudent to regard methyl tertiary butyl ether-for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals-as a probable human carcinogen. This means that some humans are at extreme risk of contracting cancers resulting from their exposure to oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether. Immediately after the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether into gasoline, many consumers of this product in New Jersey, New York, Alaska, Maine, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Arizona, Montana, Massachusetts, California, and other areas, experienced a variety of neurotoxic, allergic, and respiratory illnesses. These illnesses were similar to those suffered by refinery workers from the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union who mixed methyl tertiary butyl ether with gasoline. Additionally, these illnesses occurred following exposure to extremely low levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline, particularly when compared to the adverse health effects that occurred only after exposure to very high levels of conventional gasoline. Thus, gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether exhibited substantially more toxicity in humans than gasoline without this additive. A number of oil industry-sponsored or influenced reports alleged that these illnesses were either unrelated to exposure to reformulated gasoline or were characteristic of some yet-to-be-identified communicable disease. These studies further alleged that the widespread concern was not about illness, but was merely a reaction to the odor and the five cent increase in the price of gasoline. To clarify the significance of this issue, it is important to note that consumers have been using gasoline for many decades, with complaints only occurring following exposure to high

  14. China Oil Reserve and Major Refined Products Marketing Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xunying

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Current Status and Forecast on Supply and Demand for Oil in China 1.1 Chinese oil trade balance China's demand for crude oil has increased sharply since the 1990's. From 1991 to 2000, the consumption of China's crude oil increased by 6% a year, but the output still lagged far behind the domestic need (See Table 1).

  15. The Future of Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Oil and gas are the major energy resources all over the world but are not renewable. According to their present reserves, the resource volumes yet to be found and the large amount of non-conventional oil and gas resources, there is still great potential in oil and gas production. The proportion ofoil and gas in energy structure will be influenced by four major factors: 1) Potential of the world oil and gas resources; 2) Technological progress of oil and gas exploration and development; 3) Speed of the development of substitute energy resources; and 4) Variation of oil price. It is estimated that, oil and gas will still retain an important proportion in energy structure by the first half of the 21st century.

  16. Quantum chemical study of the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol, a potential marker of olive oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Henry B; Pemberton, Ryan P; Lounnas, Valère; Vriend, Gert; Tantillo, Dean J; Wang, Selina C

    2015-05-01

    Quantum chemical calculations on the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol are described. An energetically viable mechanism, with a rate-determining protonation step, is proposed. This rearrangement may find applicability in tests for determining if an olive oil has been refined.

  17. Quantum chemical study of the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol, a potential marker of olive oil refining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedler, H.B.; Pemberton, R.P.; Lounnas, V.; Vriend, G.; Tantillo, D.J.; Wang, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations on the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol are described. An energetically viable mechanism, with a rate-determining protonation step, is proposed. This rearrangement may find applicability in tests for determining if an olive oil has been refined.

  18. Glycidyl esters in refined palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil and related fractions. Part II: practical recommendations for effective mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Brian D; Nagy, Kornél; Seefelder, Walburga; Dubois, Mathieu; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    In a previous work, it was shown that at high temperatures (up to 280°C) glycidyl esters (GE) are formed from diacylglycerols (DAG) via elimination of free fatty acid (FFA). In the present study, the impact of DAG content and temperature on the formation of GE using a model vacuum system mimicking industrial edible oil deodorization is investigated. These deodorization experiments confirmed that the formation of GE from DAG is extensive at temperatures above 230-240°C, and therefore, this value should be considered as an upper limit for refining operations. Furthermore, experimental data suggest that the formation of GE accelerates in particular when the DAG levels in refined oils exceed 3-4% of total lipids. Analysis of the lipid composition of crude palm oil (CPO) samples allowed the estimation that this critical DAG content corresponds to about 1.9-2.5% of FFA, which is the conventional quality marker of CPO. Moreover, high levels (>100ppm) of GE were also found in palm fatty acid distillate samples, which may indicate that the level of GE in fully refined palm oils also depends on the elimination rate of GE into the fatty acid distillate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be

  20. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be explaine

  1. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be explaine

  2. 30 CFR 208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Royalty Oil” required by 30 CFR 208.5. (b) Sale to eligible refiners. (1) Upon a determination by the... of crude oil at equitable prices, the Secretary, at his or her discretion, may elect to take in kind... determined for that oil pursuant to 30 CFR part 206 had the royalties been paid in value rather than taken...

  3. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C

    2016-06-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool.

  4. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  5. Seeking China Capital for Investment in Iran Oil Refining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2009-01-01

    @@ Influenced by the financial crisis.the overall bilateral trade volume between China and Iran decreased by 39% in the first quarter of 2009;however,the volume of Iran's exported crude oil to China has increased by 88% compared with the same period last year up to May of 2009,totaling 308.8 million tons.Iran,as the world's No.5 crude exporter,replaced Saudi Arabia as China's largest oil supplier.At the same time,China,as the world's No.2 oil consumer,now imports half of the crude oil it consumes,and has become Iran's third largest customer.

  6. The flocculants applied in the oil refining plant wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, M. G.; Shalay, V. V.; Kriga, A. S.; Shaporenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    Flocculation methods for the oil refinery wastewater treatment are necessary, effective and economic, and are used, as a rule, for the demulsification of petroleum products from wastewater. In addition, flocculants can be used to remove other pollutants, not only oil products. The research purpose was to analyze the separate indicators level, measured on the oil refinery wastewater treatment facilities. Oil refinery wastewater purification rate was studied, indicating a different level of indicators considered. An influence of cationic and anionic flocculants working efficiency showed that the flocculants allows to increase the flotation technological indicators and to increase the solids content in water.

  7. A method to refine crude cottonseed oil using non-toxic polyamine-based cationic polymers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Lin; Tom C Wedegaertner; Xiaoyun Mao; Xudong Jing; Aicardo Roa-Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method to refine crude cottonseed oil is time-consuming and expensive. This study evaluates the effectiveness of coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process using quaternary polyamine-based polymers in refining crude cottonseed oil. Flocculated by four commercial polyamine-based cationic polymers (SL2700, SL3000, SL4500 and SL5000) with varied molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) and followed by co-agulation with sodium hydroxide, crude cottonseed oil can be effectively purified. Free fatty acids, gossypol, pig-ments and trace elements are all effectively and sufficiently removed by the four polymers in a MW-and CD-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the use of polyamine-based cationic polymers may offer an effective and feasible alternative to the traditional method for crude cottonseed oil refining.

  8. Side-stream products of edible oil refining as feedstocks in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Bojan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a diesel fuel alternative, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by the transesterification reaction of triacylglycerols and lower aliphatic alcohols. Beside number advantages related to fossil fuels, the main barrier to biodiesel wider commercial use is the high price of edible oils. Recently, the special attention was given to side-stream products of edible oil refining as low-cost triacylglycerol sources for biodiesel production because of their positive economic and ecological effects. In this paper, the different procedures for biodiesel production from side-stream refining products such as soapstock, spent bleaching earth and deodorizer distillate were analyzed. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for reusing the by-products of edible oil refinement in the biodiesel production.

  9. FEATURES OF ADSORPTION REFINING RAPESEED OIL DIATOMACEOUS ADSORBENTS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The results of the studies of the effectiveness of diatomaceous bleached soil for the adsorption of rapeseed oil impurities are discussed. We have established that a mixture of diatomaceous bleached soil with activated carbon has a high degree of adsorption in relation to the pigments of rapeseed oil

  10. Biocatalytic Refining of Soybean Oil into Cosmeceutical Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our mission is to develop new, value-added uses for commodity crops and oils. We chose to fulfill this mission while adhering as closely as possible to the tenants of “green” chemistry. We have developed patented, all-natural oils called Feruloyl Soy Glycerols (FSG) from the biocatalytic transester...

  11. FEATURES OF ADSORPTION REFINING RAPESEED OIL DIATOMACEOUS ADSORBENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryzhenok A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the studies of the effectiveness of diatomaceous bleached soil for the adsorption of rapeseed oil impurities are discussed. We have established that a mixture of diatomaceous bleached soil with activated carbon has a high degree of adsorption in relation to the pigments of rapeseed oil

  12. Mackerel (Scomber Scrombrus Oil Extraction and Evaluation as Raw Materials for Industrial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. BAWA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, evaluation and refining of fish oil from mackerel (scomber scrombrus has been conducted in this work. The total percentage oil yield using solvent extraction and total moisture content was 28.24% and 56.50 %respectively, which were found to increase linearly with time. The analytical properties of the crude and the refined oil were evaluated. It was observed that the crude oil consist from: acid value 2.5 mg/KOH, peroxide value 2.19 mEq/kg, saponification value 201.6 mgKOH/g, iodine value 108.09 I2/100g, specific gravity 0.911, refractive index 1.485 and reddish brown colour. The refined oil was also evaluated as follows: acid value 2.27 mg/KOH, peroxide 1.00 meq/kg, saponification value 147.84 mgKOH/g, iodine value 106.93 I2 /100g and golden brown colour. These values fall within the acceptable standard values. The refining of the oil brought about a notable improvement in the analytical properties of the oil. Thus, leads to a high quality fish oil in terms of the taste, colour, odours, shelf life and market value. Based on the improved characteristics of the oil, it could be suitable for applications in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  13. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, Joan [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Carole, Tracy [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Andres, Howard [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  14. Glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined edible oils: A review on occurrence, formation, analysis, and elimination methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs), one of the groups of oil-processing contaminants, are mainly formed during the deodorization step of the oil refining process and, thus, found in almost all refined edible oils. GEs have been considered to be potentially carcinogenic because, in the gastrointestinal...

  15. 药用肉桂油精馏提纯生产工艺分析%Analysis on Distillation and Refining Technology of Medicinal Cinnamon Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋; 冯婷

    2014-01-01

    通过分析影响药用肉桂油精馏提纯的关键生产要素,探讨最佳生产工艺,指导精馏提纯的工业化生产,以提高产品得率和产品质量。%By analyzing the key factors influenced the refinement process of medicinal cinnamon oil,the best productive tech-nology was explored.The results could be used to guide the industrialization of distillation and refining process of cinnamon oil, so as to improve the yield and quality of target product.

  16. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  17. Potential Oil Palm Industry Development in Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasdi Syahza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of Indonesia’s main commodities that play a role in the growth of the national economy. It has a considerable contribution in generating foreign exchange and employment. Development of Indonesia’s CPO processing industry and its derivatives is in line with the growth of plantation area and production of oil palm as a source of raw materials. Until 2011, Indonesia’s oil palm plantation area reached 2,103,175 ha with an FFB production of 36,809,252 tons. Meanwhile, oil palm mill (OPM processing capacity was 30,019,200 tons only. The analysis showed the regional carrying capacity (RCC was 1.584. Each FFB should be processed in less than 8 hours or RCC for OPM must be smaller than 1 (RCC, 1. Higher production of oil palm plantations in Riau is the potency to increase the OPM. The results of calculations by land development and farm productivity, Riau region is still lacking of 16 OPM units with a capacity of 60 tons / hour or identical to 21 OPM units at a capacity of 45 tons / hour. The deficiency in OPM impacts the price and income of oil palm farmers in rural areas. High demand for OPM in Riau is a business opportunity for investors to develop an OPM and industry of products derived from oil palm.

  18. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  19. Engineering industrial oil biosynthesis: cloning and characterization of Kennedy pathway acyltransferases from novel oilseed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    For more than twenty years, various industrial, governmental, and academic laboratories have developed and refined genetic engineering strategies aimed at manipulating lipid metabolism in plants and microbes. The goal of these projects is to produce renewable specialized oils that can effectively c...

  20. Grasp Densities for Grasp Refinement in Industrial Bin Picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupfauf, Benedikt; Hahn, Heiko; Bodenhagen, Leon

    Automatic picking of randomly distributed objects from a bin has been denoted the "Holy Grail" in the world of robot automation. A particular property of the bin-picking scenario (in contrast to most other industrial robot applications) is that grasp errors are allowed to occur: Usually bin...... generated in industrial bin-picking for grasp learning. This aim is achieved by using the novel concept of grasp densities (Detry et al., 2010). Grasp densities can describe the full variety of grasps that apply to specific objects using specific grippers. They represent the likelihood of grasp success...... in terms of object-relative gripper pose, can be learned from empirical experience, and allow the automatic choice of optimal grasps in a given scene context (object pose, workspace constraints, etc.). We will show grasp densities extracted from empirical data in a real industrial bin picking context...

  1. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  2. Grasp Densities for Grasp Refinement in Industrial Bin Picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupfauf, Benedikt; Hahn, Heiko; Bodenhagen, Leon

    in terms of object-relative gripper pose, can be learned from empirical experience, and allow the automatic choice of optimal grasps in a given scene context (object pose, workspace constraints, etc.). We will show grasp densities extracted from empirical data in a real industrial bin picking context...... generated in industrial bin-picking for grasp learning. This aim is achieved by using the novel concept of grasp densities (Detry et al., 2010). Grasp densities can describe the full variety of grasps that apply to specific objects using specific grippers. They represent the likelihood of grasp success...

  3. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Thermodynamic Properties for the Simulation of Crude Oil Primary Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Gutierrez; Leonel Alberto Benítez

    2014-01-01

    Commonly, the use of simulators in the industry is performed without having a proper theoretical support. Sometimes this situation is a consequence of both, lack of time and the dairy dynamism required in the refinery industries. Particularly, the application of thermodynamic models is often not properly considered for the specific process under analysis. An undesirable fact can appear, for example, when a wrong properties package is chosen or even more when this selection ste...

  5. A Rapid Method for Detection of Refined Olive Oil as Adulterant in Extra Virgin Olive Oil by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karbasian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is expensive oil, due to unique specification and its high quality among other edible oils; it might be mixed with other oils. The aim of this research was to identify the added refined olive oil (ROO to extra virgin olive oil. One sample of each oil was analyzed, admixtures of EVOO: ROO were prepared at different ratios (50:50 ,60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and 95:5 w/w. To identify this adulteration, exothermic and endothermic thermograms were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing refined olive oil, onset temperature (Ton was increased from -61.08 to -56.16 °C; also, offset temperature (Toff decreased from 19.09 to 12.57 °C. Also results showed that when the ROO ratio increased then the enthalpy average values of both exothermic and endothermic curves were declined. Chemical tests were performed in parallel to better understanding these changes in curves.

  6. Modeling policy mix to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian palm oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Y H Silitonga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a model that will explain the impact of government policies to the competitiveness of palm oil industry. The model involves two commodities in this industry, namely crude palm oil (CPO and refined palm oil (RPO, each has different added value. Design/methodology/approach: The model built will define the behavior of government in controlling palm oil industry, and their interactions with macro-environment, in order to improve the competitiveness of the industry. Therefore the first step was to map the main activities in this industry using value chain analysis. After that a conceptual model was built, where the output of the model is competitiveness of the industry based on market share. The third step was model formulation. The model is then utilized to simulate the policy mix given by government in improving the competitiveness of Palm Oil Industry. Research limitations/implications: The model was developed using only some policies which give direct impact to the competitiveness of the industry. For macro environment input, only price is considered in this model. Practical implications: The model can simulate the output of the industry for various government policies mix given to the industry. Originality/value: This research develops a model that can represent the structure and relationship between industry, government and macro environment, using value chain analysis and hierarchical multilevel system approach.

  7. Radiological impact of oil/gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C. [Institute of Public Health, Iasi (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact on the environment and population of the oil/gas industry that is non-nuclear industry but uses and can produce materials, with an enhanced content of naturally occurring radionuclides. The natural radioactivity levels in the oil field environmental media, which could represent a risk for the people living in the areas influenced by this non-nar industry, do not indicate an increase in the natural radiation background. From a radiological point of view, the situation does not pose any immediate concern. Some places however need further investigations, with special emphasis on the control of 226 Ra releases to prevent from polluting the environment with this radionuclide. The growing concern amongst the population about the quality of their environment increases the significance of impact assessment of radioactive releases into the environment even if natural radionuclides occur. (N.C.)

  8. Industrial automation management in the refining industry; Gestao da automacao industrial no refino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Antonio Carlos; Moro, Lincoln Fernando Lautenschlager [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PETROBRAS started in 1986 the implementation of industrial automation in its refineries with the gradual replacement of analogical instrumentation by the digital technology, which demanded massive investments in hardware and allowed the adoption of real time optimization (RTO) systems . This process also required significant investments in learning and technology development. It is estimated that the set of systems already in operation generates results in the order of 1% of the Downstream operating profit, due to better product yields, lower energy consumption, higher reliability, etc. Currently the company focuses in guaranteeing the effectiveness of the results obtained with the optimization technology. This guarantee demands a plethora of actions, including the elaboration of an evaluation methodology and a rigorous and continuous results analysis , as well as actions to solve the problems that may be negatively impacting the performance. A specific evaluation methodology has been developed for the advanced control application, since this technology is the most mature among all that have already been implemented. This methodology considers that the economic results are directly related to the activation of process constraints that bound the operating window, and consist basically in the evaluation of an index, called PCAT (percentage of active controlled variables), which is transformed into an economical benefit by a procedure that takes into account the unit potential and the performance of the control system. The results clearly show that the overall performance has been improving since October, 2003. (author)

  9. Water and sediment quality in a tropical swamp used for agricultural and oil refining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norville, Wendy; Banjoo, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    The Godineau Swamp in Trinidad receives anthropogenic input from agricultural and oil refining activities, sewage and domestic waste. This study was conducted in order to provide a comprehensive baseline dataset for the swamp, to assess water and sediment quality in the swamp, and to identify hotspots and possible sources of pollutants to the swamp. Ten sampling stations were established in the swamp during April/May and July 2002. Water quality parameters monitored included physicochemical measurements (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity), total suspended solids, and nutrients (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total phosphorus). Sediments were analyzed for hydrocarbons, heavy metals and total organic carbon. Temperatures and pH of water in the swamp were ambient; dissolved oxygen was low in many instances (saltwater intrusion along the Oropuche River up to the most easterly station. Levels of ammonia and phosphorus concentrations were suggestive of periodic inputs of agricultural and domestic wastes. Hydrocarbons concentrations in sediment were above ambient levels and suggestive of contamination from industrial activities. Sediments from the Godineau River contained elevated nutrients, hydrocarbons, metals and TOC compared with other stations. The results of this study indicate some degree of pollution of the Godineau swamp, which prompts the need for the implementation of measures beneficial for wise use of the swamp.

  10. 油脂的沉淀现象%Sediments in Refined Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘爱泳; 王文一

    2001-01-01

    sedimentation phenomena in refined oils were descr ibed,the composition,properties of sunflower and canola oil sediments were summa rized.the effects of various factors on sediment formation in oils were also stu died.%介绍了油脂沉淀现象,综述了葵花籽油、卡诺拉油等沉淀的组成、性质以及影响其形成的因素,初步探讨了防止沉淀生成的方法。

  11. CHALLENGES AND CORRESPONDING STRATEGIES FOR CHINAS PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY IN 21st CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Challenges and corresponding strategies for Chinas petroleum refining industry in 21st century were described in this paper. Entering 21st century, many countries put more concerns on environmental protection and the possibility of continual development. Production of clean fuel with low sulfur, low olefin and low aromatics to reduce toxic material emission, clean production and free-toxic emission and development of environmental friendly products and technologies will be the main themes of worlds refining industry. The challenges faced by Chinas petroleum refining industry are those from inadequate crude sources, from plant scale and its economic benefit, from processing configuration and product structure, from inferior crude and high quality products and from environmental protection and sustaining development, etc. As long as china recognizes the development trend of overall refining technology and carry out long term strategy for technological innovation and progress, its petroleum refining industry will definitely undergo a greater development and become more capable in market competition in the 21st century.

  12. Quality. [Quality in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, N. (Anadrill HSE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Jeffries, J. (Dowell UK Training Center, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Mach, J. (Dowell North America, Sugar Land, TX (United States)); Robson, M. (Schlumberger North America, Sugar Land, TX (United States)); Pajot, D. (Geco-Prakla, Stavanger (Norway)); Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T. (Schlumberger Perforating and Testing Center, Rosharon, TX (United States)); Mullen, D. (Schlumberger South America, Bogota (Colombia)); Rat, F. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Theys, P. (Schlumberger, Montrouge (France))

    1993-01-01

    What is quality How do you achieve it How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs.

  13. Use of composite materials in oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trifunović, Prvoslav

    2011-01-01

    The most frequently used composites for fabrication of primary and secondary constructions within the oil industry are made of epoxy, phenolic or polymer matrix combined with glass, carbon or aramid fibers. For fabrication of risers, thermoplastic polymers (polyethylene, polyvinyldenefluoride, and polyamide) are used, which are to be wound around steel reinforcement of riser. Polymer may be reinforced with glass or carbon fibers. Instead of thermoplastic polymers, epoxy matrix reinforced with...

  14. Impressions management: lessons from the oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Halderen, Mignon; Berens, Guido; Bhatt, Mamta; Brown, Tom; Riel, Cees

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the late 1990s, after over a century of extracting hydrocarbons, the petroleum industry faced a growing scientific consensus that pollution from fossil fuels is a major cause of global warming. Operationally and in terms of their global image, oil and gas companies faced a serious dilemma. Two major players, Exxon and British Petroleum, took very different approaches in their corporate communications strategies, the outcomes of which offer valuable lessons in impressions ma...

  15. Effect of refining on the fatty acid, sterol and tocopherols compositions of soybean oil from GM seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J S; Casal,Susana; Costa, J.; Mafra, I; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Soybeans are an exceptional source of polyunsaturated fats, high quality proteins and high levels of vitamin E, being part of the human diet mainly as vegetable oil and as source of protein. Nowadays, soybean oil represents almost 30% of the world’s vegetable oil production. As most vegetable oils, crude soybean oil must be refined in order to remove unacceptable materials, such as phospholipids, free fatty acids and pigments, that cause a decrease in the product quality. Nevertheless, during...

  16. Effects of Neutralization, Decoloration, and Deodorization on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons during Laboratory-Scale Oil Refining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of technological operations during oil refining process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils was investigated on the basis of laboratory-scale study. Under the best experimental conditions, benzo[a]pyrene decreased by 85.1%, 99.7%, and 40.8% in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils, respectively. Total of 16 analytes decreased by 55.7%, 87.5%, and 47.7%, respectively. Bleaching with activated charcoal was the most efficient procedure to reduce PAHs in crude oil. Neutralization had a modest influence on sixteen analytes; however, deodorization was only responsible for a slight decrease in the light PAHs and heavy PAHs contents. Data obtained in this study suggest that the use of activated carbon during oil refining process is highly recommended; moreover, these results provide a useful guidance for oil refining plant to reduce security risk and ensure the quality of the vegetable oil products.

  17. Water management in the oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauls, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Water management issues at Alberta's 4 oil sand deposits were discussed. The 4 deposits include the Peace River, Athabasca, Wabasca and Cold Lake deposits, with the Athabasca deposit being the largest and the only surface-mineable deposit. Large quantities of water are needed to extract bitumen from oil sands. This paper addressed water volume withdrawal from the Athabasca River, the primary source of water for the surface-mining oil sands industry. It also addressed Muskeg River watershed integrity, quality of water withdrawn from reclaimed landscapes, groundwater contamination, and ecological viability of end-pit lakes. Currently, half of Syncrude's oil sand is transported from mine to extraction plant by conveyor belts. The other half is pipelined as a warm water slurry. By 2005, all transport will be by pipeline. The oil sand is mixed with hot water, steam and surfactants to condition it for extraction. Seventy-nine per cent of the water used by Syncrude is recycled water and the remainder comes from the Athabasca River. Syncrude diverts 2.5 to 3 barrels of water from the Athabasca River for every barrel of oil produced. This paper discussed the in-stream flow needs of the Athabasca River based on protection of aquatic ecosystems. Flow needs are addressed by the Cumulative Effects Management Association (CEMA). The paper states that the proportion of annual flow withdrawn from the Athabasca River is too low to have a significant impact on aquatic systems, but the main concern lies in water use during low flow periods, typically during the winter months. Developers will likely come under pressure to develop off-site reservoirs to store water for use during these low-flow periods. tabs., figs.

  18. Feasibility of Department of Defense Used Lubricating Oil Re-refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    solid and high molecular materials are retained. Suggested variations in the process train include hydrotreating and polymeric adsorption. The Michel ...Hydrophobic, Michel & Pelton Company, Emeryville, CA, 1983. A’ 19. Coenen, Hubert, Re-refining Used Oil by Supercritical Fluid Ex- traction, Used Oil the...3.83 22. Total hourly cost $51.65 8. Costs by operating pattern (10 4 hr; $51.65/hr) Pattern Miles Callons Cost/gal Cost/gal-mi Cost/ton-mi #1 25 6 x

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety of refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is produced from the seeds...... of the proposed conditions of use. The available information does not give concerns as regards other undesirable substances in the NFI. Available animal studies provide only limited information on the safety of the NFI. Human studies that investigated different plant oils or fatty acid ethyl esters as sources...

  20. 炼油工业供应链模式的营销集成研究%Sale Integration Research in the Mode of Oil Refining Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢锐; 范全义; 叶伟

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the concept and structure of the supply chain of oil refining industry firstly, then analyzes the support technologies, design methods, isomerous information integration technologies and market prognostication function of the supply chain of oil refining industry. Based on these, the sale management system in the supply chain of oil refining industry is introduced and the system integration framework is put forward. Finally the design methods are analyzed, especially the market prognostication by using Markov method.%首先介绍了炼油工业供应链的定义与结构,分析了炼油工业供应链的支撑技术、开发方法、异构信息集成技术,以及市场预测功能。在此基础上,介绍了炼油工业供应链模式中的营销管理系统,提出了系统的集成框架结构,分析了其设计技术,特别提出了用马尔可夫方法进行市场预测的思路。

  1. Refinement of the critical angle calculation for the contrast reversal of oil slicks under sunglint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingcheng; Sun, Shaojie; Zhang, Minwei; Murch, Brock; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    It has long been observed that oil slicks under sunglint can reverse their optical contrast against nearby oil-free seawater. Such a phenomenon has been described through both empirical statistical analysis of the sunglint strength and modeled theoretically using a critical angle concept. The critical angle, in this model, is the angle at which the image pixels show no or negligible contrast between oiled and nonoiled seawater. Pixels away from this critical angle show either positive or negative contrast from the oil-free pixels. Although this concept has been fully demonstrated in the published literature, its calculation needs to be further refined to take into account: (1) the different refractive indices of oil slicks (from natural seeps) and seawater and (2) atmospheric effects in the sensor-measured radiance. Using measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over oil films in the Gulf of Mexico, we show improvement in the modeled and MODIS-derived reflectance over oil slicks originated from natural seeps after incorporating these two factors in the model. Specifically, agreement between modeled and measured sunglint reflectance is found for both negative and positive-contrasting oil slicks. These results indicate that surface roughness and reflectance from oil films can be estimated given any solar/viewing geometry and surface wind. Further, this model might be used to correct the sunglint effect on thick oil under similar illumination conditions. Once proven possible, it may allow existing laboratory-based models, which estimate oil thickness after such corrections, to be applied to remote sensing imagery.

  2. Genetic algorithms in oil industry. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez-Langs, Oswaldo [Departamento de Informatica, Estadistica y Telematica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-05-15

    The study presented here is directed to accumulate the body of knowledge which is up to now built around the techniques of Evolutionary Computation in the Oil Industry, particularly in the Exploration and Production business. The models presented cover specific aspects of application in reservoir characterization; nevertheless applications in other aspects are shown. The results are directed to improve the satisfaction by the performance of the methods of simulation of those properties in the reservoir characterization that have impact in the petroleum production. Additionally a brief framework is presented for the conception of evolutionary engineered reservoir characterization systems.

  3. Inspector shortage in the offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varcoe, David

    2002-07-01

    According to an article published by the Scotsman Online, a critical shortage of offshore safety inspectors is placing the lives of thousands of North Sea oil men at risk. Key improvements in the offshore safety regime, which followed the Piper Alpha disaster, are being compromised by the inability of front-line inspectors from the UK government's Health and Safety Executive to police platforms in the UK sector of the North Sea. The present article discusses the safety situation in the petroleum industry of the North Sea.

  4. Comparison of oil refining and biodiesel production process between screw press and n-hexane techniques from beauty leaf feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.

    2016-07-01

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.

  5. Application Closed-End Oscillating Heat Pipe for Essential Oil Condensation of the Small Scale Essential Oil Refiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakultala WANNAPAKHE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the design and building of a small scale essential oil refiner by using heat pipes for essential oil condensation. The device structure of the small scale essential oil refiner was divided into 3 sections as follows: 1 the boiler with a heater for heating, 2 the vapor tube, and 3 the condenser unit. Three patterns of condenser unit were investigated: 1 condensation by water circulation, 2 condensation using heat pipes, and 3 condensation using heat pipes with water circulation. The temperature for testing was 80, 90 and 100 °C. A closed-end oscillating heat pipe (CEOHP was used in this research. The inner diameter of the heat pipe was 2 mm. R123 was used as the working fluid. 500 g of kaffir lime peels were used for each test with a time of 2 hours. It was found that the highest quantity of essential oil was 1.4 cc when using a CEOHP with a water circulation unit at 100 °C.

  6. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  7. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Corrosion in pipelines is one of the major challenges faced by oil and gas industries all ... compared to other methods and thus constant monitoring is needed to achieve optimum efficiency. ... Due to the natural composition of crude oil with.

  8. The Mexican Oil Industry: Governance, Resource and Social Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Accessed October 16, 2011) 2 Ibid 3 Ignacio Quesada Morales, “ Pemex Business Strategy”, March 2011, http://contratos.pemex.com/portal/files/content...production, refining, etc. 10 That same year, Petroleos Mexicanos, or Pemex , the state owned oil company was created. 11 In 1940, a constitutional...JubaksJournal/TheOilSqueezeHasJustBegun.aspx?page=2 (Accessed October 14, 2011) 15 Jesse Bogan, “With Easy Oil Gone, Pemex Sobers Up”, Forbes, May 7, 2009

  9. Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis Using a Byproduct Obtained from Palm Oil Refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nascentes dos Santos Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative route to produce biodiesel is based on esterification of free fatty acids present in byproducts obtained from vegetable oil refining, such as palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD. PFAD is a byproduct of the production of edible palm oil, which contains 96 wt.% of free fatty acids. The purpose of this work was to study biodiesel synthesis via esterification of PFAD with methanol and ethanol, catalyzed by commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM, in a solvent-free system. The effects of reaction parameters such as type of lipase, enzyme amount, type of alcohol, alcohol amount, and enzyme reuse were studied. Fatty acid conversion of 93% was obtained after 2.5 h of esterification reaction between PFAD and ethanol using 1.0 wt.% of Novozym 435 at 60°C.

  10. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, A. [Awaken Consulting, Shropshire, Herefordshire (United Kingdom); Den Haan, K.H.

    2013-08-15

    In this nineteenth annual report on European downstream oil industry safety performance, 2012 statistics are presented on work-related personal injuries for the industry's own employees and contractors. Data were received from 38 CONCAWE Member Companies representing approximately 98% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last nineteen years are also highlighted and the data are compared to similar statistics from related industries. This report also presents the fourth year of results for Process Safety Performance Indicators from CONCAWE members.

  11. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, A. [Awaken Consulting, Shropshire, Herefordshire (United Kingdom); Den Haan, K.H.

    2012-07-15

    In this eighteenth annual report on European downstream oil industry safety performance, 2011 statistics are presented on work-related personal injuries for the industry's own employees and contractors. Data were received from 34 CONCAWE Member Companies representing approximately 96% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last eighteen years are also highlighted and the data are compared to similar statistics from related industries. This report also presents the third year of results for Process Safety Performance Indicators from CONCAWE members.

  12. Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Okechukwu Onukwuli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced through transesterification of refined cotton seed oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH as a catalyst using batch mode. The physicochemical properties of cotton seed oil and biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine was characterized through ASTM standards for fuel tests. The functional groups of the biodiesel were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of key parameters like reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst concentration and methanol/oil molar ratio were determined using batch mode. These process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The significance of the different process parameters and their combined effects on the transesterification efficiency were established through a full factorial central composite design. The results obtained are in good agreement with published data for other vegetable oil biodiesel as well as various international standards for biodiesel fuel. An optimum yield of 96% was achieved with optimal conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 55 °C; time, 60 min; and catalyst concentration, 0.6%. This investigation has shown that cotton seed oil from Nigeria can be used to produce biodiesel.

  13. Thoughts on Structure Adjustment of China's Refining Industry and Recommendations on Improving Economy of Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xianghong

    2002-01-01

    @@By the end of 1998 China boasted 220 refineries with a totalcrude processing capacity of 262 Mt/a. The average refinerysize at that time was 1.194 Mt/a. Refineries with processingcapacity exceeding 5.0 Mt/a accounted for only 21.26%,while the capacity of single refining units were also smallthat could not conform with the economy of scale. China'srefining industry is faced with a tough task of structureadjustment.   

  14. Thoughts on Structure Adjustment of China's Refining Industry and Recommendations on Improving Economy of Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ By the end of 1998 China boasted 220 refineries with a totalcrude processing capacity of 262 Mt/a. The average refinerysize at that time was 1.194 Mt/a. Refineries with processingcapacity exceeding 5.0 Mt/a accounted for only 21.26%,while the capacity of single refining units were also smallthat could not conform with the economy of scale. China'srefining industry is faced with a tough task of structureadjustment.

  15. Whether integrating refining and petrochemical business can provide opportunities for development of petrochemical industry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoran M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 90s of last century both the petroleum industry and petrochemical industry have operated in difficult circumstances. In particularly, margins of petroleum and petrochemical industry were exacerbated during global economic crisis in 2008-2009 years. At that time, as one option that could be the solution, the global analysts had started to more intense investigate the benefits of Refining-Petrochemical Integration. Shortly afterwards, more and more petroleum refineries and petrochemical manufacturers began to see the future in this kind of operational, managerial, marketing and commercial connection. This paper evaluates, in particular, the achieved level of integration of refinery and petrochemical businesses in Central and South-Eastern Europe. And specifically, the paper identifies current capabilities and future chances of linking this kind of integration between Serbian refining and petrochemical players. The viability of integration between possible actors and benefits of every single refining-petrochemical interface in Serbia depend on many factors, and therefore each integrated system is unique and requires prior serious Cost Benefit Analysis.

  16. Industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemelä, J. R.K.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available High oleic sunflower oil has been developed for some special purposes where a good oxidation stability is needed and a healthy fatty acid profile is preferred. The oil is especially suitable for deep fat frying. These industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil were part of the AIR-project CT 920687 "Utilisation of Sunflower Oils in Industrial Frying Operations". High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO was tested against the traditional oils and fats in two industrial deep fat frying applications, namely crisps and prefried frozen french fries. The frying trials took place in Raisio Groups factories in Pyhanta and Vihanti, Finland in 1993 and 1994. According to the trials, high oleic sunflower oil is very suitable for deep fat frying. Problems occurred when a hard fat was substituted for a liquid oil in the preparation of prefrozen French Fries. These problems could be partly overcome by adjustments in the processing line.

  17. Reform and Opening of China's Onshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yan; Wei Fang

    1995-01-01

    @@ CNPC is Aimed to be Reformed into a State-Run Holding Corporation The management structure of China's oil industry has experience several major changes. CPNC's predecessor is the Ministry of Petroleum Industry (MOPI).

  18. Alberta petroleum industry activity and oil economics. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This report, largely in graphic form, presents the following information on current petroleum industry activity in Alberta: number of oil and gas parcels requested for public tender and their average price, number of drilling rigs, capital raised by oil and gas companies in Canada, changes in federal and provincial oil/gas fiscal systems since 1985, Alberta crude oil producer netbacks, maps showing major oil play economics and intensive oil and gas activity, heavy oil and in-situ bitumen production, and project costs. 10 figs.

  19. UK Oil and Gas Industry: Risks and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Oil and gas industry is a developing industry, which faces multiple risks. A brief review of the industry is presented, followed by an overview of the risk management. A literature review which includes empirical studies and theories is provided. The purpose of this paper is the identification and quantification of risks in oil and gas industry. Also the impact of the existing risk management on the performance and value of the firms is examined. The data for the research were collected fro...

  20. The Structure and Fundamental Problems of Vegetable Oil Industry in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Azabagaoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 167 oil factories in Turkey, with a capacity not only to meet Turkey's domestic demand but also for export purpose. Of these, 8 are concerned with the production and the marketing of margarine, while the others process unrefined and refined oil. In Turkey, the vegetable oil industry has a capacity about 6 million tons of seed grounding and 3 million tons of unrefined oil capacity. In addition, there is also a 950 thousand tons capacity for margarine production. However, the insufficiency of unrefined material has resulted low level capacity usage. For example, the capacity usage was realized as 50% for seed grounding, 47% for unrefined oil production and 40% for margarine production. In this research, the various problems such as quality of unrefined material, finance, storage, etc faced by the vegetable oil industry, from the supliance of unrefined material to domestic and international marketing have been investigated. This study was carried out thoroughly in Turkey for aiming to identify measurements in order to vegetable oil industry could operate near to full capacity.

  1. Science, technology and environmental demands: innovations in oil refining process; Ciencia, tecnologia e demandas ambientais: inovacoes nos processos de refino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao do Departamento de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica

    2003-07-01

    This paper consists in a survey about changes in oil refining technologies caused by an increase of external environmental restrictions, that create demands for innovations related to the reduction of environmental impacts in refining processes and products. The environmental restrictions considered in this paper include state regulation, like the control over solid and gas wastes and the control over levels of air pollutants on refined products. Another group of restrictions include market restrictions, mainly the restrictions for obtaining 'green' quality labels, like ISO 14000. The paper will show the main environmental restrictions for the Paulinia Refinery (REPLAN), and its reaction in introducing innovations in refining processes. Some aspects of the innovations observed will be described, like the kind of innovation (process or product), the institutions that created innovations and their resources, the knowledge fields applied, and another characteristics for the evaluation of environmental influence over the development on oil refining innovations. (author)

  2. China's Oil Industry Seeking Overseas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CD News

    1996-01-01

    @@ China is actively exploring international oil markets,while making the efforts to tap huge oil and gas resources domestically, with the participation of foreign firms,according to a senior Chinese oil official.

  3. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  4. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  5. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  6. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  7. Xinjiang--Large-scale Oil Industrial Base on Horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Record-high daily oil production The daily crude production reached 61,000 tons in Northwest China's Xinjiang Autonomous Region on June 6with the dail production value rising to 110 million yuan,setting a record high for the production and output value of a single day in the regional oil and gas industrial history.Xinjiang is rich in the oil and gas resources. With the oil reserves estimated at 20.9 billion tons, this region is regarded as the important strategic replacement base for China's onshore oil industry.

  8. Is oil consumption constrained by industrial structure? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y. Q.; Duan, H. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines whether oil consumption is constrained by output value, applying a cointegration test and an ECM to the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors in China during 1985-2013. The empirical results indicate that oil consumption in China is constrained by the industrial structure both in the short run and in the long run. Regardless of the time horizon considered, the oil consumption constraint is the lowest for the primary sector as well as the highest for the tertiary sector. This is because the long-term industrial structure formation and the technological level of each sector underlines the existence of long run equilibrium and short run fluctuations of output value and oil consumption, with the latter being constrained by adjustments in industrial structure. In order to decrease the constraining effect of output value on oil consumption, the government should take some measures to improve the utilization rate, reducing the intensity of oil consumption, and secure the supply of oil.

  9. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  10. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  11. Research Progress on Extraction and Refining of Citrus Essential Oil%柑橘类精油的粗提及浓缩精制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆胜民; 施迎春; 杨颖

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil from citrus is a large type of natural flavors and fragrances, which is popularly used in food industry, daily chemical products and health care field. Combined with our previous research results, the development of oil extraction methods from citrus peel and their effects on oil quality were summarized in this paper. The necessity of refining and the characteristic of each refining and concentration method were discussed. The advantages and application prospect of high-fold concentrated citrus essential oil were also stated. All these would help to widen ideas on quality up-grading and competitive power improvement for citrus essential oil in China.%柑橘类精油是天然香精香料中的一大类,在食品、日化及医疗保健行业具有广泛的应用.本文结合课题组的前期研究,论述了柑橘类精油提取方式的发展以及提取方法对精油品质的影响,阐述了对柑橘类精油进行浓缩精制的必要性和益处,探讨了浓缩精制方法的特点与高倍浓缩精油的发展前景,为提高我国柑橘类精油的品质和市场竞争力拓宽思路.

  12. Edible olive pomace oil concentrated in triterpenic acids, procedure of physical refining utilised for obtainment thereof and recovery of functional components present in the crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Méndez, Mª Victoria; Dobarganes, M. Carmen; Sánchez Moral, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Procedure of refining crude olive pomace oil obtained through centrifuging or decantation of the pomace, comprising the stage of filtration of the starting crude olive pomace oil carried out through filters having a pore size comprised in the interval from 0.1 to 20 microns and at a temperature below 70 C, preferentially between 35 and 45 C.

  13. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  14. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  15. The oil industry in France: contribution to the debate on energy; L'industrie petroliere en France contribution au debat sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Proposed by the professional body of the French oil industry, this document proposes a contribution of this body to the energy challenge. The authors first discuss the context and its evolution in terms of energy demand and of energy sources. They outline the necessary development of renewable energies. While giving recommendations, they state how the oil sector will support the economy and employment, how this sector will keep on exploring and producing hydrocarbons, how the refining activity needs to be adapted, how the oil logistics must evolve, and how the service station network is already evolving

  16. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (Polive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes.

  17. Innovating Petroleum Processing Technology to Push on Development of China's Petroleum Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Fusheng

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction The petroleum processing industry of China has been developing very fast. By the end of 1999 the total crude processing capacity of China reached 263 Mt/a, and 182 million tons of crude oils were processed in 1999. The annual average GDP growth in China is projected to be 7% during the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, while the corresponding growth in consumption of petroleum products is forecast to reach 4.7%.

  18. Petroleum Refining, Industrial Chemical, Drug, and Paper and Allied Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in refining and industrial chemical, drug, and paper manufacturing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in…

  19. [STATE OF THE SOIL IN THE TERRITORY OF THE CITY WITH THE DEVELOPED PETROLEUM-REFINING INDUSTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, I I; Suchkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014, there was performed the study of the soil in the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk. The concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum products on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk were determined. The evaluation of concentrations ofanthropogenic toxicants was carried out in Novokuibyshevsk by means of laboratory monitoring of environmental pollution. The obtained values were compared with the MPC or in the absence of MPC--with tentatively permissible concentrations (TPC) of chemicals in soil background concentrations in the Volga region of Samara region, as well as with previous studies of the soil of the city of Novokuibyshevsk in 2005. The studies revealed that in 2014, if compared with 2005, concentrations of heavy metals in soil on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk and within the city border decreased. There were obtained significant differences in the soil content ofcadmium, copper, lead, Nickel and zinc in 2005 and 2013-2014. Unlike the content of salts of heavy metals, the content of petroleum products in the soil over the past 9 years had tended to increase. The maximum concentration of petroleum products was detected in the industrial zone of CHP-1. The number of samples with extremely high pollution rised from 4% to 8%, with high pollution--from 10% to 12%. Also, an increase in the number of samples with the level of 2-20 background values accounted from 56% to 66%. The gain in concentrations of petroleum in the soil on the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk was associated not only with the activity of the enterprises of oil refining and petrochemical industry, but also with the elevating number of road transport.

  20. Sustainable Development - An Oil Industry View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langcake, Peter [Shell International BV, (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    For Shell companies, according to this presentation, sustainable development is an umbrella concept that they have been dealing with for many years and that has recently been given increased focus. Over the years, concern about the depletion of non-renewable resources has been overshadowed by concern about the depletion of renewable sources such as fisheries, forests etc. and climate changes. The primary contribution that Shell can make to sustainable development now and in the foreseeable future is in the economic sphere. Some examples of the involvement of Shell are given: (1) Shell companies have for many years invested considerably in forestry projects and recently some have developed businesses in biomass to power generation projects. Some have projects in photovoltaics. (2) In the Camisea project in Peru, a Shell company is putting the sustainability principle to work by integrating economic, environmental and social aspects. Two large oil reserves lie on either side of the Camisea River. The area is home to several indigenous peoples; it borders a national park and is rich in biodiversity. (3) In Malaysia, Shell is exploiting rich offshore gas fields. These projects are examples of technology cooperation and capability building that contribute to Malaysia`s plans for becoming fully industrialized by 2020

  1. Measurements and modeling of physical properties for oil and biomaterial refining

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitseva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate a set of binary systems for developing necessary thermodynamic models for oil and biofuel industries. Extensive experimental work was performed for supplying the necessary vapor – liquid equilibria (VLE) and excess enthalpy data for the selected systems. Binary systems with C4 hydrocarbons + alkenes, alcohols and ketones were measured due to their importance in production of fuel additives. Static total pressure apparatus was utilized for these iso...

  2. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to ascertain the contribution of women in the oil industry. It also looked at the opportunities available and the barriers that prevent women from attaining higher heights in the oil industry. Findings from the study show several factors (institutional, cultural, social and personal that prevent women from being employed in the oil industry. The study has implication for policy formulation. It brings to the fore, the fact that governments must institute affirmative action policies to bridge the gap between men and women at all level of the Ghanaian society.

  3. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  4. Fiscal 1997 project on the R and D of industrial scientific technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the results of the R and D of technologies to invent original high-functional materials (development of precise structure control materials for enhancement of oil refining); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Dokusoteki kokino zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (sekiyu seisei kodoka seimitsu kozo seigyo zairyo kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the R and D of technologies for creating original high-functional materials under the R and D system of industrial scientific technology. Japan chemical Innovation Institute (JCII) is conducting intensive joint researches under consignment from NEDO with private companies, universities and national research institutes. Among those, the paper reported the fiscal 1997 results of the following two researches conducted as development of precise structure control materials for enhancement of oil refining: precision catalytic polymerization and multi-dimensional space polymer. As to the precision catalytic polymerization, the paper is aimed at developing base technologies for the molecular weight and stereoregularity by which remarkable improvement in performance of addition polymerization type polymer can be expected, and on the development of a polymerization catalyst which arbitarily controls the primary structure such as end group structure and of a precision addition polymerization process. Subthemes are addition polymerization with limit and oriented catalytic polymerization. In relation to multi-dimensional space polymer, the paper is aimed at developing highly selective polymerization technology of aromatic compounds using enzyme related catalysts and synthesis technology of regular structure polymer, and synthesis technology of new polymer group having a new chain pattern except covalent bond/new polymer group having characteristics in three-dimensional space geometric structure. 244 refs,, 160 figs., 94 tabs.

  5. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  6. Formation and reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in peanut oil during physical refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Li, Linyan; Jia, Hanbing; Wang, Yuting; Shen, Mingyue; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, lab-scale physical refining processes were investigated for their effects on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters. The potential precursors, partial acylglycerols and chlorines were determined before each refining step. 3-MCPD esters were not detected in degummed and bleached oil when the crude oils were extracted by solvent. While in the hot squeezed crude oils, 3-MCPD esters were detected with low amounts. 3-MCPD esters were generated with maximum values in 1-1.5h at a certain deodorizing temperature (220-260°C). Chlorine seemed to be more effective precursor than partial acylglycerol. By washing bleached oil before deodorization with ethanol solution, the precursors were removed partially and the content of 3-MCPD esters decreased to some extent accordingly. Diacetin was found to reduce 3-MCPD esters effectively.

  7. Lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquegneau, Christian [Polytechnical University of Mons (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The paper brings some cases and presents the general principles, what the IEC 62305 international standard says, the warning and avoidance and the conclusion about lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants.

  8. A model approach to vanadium involvement in crude oils and their refining. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, G.

    1994-04-01

    Heavy crude oils contain a large amount of metal impurities, primarily vanadium species. These comprise both vanadyl porphyrins and vanadyl non-porphyrins. During hydrotreating of crude oils (reaction with H{sub 2} over a supported Mo/S catalyst at 350-- 450{degrees}C) for upgrading to usable products the V impurities are converted to insoluble V sulfides which help poison the fixed-bed Mo catalyst. Very little is known about the chemistry occurring at a detailed level; basically, it is known that initial impurities are vanadyl (VO){sup 2+}, i.e., V{sup IV} species, and that during the refining processes they are reduced and sulfided into polymers, i.e., the metal is reduced from V{sup IV} to {approximately} V{sup III}, the oxo is lost, the organic ligation is lost, and the metal is sulfided. In what order and in precisely what manner this overall transformation is occurring is not known. The essence of our research efforts is to develop vanadium chemistry of relevance to this area and to thereby provide fundamental information on the transformations occurring and that might prove useful in catalyst design. Our work has encompassed the study of the reactivity chemistry of [VO]{sup 2+} species and the formation and characterization of V/S aggregates under conditions designed to mimic those present under hydrotreating conditions. Thus, we are applying an Inorganic Model Approach to provide insights into the chemistry occurring during the refining process. Our emphasis has been on definitive characterization of products using a variety of physical techniques,including X-ray crystallography. Our work covers the following areas, each of which is described: studies in V/O{sup 2+} chemistry; V{sup III}/O chemistry; V/S complexes; and absorption of [VO]{sup 2+} groups on catalyst surfaces.

  9. Recovery assessment of a refined-oil impacted and fire ravaged mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitoloju, Adebayo A; Are, Taofeek; Junaid, Kolade A

    2007-04-01

    An assessment of the diversity and abundance of macrobenthic community in a refined-oil (petrol) impacted and fire-ravaged mangrove ecosystem within the vicinity of a marine receipt terminal facility (Atlas Cove) serving as a distribution and pump station for refined products was carried out. The mangrove ecosystem was subjected to massive petrol spillage from a leaking pipeline and eventual fire outbreak. Following rehabilitation activities, a recovery assessment of the impacted ecosystem was carried out. The field surveys revealed that the petrol leakage and fire outbreak resulted in a near complete destruction of the mangrove ecosystem around the Atlas Cove depot, with macrobenthic species diversity index ranging between 0-0.4, compared to 0.78-0.87 in the control stations. The dominant early arrivals or colonizers of the impacted stations areas were Clibanarius africanus and Callinectes amnicola. Early signs of recovery of the impacted area were observed within about two and a half (2 1/2) to three (3) months, based on diversity and abundance indices respectively. The period of early signs of recovery also coincide with an observed reduction in the total hydrocarbon content (THC) levels in the sediment collected from the impacted stations by about nine folds from 3.67 mg/kg to 0.42 mg/kg within 3 months. Despite the apparent signs of recovery, the need for long-term monitoring of the impacted stations was discussed.

  10. Outlook for the Chinese Oil Industry--21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yongkang; Pei Ying; Guo Yi

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is one of the world major oil producers and also one of the major oil consumers. The future of Chinese oil industry will not only severely constrain the growth of the national economy, but also yield dramatic impact on the economy of Asian-Pacific region and the other parts of the world. Therefore, it has aroused greater concerns of Chinese government and the international community.

  11. The future of the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Changes are under way that are moving the oil and gas industry in Norway toward the creation of global energy companies in a global energy market. According to the author, three key forces are creating the changes of oil and gas companies comprising a global market for energy, growing demand - ample supply, and the end-user. 5 figs.

  12. New business models for state companies in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanţău Adrian D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature business models are defined as architecture of the value creation, profit formula, key processes and key resources. For the oil industry there is a need to develop new business models that have to describe the specificity of this industry and to take into consideration the new objectives after the global oil crisis. Although crude oil price has dropped dramatically since second quarter 2014, OPEC raised crude output to the its highest value in more than three years as it pressed on with a strategy to protect market share and pressure competing producers. The objective of this article is to identify and promote new business models for state companies in the oil industry. The research methodology is based on case studies that present and analyze the business models in two of the main oil producers Iran and Iraq, where the state companies are playing an important role in this industry. The subject is relevant because the business models for state companies in the oil industry have to be modified after the oil crisis and these are not real analysed in the scientific literature. Furthermore, the aspects discussed in the current article represent the main factors that will influence investment prospects of companies in the field in the next decade.

  13. Phase equilibria study of systems composed of refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipert, Erika C. D' Anton [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering (DEA-FEA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6121, Zip Code 13083-862, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Christianne E.C., E-mail: chrisrodrigues@usp.br [LES, Department of Food Engineering (ZEA-FZEA), University of Sao Paulo (USP), P.O. Box 23, Zip Code 13635-900, Pirassununga, SP (Brazil); Meirelles, Antonio J.A. [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering (DEA-FEA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6121, Zip Code 13083-862, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Refining of vegetable oils. > Deacidification of babassu oil by liquid-liquid extraction using ethanol as solvent. > Distribution coefficient values of lauric acid and neutral oil were evaluated. > The carbon chain length of the molecules influenced the solubility of the system. - Abstract: Deacidification of vegetable oils can be performed using liquid-liquid extraction as an alternative method to the classical chemical and physical refining processes. This paper reports experimental data for systems containing refined babassu oil, lauric acid, ethanol, and water at 303.2 K with different water mass fractions in the alcoholic solvent (0, 0.0557, 0.1045, 0.2029, and 0.2972). The dilution of solvent with water reduced the distribution coefficient values, which indicates a reduction in the loss of neutral oil. The experimental data were used to adjust the NRTL equation parameters. The global deviation between the observed and the estimated compositions was 0.0085, indicating that the model can accurately predict the behavior of the compounds at different levels of solvent hydration.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CHINA'S OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wenpu; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Environmental Protection in Offshore Field Development Since its establishment in 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)has paid attention to marine environment protection, the main task in environmental protection management is to take advanced and effective measures to minimize the influence of oil development practice on marine ecologic environment.

  15. Fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol in refined edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, B D; Chiodini, A; Garst, J; Granvogl, M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and that of glycidol have been reported in refined edible oils. Since then a wealth of research has been published on the factors influencing the formation of these contaminants in foods. It can be noted that the predominant precursors in a given matrix will not necessarily be the same as in other matrices. Further, proven relationships in the past between precursors responsible for free MCPD or free glycidol formation will not necessarily be valid for their fatty acid-esterified counterparts. This review attempts to summarise the current status of the literature as it pertains to the reasons surrounding the manifestation of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in oils and fats. Recent efforts to mitigate the levels of these contaminants were highlighted and put into the context of their respective reaction matrices. As more accurate occurrence data for MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in other foods are collected, more targeted mitigation experiments can be formulated with respect to the reaction matrices under investigation.

  16. Physical refining of edible oils using nitrogen as stripping gas. Process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciani Constante, E.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of nitrogen as a stripping gas in physical refining of edible oils represents a technological improvement with potential advantages such as the possibilities of recovering high quality deodorized distillates and eliminating pollution.
    The objectives of the present paper are to study, evaluate and optimize, as far as possible, independent variables involved in the process (nitrogen flow, operating temperature and the height of the oil layer inside the deodorizer in reference to the quality of the obtained oils as well as the manufacturing requirements.
    All the experiments were carried out with sunflower oil in a discontinuous deodorizer with a 200 Kg capacity. A 4x4 latin square experimental design was used, consisting of three factors, each of which had four different levels.
    The results led to the establishment of charts that allow to determine the most suitable conditions in which to carry out the processing in accord with the desired quality of the finished oil and the functional objectives of the factory. These charts are presented in the paper. The results were checked by another set of experiments.

    La utilización de nitrógeno como gas de arrastre en la refinación física de aceites comestibles representa un avance tecnológico con ventajas potenciales, como la posibilidad tanto de recoger destilados de desodorización de alta calidad como de eliminar polución.
    Los objetivos del presente trabajo son estudiar, evaluar y optimizar, tanto como sea posible, las variables que intervienen en el proceso (flujo de nitrógeno, temperatura de operación y altura de la capa de aceite en el desodorizador en función de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos así como de los requerimientos de producción.
    Los ensayos se han realizado con aceite de girasol en un desodorizador discontinuo de 200 kg de capacidad. Se ha utilizado un diseño de experimento en cuadrado latino de 4x4, constituido por tres

  17. Supporting the oil industry's commitment to safe operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Haan, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    The refining industry values the safety of its employees and staff working in its installations, as well as those living in communities near to its installations. Personal safety and safe operations are prerequisites for an industry that routinely produces and manages flammable and potentially explosive products. For this reason, safety considerations have been a major focus for CONCAWE and our member companies for as long as our association has existed.

  18. Palm oil based surfactant products for petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permadi, P.; Fitria, R.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    In petroleum production process, many problems causing reduced production are found. These include limited oil recovery, wax deposit, asphaltene deposit, sludge deposit, and emulsion problem. Petroleum-based surfactant has been used to overcome these problems. Therefore, innovation to solve these problems using surfactant containing natural materials deserves to be developed. Palm oil-based surfactant is one of the potential alternatives for this. Various types of derivative products of palm oil-based surfactant have been developed by SBRC IPB to be used in handling problems including surfactant flooding, well stimulation, asphaltene dissolver, well cleaning, and wax removal found in oil and gas industry.

  19. National Oil Companies and the Future of the Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the 1970s, a small number of national oil companies (NOCs) have dominated the world supply of oil and other hydrocarbons. Despite the huge influence that NOCs have on political economy, systematic scholarship remains surprisingly thin. I examine the factors that explain the wide variation in the strategy and performance of NOCs and survey the literature that has suggested the many ways in which NOCs play pivotal political and economic roles in resource-rich countries. As we look to...

  20. Rapid Development of China's Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haimin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Founded on February 15, 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has experienced two decades of rapid development, in which the annual offshore oil production rose dramatically to 23.13 million tons in 2001 from 90,000 tons in 1982while the total assets jumped to 72 billion yuan from 2.8 billion yuan, but the total employees dropped to 21,000 people from 30,000. This offshore oil giant generated a profit of 9.2 billion yuan in 2001 and turned over 4 billion yuan in taxes to the State with the crude production cost lowered to US$9 per barrel.

  1. Oil and power industries targeted as war flares in Levant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-08-15

    More oil price records were set in July (see 'The Month in Brief'). This time, the cause was the bombing of Lebanon by the Israeli airforce, following the abduction of two Israeli soldiers by Iranian-backed guerrillas from Hizbollah, operating from southern Lebanon. Brent and WTI futures both rose above $78 a barrel on fears that the fighting would spread to other Middle Eastern countries. Israeli aeroplanes bombed oil and electricity installations inside Lebanon, causing severe shortages. Rocket attacks by Hizbollah on the northern Israeli city of Haifa led to cuts in throughputs at a nearby refining and petrochemical complex. (author)

  2. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  3. Mechanism of formation of 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters under conditions of the vegetable oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmidrkal, Jan; Tesařová, Markéta; Hrádková, Iveta; Berčíková, Markéta; Adamčíková, Aneta; Filip, Vladimír

    2016-11-15

    3-MCPD esters are contaminants that can form during refining of vegetable oils in the deodorization step. It was experimentally shown that their content in the vegetable oil depends on the acid value of the vegetable oil and the chloride content. 3-MCPD esters form approximately 2-5 times faster from diacylglycerols than from monoacylglycerols. It has been proved that the higher fatty acids content in the oil caused higher 3-MCPD esters content in the deodorization step. Neutralization of free fatty acids in the vegetable oil before the deodorization step by alkaline carbonates or hydrogen carbonates can completely suppress the formation of 3-MCPD esters. Potassium salts are more effective than sodium salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Analysis on oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Sheng; Kuang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Xin; Dai, Fei-Hong

    2012-06-01

    By measuring the particulate matter of oil fume which is over 10 microm or below 10 microm separately and using microradiography and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), it is found out the distributing characteristic of oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission. The result shows that the diameter of the oil fume particles which was sedimentated in the kitchen is between 10-400 microm, the concentration peak value is between 10-100 microm. The diameter of oil fume aerosol is mostly smaller than 1 microm, while the concentration peak value is between 0.063-0.109 microm. In addition, the mass concentration peak value is between 6.560-9.990 microm. Through the analysis to the physical characteristics of oil fume from catering industry cooking emissions, the eigenvalue of the oil fume has been found and the feature matter for monitoring the oil fume has been discovered to provide a reasonable standard for controlling and monitoring the catering industry cooking emission.

  5. Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shires, T.M.; Loughran, C.J. [URS Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This document is a compendium of currently recognized methods and provides details for all oil and gas industry segments to enhance consistency in emissions estimation. This Compendium aims to accomplish the following goals: Assemble an expansive collection of relevant emission factors for estimating GHG emissions, based on currently available public documents; Outline detailed procedures for conversions between different measurement unit systems, with particular emphasis on implementation of oil and gas industry standards; Provide descriptions of the multitude of oil and gas industry operations, in its various segments, and the associated emissions sources that should be considered; and Develop emission inventory examples, based on selected facilities from the various segments, to demonstrate the broad applicability of the methodologies. The overall objective of developing this document is to promote the use of consistent, standardized methodologies for estimating GHG emissions from petroleum industry operations. The resulting Compendium documents recognized calculation techniques and emission factors for estimating GHG emissions for oil and gas industry operations. These techniques cover the calculation or estimation of emissions from the full range of industry operations - from exploration and production through refining, to the marketing and distribution of products. The Compendium presents and illustrates the use of preferred and alternative calculation approaches for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions for all common emission sources, including combustion, vented, and fugitive. Decision trees are provided to guide the user in selecting an estimation technique based on considerations of materiality, data availability, and accuracy. API will provide (free of charge) a calculation tool based on the emission estimation methodologies described herein. The tool will be made available at http://ghg.api.org/.

  6. 黄瓜籽油的精炼与分析%Refining and composition analysis of cucumber seed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝莉; 李丽华; 张金生; 郁永清; 周雅兰

    2011-01-01

    Crude cucumber seed oil was extracted by Soxhlet method, and after degumming, deacidifica-tion, decolorization and deodorizing, the refined oil was obtained. The research showed that after laboratory refining,the acid value,peroxide value,color and phospholipids content of the product was nearly up to 2nd level of the soybean oil. After refining,the content of saturated fatty acid increased, while that of un-saturated fatty acids decreased slightly; but great loss of metal elements were caused by refining, especially the content of K, which got a loss of 1 505.0 μg/g.%通过索氏法提取黄瓜籽油,经过脱胶、脱酸、脱色和脱臭后,得到精炼油.考察精炼对油中各组分的影响,结果表明:实验室精炼后,黄瓜籽油的酸值、过氧化值、色泽和磷脂含量基本达到国家二级浸出大豆油的标准;精炼后,饱和脂肪酸含量升高,不饱和脂肪酸含量略有降低;而常量金属元素在精炼过程损耗较大,其中K含量减小幅度显著,达到1 505.0μg/g.

  7. The influence of natural tocopherols during thermal oxidation of refined and partially hydrogenated soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of refined and partially hydrogenated soybean oils, with iodine values between 60 and 130, tocopherol-stripped or not by aluminium oxide treatment, were submitted to thermal oxidation, at 180 °C (during for 10 hours. Samples were collected at 0, 2, 5, 8 and 10 hours, for the determination of dimers and polymers (degradation compounds and tocopherols. The relation of iodine value to the formation of dimers and polymers and the role of originally present tocopherols in the protection of fats and oils against thermal degradation was verified. The degradation curves for tocopherols showed that α and γ -tocopherols were destroyed faster than β and δ -tocopherols. In addition, the degradation rate of tocopherols was greater in the more saturated fats. The formation of dimers and polymers was greater in the oil than in the hydrogenated samples and in the samples treated with aluminium oxide with respect to the original, untreated samples.Muestras de aceites refinados y parcialmente hidrogenados de soja, con índices de yodo entre 60 y 130, tratadas o no con óxido de aluminio para eliminar los tocoferoles naturales presentes en los aceites, fueron sometidas a termoxidación, a 180 °C durante 10 horas. Se tomaron muestras en los tiempos 0, 2, 5, 8 y 10 horas, para determinación de dímeros y polímeros (compuestos de degradación y de tocoferoles. Se verificó la relación del índice de yodo con la formación de dímeros y polímeros, y también el papel de los tocoferoles originales del aceite y de las grasas en la protección contra la degradación térmica. Las curvas de degradación de los tocoferoles mostraron la destrucción más rápida de α y γ -tocoferoles, respecto a β y δ-tocoferoles. Además, la degradación de los tocoferoles ocurrió a mayor velocidad en las grasas más saturadas. La formación de dímeros y polímeros fue mayor en el aceite que en las muestras hidrogenadas y en las muestras tratadas

  8. Oil Industry Activities in Ghana: Community Perceptions and Sustainable Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Agyei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and exploitation of oil reserves in Ghana has generated different expectations and reactions from the local population about the inevitable consequences for industrialization and economic development in the oil producing area. In pursuit of the perceptions and expectations of communities closer to the offshore operations, a mixture of semi-structured, open ended questions were randomly administered. In analyzing the perceptions and reactions of the local population to the prospects created by the oil discovery in commercial quantities, insights in sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR were considered. The study reveals that the people in the communities closer to the offshore operations share the same convictions and aspirations; that is they are comfortable with their existing sources of livelihood, afraid that these sources might be hurt from oil-related activities and demanding a just allocation of the expected economic benefits through a harmonization of local fishing, farming and oil extraction activities.

  9. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  10. 鱼油的提取方法及精制工艺探讨%Review on Extraction Methods and Refining Technics of Fish Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海磊; 罗庆华; 黄美娥

    2012-01-01

    The development and the utilization of fish oil have become a research hot spot in China and foreign country in recent years, and fish oil has been widely used in food, medicine, feed, chemical and other industries. The extraction methods, the refining technics and the latest development of fish oil were reviewed, and the potential problems were analyzed in order to provide valuable information for the optimization of extraction technology and the development of new technology of fish oil.%鱼油产品的开发利用已成为国内外研究的热点,被广泛应用于食品、医药、饲料、化工等行业.主要阐述了鱼油的提取方法、精制工艺及最新的研究动态,分析了发展过程中存在的问题,以期为鱼油提取技术的优化及新技术的研发提供参考.

  11. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  12. Les mutations du raffinage européen : contraintes et stratégies The European Refining Industry: Constraints and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Plus que toute autre région dans le monde, l'Europe occidentale a profondément ressenti dans son industrie du raffinage, le contrecoup des crises énergétiques et pétrolières des douze dernières années. A l'issue d'une première phase de rationalisation et de restructuration unique dans son histoire, elle se trouve à nouveau confrontée à des problèmes d'adaptation de son outil aux exigences quantitatives et qualitatives de sa demande de produits finis. Desservant un marché de plus en plus sensible aux concurrences intérieures et extérieures, le raffinage de l'Europe occidentale devra nécessairement effectuer des choix stratégiques, rationaliser et investir afin de faire face aux contraintes du marché des produits, gagner en flexibilité et accroître sa compétitivité. More than in any other region in the world, Western Europe's refining industry has been deeply hurt by the aftershocks of the energy and oil crises in the last twelve years. After an initial phase of unprecedented restructuring, this industry is once again having to face problems of adapting its equipment to the quantitative and qualitative requirements of the demand for refined products. Because it serves a market that is more and more sensitive to internal and external competition, Western European refining must necessarily make strategic choices, it must invest to maintain its competitiveness, i. e. its very survival.

  13. Probing into the Development Trends of Coal Chemical Industry, Refining Industry and Chemical Industry Integration%煤油化一体化发展趋势探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孥赤宏; 高敏惠

    2012-01-01

    与国外相比,我国煤化工产业虽起步较晚,但发展迅速,煤制烯烃、煤制油和煤制乙二醇等技术已处于世界领先地位。由于煤化工是资金和技术高度集中的产业,且受煤炭资源、水资源、资金、技术、环保法规等制约,因此发展建设时必须考虑经济性、碳排放、水资源、产品选择等诸方面因素。煤油化一体化可实现煤炭一清洁燃料一化工产品的协调发展,对于促进我国煤炭资源合理高效利用具有现实意义。%Compared with foreign coal chemical industry, although China's coal chemical industry began late, it developed fast. The technologies such as coal-to-olefin process, coal liquefaction process and coal-to-ethylene glycol process have been at world advanced position. Because coal funds and technologies are highly concentrated in coal chemical industry and the industry is restricted by coal resources, water resources, funds, technologies and environmental protection laws and regulations, various factors such as economics, carbon emission and water resources should be considered when development and construction are carried out. Coal chemical industry, refining industry and chemical industry integration can realize the coordinated development of coal, clean fuels and chemical products, having practical significance to promote rational and high-efficient utilization of China's coal resources.

  14. Índice de sustentabilidad industrial: refinería "Miguel Hidalgo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Barrera-Roldán

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El Índice de Sustentabilidad Industrial (ISI se presenta como un diseño metodológico cuya estructura general se construyó para valorar la sustentabilidad de las actividades y procesos asociados a la industria. En este trabajo se aplica para el caso de refinación de petróleo crudo. El citado diseño constituye una propuesta que incluye la selección de los compartimentos por evaluar y la metodología especial para obtener un índice numérico derivado de indicadores. El ISI permite determinar el estado del bienestar humano y del ecosistema en una entidad productiva particular -como lo es la industria de refinación y su entorno- en cuanto a sus relaciones e impactos, directos e indirectos. La estructura general del ISI es transdimensional pues vincula las dinámicas económicas, sociales y ecosistémicas y consta de tres grandes ramificaciones: la financiera, los aspectos intramuros y extramuros. A su vez, el sistema natural está dividido en los subsistemas agua, aire y suelo. La metodología se aplicó para el caso de la refinería "Miguel Hidalgo".

  15. Oil Trading Centre to Reopen in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil companies will likely resume activities at the oil trading centre in Shanghai this year, a move to further liberalize the once tightly controlled oil market. The centre will trade forward contracts for refined oil products,including gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene and fuel oil, industrial sources said.

  16. ECOLOGY SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL OIL RESERVES RECOVERY FOR SUSTAINABLE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Zyrin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effective technology for heavy oil recovery nowadays has a great importance, because of worsening geological conditions of the developed deposits, decreasing recovery factor, increasing the part of heavy oil. For the future sustainable development of oil producing industry the involved technologies must require energy effectiveness and ecological safety. The paper proves the enhanced oil recovery methods necessity for heavy oil deposits, highlighted thermal technologies as the most effective. But traditional thermal treatment technologies is a source of air pollutant emission, such as CO, NO etc. The calculation of emissions for traditional steam generator is provided. Besides, the paper shows the effectiveness of electrical enhanced oil recovery methods. The advantages of associated gas as a fuel for cogeneration plants is shown. The main approaches to implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry of Russia are defined. Conceptual view of СО2-EOR technologies potential within the context of sustainable development of oil and gas industry are presented. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are revealed.

  17. Climate change and the oil industry: Common problem, different strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Skjaerseth, Jon; Skodvin, Tora

    2003-01-01

    Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well-known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This volume presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. With an innovative analytical approach, the authors explain variations at three decision-making levels: withi...

  18. Conversion of by-products from the vegetable oil industry into biodiesel and its use in internal combustion engines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piloto-Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from by-products and waste materials can be an economical way of reducing traditional oil consumption and environmental problems. The by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry such as soapstock, acid oil and fatty acid distillates are suitable for producing biodiesel. The present work is a survey related to the use of these by-products to obtain biodiesel, covering not only the traditional and most widely used acid/base catalysis, but also solid and enzymatic catalysis. Details of the techniques are presented and compared. The advantages and drawbacks of the different approaches are mentioned and analyzed. The synthesis and use of by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry are covered in this work. The use of the obtained biodiesel in diesel engines is also included, demonstrating the disparity between the number of papers related to biodiesel production and engine performance assessment.

  19. Oils and fats: changes due to culinary and industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Muniz, F J

    2006-07-01

    Diets of developed countries contain substantial quantities of fat subjected to different processing and heat treatments. Heating in the presence of air produces oxidative and thermal degradations in the unsaturated acyl groups of triacylglycerols and in other unsaturated compounds present in the oils and fats. These changes modify the nutritional properties of culinary fat and lead to the formation of many oxidized and polymerized compounds that present higher polarity than that of the original triacylglycerols. Some aspects of lipid peroxidation that occur in heated and used frying oils will be briefly presented and discussed. This paper will focus on appropriate methodology for the assessment of fat alteration (e.g. chromatography) and the point at which any oil used for frying should be discarded. Polar material (PM) and triacylglycerol oligomer content (TOC) determinations constitute the basis of legislation for oil discarding in some European countries; we will try to open some debate on whether PM or TOC is preferred for oil discarding assessment. Correct frying performance helps to lengthen oil frying-life and to decrease the alteration content in the fried food. Because many factors are present in the culinary and industrial frying, the effect of the process itself and that of the food and the type of oil used will be reviewed. The present report analyses and describes a wide variety of topics related to frying performance, and their nutritional implications with a special focus on the behavior during frying of most consumed oils in Mediterranean countries.

  20. Chinese Oil Industry Faces New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.

  1. Phillips Active in China's Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ Phillips has attached great importance to its cooperation with China and committed itself to the Chinese energy industrial development, said Roy Lyons, the newly appointed President of Phillips China Inc., adding that he was glad to move to Beijing and optimistic about Phillips development in China.

  2. Application of enzymatic degumming on vegetable oils refining%酶法脱胶在植物油脂精炼中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐赢华; 王国敬; 李春; 戴大章

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic degumming is a novel vegetable oils degumming process and has many advantages compared with conventional water or acid degumming methods. Degumming oil can satisfy the requirement for physical refining, reduction in the amounts of water used and wastewater production and less energy consumption, higher refined oil yield can also be achieved in the enzymatic degumming. So it has attracted much attention from the global edible oil processing industries. With the development of enzymatic degumming techniques, many phospholipases (A1, A2, B and C) have been used for vegetable oil degumming. Phospholipases A1 (Lecitase Ultra) is most widely used in various vegetable oils’ degumming and shows extensive applicability and good prospects. Phospholipases B (PLB) can hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which are main components of phospholipids in the oil, into glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) and glycerylphosphorylethanolamine (GPE) respectively. GPC and GPE have been used in the field of food and pharmaceuticals industries because of their special physiological functions. So using PLB in oil degumming can further increase economic efficiency of enzymatic degumming. Phospholipases C (PLC) can remove the phosphoric acid from PC or PE, which can be hydrolyzed into diacylglycerol (DAG) and become a part of neutral oil. So utilization of PLC in the enzymatic degumming can not only decrease the phosphorus content of the oil, but also increase the yield of refined oil. The optimizations of enzymatic degumming process have been focused on some basic parameters (degumming temperature, enzyme dosage, pH value and added water amount, etc.) as well as acid pretreatment and dispersion of the buffered water and enzyme in the oil. Enzymatic degumming process has been developed from single enzyme degumming process to composite enzyme process, and also from application of free enzymes to immobilized enzymes. The degumming process of combination

  3. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  4. Oil Price Likely to Spur Chinese Industry Restructuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Concern over surging oil prices could mean the restructuring and upgrading of China's industries,according to a United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) official, who made those remarks in Changchun, the capital of Northeastern China's Jinlin Province, in early September, when the 4th Northeast Asia Investment and Trade Exno was held.

  5. Hard metal lung disease in an oil industry worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Patrícia Nunes; Vasconcelos, Ana Giselle Alves; Cavalcante, Lílian Loureiro Albuquerque; Marques, Vanessa Beatriz de Vasconcelos; Nogueira, Teresa Neuma Albuquerque Gomes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2009-12-01

    Hard metal lung disease, which manifests as giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is caused by exposure to hard metal dust. We report the case of an oil industry worker diagnosed with hard metal lung disease. The diagnosis was based on the clinical, radiological and anatomopathological analysis, as well as on pulmonary function testing.

  6. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  7. Climate change in the North and the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottem, Svein Vigeland; Moe, Arild

    2007-11-15

    How will climate change affect oil industry operations in the High North? The report analyses impacts in the North that are different from, or come in addition to, the impacts felt globally, from two angles: One outlining climate-related changes in nature and their impacts on oil industry operations, and the second discussing actual and possible policy responses and their impact. Forecasts and scenarios developed by climate scientists indicate that the situation is volatile. The climate and weather will be less predictable. Although the long term tendency is clear, there will be large variations in ice from year to year, with some seasons colder and with more ice than what has been 'normal' in recent years. The industry cannot count on areas remaining ice-free, and when it comes to fixed installations it will have to prepare for a situation in 2030 with maximum ice not much different than today. Climate policies are not likely to have a strong direct impact on the operations of oil companies in the north, but the climate development in the North is likely to impact other political processes, public opinion and consumers. In turn they may affect the conditions for oil industry operations. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs

  8. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the

  9. RISK MANAGEMENT IN UK CORPORATIONS: COMPARING FINANCIAL SERVICE INDUSTRY, OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY AND OTHER NON-FINANACIAL INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olaseinde, Olumide, K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The focus of this research is to determine whether UK corporations (comparing firms in the financial service industry, oil and gas industry and other non-financial industries) have a more formal developed risk management process. Despite regulations and recommendations (such as the Walker review (2009), the Turner review (2009), the Financial Reporting Council (2011) etc.) there are only limited information on how firms manage risk and how they report risk management processes to...

  10. Economic considerations for industrial firing of coal-oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, P D; George, T J; Joubert, J I; Bienstock, D

    1978-01-01

    Industrial users of oil and gas face an uncertain future with respect to fuel availability and economics. Direct conversion to coal may be beyond the physical-technical capabilities of a large segment of the industrial community. Conversion to COM (coal-oil mixtures) offers an intermediate, near-term solution which could reduce oil consumption by as much as 40 to 45%. In many cases, COM could be utilized in existing steam-raising equipment without a significant derating. In this paper key economic and technical considerations associated with the conversion of existing clean-fuel-burning industrial boilers to COM-firing are explored. The costs incurred in converting No. 6-oil-fired boilers to COM (50% coal) firing were ascertained for two units with steam capacities of 100,000 lb/hr and 500,000 lb/hr. Based on a discounted cash flow analysis, the fuel savings ensuing from COM substitution are of sufficient magnitude to warrant modifying a substantial number of industrial boilers to COM-firing. With Eastern bituminous coal priced at $1.05/10/sup 6/ Btu and 1% S No. 6 residual oil priced at $2.16/10/sup 6/ Btu, COM appears attractive for immediate consideration as an industrial boiler fuel, based purely on the profit motive. The concept of a commercial COM/coal preparation complex, producing low-ash and low-sulfur coal for established local markets and/or a premium low-sulfur COM fuel was also examined.

  11. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  12. EEE (environmental engineering economics) attributes for oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isreb, M. [Monash Univ., Churchill, Victoria (Australia). Gippsland School of Applied Sciences and Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This paper outlined the basic attributes of environmental engineering economics (EEE) with reference to the oil and gas industry in Australia. The paper was designed as a reference guide for policy-makers, educators, and environmental engineers. Methods of calculating the Pareto Optimum status were discussed, and environmental values and principles were identified. Air quality indicators were outlined. The paper considered multidisciplinary approaches to EEE and sustainable development, as well as the application of statistics and qualitative methods in addressing contemporary issues. The ethical aspects of environmental policies were discussed. Issues related to environmental toxicity and public health were also examined. Various taxation approaches and financial incentives were reviewed. Environmental laws related to the oil and gas industry were outlined. Environmental assessment procedures were presented. It was concluded that environmental regulations within the industry will help to ensure appropriate pollution reductions. 7 refs.

  13. Cost effective noise control in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meredith, Dave [Kinetics Noise Control Inc. (United States)], email: dmeredith@kineticsnoise.com

    2011-07-01

    Infrastructures in the oil and gas industry are often sources of excessive noise and vibration. This paper focuses on the work of Kinetics Noise Control, Inc. (KNC), an independent consulting firm specialized in corrective noise and vibration control products, to ensure that their clients' operations meet government and industry regulations. Using examples of different projects that KNC has been involved with in the oil and gas industry, the author presents new designs and approaches for reducing noise pollution. Noise and vibration control strategy should be integral parts of the concept design phase and aim at meeting regulatory requirements without loss of overall efficiency. To do this, specific elements, such as an extensive analysis of noise and vibration sources, site environmental conditions, the acoustics of the infrastructures, and of the materials used must be taken into account.

  14. Industrial case study on alkaloids purification by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotland, Alexis; Chollet, Sébastien; Diard, Catherine; Autret, Jean-Marie; Meucci, Jeremy; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Marchal, Luc

    2016-11-25

    The industrial potential of pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography has been evaluated by studying the purification of pharmaceutical ingredients at the pilot scale. For the first time, a scale up methodology based on both column capacity and mass transfer efficiency as invariants was developed. The purification of catharanthine and vindoline from an industrial crude extract of aerial parts of Catharanthus roseus, was used as a case of study. Toluene/CH3CN/water (4/1/5, v/v/v) was selected as biphasic solvent system, triethylamine as retainer in the organic stationary phase and sulphuric acid as displacer in the aqueous mobile phase. The separation intensification was performed on a 36mL CPC column equipped with 832 partition twin-cells. The combined effects of four parameters (displacer and retainer concentrations for intensive parameters, flow rate and rotational speed for extensive parameters) were studied by design of experiment in order to maximize both recoveries and productivities. Then, scale change was done on two larger columns (305mL and 1950mL of capacity) equipped with only 231 and 238 partition cells. For this step, it has been shown that the global mass transfer coefficient k0a (the efficiency of a column design) and the stationary phase retention (the capacity of the column) were relevant and useful scale up invariants. A CPC model based on acid-base equilibriums and interfacial mass transfer in continuously stirred tank reactors in series was used to predict fully separations on larger CPC column at the optimized operating conditions and to guide the CPC user in its scale-up strategy. The experimental validation on pilot CPC column, by injecting up to 150g of Catharanthus roseus crude extract on the 1950mL column highlighted the preservation of the separation quality, the non-linear character of the scale up in centrifugal partition chromatography and that a productivity of about 4kg of processed crude extract per day can be reached

  15. Formation mechanisms of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid diesters in refined palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil and related fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Craft, Brian D; Sandoz, Laurence; Nagy, Kornél

    2012-01-01

    Monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid esters are process contaminants generated during the deodorisation of edible oils. In particular, MCPD diesters are found in higher abundance in refined palm oil than other edible oils. In the present study, a series of model reactions mimicking palm oil deodorisation has been conducted with pure acylglycerols in the presence or absence of either organic or inorganic chlorine-containing compounds. Results showed that the bulk of MCPD diesters are formed above 200°C through the reaction of organochlorines with triacylglycerols (TAG). Additional experiments confirmed that this reaction can be initiated during palm oil deodorisation by hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas evolved through the thermal degradation of organochlorines present in the oil. Therein, the majority of the ultimately produced MCPD diesters are the result of HCl reacting with TAG, via protonation, followed by the elimination of a fatty acid residue. Two possible MCPD diester formation mechanisms are highlighted, both of which involve acyloxonium ion reactive intermediates. Investigations with pure TAG regio-isomers showed that MCPD ester formation is regioselective and the sn-1(3) position of the glycerol backbone is favoured.

  16. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xueguang; Shao, Zhihua; Bao, Weijia; Rong, Qiangzhou

    2017-01-01

    With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry. PMID:28241460

  17. Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... when left in oil will result in the production of off flavours, odours and colours ... such as palm kernel (40%), peanuts (49%), cotton seed. (36%), and soybean ... resulted in acceleration of rate deterioration (rancidity) in the oil.

  18. Producers, refiners view strategies to trim Texas' glut of ultralight condensate oil

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse B. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Hampered by the federal oil export ban, producers are seeking alternative means to bring to global markets the burgeoning supplies of ultralight condensate oil drawn from the Eagle Ford Shale region of South Texas.

  19. EXPERTS: OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY NEEDS MORE PREFERENTIAL POLICIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shengwei; Shi Lingtao

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Research Office under the State Council and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) jointly held a senior symposium on June 20, 1997 in Beijing on the reform and development strategy of the offshore oil industry. More than 100 experts and scholars attended the workshop, including officials from the State Planning Commission,the state Economic and Trade Commission,the State Restructuring Commission, the Ministry of Finance, China National Petroleum Corp. and China Petrochemical Corporation. Vice-Premier Wu Bangguo sent a letter of congratulation to the symposium.

  20. Composition-Explicit Distillation Curves of Waste Lubricant Oils and Resourced Crude Oil: A Diagnostic for Re-Refining and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Starkey Ott

    2010-01-01

    of the various oils streams and is a valuable diagnostic for future re-refining of the used lubricant oils. This information will be essential in the development of models for the thermophysical properties of such fluids.

  1. The Relationship Between Oil Price and Costs in the Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple structural model of the upstream sector in the oil and gas industry to study the determinants of costs with a focus on its relationship with the price of oil. We use the real oil price, data on global drilling activity and costs of drilling to estimate a three-dimensional VAR model. We use short run restrictions to decompose the variation in the data into three structural shocks. We estimate the dynamic effects of these shocks on drilling activity, costs of drilling and th...

  2. 松籽油的精炼工艺∗%Study on Refining Process of Pine Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婉莹; 刘俊渤; 唐珊珊; 常海波

    2015-01-01

    以松籽油为原料,通过单因素和正交试验,优化松籽油精炼的工艺和条件,同时对精炼松籽油理化指标及其脂肪酸组成进行测定分析。结果表明:脱胶最佳工艺条件为加热温度40℃,加酸量4�0%,搅拌时间30 min;脱酸最佳工艺条件为碱炼温度80℃,碱液浓度8%,超碱量0�25%,碱炼时间40 min;脱色最佳工艺条件为活性炭与活性白土复合脱色剂(1∶1),脱色剂用量7%,脱色温度70℃,脱色时间30 min;精炼后松籽油酸值和过氧化值较低,主要脂肪酸为9种,不饱和脂肪酸相对含量约为87�58%,其中亚油酸相对含量在46�32%。%With pine seed oil as raw material, process and conditions of refining pine see d oil were optimized through single factor experiment and orthogonal test. At the same time, physical and chemical indicators and fatty acid composition of pine seed oil were determined and analyzed. The results showed that the optimum conditions of degumming are heating temperature 40 ℃, acid a⁃mount 4�0% and stirring time 30 min. The optimum conditions of deacidification are alkali refining temperature 80 ℃, alkali solution concentration 8%, super alkali amount 0�25%, and alkali refi⁃ning time 40 min. The optimum conditions of decolorization are ratio of activated carbon and activa⁃ted clay 1 ∶ 1, decoloring agent dosage 7%, decoloring temperature 70 ℃, and decoloring time 30 min. Through the experiment we can find that the refined pine seed oil is of low acid value and per⁃oxide value. The refined pine seed oil contains 9 kinds of fatty acids. Among them, the relative con⁃tent of unsaturated fatty acids is about 87�58% and the relative content of linoleic acid reaches 46�32%.

  3. 大庆和涠洲混炼油糠醛精制研究%Study on furfural refining of Daqing and Weizhou dewaxing oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝俊静; 龙文宇; 李文深; 秦永航; 周传志

    2011-01-01

    The second line of distillation oil of Daqing and Weizhou mixed oil( volume ratio is 1 ∶ 1) as raw material and furfural as the solvent, the impact of catalyst/oil ratio and extraction temperature on refining effect of lube base oil were studied. This experiment shows that the viscosity index increased as the catalyst/oil ratio and the refining temperature increasing, while the yield of refined oil was opposite. When the refining temperature rose to a certain point, although the yield of refining oil changed, the viscosity index and the refractive index did not alter obviously.%以大庆和涠洲混炼油(体积比为1∶1)减二线脱蜡油为原料,糠醛为溶剂,考察了剂油比、抽提温度对润滑油基础油糠醛精制效果的影响.实验表明,精制油的粘度指数随剂油比的增加和精制温度的上升而增大,精制油的收率随剂油比的增加和精制温度的上升而下降.当温度增大到一定程度时,精制油收率有变化,而粘度指数与折光率基本不变.

  4. North Carolina used-motor-oil re-refining program: economics and logistics; and operating results. Topical report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    This is the third in a planned series of topical reports on a program to develop and demonstrate a State-operated re-refining system for used engine oil. The North Carolina Oil Re-Refining Facility, using a 2,000,000 gallon input per year PROP plant, was installed in late 1980. During the first year of startup operation ending December 31, 1981, approximately 137,000 gallons were produced. Report 2 of this series reflects on the startup experience and financial results for the first year of operation (1981) as well as projected expectations at that time. This report concentrates on operating and financial results for 1982 and the first five months of 1983. During the 17 months ending May 1983 only about 270,000 gallons were produced and sold. Based on normal annual accounting the loss for that period was $685,060 and the cashflow loss was $480,679. Even after substantial upgrading modifications were done in 1982-83, the plant still has major throughput problems, the greatest of which is the required quality and quantity of used oil feedstock. The report describes financial results, cost-variance analyses, production impediments encountered, and also projects future operating volumes necessary for the facility to cover costs.

  5. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  6. SINGLE CRITERION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vlah Jerić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider the supply chain management in olive oil industry. We construct the mixed-integer programming model connecting the optimization of olives harvesting and storage and olive oil production. The goal is to maximize the olive oil producer profit consisting of revenue, production cost and storage cost. In the same time, we have to take into the consideration the farmers’ (suppliers’ utility too. Namely, the suppliers want to maintain the harvest delay and delivery cost as minimal as possible. In the case of single criterion optimization problem we suppose that the producer is taking care of all five goals, so the objective function consists of the producer’s revenue, storage cost, production cost, harvest delay and delivery cost with the appropriate sign. Due to the big dimension of the problem two heuristics are proposed for solving it. Some simulations are performed and the results show good heuristics behavior.

  7. Fermentation assisted byproduct recovery in the palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, W.R.

    1983-05-01

    The production of palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is a leading natural product industry in Malaysia, giving rise to a number of residues, including a rich, fruity liquor from the pulp. The liquor, of which 7-10 million tonnes a year are currently produced, has some 6% organic solids, including 0.7-1.0% or more of oil which physical processing has failed to extract. Present anaerobic digestion processes exploit only the energy and fertiliser value. Methods are described in this paper for thermophilic, microbially assisted digestion for component separation and recovery, exploiting the widely used techniques for fruit juice extraction involving enzymic breakdown of starch, pectin and other cell components. Anaerobiosis and acidogenesis help protect and release residual oil, concomitantly preserving the solids against rancidity and spoilage by ensilage. The separated wet solids are nutritive (17% protein on dry matter), biologically safe and attractive to livestock. Downstream use of the liquor is aided by the thermophilic digestion. (Refs. 33).

  8. Sustaining Oil Industry Development in China and Global Prosperity in the Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao

    1996-01-01

    @@ China, a developing country with 1.2 billion people, is changing greatly and its national economy is experiencing steady and rapid growth owing to its reform and opening to the outside world. In the course of this great progress,oil and gas production are increasing steadily, oil and gas supply and demand are basically stable, and this assures critical support to the development of the national economy.

  9. The ongoing changes in the base oil industry and their potential impact on the lubricant industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Holm, Valentina [Nynas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    During the last years the base oil industry has undergone significant changes, with the rapid growth of Group II and Group III paraffinic base oils and the corresponding decline of Group I supply. The announcements of future instalments show that the increase of Group II and III capacity is indeed a stable trend all over the world. Based on publicly available information, the Group II capacity is expected to grow by 8.6 million tpa, reaching over 22 million tpa, and Group III capacity is expected to double from current 4.1 million tpa up to 8.2 million tpa. As the demand is not expected to grow at the same pace as the increasing supply, it is likely that this new capacity will lead to an oversupply situation in the next five years. Because of their production disadvantages compared to Group II and III and a shrinking demand in automotive applications, it is likely that Group I plants will close down or will operate at reduced throughput to compensate for the new Group II and III capacity. A decline of Group I capacity in favour of Group II and III may pose problems in the formulation of those industrial lubricants where solvency and/or viscosity are needed, such as lubricating greases, metalworking fluids, and several process oils applications. Either alone or in combination with Group II or III oils, naphthenic oils can be used in the formulation of industrial lubricants, as solvency and viscosity poroviders. (orig.)

  10. Sustainable biogas and biomass utilization in Malaysian palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito (Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Yacob, Shahrakbah (Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn Bhd, Selangor (Malaysia)); Ali Hassan, M. (Dept. of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia))

    2007-07-01

    Palm oil industry in Malaysia is producing palm oil more than 12 million tones every year, while yielding more than 14 million of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and 25 million tones of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the POME treatment, huge anaerobic ponds (lagoon) are adopted, generating large amount of methane, more than 20 times global warming effect than CO{sub 2}. The objective of this research is to estimate actual methane emission from the POME treatment and to find out any possibility to utilize generated methane as an energy source under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Methane emission of 0.238 kg CH{sub 4} per kg COD removed or 12.36 kg CH{sub 4} per tone POME are obtained from actual mill operation throughout annual measurement. This indicates that more than 200,000 tones of methane, which is equivalent to 4 million tones of carbon dioxide, are estimated to be emitted from whole Malaysia. 500 tones of methane fermentor installed to palm oil mill to prevent GHG emission under the CDM. By this, lagoon system as major source of local environment pollution necessary no more, thus obtaining another 3 to 4 times large land area than mill. Our proposal is to establish novel industry utilizing biogas energy for value added material or energy conversion of excess biomass, thus enabling reduction of GHG and local environment pollution and sustainable development of local community. (orig.)

  11. Challenges and opportunities faced by world petroleum refining industry in post-crisis times%后危机时代世界炼油工业面临的挑战和机遇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚国欣

    2011-01-01

    介绍了2008年国际金融危机对世界炼油工业带来的各种影响,分析了在后危机时代世界炼油工业面临的各种机遇与挑战.挑战:(1)炼油能力过剩增加;(2)国际油价走高;(3)轻重原油价差收窄;(4)汽柴油价格颠倒;(5)炼油工业要为提高汽车燃油效率,增加生物燃料用量和减排CO2付出沉重代价;(6)炼油工程建设项目投资难以大幅度减少.机遇:(1)石油基运输燃料将继续主导世界运输燃料市场,炼油厂仍将是汽油和柴油的主要来源地;(2)轻重原油价差会重新拉大;(3)升级换代炼油技术不断出现,重质劣质渣油深度转化技术取得突破性进展;(4)亚太地区将持续引领全球炼油能力的增长.%The effects of international financial crisis on the world petroleum refining industry were introduced, and the challenges and opportunities faced by the industry were discussed. The challenges were as follows:( 1 )the surplus refining capacity increased; (2)the petroleum price in international market continued to rise;(3 )the price difference between light and heavy oils shortened; (4) the prices for gasoline and diesel oil inversed; ( 5 ) the refining industry has to pay rather heavily for improving automobile fuel efficiency, enhancing biofuel consumption and reducing carbon dioxide emission;(6) the investment in refining projects is hard to be decreased. The opportunities were as follows: ( 1 ) petroleum - based transportation fuel will still dominate the world fuel market, and the refineries will continue to be the major providers of gasoline and diesel oil; (2)the price difference between gasoline and diesel oil will increase again; ( 3 ) the upgrade refining technologies will continue to be created, and the deep conversion technology for heavy and poor quality residua has got a breakthrough progress; (4)Asia Pacific will still keep the leading place in enlarging refining capacity.

  12. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  13. A guide for the gas and oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist those in the natural gas and oil industry who may not be familiar with how the Federal government, particularly the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or Department), does business with private sector companies. Basic information is provided on what DOE is trying to do, why it wants to work with the natural gas and oil industry, how it can work with companies, who to contact, and where to inquire for further information. This last item is noteworthy because it is important for users of this guide to be able to access information about subjects that may interest them. Selected other Federal agencies and their activities related to those of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (FE or Fossil Energy) also are included in this document as Appendix A. This guide provides an address and/or phone number for every topic covered to prevent any information impasse. If a question is not adequately answered by the guide, please do not hesitate to contact the appropriate person or office. It is hoped that the information provided in this guide will lead to a better understanding of the mission, roles, and procedures of DOE and result in more and better cooperative working relationships between the natural gas and oil industry and DOE. Such relationships will provide a significant benefit to our Nation`s economic, technological, and energy security.

  14. Calculated identification of the output of a refinate in furfurol purification of distillate oil fractions. Raschetnoye opredeleniye vykhoda rafinata pri ochistke furfurolom distillyatnykh maslyanykh fraktsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhrimenko, N.V.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Martynenko, A.G.; Shiryayeva, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility is shown of using an equation proposed by Weigl and Dvayvedi for calculated identification of the outputs of a refinate in furfurol purification of gas oil fractions as applied to the purification of distillate oil fractions (350 to 420 and 420 to 500 degrees of a mixture of Eastern Ukrainian oils from the Druzhba pipeline with a content of 43.6 and 53.8 percent aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU). The deviations between the calculated values of the refinate output and the actual do not exceed 0.5 to 1.5 percent.

  15. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  16. CFD Applied to Process Development in the Oil and Gas Industry – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynal L.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD is increasingly used in the oil and gas industry. The present article aims to show how CFD can be used at all steps of the development of a new process, with a focus on refining technologies. Those different steps consist first of setting up tools that will be used during the development phase, second of obtaining data in complement with experiments required for the process development, and finally, of troubleshooting actions or technology developments that will make the process even more efficient. A large number of applications corresponding to various flow configurations, single-phase or gas-liquid, gas-solid or even gas-liquid-solid, characterised by significantly different scales and requiring adapted simulation approaches, are discussed based on original results and a review of the literature. Perspectives are given in particular on the multi-scale approach and physical phenomena coupling.

  17. Contamination by oil crude extraction - Refinement and their effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria Isabel; Arevalo, Ana Paulina; Sotomayor, Santiago; Bailon-Moscoso, Natalia

    2017-08-18

    The harmful effects of oil on various species of flora and fauna have been studied extensively; however, few studies have studied the effects of oil exposure on human health. The objective of this research was to collect information on the acute health effects and serious psychological symptoms of the possible consequences of such exposure to crude oil. Some studies focused on the composition of different chemicals used in the extraction process, and wastes generated proved to be highly harmful to human health. Thus, studies have shown that individuals who live near oil fields or wells - or who take part in activities of cleaning oil spills - have presented health conditions, such as irritation to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, kidney damage, liver, reproductive, among others. In Ecuador, this reality is not different from other countries, and some studies have shown increased diseases related with oil crude and oil spills, like skin irritation, throat, liver, lung, infertility, and abortions, and it has been linked to childhood leukemia. Other studies suggest a direct relationship between DNA damage because of oil resulting in a genetic instability of the main enzymes of cellular metabolism as well as a relationship with some cancers, such as leukemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ergonomic Risk Assessment on Oil Palm Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Mohd DEROS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was an investigation conducted at two oil palm plantations in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia on the prevalence of back pain among workers in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Many manual handling activities and tasks performed were not designed ergonomically, thus a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was found among oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs manual workers. The three main objectives of this study were to determine the level of employee awareness on health and safety of manual handling tasks; to recognize the musculoskeletal symptom on the workers body parts; and to analyze their working postures and identify the relevant risk factors.Methods: Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to collect data in 2012 at two oil palm plantations located in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia. Later, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA analysis was conducted for high risk working postures. Seventy workers participated in the study.Results: 81.4% of workers were aware on the correct methods to perform the manual handling tasks. The upper back and lower back pain were experienced by 87.1% and 94.3% of the workers respectively.Conclusion: Manual workers have high level (81.4% health and safety awareness on manual handling tasks but failed to practice it. As a result, 87.1% of them are sufferring from lower back and 94.3% from upper back pain. FFBs loading activity into the lorry is a high risk and changes needed to be done immediately. The two major risk factors identified were awkward lifting postures and repetitive lifting of FFBs. Keywords: Oil palm industry, Ergonomics, Posture, Musculoskeletal pain, workers

  19. Toward Sustainability in Concrete Industry by Using Of Solid Wastes from Palm Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pordesari Alireza Javadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most important construction materials is concrete. By the advances of the industries in the urban areas, concrete is considered as one of the highest demands. As a result, the large amount of unprocessed materials is needed for making concrete. In the meantime, the agricultural wastes and solid material disposal are giving serious damages to the environment. As a result, by employing the agricultural wastes as a cementitious material, the undesirable impacts of the concrete industry to the environment will be dramatically decreased. That’s because the source of these newly developed concretes is both reliable and environmental friendly. In this study, the utilization of agricultural wastes as a complementary cementitious material for producing the concrete is explained. In addition, it discusses the possibility of deploying the agricultural wastes by considering their engineering, physical and chemical properties. In addition, the successful use of agricultural wastes from oil palm industry such as oil palm shell, palm oil fuel ash and palm oil fibre in the concrete mixture was reported.

  20. Applications of Nanotechnology in Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded gas resources and to improve the drilling process and oil and gas production by making it easier to separate oil and gas in the reservoir. Nanotechnology can make the oil and gas industry considerably greener. There are numerous areas in which nanotechnology can contribute to more-efficient, less-expensive, and more-environmentally sound technologies than those that are readily available. We identified the following possibilities of nanotechnology in the petroleum industry: 1-Nanotechnology-enhanced materials that provide strength to increase performance in drilling, tubular goods, and rotating parts. 2- Designer properties to enhance hydro-phobic to enhance materials for water flooding applications. 3- Nano-particulate wetting carried out using molecular dynamics 4- Lightweight materials that reduce weight requirements on offshore platforms 5- Nano-sensors for improved temperature and pressure ratings 6- New imaging and computational techniques to allow better discovery, sizing, and characterization of reservoirs.

  1. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diglycerides from co-products of vegetable oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkam, Kamol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-products of vegetable oil refining such as a mixed deodorizer distillate resulting from the refining of various vegetable oils, a crude distillate resulting from the physical refining of coconut oil and commercial mixtures of distilled sunflower and coconut fatty acids were used as starting materials for the enzymatic preparation of diglycerides. Reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio for the formation of diglycerides by lipase-catalyzed esterification/transesterification were studied using the mixed deodorizer distillate and glycerol as starting materials. The best results were obtained with the immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 in vacuo at 60 °C leading to moderate proportions (~52% of diglycerides. The proportion of diglycerides increased when residual acylglycerides of the co-products of vegetable oil refining were hydrolyzed prior to esterification. Thus, the esterification of hydrolyzed co-products of vegetable oil refining with glycerol led to high formation (62-72% of diglycerides. Short-path vacuum distillation of the esterification products yielded distillation residues containing from 70% to 94% diglycerides. The proportions of fatty acids and monoglycerides in the distilled residues were quite low (Subproductos del refinado de los aceites vegetales tales como el destilado obtenido en el desodorizador al refinar distintos aceites vegetales, el destilado crudo resultante de la refinación física del aceite de coco, y mezclas comerciales de los ácidos grasos obtenidos en la destilación de aceites de girasol y coco fueron utilizados como materiales de partida para la preparación enzimática de diglicéridos. Se estudiaron las condiciones de reacción (temperatura, presión, relación molar para la formación de diglicéridos mediante esterificación/ transesterificación catalizada por lipasas usando la mezcla obtenida del desodorizador y glicerol como materiales de partida. Los mejores

  2. Outlook for the Development of Oil and Gas Industry in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Pham, V. A.; Aikina, T. Yu

    2016-09-01

    Oil and gas industry makes a significant contribution to Gross Domestic Product of Vietnam. In 2015 it appeared to be in an intricate situation under the conditions of fall in oil prices caused by excess of supply over demand in the oil market. On the one hand, low prices for oil enable Vietnam as an importer to purchase more oil in the world market. On the other hand, the state company PetroVietnam loses a part of its customers in the domestic market. This tendency can lead to stagnation of the oil and gas industry in Vietnam under weak oil prices if the government does not take timely action.

  3. Refining Technology of Milk Thistle Seed Oil%水飞蓟籽油精炼工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维敏; 梁霄; 梁宗锁; 梁慧珂; 顾雪; 张震环

    2012-01-01

    Technologies of refining the oil of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seed were optimized to a-chieve the comprehensive utilization of the seed. Taking the mechanical pressing oil as raw material, technological conditions in the three refining procedures were examined by single and orthogonal experiments. Ths three stages included removing free acid by bases, decoloration by activated clay, and deodorization by steam distillation. Changes of bioactive constituents were also monitored by measuring the content of standard constituent silibin with HPLC. The results showed that in the free acid revoving procedure, the concentration of sodium hydroxide was 10%, the percentage of extra alkali addition was 0. 15%, and the neutralization time and temperature were 25 min 60°C , respectively. For decoloration, the optimal conditions were amount of the addition of activated caly: 4%, time: 25 min, temperature: 100 °C. Two hours introduction of steam could effectively remove the odor of crude oil. The content of silymarin in refined oil was 0. 247 mg · g-1, the loss rate was 11. 47%. After refining, the physical and chemical properties of the oil all meet the standards of edible vegetable oil.f%为了提高水飞蓟籽的综合利用率,研究水飞蓟籽油精炼的优化工艺.以机械压榨水飞蓟籽油为原料,分别采用单因素、多因素正交试验,系统研究了碱炼脱酸、活性白土脱色及水蒸气蒸馏脱臭的工艺条件,并以水飞蓟宾为标准,使用HPLC检测精炼前后水飞蓟素的含量.优化研究结果表明:超量碱0.15%,氢氧化钠浓度10%,中和时间25 min,中和温度60℃为碱炼脱酸最适条件;在活性白土添加量4%,脱色时间25 min,脱色温度100℃的条件下脱色效果最好;通入水蒸气2h可有效去除毛油在高温时容易产生的臭味;精炼油的水飞蓟素含量为0.247 mg·g-1,其水飞蓟素的损失率为11.47%.精炼后各项理化指标经检测符合食用植物油标准,

  4. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  5. State Quo and Future of China's Refining Sector%State Quo and Future of China's Refining Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu He

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of the 21st century and China's entering into the WTO, China's refining sector has made great strides with the support of a rapid economic growth and a strong demand for petroleum despite the fact that the industry has been facing a fiercer international competition, higher oil prices, policy-related losses (losses caused by the fact that refined oil prices strangely lower than that of the crude), international financial crisis, unstable energy geopolitics, and etc.

  6. Transfer of Service Knowledge: A case from the oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Vianello, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    . A case study of drilling machinery for offshore oil rigs has been selected. This choice arose from the unique characteristics of this industry where solutions are specific for each rig, so re-design or adaptation of machineries and assembly is required in each project and it’s imperative to have...... a correct set of requirements and design. As the drilling machines are one-off machines, the transfer of experience between projects and knowledge from operational experience is essential. Interviews with the project team from the company owning the rig (drilling contractor), and the service engineers from...

  7. A view from the top[Top performers in the refining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennison, R. [Cap Gemini Ernst and Young LLP (United States)

    2000-07-01

    With such very small profit margins enjoyed by refiners, low cost operation is a must just to stay in business and Cap Gemini Ernst and Young discuss some of the actions which can be taken in management/organisation, operations and maintenance. The essence of the paper is that the successful companies appreciate that management of human resources is a fundamental requirement for change and that every employee has some potential to contribute to the success of the business. How changes have been brought about by some leading companies, and some hints on how to bring about behavioural changes are given. The value of teamwork rather than organisational relationships is emphasised.

  8. Withdrawal of 2016 Information Request for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is providing notice that it is withdrawing its requests that owners and operators in the oil and natural gas industry provide information on equipment and emissions at existing oil and gas operations.

  9. Packaging design for the Greek olive oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveli, A.; Tzetzis, D.; Kyratsis, P.

    2016-11-01

    Packaging is one of the most important elements that characterize product design. It does not only refer to the appearance of the product, that creates the first impression to the user, but it is a whole communication code. This has been identified by the enterprises involved and their competition is high. Nowadays, the most successful of them pay a great deal of attention on every day's trends concerning packaging design and try to apply these trends upon their own designs. The present paper describes the packaging design in today's industries and the existing trends. It will therefore reveal what makes a package design successful, from the company's perspective and how the company studies such factors in order to achieve the best result. Those factors and the research results are applied on the olive oil packaging industry, producing a final packaging design solution.

  10. 高油价下中国炼油企业发展对策探讨%Discussion on Development Countermeasures of Chinese Petroleum Refining Enterprises under High Crude Oil Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔; 杨硕

    2012-01-01

    With the influences of tight supply - demand relation, unstable geopolitical changes, devaluation of US dollars,and Europe' s debt crisis, international crude oil price has been remained high in the recent years, which has exerted great effects on global energy resources supply and economic development. Based on analysis of characteristics of global petroleum refining industry and tactics of overseas petroleum refining enterprises, development countermeasures for Chinese petroleum enterprises under high crude oil price were discussed. Proposals were raised for Chinese refining enterprises to optimize strategic layout for enhancing integration degree of petroleum refining enterprises, expand deep processing of crude oil for increasing yield of light oil, increase capacity of plants for processing inferior crude oil, attach importance to energy conservation and consumption reduction for increasing availability of resources, execute delicacy management for promoting profit, using alternative energy sources for diversifying energy resources, accelerate construction and development of petroleum refining layout in foreign countries, fix crude oil resources, and so on.%受供求关系紧张、不稳定的地缘政治变化、美元贬值、欧洲债务危机等影响,近年来国际原油价格持续保持高位,对国内外能源供应和经济发展产生了重要影响。围绕国际油价持续保持高位这一焦点问题,分析了高油价下全球炼油业的特点、国外炼油企业的策略和措施,探讨了高油价下中国炼油企业的发展对策。提出了优化战略布局,增强炼油企业集中度;加大原油深加工,提高轻油收率;提高装置能力,适应加工低质原油;重视节能降耗,提高资源利用率;实施精细化管理,提高效益;结合替代能源,实现加工资源多样化;加快海外炼油布局建设和发展,锁定原油资源等对策。

  11. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  12. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  13. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  14. In Situ/on-Site Biodegradation of Refined Oils and Fuels (A Technology Review). Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Cook, Massey, and Ahearn, 1973). Cladosoorium resinae has been found in soil (Walker, Cofone, and Coo- ney, 1973) and has repeatedly been recovered as...Microbial petroleum degradation: the role of Cladosoorium resinae . In Proc. Joint Conf. on Prevention and Control of Oil Spills. American Petroleum

  15. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  16. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  17. Preservation of micronutrients during rapeseed oil refining: a tool to optimize the health value of edible vegetable oils? Rationale and design of the Optim'Oils randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladine, C; Meunier, N; Blot, Adeline; Bruchet, Lucile; Pagès, X; Gaud, M; Floter, E; Metin, Z; Rossignol, A; Cano, N; Chardigny, J M

    2011-03-01

    Numerous micronutrients naturally abundant in oilseeds prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing cholesterolemia and oxidative stress. These micronutrients include phytosterols and various antioxidants such as polyphenols, tocopherols and coenzyme Q10/Q9 but most of them are lost during the oilseed oil refining. The main objective of the Optim'Oil project was to modify the processes of oil refining in order to reduce the lost of micronutrients. Two clinical trials (cross-over, monocentric, randomized, double-blind and controlled) were designed to investigate the effect of an optimized rapeseed oil 1) on cardiovascular biomarkers (long-term study) and 2) on oxidative stress parameters (post-prandial study). For the long-term study, 59 volunteers ingested daily 20 g of oil and 22 g of margarine (optimized or standard) for 2 periods of 3 weeks separated by a 3-week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each period. For the post-prandial study, a sub-group of 16 volunteers came fasted at the laboratory and took 300 mL of a test meal containing 60% of the optimized or standard oils. Blood samples were collected before and during 6h after the test meal intake. In comparison with the standard oil and margarine, the optimized oil and margarine exhibit as expected an increased content of phytosterol (+22%), polyphenols (× 11), tocopherols (+131%) and coenzyme Q10/Q9 (+165%). Overall, conditions of this study were relevant to investigate the effect of the optimized rapeseed oil and margarine on the cardiovascular risk and the oxidative stress.

  18. How the palm oil industry is cooking the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    Every year, 1.8 billion tonnes (Gt) of climate changing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are released by the degradation and burning of Indonesia's peatlands, which is 4% of global GHG emissions from less than 0.1% of the land on earth. This report shows how, through growing demand for palm oil, the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel industries are driving the wholesale destruction of peatlands and rainforests. These companies include Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, who between them account for a significant volume of global palm oil use, mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia. Overlaying satellite imagery of forest fires with maps indicating the locations of the densest carbon stores in Indonesia, Greenpeace researchers have been able to pinpoint carbon 'hotspots'. Our research has taken us to the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, to document the current activities of those involved in the expansion of palm oil. These are the producers who trade with Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, as well as many of the other top names in the food, cosmetic and biofuel industries. The area of peatland in Riau is tiny: just 4 million hectares, about the size of Taiwan or Switzerland. Yet Riau's peatlands store 14.6Gt of carbon. If these peatlands were destroyed, the resulting GHG emissions would be equivalent to one year's total global emissions. Unless efforts are made to halt forest and peatland destruction, emissions from these peatlands may trigger a 'climate bomb'.

  19. The replacement of fish oil with refined coconut oil in the diet of large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Maxia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred rainbow trout (242.9 ± 6.9 g were randomly assigned to 12 fibreglass tanks (25 fish/tank. The fish were fed, for 231 days (feeding level: 0.74 % average bw, four experimental diets, containing increasing levels of coconut oil: diet A 0 %, diet B 6 %; diet C 12 % and diet D 13 %, as replacements of herring oil and cod liver oil. Weight gains of fish were > 3 g d-1 and FCR lower than 1.5, for all treatments. No significant difference was observed in the main car- cass traits and whole body composition, but whole fish energy content significantly increased in fish fed diet D (10.68 KJ g-1. Different dietary fatty acid profiles had significant effects on the rainbow trout muscle contents of C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, total n-3, and the main ratios: SFA/USFA; DHA/EPA; DHA/AA, n-3/n-6, but not on total fatty acids content of the muscle.

  20. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extracting Refined Oil from Semen Vaccariae with Extracritical CO2 and GC- MS Measurement%王不留行精油的超临界CO2萃取及GC-MS测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向东

    2002-01-01

    Objective To extract and analyse Semen Vaccariae refined oil and ingredient. Methods Extracting refinedoil with extracritical CO2 and analysing the ingredients by GC - MS. Results Content of oil in the Semen Vaccariae accountfor 34.60% .The main content are oleic acid and linoleic acid. Unsaturated fat acid in fat acid account for 84.70% .The maincontents of saturated fat acid are palmitic acid. Conclusion Semen Vaccariae refined oil are good plant oil.

  2. CREATING THE STANDARD FOR SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Firdaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no standard for the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC in the palm oil industry. SEC is a value that can be used as an indicator to measure the optimization level in the use of energy. Indonesia as one of the largest palm oil producing countries requires a standard for energy intensity in the palm oil industry. SEC in palm oil mill is defined in the amount of energy per unit of production (kWh/kg. The classifying method that has been used in this study is K-means cluster analysis with the measurement samples in 14 palm oil mills for 12 months of period. This study has suggested the SEC standard for Indonesian palm oil industry and it is expected to be SEC reference for other studies in the palm oil industry.

  3. Computational sciences in the upstream oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Thomas C

    2016-10-13

    The predominant technical challenge of the upstream oil and gas industry has always been the fundamental uncertainty of the subsurface from which it produces hydrocarbon fluids. The subsurface can be detected remotely by, for example, seismic waves, or it can be penetrated and studied in the extremely limited vicinity of wells. Inevitably, a great deal of uncertainty remains. Computational sciences have been a key avenue to reduce and manage this uncertainty. In this review, we discuss at a relatively non-technical level the current state of three applications of computational sciences in the industry. The first of these is seismic imaging, which is currently being revolutionized by the emergence of full wavefield inversion, enabled by algorithmic advances and petascale computing. The second is reservoir simulation, also being advanced through the use of modern highly parallel computing architectures. Finally, we comment on the role of data analytics in the upstream industry.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'.

  4. The Relationship between Major Oil Products Consumption and Efficiency of Industry Sector in Selected Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji MEIDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the realization of the law of diminishing returns in usage of major oil products in the industry sector of some oil exporting and importing countries during 2002- 2008. To achieve this aim, in a first stage the efficiency of industry sector of countries has been calculated using DEA window analysis and then in the second stag the existence of an inverted U' shape relationship between major oil product consumption and efficiency has been tested in the context of dynamic panel data (GMM approach. The results confirm this relationship in each group of countries except that the turning point in the case of oil importing countries is much higher than oil exporting countries. This firstly suggests that oil dependence in oil importing countries is more than oil exporting countries and secondly indicates that the industry sector of oil importing countries have advanced technology and high scale and capacity so that they can take benefits of oil products consumption without decrease in efficiency.

  5. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. 132 documents relevant to the topic were reviewed. TMD efforts were created to advertise cigarettes after advertising restrictions on direct advertising were imposed in 1982. To build public credibility the tobacco companies set up small companies and projected them as entities independent of tobacco. Each brand selected an activity or event such as music, travel, fashion, and sports that best suited its image. RJ Reynolds sponsored music events to advertise its Salem brand while Philip Morris used Marlboro World of Sports since advertising restrictions prevented the use of the Marlboro man in broadcast media. Despite a ban on tobacco advertisements in the mass media, tobacco companies were the top advertisers in the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The media's dependence on advertising revenue and support from the ruling elite played a part in delaying efforts to ban indirect advertising. Advertising is crucial for the tobacco industry. When faced with an advertising ban they created ways to circumvent it, such as TMDs.

  6. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  7. Coke fouling process on the oil refining; Processo de incrustacao por coque no refino do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Fiorentin, Leila D.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Franco, Admilson T. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais (PPGEM)

    2004-07-01

    The heavy crude fraction processing is performed under very high vacuum to minimize thermal cracking which cause coke deposition and damage the equipment. The current tendency is to process heavier oil leading to higher process temperatures and consequently to greater fouling. This situation demands better knowledge fouling process by carbonization. This problem is pronounced in the residual gasoil region of a vacuum distillation unit because it obstructs the recirculation circuits and the spray system with serious environmental and economics implications. This paper review the main correlated published work related to coke generation and fouling and presents a discussion about the works. (author)

  8. A new hypothesis about continuous distillation with striping gas and its application the physical refining of edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciani Constante, E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the free fatty acid concentration in the gas inside the continuous deodorizer in continuous physical refining was studied and a hypothesis was formed to explain the results: In a continuous process of deacidification by distillation of free fatty acids at low pressure (2 - 3 mbar, high temperature (180 – 260 ºC, with stripping gas, initial free fatty acid content of oil ≤ 7.4% w/w and similar temperature for both the gas distillate inside the continuous deodorizer and the oil, in the equilibrium the ratio between the free fatty acid content of the deacidified oil and the concentration of free fatty acids in the gas inside the continuous deodorizer is constant. This hypothesis is submitted to discussion.Se estudia la influencia de la concentración en ácidos grasos libres en el gas de arrastre en la cabeza del desodorizador durante la refinación física en continuo, y se establece una hipótesis para explicar los resultados: En un proceso continuo de desacidificación por destilación de ácidos grasos a baja presión (2 - 3 mbar, alta temperatura (180 – 265ºC, con arrastre de vapor, con igual temperatura para los gases en la cabeza del desodorizador y para el aceite, aplicado a aceites con una acidez inicial ≤ 7,4 % peso/peso, en el equilibrio se cumple que la relación entre la concentración en ácidos grasos libres en el aceite desodorizado y la concentración en ácidos grasos libres en el gas situado en la cabeza del desodorizador es constante. Esta hipótesis se somete a discusión.

  9. Transfer of Service Knowledge: A case from the oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Vianello, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    a correct set of requirements and design. As the drilling machines are one-off machines, the transfer of experience between projects and knowledge from operational experience is essential. Interviews with the project team from the company owning the rig (drilling contractor), and the service engineers from....... The reuse of this knowledge is even more critical when customized machines are involved. The aim of this paper is to investigate the knowledge arising during the later phases of a product’s lifecycle focusing in particular upon the transfer of experience between projects and between different user groups....... A case study of drilling machinery for offshore oil rigs has been selected. This choice arose from the unique characteristics of this industry where solutions are specific for each rig, so re-design or adaptation of machineries and assembly is required in each project and it’s imperative to have...

  10. Processing of tailings in Canadian oil sands industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Vast amounts of tailings are produced daily in bitumen extraction from the Athabasca oil sands. The coarse sand from the tailings stream is used to build dykes around the containment basin. The run-off slurry arrives at the water's edge in the tailings pond at a solids concentration of about 3%~8% by mass. Settling of the solids takes place "relatively fast", over several days, creating a "free water zone" that contains little solids. When the fine mineral solids concentration has reached about 15% by mass, the suspension develops non-Newtonian properties. After 2~3 years, the suspension concentration reaches a value of about 30% by mass at which the settling rate becomes extremely slow. Methods to handle the already created tailings ponds and new approaches to eliminate the creation of new ones will be discussed both from the industrial and fundamental prospective.

  11. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; A.P.J. Mol; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mills use large quantities of water and energy in the production process. On the output side, manufacturing processes generate large qu...

  12. Industry disputes administration report on oil and gas leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Despite the Obama administration's efforts to make millions of acres of public lands available for oil and gas development, most of the acreage onshore and offshore of the contiguous United States remains idle, according to “Oil and gas lease utilization, onshore and offshore,” a 15 May report issued by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The report, which is being disputed by industry representatives, notes that 72% of the nearly 36 million leased offshore acres currently are inactive and that 50.6% of onshore leased acres (about 20.8 million acres) also are idle. “As part of the Obama administration's all-of- the-above energy strategy, we continue to make millions of acres of public lands available for safe and responsible domestic energy production on public lands and in federal waters,” said DOI secretary Ken Salazar. “These lands and waters belong to the American people, and they expect those energy supplies to be developed in a timely and responsible manner and with a fair return to taxpayers. We will continue to encourage companies to diligently bring production online quickly and safely on public lands already under lease.”

  13. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  14. The impact of oil price shocks. Evidence from the industries of six OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, Rebeca [Department of Economics, University of Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, E-37007, Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Most of the studies about the macroeconomic consequences of oil price shocks have been focused on US aggregate data. In contrast to these studies, this paper empirically assesses the dynamic effect of oil price shocks on the output of the main manufacturing industries in six OECD countries. The pattern of responses to an oil price shock by industrial output is diverse across the four European Monetary Union (EMU) countries under consideration (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain), but broadly similar in the UK and the US. Moreover, evidence on cross-industry heterogeneity of oil shock effects within the EMU countries is also reported. (author)

  15. Economics of the oil and gas industry. Ekonomika neftyanoy i gazovoy promyshlennosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunayev, F.F.; Pobedonostseva, N.N.; Syromyatnikov, Ye.S.; Yegorov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Principles are presented for organization and arrangement of oil and gas industry and control. Methods are described of sector planning of technical progress and evaluation of economic effectiveness of introducing new equipment and capital investments. Composition and structure of the circulating funds are indicated. Economic problems of the oil and gas industry are covered.

  16. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  17. 成品油物流主要成本控制策略研究%Research on the Measures of Refined Oil Logistics Main Cost Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明涛; 王玉翠; 张彦明

    2012-01-01

    According to the present situation of higher oil logistics cost in China, combining the meaning of refined oil logistics and its logistics cost, the cost affecting factors of the transportation, storage and distribution, which are the larger of the refined oil logistics total cost are analyzed, and the logistics cost control measures corresponding to the three major aspects are proposed in this paper.%针对我国成品油物流成本较高的现状,结合成品油物流及其物流成本的含义,分析了占成品油物流总成本比重较大的运输、仓储和配送等物流环节的成本影响因素,并提出了与之相对应的物流成本控制策略.

  18. Passive Elimination of Static Electricity in Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićo Gaćanović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  19. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  20. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

  1. Spent solid catalysts of chemical industry and petroleum refining; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillier, A.; Briand, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the heterogeneous catalysis. In a first part are given the utilizing sectors. There are mainly the petroleum refining, the chemical industry and the environment. A catalyst is chosen according to its selectivity and velocity, its cost and the wastes it induces. Thus are found three main heterogeneous catalysts series: the bulky metals, the supported metals: precious or heavy or their compounds, the zeolites and other silico-aluminates. Their most frequent uses are given. The catalysts used in the main petroleum refining processes (distillation, catalytic hydro-treatment, desulfurization, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrocracking, alkylation) are also detailed. The second part deals with the spent solid catalysts. The reasons of the deactivation (poisons or contaminants, structure modification) are given. The spent catalysts are either regenerated or eliminated. The regeneration methods are described. The solid catalysts cannot be stored without being stabilized (decrease of its water permeability and of its leachable fraction). The stabilization methods are reviewed. The regulations on the spent solid catalysts are given in the last part. (O.M.)

  2. Monitoring of quality and stability characteristics and fatty acid compositions of refined olive and seed oils during repeated pan- and deep-frying using GC, FT-NIRS, and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Akram; Jabeur, Hazem; Aladedunye, Felix; Rebai, Ahmed; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-10-22

    Refined olive, corn, soybean, and sunflower oils were used as cooking oils for deep-frying at two different temperatures, 160 and 190 °C, and for pan-frying of potatoes at 180 °C for 10 successive sessions under the usual domestic practice. Several chemical parameters were assayed during frying operations to evaluate the status of the frying oils. Refined olive oil, as frying oil, was found to be more stable than the refined seed oils. In fact, this oil has proven the greatest resistance to oxidative deterioration, and its trans-fatty acid contents and percentages of total polar compounds were found to be lower at 160 °C during deep-frying. Finally, chemometric analysis has demonstrated that the lowest deterioration of the quality of all refined oils occurred in the refined olive oil during deep-frying at 160 °C and the highest deterioration occurred in the refined sunflower oil during pan-frying at 180 °C.

  3. 椰子油的精深加工与综合利用%Refining and Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段岢君; 陈卫军; 宋菲; 夏秋瑜; 赵松林

    2013-01-01

    椰子油(Coconut oil, CO)是近年来活跃在国际市场上的一种重要植物油脂。本文介绍椰子油的成分、精深加工产品,概述国内外部分精深加工产品的生产工艺及其用途,展望我国椰子油综合开发利用的广阔前景。%Coconut oil is a kind of vegetable oil which is very popular in the international market in recent years. This paper introduces the composition of coconut oil, the refining products. It also reviews the processing methods and comprehensive utilization of coconut oil , and provides the references for its further study.

  4. 两种精炼工艺在新疆棉籽油生产加工中的应用对比%Application comparison of two kinds of oil refining processes in production and processing of Xinjiang cottonseed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文杰; 童玉海; 李崇达; 宋建封

    2014-01-01

    Process flows and control points of two kinds of refining processes ( conventional alkali refining process and miscella refining process) were described, and indexes of cottonseed oil products produced by the two kinds of refining processes were analyzed and compared. Comparing with the conventional al-kali refining process, R value of color,acid value, saponified matter content and content of oil in soap-stock of the cottonseed oil product obtained by miscella refining process decreased by 1 . 5 - 2 . 5 , 0 . 08 mgKOH/g , 0. 015 percentage point and 10 - 20 percentage point,respectively,and the yield of refining increased by 2-6 percentage point. Miscella refining process applicated in production and processing of Xinjiang cottonseed oil had the advantages of high refining yield,light color of product oil,low power con-sumption and low maintenance cost,and the adverse effect of high content gossypol in Xinjiang cottonseed on the production of cottonseed oil was eliminated,which was suitable for the production of Xinjiang cot-tonseed oil.%阐述了两种精炼工艺(常规精炼工艺和混合油精炼工艺)的工艺流程及控制要点,并将两种工艺生产的成品棉籽油的各项指标进行对比分析。与常规精炼工艺相比,混合油精炼得到的成品棉籽油色泽R值低1.5~2.5,酸值( KOH)低0.08 mg/g,含皂量低0.015个百分点,皂脚含油低10~20个百分点,精炼得率提高2~6个百分点。混合油精炼工艺在新疆棉籽油生产加工中的应用具有精炼得率高、成品油色泽浅、动力消耗低、维护费用低等优势,解决了新疆棉籽高棉酚含量对棉籽油生产加工的不利影响,更适合于新疆棉籽油的加工。

  5. Effect of refined coconut oil or copra meal on methane output and on intake and performance of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E; Lovett, D K; Monahan, F J; Callan, J; Flynn, B; O'Mara, F P

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish the effect of feeding either refined coconut oil (CO) or copra meal containing CO to beef heifers on DMI, animal performance, enteric CH4 emissions, diet digestibility, and the fatty acid profile of the resulting meat. Forty-one Charolais and Limousin crossbred beef heifers (474 +/- 29 kg; 661 +/- 89 d of age) were blocked by BW before being assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (n = 12) or to a pretrial slaughter group (n = 5) used to determine the initial carcass weight. The experimental period lasted for 93 d. Enteric CH4 output was recorded for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days from d 14 to 18 and from d 70 to 74. The 3 dietary treatments were 1) control, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 0 g of CO/ d; 2) RCO, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from refined coconut oil; and 3) CM, a copra meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from copra meal. Each diet had a 50:50 forage:concentrate using grass silage as the forage source. There was no effect of diet on DMI (P = 0.734) or GE intake (P = 0.486). The addition of RCO increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with the control treatment. The CM treatment decreased (P < 0.05) average daily carcass gain compared with the RCO treatment only. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in the digestibility of the DM, OM, CP, and GE fractions of the diet only with the CM treatment. Both the RCO and CM concentrates decreased (P < 0.001) daily enteric CH4 output when expressed in terms of liters per day, liters per kilogram of DMI, percentage of GE intake, liters per kilogram of ADG, and liters per kilogram of average daily carcass gain. The RCO treatment produced the greatest numerical response for all measures. Ruminal protozoa numbers on the RCO treatment were lower (P < 0.05) than on the control treatment. The concentrations of the fatty acid methyl esters, lauric (P < 0.001) and myristic (P < 0.002) acids, were

  6. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW.

  7. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; Mol, A.P.J.; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the

  8. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; Mol, A.P.J.; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the outp

  9. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  10. Use of waste ash from palm oil industry in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangchirapat, Weerachart; Saeting, Tirasit; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood; Siripanichgorn, Anek

    2007-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product from the palm oil industry, is disposed of as waste in landfills. In this study, POFA was utilized as a pozzolan in concrete. The original size POFA (termed OP) was ground until the median particle sizes were 15.9 microm (termed MP) and 7.4 microm (termed SP). Portland cement Type I was replaced by OP, MP, and SP of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of binder. The properties of concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength, and expansion due to magnesium sulfate attack were investigated. The results revealed that the use of POFA in concretes caused delay in both initial and final setting times, depending on the fineness and degree of replacement of POFA. The compressive strength of concrete containing OP was much lower than that of Portland cement Type I concrete. Thus, OP is not suitable to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete. However, the replacement of Portland cement Type I by 10% of MP and 20% of SP gave the compressive strengths of concrete at 90 days higher than that of concrete made from Portland cement Type I. After being immersed in 5% of magnesium sulfate solution for 364 days, the concrete bar mixed with 30% of SP had the same expansion level as that of the concrete bar made from Portland cement Type V. The above results suggest that ground POFA is an excellent pozzolanic material and can be used as a cement replacement in concrete. It is recommended that the optimum replacement levels of Portland cement Type I by MP and SP are 20% and 30%, respectively.

  11. North Carolina used-motor-oil re-refining program. Topical report 2. Economics and logistics: startup experience and operating projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This is the second in a planned series of topical reports on a program to develop and demonstrate a state-operated re-refining system for used engine oil. The North Carolina Oil Re-Refining Facility, using a 2,000,000 gallon input per year PROP plant, was installed in late 1980. During the first year of startup operation ending December 31, 1981, approximately 137,000 gallons were produced. This was much less than expected due to many impediments; however, product quality has consistently been excellent. Capital costs to date total about $2.3 million, and it is projected that an additional $1.5 million of equipment upgrading and facility expansion/improvements will be needed before the plant will produce satisfactorily. For the first year, based on normal accrual accounting, operating costs exceeded revenues by about $350,000 and the negative cash flow was about $346,000. After upgrading, however, it is expected the plant will generate revenues sufficient to repay the investment within ten years, even assuming that the selling price of re-refined oil will not inflate faster than the cost of producing it. This report also contains sections reporting on the logistics of oil pickup and delivery and also brief descriptions of information forms and procedures developed for the facility.

  12. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.I.; Machado, J.B.; Linhares, C.A.; Mazarino, P.R. [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1993-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. 77 FR 22226 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    .... 6974(a) on behalf of the Sierra Club and the Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN) (hereafter... whether this is a waste management activity or, as EPA found, a ``component of fuel manufacturing... solid waste, if the Agency determines that this aspect is part of the manufacturing process and does...

  14. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicik Herlina Yulianti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The CaOZnO nanoparticle catalysts with Ca to Zn atomic ratios of 0.08 and 0.25 have been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis provided with Rietica and Maud software, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and its properties was compared with bare CaO and ZnO catalysts. The phase composition estimated by Rietica software revealed that the CaO catalyst consists of CaO and CaCO3 phases. The estimation of the particle size by Maud software, showed that the particle size of all catalysts increased by the following order: ZnO. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st January 2014; Revised: 10th March 2014; Accepted: 18th March 2014[How to Cite: Yulianti, C.H., Ediati, R., Hartanto, D., Purbaningtias, T.E., Chisaki, Y., Jalil, A.A., Hitam, C.K.N.L.C.K., Prasetyoko, D., (2014. Synthesis of CaOZnO Nanoparticles Catalyst and Its Application in Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 100-110. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5998.100-110

  15. An application of multiple criteria decision-making techniques for ranking different national Iranian oil refining and distribution companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nazari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement plays an essential role on management of governmental agencies especially when profitability is not the primary concern and we need to consider other important factors than profitability such as customer satisfaction, etc. In this paper, we propose a multi-criteria decision making method to rank different national Iranian oil refining and distribution companies. The proposed study of this paper uses six factors including per capita supply, energy cost, physical productivity of labor, staff participation, quality control inspection of stations and education per capita. The proposed study uses Entropy to find the relative importance of each criterion and TOPSIS to rank 37 alternatives based on cities and three regions. The results of the implementation of our method indicate that central regions close to capital city of the country maintains the highest ranking (0.9122 while southern regions maintains the lowest comes in the lowest priority (0.0569 and the northern region is in the middle (0.7635.

  16. High-melting point sediment from refined coconut oil stored in a tank for a long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Fukiko

    2008-01-01

    A small amount of sediment occurs in refined coconut oil stored in a large-scale tank for a long term. This sediment is different from that generally called Cocos Wax, is insoluble in various organic solvents, and has an m.p. of about 100 degrees C. In this report, we have done a structural analysis of this sediment. The sediment was carried out by hydrolyzing with a KOH/ethyl alcohol solution including toluene. Samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, EI-MS, CI-MS, field desorption mass spectrometry (FD-MS), and MALDI/TOF-MS. The hydrolyzates were a compound including an oxo group, and its relative molecular mass was 382 for the acid part and 412 for the unsaponified matter according to EI-MS (ionization energy was 70 eV and 15 eV) and CI-MS (reagent gases were i-butane, ammonia, and nitrogen monoxide). The relative molecular mass of the sediment was 1140 according to the mass spectrometry of FD, EI, and MALDI. It was elucidated based on the characteristic absorption analysis by IR and the fragmentation behavior of the EI-MS that the sediment was a wax ester, 3, 9-di-9-oxotetradocosanecarboxy-11-oxohexacosane, consisting of an acid part of 9-oxotetradocosanecarboxylic acid and an unsaponified matter of 3, 9-di-hydroxy-11-oxohexacosane.

  17. 77 FR 61026 - Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... COMMISSION Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries AGENCY...-537, Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries. DATES... commercial olive oil industry in the United States and major supplier countries, including production of...

  18. Impact of refining on oat oil antioxidant capacity%精炼对燕麦油抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 李再贵; 程永强; 郦金龙; 邱爽; 殷丽君

    2013-01-01

    In order to further increase the oat oil utilization value as edible oil,oat oil extracted by petroleum ether, hexane,isopropanol, ethyl acetate and ethanol,and soybean oil were refined to compare their differences in reducing power and DPPH · scavenging activity.The study results showed that the reducing power and DPPH o scavenging activity of refined oils were lower than crude oil, and the trend enhanced with the extraction solvent polarity increasing, DPPH· scavenging rate of different refined oils were petroleum ether 75.94%, n- hexane 74.98% Jsopropyl alcohol 75.38% ,acetic ether 79.37% ,ethanol 82.81%,respectively and soybean oil was 69.53%.Reducing power were petroleum ether 0.44,n-hexane 0.45,isopropyl alcohol 0.48,ethyl acetate 0.46,ethanol 0.52 respectively and soybean oil was 0.32.ln addition,various oat oils antioxidant capacity were significantly higher than the soybean oil.%为进一步增加燕麦油作为食用油的开发价值,对石油醚、正己烷、异丙醇、乙酸乙酯和乙醇五种溶剂提取的燕麦油进行精炼,对精炼油的DPPH·清除及还原力进行研究,并同大豆油进行比较.研究结果发现,精炼后的油脂,其还原力与DPPH·清除率都低于毛油,且随提取溶剂极性的增强而增强,精炼后的不同溶剂提取的燕麦油和大豆油DPPH·清除率分别为:石油醚75.94%、正己烷74.98%、异丙醇75.38%、乙酸乙酯79.37%、乙醇82.81%、大豆油69.53%;还原力分别为:石油醚0.45、正己烷0.44、异丙醇0.48、乙酸乙酯0.46、乙醇0.52、大豆油0.32.此外,各种燕麦油的还原力与DPPH·清除率显著高于大豆油.

  19. Seven Major Influential Events in China's Oil Industry in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zaixiang

    2003-01-01

    @@ Study of sustainable oil and gas development strategy kicks off China's Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a work conference on May 26 to commence the research on China's sustainable oil and gas development strategy.

  20. Understanding the oil industry: Economics as a help or a hindrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P. [Univ. of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines how economics has contributed to an understanding of the international oil industry. After considering why knowledge of the oil industry is a subject worthy of interest, the paper develops a stylized version of economic methodology. It then tries to apply this to the oil industry. However, the paper observes that in the past, because of secrecy and lack of data, there have been serious problems which inhibit the use of standard methodology. The result has been a tendency among some economists to apply untried theory to the industry with damaging results. The paper then considers how other economists have adopted a different approach and in doing so, have made significant contributions. The paper concludes by considering future avenues for the further application of economic analysis to the oil industry. 40 refs., 1 fig.

  1. China's Petrochemical Industrial Development Against High Oil Prices Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Dingyi

    2006-01-01

    @@ As China's oil consumption enters a rapid growth period,increasingly serious oil shortage has become the major factor restricting the nation from economic and social development. It is predicted that China's annual oil consumption will reach 450 million tons by 2020 when the peak crude production is around 200 million tons.

  2. Subsurface ecosystems - Oil triggered life: Opportunities for the petroleum industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kraan, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Areas of research - Petroleum microbiology: Determination of the microbial diversity of oil reservoirs and oil associated ecosystems (wellhead samples and oil field core samples). This research is performed to investigate if microbes can serve as indicators for changing conditions in subsurface

  3. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities of China Oil & Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xingkun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese economy has turned from rapid development into new normal. With economic transition, demand for oil and gas decreases as well. Consumed diesel-gasoline ratio keeps declining, and diesel export increases considerably. Gas demand grows at medium speed, and supply meets demand in general. Alternative energy dominated by gas and electricity will develop faster. As crude oil import right is gradually liberalized, domestic oil market structure will be changed. Oil price drop brings the best opportunity for oil and gas market reform, and environmental protection becomes main force boosting natural gas development.

  5. Analysis of Chinese Accounting Standards for the Oil and Gas Industry and Related Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Accounting standards are the tools for distribution of the revenues. Their development trend is influenced by their stakeholders. The evolution of American oil and gas accounting standards has been shaped by the profit-maximizing process of American oil and gas company shareholders, which for outside lobbying relied on their huge capital and organization. The development and perfection of Chinese new oil and gas accounting standards should consider not only the criterion of standards but also the real political fact in China oil and gas industry. The research on oil and gas accounting standards is an academic study as well as a political analysis.

  6. International Oil Price’s Impacts on Carbon Emission in China’s Transportation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry.Design/methodology/approach: This paper chooses five independent variables of GDP, international oil price, private car population, passenger and freight transportation volume as impact factors to investigate industrial carbon emissions, the paper also analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and finally the paper uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry. With the independent variables’ historical data from 1994 to 2009 as a sample, the fitting of the industry carbon emissions is satisfying. And based on the data of 2011, the paper maintains the private car owning, passenger and freight transportation volume to study international oil prices’ impact on the industry carbon emissions at different levels of GDP.Findings: The results show that: with the same GDP growth, the industry carbon emissions increase with the rise in international oil prices, and vice versa, the industry carbon emissions decrease; and lastly when GDP increases to a certain extent, in both cases of international oil prices’ rise or fall, the industry carbon emissions will go up, and the industry carbon emissions increase even faster while the energy prices are rising.Practical implications: Limit the growth in private-vehicle ownership, change China's transport sector within the next short-term in the structure of energy consumption and put forward China's new energy, alternative energy sources and renewable energy application so as to weaken the dependence on international oil, and indirectly slowdown China's GDP growth rate, which are all possible

  7. Co-Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Refined Glycerin Wash Water for Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Refined Glycerin Wash Water (RGWW from the oleochemical industry contains high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and requires proper treatment before disposal. Unfortunately the wash water also contains high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl that could cause inhibition to the normal biological treatment process. However, there is feasibility of co-digesting the RGWW and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for its treatment and methane recovery. Approach: A large 500 m3 semi-commercial closed digester tank was used to study the effect of co-digesting POME and RGWW under mesophilic condition at different RGWW percentage. The digester performance in terms of COD removal efficiency and methane production rate and stability based on total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation, Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid (MLVSS and pH were evaluated. Results: At 1.0% of RGWW co-digested, both COD removal efficiency and methane production rate showed satisfactory results with higher than 90% and 505 m3 day-1, respectively. However, once the percentage was increased to a maximum of 5.25%, COD removal efficiency remains high but the methane production rate reduced significantly down to 307 m3 day-1. At this stage, the digester was already unstable with high total VFA recorded of 913 mg L-1 and low cells concentration of 8.58 g L-1. This was probably due to the effect of plasmolysis on the methanogens at high concentration of NaCl in the digester of nearly 4000 mg L-1. Conclusion: Co-digesting of RGWW with high NaCl content and POME is satisfactory for COD removal but not for increasing the methane production.

  8. 群体AHP模式下成品油营销指标分析%Marketing Metrics Analysis of Refined Oil in Group AHP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛泽琦

    2014-01-01

    Through judging, adapting and altering the factors affecting marketing results, and using the right marketing means, refined oil marketing can achieve marketing purposes. In this paper, the comprehensive evaluation index system of refined oil marketing was analyzed, each index weights were calculated to carry out comprehensive evaluation by group AHP model analysis, and a final sorting for each indicator systems of affecting refined oil marketing was determined, finally the key indicators were obtained, which was beneficial for the overall control and improvements for marketing activities.%成品油营销通过判断、适应、改变影响营销结果的因素,利用正确的营销手段,达到营销目的。分析了成品油营销的综合评价指标体系,利用群体 AHP 模型分析计算各指标权重幵迚行综合评判,对影响成品油营销的各指标体系迚行最终排序,得出其中的兲键指标,有利于对营销活动迚行整体的控制和改迚。

  9. Understanding and managing environmental liability in the Saskatchewan oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrychuk, L.D.; LeBlanc, L.B. [MacPherson Leslie and Tyerman, Regina, SK (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    An overview of Saskatchewan legislative framework regarding the oil and gas industry was presented. In the oil and gas industry, environmental issues are regulated at the provincial level, but the industry must also be aware of federal environmental law when dealing with federal lands, federal financial assistance, interprovincial or international projects or projects which have transboundary environmental effects. In this context, the provisions of the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) and the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations (OGCR), the licensing of oil and gas wells, the acquisition and surrender of surface rights, and the procedures involved in environmental assessment approval were outlined. Emission control, air pollution abatement, the storage and disposal of hazardous materials, environmental issues in property transactions, and corporate environmental management are also subject to regulation under OGCA and OGCR. 42 refs.

  10. Palm oil industry: A review of the literature on the modelling approaches and potential solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabid, M. Faeid M.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-01

    Palm oil industry plays an important role as a backbone to the economy of a country, especially in many developing countries. Various issues related to the palm oil context have been studied rigorously by previous researchers using appropriate modeling approaches. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of existing modeling approaches used by researchers in studying several issues in the palm oil industry. However, there are still limited numbers of researches that focus to determine the impact of strategy policies on palm oil studies. Furthermore, this paper introduces an improved system dynamics and genetic algorithm technique to facilitate the policy design process in palm oil industry. The proposed method is expected to become a framework for structured policy design process to assist the policy maker in evaluating and designing appropriate policies.

  11. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THChemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.

  12. Formation of Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters Both in Real Edible Oils during Laboratory-Scale Refining and in Chemical Model during High Temperature Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2016-07-27

    In the present study, the formation mechanisms of glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) were investigated both in real edible oils (soybean oil, camellia oil, and palm oil) during laboratory-scale preparation and refining and in chemical model (1,2-dipalmitin (DPG) and 1-monopalmitin (MPG)) during high temperature exposure (160-260 °C under nitrogen). The formation process of GEs in the chemical model was monitored using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the roasting and pressing process could produce certain amounts of GEs that were much lower than that produced in the deodorization process. GE contents in edible oils increased continuously and significantly with increasing deodorization time below 200 °C. However, when the temperature exceeded 200 °C, GE contents sharply increased in 1-2 h followed by a gradual decrease, which could verify a simultaneous formation and degradation of GEs at high temperature. In addition, it was also found that the presence of acylglycerol (DAGs and MAGs) could significantly increase the formation yield of GEs both in real edible oils and in chemical model. Compared with DAGs, moreover, MAGs displayed a higher formation capacity but substantially lower contribution to GE formation due to their low contents in edible oils. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic evidence showed that cyclic acyloxonium ion intermediate was formed during GE formation derived from DPG and MPG in chemical model heated at 200 °C.

  13. Refining and fatty acid composition of crude giant salamander oil%粗大鲵油的精制及其脂肪酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秦; 孙强; 叶欣; 冉旭; 高安友

    2014-01-01

    The impurities in crude giant salamander oil such as phospholipids, protein, free fatty acid and pigment could be removed through refining process. The results showed that the optimal refining parame-ters of crude giant salamander oil were obtained as follows:dosage of 40% H3 PO4 1% ( based on the oil mass) , degumming for 1 min at 70℃; dosage of 3% NaOH solution 1. 5% ( based on the oil mass) , deacidification for 30 min at 65℃;dosage of activated clay 1% ( based on the oil mass) , bleaching for 30 min at 60℃;reduced pressure deodorization for 30 min at 85℃. Under these conditions,the refined giant salamander oil was clear, transparent and light yellow with little fishlike smell. Twenty-five kinds of fatty acids in refined giant salamander oil were identified by GC. The contents of unsaturated fatty acids ( UFA ) , polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA ) and saturated fatty acids ( SFA ) were 69. 81%, 27. 60% and 22. 64%, respectively.%粗大鲵油通过精制可除去其中的一些磷脂、蛋白质、游离脂肪酸和色素等杂质。结果表明:粗大鲵油精制工艺最佳参数为采用40%磷酸,添加量为1%(占油质量),70℃脱胶1 min;采用3%氢氧化钠溶液,添加量为1.5%(占油质量),65℃脱酸30 min;添加1%(占油质量)的活性白土,60℃脱色30 min;85℃下减压蒸馏脱臭30 min。在最佳工艺条件下,所得精制大鲵油澄清透明,略显淡黄色,鱼腥味较轻。对精制后的大鲵油采用气相色谱法共鉴定出25种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸( UFA)含量为69.81%,多不饱和脂肪酸( PUFA )含量为27.60%,饱和脂肪酸( SFA )含量为22.64%。

  14. Current state and prospects of cost accounting enterprises oil and fat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state oil and fat industry of Ukraine and described the trend of the industry of agriculture. Revealed the pressing problems of accounting of expenses oil and fat industry, identified cost centers and their composition, raw materials, products and waste as well as the directions of economic activity (of species that cause costs to increase efficiency of resource potential sub the object management capabilities and optimize its financial results. The study singles out areas of improvement of organizational and methodological aspects of the accounting of expenses oil and fat industry, in particular in terms of internal accounting proposed disclosure of costs to activities, types of oil and fat products, cost centers and production waste, contributing optimization of production costs and expenses of the entity as a whole

  15. Monitoring some environmental impacts of oil industry on coastal zone using different remotely sensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Hegazy

    2010-06-01

    Various environmental parameters which might be affected by pollution resulting from activities related to the oil industry were identified and hot spots that might be subjected to environmental deterioration were pointed out for immediate measures for environmental protection.

  16. neural network based model o work based model of an industrial oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Marquardt. Marquardt Back Propagation Algorithm ..... Ioan I. et al “The Optimization of Feed Forward. Neural Networks ... Controller Design of an Industrial Oil-Fired Boiler. Plant” ... Mechanical Engineering Purdue University, 2006. [38].

  17. Functioning of Oil and Gas Industry Technical Committees in Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanserik B. Ilmaliev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings in complex analysis of the existing legal, organizational problems of technical committees, particularly the ones in oil and gas industry and offers ways to overcome them

  18. Proceedings of the symposium on assessing the industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, O. Jr. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Analysis and Assessment Program, through the Safety and Environmental Protection Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The symposium program included presentations centering around the themes: Recognition of Occupational Health Monitoring Requirements for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries and Status of Dosimetry Technology for Occupational Health Monitoring for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries. Sixteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; six had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  19. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  20. The Impact of Price Fluctuations in Supply Chain Uncertainty and Risk in Oil & Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mikayilova, Khatira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine the challenges faced in oil and gas Supply Chain (SC) during the oil price fluctuations, provide recommendation on a way to reduce uncertainty in SC of oil and gas industry. Design/methodology/approach-The companies chosen for this research are called BP and two service companies: Schlumberger and Halliburton. In order to carry out this study, a qualitative research method was applied. Primary data was gathered through semi-s...

  1. Fundamental research in the chemistry of industrial oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    The causes of low oil recovery from formations and physiochemical methods for increasing oil recovery are analyzed. A survey of results from research in this field at the chemical institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR is given. The primary concepts of interformation combustion are examined together with the possibilities for using this method to control the combustion processes and enhance oil recovery as well as to optimize combustion processes.

  2. THE SITUATION OF IRAQI OIL INDUSTRY AND ITS PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Dulaimi Haidar Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is a major oil producer and exporter(the second one after Saudi Arabia, member of OPEC and was able to reform its oil sector and to gradually pass to a market economy system, by restructuring and privatizing its oil production, processing and distribution. Some medium term and long term priorities set for economic development are presented in the article and also investment and business opportunities existing for domestic and foreign investors.

  3. Tendencies of Development of Export Potential of the Fat-and-oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshchuk Tetyana H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article marks that the products of the fat-and-oil industry is an important component of the Ukrainian export. It generalises views of domestic and Russian scientists with respect to interpretation of the “export potential” notion. It offers the author’s definition of the export potential of a fat-and-oil enterprise (corporation as a maximal ability of a specific structure of the fat-and-oil industry to ensure the priority positions at the relevant segment of the foreign market during a long period of time. It specifies the role of the export potential in foreign economic activity of enterprises of the fat-and-oil industry. It provides a list of major domestic exporters of sunflower oil. It justifies a hierarchical structure of the export potential of a fat-and-oil enterprise. It shows dynamics of sunflower oil export during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 marketing years. It develops justified recommendations on increase of the export potential of the fat-and-oil industry and enterprises in particular.

  4. HOW TO MANAGE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN OIL INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF OMV PETROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS BULEARCA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As exploration and exploitation of oil and gas deposits continue to be among the most polluting industrial activities, this paper deals with revealing the way OMV Petrom, a major oil company from Romania, cope with these issues aiming at protecting the environment and ensuring safe and efficient operations in order to achieve sustainable development and constant growth.

  5. Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jegathish Kanadasan; Auni Filzah Ahmad Fauzi; Hashim Abdul Razak; Paramananthan Selliah; Vijaya Subramaniam; Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC) is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory...

  6. Investigating the barriers of the green human resource management implementation in oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Fayyazi; Saeed Shahbazmoradi; Zahra Afshar; Mohammad Reza Shahbazmoradi

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for the integration of environmental management into Human Resource Management (HRM) practices; such effort is known as Green HRM initiatives. The aim of this study is to identify barriers of green human resource management in Iran's oil industry. For this purpose, mixed method has been used. In the article, existing literature was examined and questions were designed and 12 experts of international oil industry were interviewed. The aim of these interviews was to desi...

  7. Impact of Economic Growth Mode and Development of Relevant Industries on Oil Products Consumption Increase in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Situations of Refining Products Consumption over Recent Years in China From 1995 through 2002 the consumption of refining products (gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel) in China grew slowly at an annual increase rate of 7.6%, while the consumption of oil products speeded up after 2002.

  8. Effect of refining process on quality of oil-tea camellia seed oil%精炼过程对油茶籽油品质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东生; 薛雅琳; 金青哲; 王兴国; 张东; 钟诚

    2014-01-01

    研究了精炼过程对油茶籽油品质的影响。结果表明:脱胶脱酸工序中油茶籽油酸值降低;脱色工序中油茶籽油色泽变浅、酸值上升、过氧化值降低;脱臭工序中油茶籽油中甾醇、α-生育酚、角鲨烯含量显著降低,分别降低了32.1%、16.6%、40.0%;冬化工序中因饱和脂肪酸结晶析出而使得油茶籽油碘值、不饱和脂肪酸含量和三油酸甘油酯含量升高;精炼过程中,油茶籽油脂肪酸组成和甘油三酯组成变化不大。%The influence of refining process on the quality of oil-tea camellia seed oil was researched. The results showed that acid value of oil-tea camllia seed oil reduced in degumming and deacidification process;the color of oil-tea camellia seed oil dodged, the peroxide value lowered and acid value rose during bleaching;in the process of deodorization, the contents of sterol, squalene and α-tocopherol of oil-tea camellia seed oil significantly decreased by 32. 1%,16. 6% and 40. 0%, respectively;since the saturated fatty acids had been separated by crystallization, the iodine value and contents of unsaturated fatty acids and triolein increased during winterization; the compositions of fatty acid and triglyceride of oil-tea camellia seed oil changed slightly during refining.

  9. Environmental Regulation and Innovation Dynamics in the Oil Tanker Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The maritime industry is widely seen as less permeable to innovation than other industries. However, the industry is now recognizing that demands for increased environment protection can only be achieved by more innovation.This study demonstrates that environmental innovation has played a signifi...... a significant role in changing the industry's innovation paradigm. It has also been transformed over time....

  10. 斑点叉尾触内脏粗鱼油的精制及其理化指标和脂肪酸组成的分析%Refinement, physicochemical and fatty acid composition analysis of crude fish oil from the viscera of channel catfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆剑锋; 张伟伟; 林琳; 叶应旺; 姜绍通

    2011-01-01

    The crude fish oil from channel catfish was refined by degumming, neutralizing, bleach- ing and deodorizing. The refined fish oil was yellowish and transparent with very light fishiness. The physi- coehemical indices of refined fish oil were determined, which reached to the fist - grade criterion of refined fish oil of aquatic industry (SC/T 3502 -2000) except the iodine value. The compositions and contents of fatty acid in the refined fish oil were analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The results showed that there were mainly 19 types of fatty acid including C14 - C22 in refined fish oil, including 6 types of saturated fatty acids, 5 types of single unsaturated fatty acids, and 8 types of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The contents of saturated fatty acids, single unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 20.37% , 65.20% , and 13.66% , respectively. The ratio of ∑n-3 to ∑n-6 was reasonable, indicating that the fatty acids composition of the refined oil was good for human health.%斑点叉尾鲴内脏粗鱼油通过脱胶、脱酸、脱色、脱臭工艺精制后,外观澄清透明,略显淡黄色,并有淡淡的鱼腥味,除碘价低于我国水产行业精制鱼油的一级标准(SC/T3502—2000),其它各类指标均符合精制鱼油的一级标准。对脂肪酸的组成和含量进行分析,斑点叉尾蛔内脏精制油含有19种脂肪酸,主要是由C14-C22组成,其中饱和脂肪酸6种,单不饱和脂肪酸5种,多不饱和脂肪酸8种,其含量分别为20.37%、65.20%和13.66%。∑n-3/∑n-6的比值也较为合理,表明斑点叉尾钿内脏精制油的脂肪酸组成有利于人体健康。

  11. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  12. Foreign Cooperation Promotes China's Offshore Oil Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Effective pattern for foreign cooperation China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has set up the risk contract pattern for its cooperation with foreign companies on the basis of iRules of the People's Republic of China for Foreign Cooperation in Offshore Petroleum Resources Recovery() (hereinafter referred to as the Oil Rule) released by the State Council in 1982.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  14. Timing and Institutions: Determinants of the Ownership Structure in the Oil and Gas Industry in Canada and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Thomas

    In response to 1973 oil shock, both the Canadian and Norwegian states expanded public corporate ownership in the oil and gas industry. This thesis questions why the public share of total corporate ownership in the oil industry was greater in Norway than in Canada, and why Petro-Canada was privatized completely while Statoil was not. Two hypotheses are tested from a historical institutionalist perspective. First, the timing of oil development determined whether the private sector would establish itself as the dominant player in the oil and gas industry (in Canada) or not (in Norway) before the 1973 oil shock triggered government interest in public corporate ownership. Second, overlapping jurisdiction over oil resources (in Canada) undermined the effectiveness of mechanisms of reproduction of public corporate ownership. In Norway, the later discovery of oil thus gave the state a stronger bargaining position relative to the oil industry, and in a unitary state the uncontroversial redistributional activities of Statoil attracted more vested interests.

  15. Recent and future developments of the oil industry in Russian Federation and more particularly in the Republic of Baskortostan; Evolution recente et perspectives d'evolution de l'industrie petroliere en federation de Russie et plus specialement dans la Republique du Bachkortostan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garifullin, R

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the thesis is to analyse the actual situation in the Russian oil industry and to envisage basic ways if its future development. The first chapter evaluates the place of the former USSR and Russia in the world and particularly European systems of energy supply. The three next chapters analyse the currents situation in the sectors of oil exploration and production, logistics and refining in Russia. The fifth chapter aims to figure out the perspectives of the refining industry taking into account the evolution of demand for basic petroleum products and the production capacities. Optimisation of refining and production volumes between the Russian refineries is done by minimising the transportation cost between the refineries and consuming regions by using linear programming. The last chapter analyses the regional impacts of the oil industry taking the Republic of Baskortostan as example. The contribution of the oil industry to regional development is evaluated in the framework of the export base theory using the Input-Output analysis as mathematical tool. (author)

  16. Tendencies of Development of Export Potential of the Fat-and-oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshchuk Tetyana H.

    2013-01-01

    The article marks that the products of the fat-and-oil industry is an important component of the Ukrainian export. It generalises views of domestic and Russian scientists with respect to interpretation of the “export potential” notion. It offers the author’s definition of the export potential of a fat-and-oil enterprise (corporation) as a maximal ability of a specific structure of the fat-and-oil industry to ensure the priority positions at the relevant segment of the foreign market during a ...

  17. RECENT ADVANCES IN PETROCHINA‘S REFINING TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANLi-jun; QIAOYong; ZHUMing-hui; MAAn

    2003-01-01

    In recent years,PetroChina has developed several novel fefining technologies and some of them have been or are being industrialized in some refineries of PetroChina.These innovative refining processes are in the fields of clean fuels production,increasing diesel yield,resid conversion and upgrading of crude oil.

  18. Rio sambas to research drum[Research and development in the offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatern, R. von

    2002-09-01

    Perhaps the most published graphic in the oil industry is one that traces the price of oil through time. It is used as an overlay to correlate everything from the history of rig activity levels to predicting coming oil shortages and gluts. In Rio de Janeiro this month during the 17th World Petroleum Congress, Dr Don Paul of ChevronTexaco and Saudi Aramco's Abdulaziz Al-Kaabi used it to illustrate the role research and technology development must play within the oil industry. The author discusses the way the oil industry is spending money on research and development, he explains that in the past 20 years the biggest innovation in the industry has been 3D seismic. The critical strategy for oil business was the adaptation of 3D seismic from another industry which was then moulded for its own needs. The article goes on to describe the importance of the development of a portfolio of research and development.

  19. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia F. S. Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  20. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-07-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  1. Multinationals and global climate change: issues for the automotive and oil industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Lundan, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by US and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional

  2. Analyzing Perceptions of Wellbeing in Relation to Refinería Esmeraldas, The Largest Oil Refinery in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, K. S.; Valdivia, G.

    2016-12-01

    Refinería Esmeraldas, the largest oil refinery in Ecuador, has a great influence on the wellbeing of the mainly Afro-Ecuadorean neighborhoods that surround it. Understanding the extent of the refinery's influence on the local community is important as it contributes to a more effective planning for the predicted risks of environmental suffering associated with it, some of which may extend for generations to come. The problem of increased environmental burdens in low income communities of color, such as exposure to environmental pollutants, is often linked to improper regulation. Solutions are often framed in terms of stricter government policies, but equally important and more difficult to quantify factors, such as how pollution manifests in everyday life, also need to be addressed. This study uses primarily qualitative data, composed of structured interviews; spatial data; and audiovisual data, all of which was processed using analytic softwares such as Atlas.ti, Tableau, and ArcGIS, to map the experience of pollution and wellbeing in the city of Esmeraldas. The data was collected using a structured sample design, followed by snowball sampling in neighborhoods within the city. The findings indicate that the impacts of the refinery are not always direct, but rather affect various aspects of the life of Esmeraldeños. Several major wellbeing themes include Personal Trajectories, (Dis)able Bodies, and Urban Needs. These themes provide a more holistic understanding of life with pollution and help understand how people see themselves in relation to the refinery and how it affects their wellbeing. Grounded theory, which adopts an inductive approach, was used to analyze the everyday dimensions of the experience of pollution. The findings suggest that there are varying experiences of wellbeing in relation the refinery and that these have health, environmental, social, and physiological roots, which indicate possible connections between epigenetic manifestations and the

  3. REFINING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GUM ARABIC USING VACUUM FILTRATION METHOD FOR APPLICATION IN OIL AND GAS DRILLING FLUID FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on refining, characterization and determination of the physicochemical properties of raw and refined Gum Arabic. Vacuum filtration method was used for the refinement and both the raw and refined samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis. Both the raw and refined samples were odourless and dark brown in colour with the pH and viscosity values of 4.7, 63cP and 5.4,124cP respectively. The solubility of the raw and refined Gum Arabic in cold water and ethanol were 13.57%w/w, 0.01%w/wand 14.32%w/w,0.04%w/w respectively. The solubility curve indicated On the other and ethanol were 13.57%w/w, 0.01%w/wand 14.32%w/w,0.04%w/w respectively.The solubility curve hand both the raw and refined samples were insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The FTIR spectrum give the presence of functional groups such as alkyl halides, alkanes, alkenes, aliphatic amines, aldehydes and phenol that are common to polysaccharides and a clear level of impurities removed from the raw Gum Arabic that enhanced its viscosity for application as a viscosifier in drilling fluid formulation.

  4. Utilization of used oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascetti, G.J.; White, H.M.

    1978-08-01

    This report assesses the potential impact of re-refining used automotive and industrial lubricating oils on the national petroleum consumption. The technical base for this assessment is derived from a comprehensive review of the processes utilized in re-refining used oil and those processes used to produce lube oil from crude. Both existing and recently proposed processes are considered. Additionally, an extensive review of processes described in the patent literature is provided. Re-refining processes are surveyed and evaluated. Process descriptions are provided; hardware is identified; and process energy and economic requirements are calculated. Factors affecting the profitability of a re-refining operation are discussed. Economic projections of the demand for lube oil and the ability to satisfy this demand from crude oil are made and the value of lube oil as a vital resource and the need for conservation are addressed. Other factors related to re-refining are discussed, including lube oil characteristics, degradation, lube oil quality and engine sequence testing, and legislative and institutional barriers. Finally, an energy assessment of used oil utilization is made. Two options are considered in this assessment: (1) all used oil is re-refined and recycled back to lube oil; (2) all used oil is burned to recover its heat content.

  5. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  6. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  7. Oil and gas - a sunset industry? The role of petroleum in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses (1) issues where insights and perceptions have improved over the last 25 years of oil and gas history, (2) summarises some of the most important changes or trends that have shaped energy industries and that are expected to affect developments in the future, and (3) discusses issues that should be considered when it is discussed what the future may bring to the Norwegian petroleum industry and to the energy industries in general. Because of the petroleum activities in the North Sea, Norway is soon the 7th biggest oil producer and is becoming the most important supplier to the Continental gas market. 41 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  8. China Offshore Oil Industry Enters a New Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hao

    1995-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation has worked out the development strategy in the period of the Ninth Five-Years Plan ,i.e., running oil and gas in parallel and moving the priority towards gas, expanding reserve production, creating the downstream, developing the overseas business and strengthening the management to develop CNOOC into an international consortium with strong strength and the integrity of the upstream and the downstream.

  9. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  10. Study on refinement technology of high acid valued squid oil%高酸值鱿鱼油的精制工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小克; 李晓琳; 步营; 胡增淼; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    To the fact that fish oil from squid processing wastes was of high acid value,which restrict its application,firstly,using sodium bisulfate to catalyze the reaction of ethyl esterification,then deacidification,decolorization,deodorization was studied to refine squid oil.The results showed that the optimum esterification molar ratio of methanol to oil was 20∶1,the amount of sodium bisulfate was 8%,reaction time was 5h,reaction temperature was 80℃,the conversion rate of esterification approaches to 90%.The refined fish oil was low acid valued,yellowish and clarified,with very light fishlike smell,the physical and chemical indexes accord with the first refined fish oil demand for SC/T 3502-2000 standard.The total content of PUFA was 38.34% in the defined fish oil,the content of EPA and DHA was 11.49% and 22.14%,respectively.%针对鱿鱼加工废弃物中提取的鱼油酸值高,使其应用受限这一现状,采取先酯化以降低其酸值,后脱酸、脱色、脱臭的方法对其进行精制。研究结果表明,以硫酸氢钠为催化剂酯化过程中各因素的最适条件为:醇酸物质的量比20∶1,催化剂用量8%(W/W),反应时间5h,反应温度80℃,该条件下酯化率可达90%左右。精制后鱼油酸值显著下降,澄清透明呈淡黄色,略带鱼腥味,各项理化指标均达到鱼油的SC/T3502-2000标准的精制鱼油一级要求。应用气相色谱分析精制鱼油的脂肪酸组成,其多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)的含量达38.34%,其中C20∶5(EPA)和C22∶6(DHA)的含量分别为11.49%和22.14%。

  11. 中国石油炼油技术的最新进展%RECENT ADVANCES IN PETROCHINA'S REFINING TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎立军; 乔勇; 朱明辉; 马安

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, PetroChina has developed several novel refining technologies and some of them have been or are being industrialized in some refineries of PetroChina. These innovative refining processes are in the fields of clean fuels production, increasing diesel yield, resid conversion and upgrading of crude oil.

  12. Optimization of oil retention in sesame based halva using emulsifiers and fibers: an industrial assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, F; Maazoun, B; Gargouri, Y; Miled, N

    2016-03-01

    Oil bleeding during storage oleaginous seeds based confectionery products is a major problem affecting acceptance by consumers. Halva is a popular sweet food prepared from a sesame paste and a sugar mixture. The objective of this work was to improve the oil retention in this product by incorporating commercial fibers and emulsifiers: soya lecithin and monoglycerides (MG1 or MG2) during manufacturing. Oil retention yield was optimized on small batches, by response surface methodology using a central composite design applied with two factors, emulsifier concentration (0.25-2.25 %) and fibers concentration (0-2 %) at three levels. A centrifugation test was optimized to assess oil retention in halva samples. The experimental response (oil retention) was fitted with quadratic equations for each emulsifier, using multiple regression analysis. The emulsion stability increased with increasing the emulsifier concentration, particularly to 2.25 %. The oil bleeding assessed at 45 °C was slow but yielded similar results to those estimated by centrifugation test. The latter seems an attractive rapid method to quantify oil retention in oleaginous seeds and crops based food matrices. At an industrial scale, the increase of MG1 concentration to 2.25 % in halva enhances the oil retention of the product but does not affect its color or textural characteristics. Microscopic observations allowed us to explain high oil retention in this product by a homogeneous dispersion of oil droplets in the aqueous phase.

  13. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  14. Proceedings of the OPAS oil and gas sector symposium : Human resources in the western Canada oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Office for Partnerships in Advanced Skills (OPAS), Western Office organized this conference to discuss critical human resource issues in the oil and gas sector. In order to gain a broad perspective and different viewpoints, OPAS brought together representatives from the oil and gas industry, academia, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, and Alberta's Ministry of Human Resources and Employment. Topics of discussion included market trends, skills shortages and training development needs to respond to difficulties in recruiting in the areas of thermal enhanced oil recovery technologies and unconventional gas technologies. An 18 question survey conducted prior to the symposium revealed that the majority of respondents do not think that the current post secondary curriculum adequately meets the oil and gas industry's employment skill requirements. The challenges in designing and implementing industry specific programs were then discussed along with the timeline needed to develop an appropriate program and get graduates into the marketplace. The recommended initiatives resulting from the symposium discussions were then presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for the Distinction of Essential Oils Used in the Cosmetics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vargas Jentzsch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on the market; therefore, analytical methods for control are required. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that can be used for quality control tasks; the portability of modern devices expand the analytical possibilities also to in situ measurements. Fifteen essential oils of interest for the cosmetics industry were measured using a handheld Raman spectrometer, and the assignment of the main bands observed in their average spectra was proposed. In most cases, it is possible to distinguish the essential oils by a simple visual inspection of their characteristic Raman bands. However, for essential oils extracted from closely-related vegetable species and containing the same main component in a very high proportion, the visual inspection of the spectra may be not enough, and the application of chemometric methods is suggested. Characteristic Raman bands for each essential oil can be used to both identify the essential oils and detect adulterations.

  16. In Situ/On-Site Biodegradation of Refined Oils and Fuels (A Technology Review). Volume 3. Appendices B to F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    marine oil spills have been estimated to average $6.50/gal of spilled oil (Bartha and Atlas, 1977). This translates to roughly $2000 per metric ton...and Colwell, 1976c). Addition of Fungizone to oil agar no. 2 is selective for actinomycetes (Walker and Colwell, 1975). Washing the inoculum does not...since many marine bacteria grow and produce microcolonies when on small amounts of organic matter (Higashihara, Sato, and Simidu, 1978). Instead

  17. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Richard B.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1980-09-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100 th that of sunlight.

  18. Powerful motors: Kinship, citizenship and the transformation of the Argentine oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shever, Elana

    The privatization of the Argentine oil industry has been described as an unprecedented transfer of property, capital and control from the state to the corporate sphere, but this study demonstrates that the privatization process is better understood as a transformation of the historical configurations of oil-fueled development, political communities and human subjectivities. This dissertation probes the development of the state-led oil industry, and the shift to a corporate-led one, through an ethnography of Argentines differently positioned in relation to the global oil industry. The ethnography explores the lives of middle class oil workers and their families in Northwest Patagonia, impoverished residents of the shanty neighborhoods near the refineries in metropolitan Buenos Aires, and affluent employees of the translocal corporations operating in the Argentine oil fields. After the Introduction delineates this study's four principal interventions into anthropological scholarship, each subsequent chapter engages a particular problem that cuts across the Argentine oil fields and the anthropological theoretical fields. Chapter Two scrutinizes the historical construction of the Argentine subterritory as a "natural" space of value. Chapters Three and Four investigate the articulation of capitalist production and filial reproduction. These chapters argue that sentiment is a crucial generative force that has shaped the oil industry, company towns and worker families from the founding of the state-owned oil company in beginning of the twentieth century to its conversion into a corporate-owned one at the century's close. Chapters Five and Six examine the emergence of consumer citizenship and corporate citizenship out of Argentine neoliberalismo and its transformation of the oil industry. They argue that consumer and corporate citizenship are both reformulations of the older traditions of liberalism and Peronism. All the chapters of this dissertation illustrate that the

  19. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vail Manfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carried out in to optimize the refining process and to identify the effects of refining variables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulp consistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluated against the pulp quality properties, such as physical strengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as the interactions with papermaking process, such as paper machine runnability, paper breaks and refining control.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, were obtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under the lowest intensity and the highest pulp consistency possible. Changes on the operational refining conditions will have the highest impact on total energy requirements (costs) without any significant effect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control the industrial operation, such as those based on drainage measurements, do not represent the best alternative to maximize the final paper properties neither the paper machine runability.

  20. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, T. [Jaakko Poyry International, Helsinki (Finland); Bird, G.; Wallace, D. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  1. Large expansion of oil industry in the Ecuadorian Amazon: biodiversity vulnerability and conservation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Fajardo, Javier; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    Ecuador will experience a significant expansion of the oil industry in its Amazonian region, one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. In view of the changes that are about to come, we explore the conflicts between oil extraction interests and biodiversity protection and apply systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas that should be protected in different oil exploitation scenarios. First, we quantified the current extent of oil blocks and protected zones and their overlap with two biodiversity indicators: 25 ecosystems and 745 species (whose distributions were estimated via species distribution models). With the new scheme of oil exploitation, oil blocks cover 68% (68,196 km(2)) of the Ecuadorian Amazon; half of it occupied by new blocks open for bids in the southern Amazon. This region is especially vulnerable to biodiversity losses, because peaks of species diversity, 19 ecosystems, and a third of its protected zones coincide spatially with oil blocks. Under these circumstances, we used Marxan software to identify priority areas for conservation outside oil blocks, but their coverage was insufficient to completely represent biodiversity. Instead, priority areas that include southern oil blocks provide a higher representation of biodiversity indicators. Therefore, preserving the southern Amazon becomes essential to improve the protection of Amazonian biodiversity in Ecuador, and avoiding oil exploitation in these areas (33% of the extent of southern oil blocks) should be considered a conservation alternative. Also, it is highly recommended to improve current oil exploitation technology to reduce environmental impacts in the region, especially within five oil blocks that we identified as most valuable for the conservation of biodiversity. The application of these and other recommendations depends heavily on the Ecuadorian government, which needs to find a better balance between the use of the Amazon resources and biodiversity conservation.

  2. 精炼对菜籽油品质的影响%Effect of refining on the quality of rapeseed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹; 金青哲; 王兴国

    2012-01-01

    There was a reduction of some natural minor compounds in rapeseed oil during the refining process . At the same time, some new minor compounds were introduced or produced. The change of minor compounds exerted a decisive influence on the quality of rapeseed oil. Six batch samples were choosed from 6 plants and these minor compounds affecting greatly the quality of rapeseed oil, such as acid value, peroxide value, color, the content of phosphorus, tocopherol, phytosterol, trans fatty acid, were determinded in order to provide evidence for the moderate oil refining in our country.%菜籽油精炼过程是一个发生物理与化学变化的过程,在这一过程中,菜籽油损失了一些天然的微量物质,也引入或产生了多种其他微量物质,而这些微量物质的变化对菜籽油的品质具有决定性影响.对国内6厂家生产的菜籽油进行取样,选取酸值、过氧化值、磷含量、色泽、生育酚含量、植物甾醇含量、反式酸含量这几类对菜籽油品质影响较大的微量物质,对其进行分析测定,以期得到菜籽油精炼各工序中这些微量物质的变化规律,为菜籽油的适度精炼提供依据.

  3. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  4. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rezende Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that the processing conditions were safe and that under these experimental conditions the oil remained suitable for frying. The linear regressions were significant for refractive index, content of polar compounds, and lightness (L*. The content of polar compounds was determined using a cooking oil tester, and it had the best fit to the proposed model and can be used as an effective index for monitoring palm oil during the continuous par frying of breaded chicken snacks. The high turnover rate of the oil was important for maintaining the oil in good running conditions.

  5. Industrial production of crisps and prefried french fries using sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébédio, J. L.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Crisps and prefried french fries were prepared during industrial operations in order to study the possibility of using sunflower oils («normal» and high oleic instead of palm olein and mixtures of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and palm oil in industrial frying. The quality of the food items was evaluated by determining the total amount of polar components, the amount of the different components in the polar fraction (dimers, oxidized triglycerides, diglycerides, the quantity of cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM, as well as the 18:2 geometrical fatty acid isomers. For both the production of crisps and french fries, very small increase in the polar components was observed. Frying of crisps did not result in any changes in the fatty acid composition and in the amount of 18:2 geometrical isomers. However the amount of CFAM increased in samples fried in SO. An increase of CFAM was observed also for french fries independently of the nature of the frying medium. No modifications of the cis and trans isomer distributions were observed for the french fries prepared in the mixture of palm oil and partially hydrogenated canola. These results show that sunflower oils could be used for the industrial production of french fries and crisps. However, storage studies are being carried out in order to determine if both types of sunflower oils give products which are as stable as those prepared in a solid frying medium.

  6. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  7. Scenarios of the Oil Industry of Croatia and the Region: Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Barišić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The oil industry is historically burdened by different turbulences and tremors having the significant impact on the market. In order to anticipate unforeseen and potentially harmful situations, some firms as a part of their long-term strategic plans pay attention to scenario-based planning, which is a useful technique for preparation of appropriate strategy and responses to potential unforeseen emergencies. Scenario planning is used for a detailed analysis of the current situation in the market and potential future development, creating a research framework for creating development scenarios. Scenario planning is especially highlighted in the context of oil industry considering the technique actually originated in this business (it was also used in previous military doctrine, where, because of using a scenario-based planning, some oil companies profited and gained a privileged position. The aim of the paper is to provide an insight into the importance and various approaches in using scenario planning today and explain the potential long-term scenarios in the oil industry of Croatia and the region, obtained by means of qualitative research and in-depth interviews with a number of experts in the field of oil industry.

  8. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  9. Small wind turbines recognized in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    In response to environmental concerns, many diesel generators are being replaced with wind turbines. There is a growing trend for oil rigs and gasoline service stations around the world to use small wind turbines to power their facilities. Proven Energy Ltd., a supplier and manufacturer of small, reliable wind turbines, has exhibited its products at renewable energy exhibitions in the United Kingdom, Texas and Norway. The company has developed SIRA certified explosive proof turbines that currently produce electricity on one of Shell's offshore oil rigs and at BP's gasoline service stations. The turbines went through 2 years of rigorous offshore testing to ensure their reliability in harsh working conditions. Shell has ordered 16 more turbines given the success of the one currently installed on its platform. The turbines only need servicing once a year and once every two years for offshore. As such, there is little or no disruption to public service or unmanned rigs. 1 fig.

  10. Self-reported Occupational Exposures Relevant for Cancer among 28,000 Offshore Oil Industry Workers Employed between 1965 and 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenehjem, Jo S; Friesen, Melissa C; Eggen, Tone; Kjærheim, Kristina; Bråtveit, Magne; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine self-reported frequency of occupational exposure reported by 28,000 Norwegian offshore oil workers in a 1998 survey. Predictors of self-reported exposure frequency were identified to aid future refinements of an expert-based job-exposure-time matrix (JEM). We focus here on reported frequencies for skin contact with oil and diesel; exposure to oil vapor from shaker, to exhaust fumes, vapor from mixing chemicals used for drilling, natural gas, chemicals used for water injection and processing, and to solvent vapor. Exposure frequency was reported by participants as the exposed proportion of the work shift, defined by six categories, in their current or last position offshore (between 1965 and 1999). Binary Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine the probabilities of reporting frequent exposure (≥¼ vs. <¼ of work shift) according to main activity, time period, supervisory position, type of company, type of installation, work schedule, and education. Holding a non-supervisory position, working shifts, being employed in the early period of the offshore industry, and having only compulsory education increased the probability of reporting frequent exposure. The identified predictors and group-level patterns may aid future refinement of the JEM previously developed for the present cohort.

  11. Predominant MIC Mechanisms in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-07

    allowed sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) and other troublesome microorganisms to grow protected from biocides. Several actions were taken after the...is the internal corrosion that takes place.in crude oil pipe- lines. It has now been discovered that alongside sulfate•reducing prokaryotes (SRP...been observed in a limited number of SRB strains. Direct electron uptake involves outer membrane redox proteins that inter- act with extracellular

  12. Quality differences of cold-pressed and refined sesame oil%冷榨芝麻油与浸出精炼芝麻油品质差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 钟雪玲; 汪学德; 马宇翔

    2012-01-01

    通过对冷榨芝麻油和浸出精炼芝麻油样品的特征指标、质量指标、芝麻素含量、芝麻酚含量、VE含量及氧化诱导时间的测定,分析比较冷榨芝麻油与浸出精炼芝麻油的品质差别.结果表明:冷榨芝麻油与浸出精炼芝麻油在特征指标上的最大差别是不皂化物含量和反式脂肪酸含量,冷榨芝麻油中不皂化物含量约为浸出精炼芝麻油的2.5倍,冷榨芝麻油未检出反式脂肪酸,浸出精炼芝麻油检出反式脂肪酸,其含量为0.88%,其中反式油酸含量0.34%,反式亚油酸含量0.54%;冷榨芝麻油与浸出精炼芝麻油在质量指标上的主要差别是过氧化值,浸出精炼芝麻油的过氧化值高出冷榨芝麻油2倍多,其风味也明显逊色于冷榨芝麻油;冷榨芝麻油中芝麻素、芝麻酚及VE含量都高于浸出精炼芝麻油,冷榨芝麻油中芝麻素含量约是浸出精炼芝麻油的2.14倍,VE含量约是其3.41倍,冷榨芝麻油中芝麻酚含量约为0.2 mg/100 g,浸出精炼芝麻油中未检出芝麻酚;冷榨芝麻油与浸出精炼芝麻油氧化诱导时间差别不大.%The characteristic index, quality index,sesamin content,sesamol content,tocopherol content and oxidation induction time of cold - pressed and refined sesame oil were determined. The results showed that the most striking differences in characteristic indexes of cold - pressed and refined sesame oil were unsaponifiable matter content and trans - fatty acid content. The unsaponifiable matter content of cold -pressed sesame oil was 2. 5 limes as high as that of refined sesame oil. No trans -fatty acid was detected in cold -pressed sesame oil,but there were 0. 88% of trans -fatty acids in refined sesame oil including 0. 34% of trans - oleic acid and 0. 54% of trans - linoleic acid. The main difference in quality index between the two kinds of sesame oils was peroxide value. The peroxide value of refined sesame oil was twice higher than that of cold

  13. 国外成品油管道运输发展现状与启示%The Current Situation of Pipeline Transportation of Overseas Refined Oil and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆吉; 欧毅; 李应晓

    2012-01-01

    The pipeline transportation of the refined oil has many advantages.At the present stage,although the pipeline transportation network of the refined oil is gradually matured,there still exist aspects to be improved.Based on the research of the distribution of the overseas pipeline transportation of the refined oil,the paper puts forward a scientific and reasonable suggestion to map out the construction of the pipeline transportation of the refined oil in the future,which can better improves the productive and marketing efficiency of our refined oil.The study is of profound significance.%成品油管道运输有诸多明显优势,现阶段我国成品油运输管网正逐步走向成熟,但仍有部分不完善之处。本文通过对国外成品油管道运输分布情况的研究,提出科学合理规划我国未来成品油管网建设的建议,可更好地提高我国成品油的生产、销售等环节效率,研究内容具有重要而长远的意义。

  14. Corporate Environmentalism: Notes on Conceptualization and Explanation with Anecdotal Evidence from the Oil Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranoey, B.S.

    1995-12-01

    This paper originates from a project on the oil industry`s reaction to calls for environmental reform caused by concern about climate change. It discusses two sets of related questions: (1) how can corporate responses in politics and industry be measured and conceptualized, and (2) how can variance in corporate environmental behaviour be accounted for. A multidimensional typology of corporate environmental responses in the ``industrial sphere`` is presented and the role of large companies as political actors and links between corporate environmental behaviour is explored. Some attempts to explain variance in corporate environmental strategy are made in the form of two ``models``. This is done by combining fragments of various theoretical bodies, like microeconomic theory, theories of strategic marketplace interaction and organizational theory. Finally, the author illustrates his ideas by drawing on findings from research on the environmental strategies of the three oil companies BP, Shell and Statoil. 51 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. 轻度氢化对精炼巴沙鱼油品质影响%Effect of mild hydrogenation on quality of refining the pangasius bocourti oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 谢丹; 金俊; 尚小磊; 金青哲; 王兴国

    2014-01-01

    Effect of Mild hydrogenation on quality of refining the Pangasius bocourti oil were analyzed. The quality including flavor stability,oxidation stability,trans fatty acids,solid fat content,peroxide value and acid value. The results found the mild hydrogenation can obviously increase the flavor stability and oxidative stability of refined fish oil.there were a lot of effect on the solid fat content.The mild hydrogenation also can reducing the peroxide value of refined fish oil,but nothing with the level of hydrogenation. The mild hydrogenation didn't effect the acid value. The generation of trans fatty acids was increased after the mild hydrogenation process,But not a sure relationship with iodine value loss. Although trans fatty acid content increased to 2.5%after the mild hydrogenation,far lower than 20%, which is the average of hydrogenated oil.%该文研究了轻度氢化对精炼巴沙鱼油品质的影响,主要包括风味稳定性、氧化稳定性、反式脂肪酸、固体脂肪含量、过氧化值和酸值。结果显示:轻度氢化可以明显提高精炼巴沙鱼油的风味稳定性和氧化稳定性;对固体脂肪含量影响较大;对过氧化值有一定的降低作用,但与氢化程度无关;对酸值无明显影响;轻度氢化后反式脂肪酸含量有所增加,但与碘值下降程度不呈确定关系。虽然轻度氢化后反式脂肪酸含量增多到2.5%左右,但远远低于氢化油反式脂肪酸含量20%的平均值。

  16. The Viability of the Oil and Gas Industry within the Former Soviet Union, excluding Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coish, J.; Pyne, M.

    2004-01-15

    The former Soviet Union (FSU) has huge potential in the future of the world's oil and gas industry. The FSU includes some of the biggest producers and consumers of oil and gas in the world, and many of these countries include areas that lie untouched or explored. FSU territory also surrounds the Caspian Sea, which is itself a hotbed of activity in the oil and gas industry. The Caspian alone is important to world energy markets because of its own potential for oil and gas production and export, and this adds to the overall potential of the FSU. The FSU has been moving towards a free market economy since the fall of communism in the early 90's, and as such, is becoming a much more attractive area for foreign companies to operate. The FSU countries still requires foreign investment for their respective industries, and some of them have even put into place legislation to provide benefits to foreign investors. There are many types of foreign investment required in the FSU. Much of the infrastructure already in place is old and dilapidated, and requires maintenance and improvement. As well, new equipment and technologies for exploration and production are required to tap the oil and gas resources that lie in inconvenient locations. Finally, transportation of the oil and gas is a major issue here, as many of the fields are in hard to reach areas, and thus pipeline projects are increasing. Since the fall of communism, the FSU has been opening its doors more and more to foreign investors eager to bite into the huge market, and many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world are already operating there. The industries are still young to foreign investment, however, and those companies who get their foot in the door early, will be able to reap the benefits for years to come.

  17. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has...

  18. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  19. Quality and refining effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil%花椒籽油品质及精炼效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 王晨曦; 裴雅晓

    2015-01-01

    The composition of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seeds from different areas or different varieties, and Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oils extracted by pressing and solvent extraction were determined. The refining effects and the quality of refined Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oils were studied. The results showed that the crude fat contents, crude protein contents and crude fiber contents of four kinds of Zan-thoxylum bungeanum seeds were in the range of 11 . 95% -25 . 41%, 7 . 89% -11 . 03% and 23 . 71% -31. 27%, respectively. Acid values and peroxide values of five kinds of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oils were 14. 24 - 66. 51 mgKOH/g and 9. 01-31. 47 mmol/kg, respectively. The qualities of crude oils extracted by pressing and solvent extraction were similar, however, the qualities of crude oils ob-tained from different areas or different varieties were quite different. The color of all the Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oils were dark. The acid values and peroxide values of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oils met the requirement of GB/T 22479—2008 after alkali refining, adsorption bleaching and deodoriza-tion. However, the content of trans fatty acids was quite high. The content of unsaturated fatty acids of the Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil was more than 70%, in which the content of linolenic acid was about 20%, the content of palmitic acid was higher than the limit of national standard and the contents of other fatty acids were in the range of the national standard.%对不同产地或不同品种花椒籽主要组分及利用压榨法和浸出法提取的花椒籽毛油进行检测,并对花椒籽毛油精炼效果及精炼油品质进行分析研究。结果显示:4个花椒籽样品的粗脂肪含量为11.95%~25.41%,粗蛋白质含量为7.89%~11.03%,粗纤维含量为23.71%~31.27%;5个花椒籽毛油样品的酸值(KOH)为14.24~66.51 mg/g,过氧化值为9.01~31.47 mmol/kg;同一品种的花椒籽,其压榨毛油和浸出毛油的质量差别不大,但不同产地或不

  20. Chemical Compositions and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile Oil from the Industrial Cultivation Medium of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maeba, Keisuke; Yonejima, Yasunori; Toyoda, Masanori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species colonizing the intestines of animals and humans. The characteristic odor of the volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of E. faecalis was investigated to determine the utility of the liquid medium. In total, fifty-six and thirty-two compounds were detected in the volatile oils from the MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (19.3%), phenylacetaldehyde (19.3%), and phenylethyl alcohol (9.3%). The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The total number of aroma-active compounds identified in the volatile oil from MBI and MAI was thirteen compounds; in particular, 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethyl alcohol were the most primary aroma-active compounds in MAI oil. These results imply that the industrial cultivation medium after incubation of E. faecalis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  1. Opening-up Status of China's Oil & Gas Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yaocang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Current status of China's oil & gas industry Solid strength of China's oil & gas industry Since the founding of P.R. China, particularly after the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, China's oil and gas industry has undergone a series of significant reforms and restructuring, it has set up a complete oil and gas industry system. Considerable growth has been seen in reserves and production of oil and gas, refining capacity and production capacity of ethylene, synthetic resin,synthetic fiber and synthetic rubber. Therefore, China has ranked among the powerful petroleum and petrochemical countries in the world.

  2. New Era for China's Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The first deepwater drilling rig developed in China is scheduled to drill a well in a part of the sea known as 43/11 block in 2012 at a water depth of 2,454 meters, making it the deepest well in the South China Sea. The block is now under exploration conducted by China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), BP Plc and Anadarko Petroleum Corp. It is on a short list of sites where CNOOC, the owner of the rig, is considering using semi-submersible deepwater rig this year to drill wells.

  3. Remote sensing for the oil in ice Joint Industry Program 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickins, D. [DF Dickins Associates LLC, La Jolla, CA (United States); Andersen, J.H.S [Norconsult, Horten (Norway); Brandvik, P.J.; Singsaas, I. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Buvik, T. [Trondheim Dog Training Centre, Trondheim (Norway); Bradford, J. [Boise State Univ., Boise, ID (United States); Hall, R. [Kongsberg Satellite Services, Tromso (Norway); Babiker, M.; Kloster, K.; Sandven, S. [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of detecting, mapping and tracking oil spills on ice were discussed with particular reference to the importance of spill detection and mapping for Arctic oil spills, where the oil can be hidden from view under snow and ice during periods of almost total darkness. The remote sensing project (P5) with in the Oil-in-Ice Joint Industry Program aimed to establish whether off-the-shelf technologies and sensors could detect oil in the presence of ice in particular scenarios. The specific goals were to evaluate the limitations and capabilities of currently operational remote sensors for spill surveillance in ice regimes encountered during the 2008 and 2009 field experiments and to draw conclusions regarding which sensors are most likely to be effective in a variety of oil and ice situations. The project focused on proven, commercially available systems and technologies. These included airborne sensors such as Ultra-violet/Infrared ( UV/IR ), forward looking infrared (FLIR) and synthetic aperture radar/side-looking airborne radars (SAR/SLAR); all weather satellite systems involving SAR; dogs for surface oil detection; and ground penetrating radar (GPR) for low level airborne oil on ice detection. The key finding was that flexible combinations of sensors operating from a variety of platforms are needed to cover a range of oil in ice scenarios. The most effective solution to detect oil patches during periods of darkness or fog was to deploy closely spaced global positioning system (GPS) tracking buoys to follow the ice and the oil. 34 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  4. Economics of Newfoundland and Labrador's offshore oil industry : separating fact from myth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, W. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided an analysis of the Newfoundland offshore oil sector to help inform public understanding and debate. Four questions were posed to the oil sector in order to provide answers to questions the public may have concerning oil and gas operations and their socio-economic impacts in the region. It was observed that Newfoundland's daily production, reserves and activity levels are relatively small in comparison with other major oil producing regions, accounting for only 0.4 per cent of the world's daily oil production. On a per capita basis, oil production in the region is significant in comparison to other oil-producing regions, placing fourth in the world behind the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Norway. The oil and gas sector is the largest single contributor to Newfoundland's economy, providing 16 per cent of Newfoundland's gross domestic product (GDP). An estimated $16 billion will be provided to the province's treasury through the exploitation of the province's resources. Production statistics for Hibernia, Terra Nova, White Rose and Hebron were presented. Price forecasts and projected royalty payments were also provided. It was noted that the Newfoundland government receives more than 50 per cent of the profits of the combined fields, and higher oil prices will yield higher shares to the government. Equity holders incur more risk and receive lower net present value than royalty and tax collectors. It was suggested that increases in local benefits will lead to increased project costs, which will in turn lead to reduced royalty incomes. It was concluded that the Newfoundland offshore oil sector is vitally important to all aspects of the province's economy. An informed debate on public policy issues that impact Newfoundland's offshore oil industry is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina da Silva Grem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

  6. China's Oil Industry Facing Challenge & Opportunity from WTO Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ With ups and downs in the past 15 years, China was officially admitted into World Trade Organization in November 2001. China's entry into WTO inevitably poses a severe challenge to the country's domestic petroleum and petrochemical industry, which has been protected by means of tariff hurdles and other administrative measures for a long time.

  7. Psychosocial risks and hydrocarbon leaks : an exploration of their relationship in the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, L.I.V.; Ringstad, A.J.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon leaks have a major accident potential in the oil and gas industry. Over the years the oil and gas industry in Norway has worked hard to find means to prevent hydrocarbon leaks and is today able to report significant progress. In this context, the exploration of accidents in light of huma

  8. Economics of industrial cogeneration with a residual-oil-fired low-speed diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Belak, F.J.; Bernard, M.J.; Stodolsky, F.; Suchy, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The only residual-oil-fired low speed diesel cogeneration facility in the US has been in operation for a year at the Hoffman-LaRoche Vitamin C plant in Belvidere, NJ. Operating data for this grid-connected 23 MW facility are used to construct a generic evaluation of the economic desirability of such systems for industrial electric/thermal applications and industrial-thermal/commercial-electrical applications made possible by recent US legislation (PURPA). The post 1980 changes in relative electrical and residual oil prices are shown to have made oil fired on-site generation more attractive. The likely 1985-2005 movements of electricity and residual oil prices are discussed, along with risks of error in projections. The system is evaluated as a whole and on an incremental basis. Incremental analysis includes (1) the economics of steam and hot water use given the diesel and (2) the economics of system generation given industrial electric, steam and hot water loads. The sensitivity of the economics of the system to the full range of US electricity and residual oil prices is estimated. The effect of variation in system loads is examined. The economic desirability of the system is often great but is also highly variable geographically, largely as a function of local evaded electricity charges.

  9. HOW TO USE SOLID WASTE OF OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN CERAMIC BRICKS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinovа T. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the recycling problem of solid waste of oil and gas industry is observed. We have developed the bases of resource saving technology for minimizing exhausted sorbents and catalysts pollution with their using as silica-containing additives in raw mix for production of ceramic bricks of standard quality

  10. Using whole number models with Boolean variables for solving optimization problems in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorodinskiy, B.I.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical justification is given for a method for solving one of the common problems in whole number linear programming with Boolean variables. It is shown that a number of optimization problems in the oil industry can be reduced to this model.

  11. The Impact of Post-Training on Job Performance in Nigera's Oil Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibieyi, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The Nigeria's oil industry has been criticized for some time now for its inability to render adequate services to the general public. This criticism is predicated on the fact that the standards of productivity in their services are low and that their facilities (i.e. the refineries) are not working up to capacity. This is evident in their…

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility and the Oil Industry in the Russian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Laura A.; Nysten-Haarala, Soili; Tulaeva, Svetlana; Tysyachnyuk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Examining the oil and gas industry in the Russian Arctic, this article investigates the gap between corporate social responsibility (CSR) as articulated in corporate offices and implemented at the local level. In Russia, global CSR norms interact with weak formal institutions and the strong informal

  13. Structures of mobilization and resistance: Confronting the oil and gas industries in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierk, Simone; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the problematic relationship between the oil industry and local communities in the Republic of Komi, we develop a case study of environmental grassroots mobilization in northwest Russia. Using a qualitative methodology comprising semi-structured interviews and

  14. Structures of mobilization and resistance: Confronting the oil and gas industries in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierk, Simone; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the problematic relationship between the oil industry and local communities in the Republic of Komi, we develop a case study of environmental grassroots mobilization in northwest Russia. Using a qualitative methodology comprising semi-structured interviews and parti

  15. The Russian oil industry re-structuration: towards the emergence of western type enterprises?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-01-01

    The Russian oil industry has undergone fundamental changes since the collapse of the Soviet Empire and its bureaucratic administrative structure, dominated by its various Branch Ministries. The monopoly in the Soviet oil industry has now been replaced by a number of ''oil companies'', some of which are very powerful, the best known of them being Lukoil. These ''joint stock companies'' are the product of a reform aimed essentially at implanting, out of all the numerous organisational arrangements developed in the West, the model of the vertically integrated private firm. Beyond the legal reforms in the Russian oil industry sector, however, the nature of the organisational model that has actually emerged in Russia begs several questions. Many entities, which are complex and highly diversified, are involved in this industry. There are, of course, the many private structures in which the banks sometimes carry a considerable amount of weight. There are also some vertically integrated organisations, but the degree of integration is variable and their method of centralization is based on a specific form of economic logic. It should not be considered, however, that these actors are similar to capitalist-type private enterprises, whose behaviour is regulated by the demands of international competition. Reform of property rights has not been sufficient to create true private enterprise in Russia. (author)

  16. Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atabaki, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the life and times of Indian migrant workers in Persia/Iran during the first half of the twentieth century, and discusses their contributions to the founding, development and eventual consolidation of the Persian/Iranian oil industry. A number of factors that shaped this

  17. Oil producing plants of the wildflora as potential crop plants supplying industrial raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radatz, W.; Hondelmann, W.

    1981-01-01

    The wildflora exhibits a continuously renewing potential for the production of chemical constituents suitable for industrial uses. Among them seed oil producing species assume a preferred position. Forty-two indigenous as well as adaptable taxa along with their botanical, agronomical and biochemical data are presented. Furthermore an approach to their domestication and agronomic improvement is given. (Refs. 158).

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility and the Oil Industry in the Russian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Laura A.; Nysten-Haarala, Soili; Tulaeva, Svetlana; Tysyachnyuk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Examining the oil and gas industry in the Russian Arctic, this article investigates the gap between corporate social responsibility (CSR) as articulated in corporate offices and implemented at the local level. In Russia, global CSR norms interact with weak formal institutions and the strong informal

  19. Toward the next fiber optic revolution and decision making in the oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boering, M.; Braal, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber optic data transmission has caused revolutionary developments in the current information society. It was also an eye opener for the Oil & Gas industry when fiber optic-based Distributed Temperature Sensing was introduced in the nineties. Temperature profiles over the entire length of the wellb

  20. China's Onshore Oil Industry is in Full Scale Opening to the Outside World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xueming; Wei Fang

    1995-01-01

    @@ In 1994, China's onshore petroleum industry continuously emphasized on making use of domestic and foreign resources and funds as well as opening to the outside world in full scale, so that a great progress has been achieved in the cooperation with foreign companies, contracting overseas projects, introducing advanced technology, importing equipment from abroad etc. CNPC has developed constant ties with the world oil circles.

  1. Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atabaki, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the life and times of Indian migrant workers in Persia/Iran during the first half of the twentieth century, and discusses their contributions to the founding, development and eventual consolidation of the Persian/Iranian oil industry. A number of factors that shaped this experi

  2. Working in verticalized platform vessel: an ergonomic approach in the oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garotti, Luciano; Mascia, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we point some aspects of workers activities in offshore units in the oil industry. These units became more verticalized and have a greater number of operating systems. Our goal is to present the main difficulties that workers face in these units.

  3. Safety in the mineral oil industry; Sicherheit in Mineraloelbetrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, B.-R. [Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Jentz, A. [TOTAL Raffinerie Mitteldeutschland GmbH, Spergau (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    For many years now, there have been less accidents in the petroleum industry than in other industries. This is due not least to the fact that safety has become a top level concern. For example, up to 20 percent of the salaries of top managers are linked to the annual accident statistics. Motivation for accident prevention must be made top-down. Staff members must be made aware that business success and accident prevention have equal priority, that accidents can indeed be prevented, that there is no good work unless it is safe, that constant safety training is required, that each staff member is responsible for safety to an equal extent, and that safety awareness must constantly be activated and enhanced. (orig.)

  4. The US refining industry at the limit of flexibility; Le raffinage americain en limite d'elasticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belorgeot, Ch.

    2002-10-01

    All along the last two decades, the number of refineries in operation in the US has continuously decreased. After the 1981 peak of 315 refineries in operation, this number reached only 143 in the beginning of 2002. After having rationalized the number of its operational sites, redistributed the size of its production capacities, and consolidated the number of its actors, the US refining sector, already in a critical situation, has now to face new stakes. This article summarizes the content of the study carried out by the Houston economical mission. (J.S.)

  5. Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: Approaches and organizational mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this thesis has been to explore how experience transfer works in Norwegian oil and gas industry. This includes how the concept of experience transfer is defined, what the barriers to achieve experience transfer are, how the oil and gas companies address experience transfer, and how these approaches work. The thesis is organized in five papers: (1) describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer and then specifies the organizational and structural barriers that must be overcome to achieve efficient transfer. (2) discusses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. (3) describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. (4) explores how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. (5) compares organizational members` perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. 277 refs., 3 figs., 29 tabs.

  6. Stepwise Isothermal Fast Pyrolysis (SIFP of Biomass. Part III. SIFP of Olive Oil Industry Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Luna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of olive oil industry wastes was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP. SIFP consists of a succession of isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions in which the solid products obtained from the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis reaction become the substrates for subsequent reactions at higher temperatures. This article reports the results obtained from the SIFP of olive oil residue carried out between the temperatures of 300 and 500 °C using 100 °C intervals under reduced pressure (200 mm Hg. The maximum yield of liquid products occurred at 300 °C and consisted of around 35% bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols, furans, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. At 400 and 500 °C, FAME, which is derived from residual olive oil, was the major product.

  7. Industrial and utility applications coal-oil mixture data index. [Oil-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    The seriousness of the present and projected national energy picture dictated the adoption of several approaches by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop alternate fuel sources as a means of curtailing our present dependence on imported oil. One approach, which offers near term potential for reducing the domestic consumption rate of natural gas and oil, is the application of coal-oil mixture (COM) combustion technology. The idea of burning coal and oil in the form of a mixture has been around for some time and is not viewed by DOE, in any degree, as the solution to our domestic energy problem. However, it is viewed as a near-term retrofit coal utilization technology with a high degree of application potential to existing oil fired systems. In view of this, DOE has undertaken several demonstration and support-research projects to further define existing COM technical uncertainties. The purpose of this manual is to present a comprehensive technical description and status of each project, both informative and practical with respect to the diverse data requirements.

  8. Market entry mode and competency building of Western oil companies in the Russian up stream oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Paul M.

    This dissertation investigated the market entry and competency building strategies within the context of the Russian oil and gas industry. The study was designed to be of interest to business practitioners and academics given the growing importance of fossil fuel in the energy balance of the global economy and the importance of Russia as a supplier and purchaser in the international market. The study's mixed methodology provides an understanding on the environmental factors that are postulated to impact foreign direct investment flow into Russia and the oil and gas sector. A case study of a fictitiously named Western-Russo oil company was conducted to provide a deep understanding of how capability is viewed by Russian and Western employees and the factors that influences the implementation of a successful competency development program. The case was centered on the development of a Well-Site supervisor group within a Western-Russian oil company. Findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between corruption and foreign direct investment inflow into the Russian economy. The findings also showed that both Russian and Western employees in the oil and gas industry are less focused on nontechnical competency development issues, that Western employees are more orientated towards the bottom-line than Russian employees, and that both groups see operational management as a core competency. In the area of financial management and technology application, there were significant differences in the viewpoint of both groups. Western employees saw a stronger need for financial management and less need for technology application when compared to their Russian counterparts. The results have implications for Western business contemplating entering the Russian oil and gas industry. Western firms need to understand the key drivers that will help them overcome the social and cultural barriers between Western and Russian employees. The role of the company leader is very

  9. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  10. A review of shape memory material’s applications in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The continuously increasing demand for oil and gas and the depleting number of new large reservoir discoveries have made it necessary for the oil and gas industry to investigate and design new, improved technologies that unlock new sources of energy and squeeze more from existing resources. Shape memory materials (SMM), with their remarkable properties such as the shape memory effect (SME), corrosion resistance, and superelasticity have shown great potential to meet these demands by significantly improving the functionality and durability of offshore systems. Shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory polymer (SMP) are two types of most commonly used SMM’s and are ideally suited for use over a range of robust engineering applications found within the oil and gas industry, such as deepwater actuators, valves, underwater connectors, seals, self-torqueing fasteners and sand management. The potential high strain and high force output of the SME of SMA can be harnessed to create a lightweight, solid state alternative to conventional hydraulic, pneumatic or motor based actuator systems. The phase transformation property enables the SMA to withstand erosive stresses, which is useful for minimizing the effect of erosion often experienced by downhole devices. The superelasticity of the SMA provides good energy dissipation, and can overcome the various defects and limitations suffered by conventional passive damping methods. The higher strain recovery during SME makes SMP ideal for developments of packers and sand management in downhole. The increasing number of SMM related research papers and patents from oil and gas industry indicate the growing research interest of the industry to implement SMM in offshore applications. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of SMM in the offshore oil and gas industry.

  11. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  12. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  13. Increased value creation by industrial refining of natural gas in Norway?; Oekt verdiskaping gjennom industriell foredling av naturgass i Norge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvik, John Magne; Kjelland, Torunn; Bakke, Kathrine Stene; Pedersen, Kent Vincent; Roetnes, Rolf; Fjose, Sveinung

    2009-07-01

    The report assesses whether industrial exploitation of gas from possible new major discoveries outside Northern Norway could be profitable. Profits are uncertain and depend heavily on gas prices. Industrial exploitation depends on the development of large, capital-intensive plants. This increases the financial risk. In a situation where gas export through pipelines is not an alternative industrial exploitation could be an alternative to export via LNG. However, the pressing demand for natural gas increases the probability of the construction of a gas export pipeline as a realistic alternative. Carbon emissions from a land-based plant will be important, and the costs for trading of emission allowances will reduce profitability. The authorities should allow for industrial exploitation to be assessed on an equal basis with pipeline transport and LNG as alternatives for market solutions for major new discoveries. (EW)

  14. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Components of Purified Essential Oil from Nilam Plants using Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Emas Agus Prastyo Wibowo; Utami Nofitasari; Atik Setyani; Nuni Widiarti

    2017-01-01

    T This study aimed to determine the chemical components of the patchouli oil. Patchouli oil is one of the export commodities that have high economic value for Indonesia. In general, patchouli oil obtained from the hydrodistillation of patchouli leaves. Most industries are still using patchouli oil refiners made by ferrous metal. The rust will dissolve in patchouli oil obtained and led to the resulting of dark oil and patchouli aroma becomes lower. The main purpose of this research is to ...

  15. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P Mark; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats), as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin) oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals. ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON) containing cocoa butter (15% w/w) and cholesterol (1% w/w) for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF) or virgin (VIR) pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content). Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (V)LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity. Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin pumpkin

  16. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Morrison

    Full Text Available As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats, as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals.ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON containing cocoa butter (15% w/w and cholesterol (1% w/w for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF or virgin (VIR pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content.Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (VLDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity.Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin

  17. The Oil Industries Fake Abundance Story: Is Distortion of the Truth Ever Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The oil industries and their cornucopian supporters (press, politicians, energy agencies) promote the story that in the oil is abundant and oil production will increase. The reality is that 1) World crude oil production has been on a plateau since 2005, in spite of new technology (fracking), record high prices (Brent Oil > 100 per barrel) and record spending on exploration and development (5.4 trillion over the past six years) and 2) The price of oil has risen steadily from 1999 to present. Typically when commodities are abundant the price tends to fall. How is this reality being distorted? 1) Resources are being equated with reserves (both are amounts), neither of which can be equated with each other or with production (a rate). 2) Crude oil (the price or which is rigorously defined by API density) has been redefined as total liquids, which includes substances (lease condensates, natural gas liquids, biofuels, refinery gains) which can not be used in the same way oil is or sold for the same price as oil. If what you are selling cannot be sold on the world market as crude oil, then it is not crude oil. 3) The demand for oil remains high, but World production is stagnant and World net-export production has been decreasing since 2005. Thus the price remains high and will only increase in the future. Growth in Global GDP is impacted by high-priced oil. How do you know unethical behavior when you see it? It has to do with intentionality and motivation. "Advocacy science" often reports data to support their cause. Is that unethical? Where is the divide between being an "Issue Advocate" and "Advocacy Science"? If data are reported poorly, is it unethical or just "bad science"? Do the same ethical standards apply to businesses (when profits are involved) and politicians (when elections are at stake)? Why would the definition of oil include NGL, condensates and refinery gains if not trying to inflate the numbers. The standards should be the same, but when there are no

  18. Mideast Oil and Petrochem Industrial Influence on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The petroleum and petrochemical industry in the Middle East region is exerting influence on the Chinese market because the Middle East has become an important option for China to import crude. In 2003, China imported 91.12 million tons of crude, of which the Middle East accounted for 50.7 percent. China imported 15.18 million tons of crude from Saudi Arabia in 2003, 16.7 percent of the nation's total import,and 12.39 million tons of crude from Iran, 13.6percent of the total.

  19. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  20. Role of Japan's oil industry and emergence of Japan as a world leader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taeb, S.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of three powerful economic centers, Japan, Europe, America, collapse of Soviet political empire, and emergence of a new global nationalism are evident of a transitional period in the history of world leadership. Experiences of the previous world hegemon have taught us that extraordinary economic performance of an industrial country has been the necessary step in the process of becoming the world hegemon. Given its powerful industrial productivity and its economic expansionism, Japan has been considered by some scholars and journalists as a potential candidate for the new world hegemon. Japan's lack of influence on natural resource supply, particuarly energy supply, and its unfit political structure for world leadership are two interrelated problems that this study investigates. A careful investigation of Japan's industrial and political structures suggests that Japan has to resolve a series of complicated and time consuming obstacles in order to achieve world hegemon status. Historically, domination of the world economy has been tied with having an influential role in international energy industry. In this respect and the fact that over 50 percent of the internationally traded petroleum is under the control of American and European entities, it is essential for Japan to gain some tangible control and influence over the international oil industry in order to achieve world leadership status. This success has to be at the expense of American and European oil companies rather than the OPEC countries. This study suggests that Japan has to anticipate more cooperation with these oil-producing countries if it desires to become a world leader. Furthermore, there is a positive relation between the current global political power transition and the present power transition in the international oil industry. Japanese political institutions have not developed to a degree that enable its government to act as a world superpower.

  1. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has......Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet...... edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where...

  2. Experience Transfer in Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry: Approaches and Organizational Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-07-01

    The core aim of the study is to explore the concept of experience transfer in oil and gas industry, and how an oil company approaches this concept. The thesis consists of five papers which are combined in a general description entitled 'Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: approaches and organizational mechanisms'. The first paper describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer, and then specifies the many organizational and structural barriers that have to be overcome to achieve efficient experience transfer. The second paper elaborates and assesses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. The third paper describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. The fourth paper explores in more detail how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. And the fifth paper compares organizational members' perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. Some of the papers are based upon the same data material. Therefore there are reiterations in parts of the contents, especially in the methodological sections.

  3. Desmetalization of industrial oils; Proceso de desmetalizacion de aceites industriales usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Perez, V.; Brana Redondo, L. F.; Luque de Castro, M. D.

    2002-07-01

    The use of a microwave-assisted liquid-liquid extraction device for the removal of metals from used industrial oils is proposed for the first time. For this purpose, an exhaustive study of the most relevant variables affecting the extraction process was made. The method thus developed was validated using a certified reference material (C.R.M. 1084, N.I.S.T.) as well as four different used industrial oils where the extraction of seven metals, namely Cu, Fe, V, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd was monitored by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The extractant used was water containing 4% nitric acid and 13 min was sufficient for achieving yields of the extraction within 70.4% and 97.4%. The precision of the overall method (including determination of the final metal content in the oil), expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.%), ranged between 2.6 and 16.2. The use of liquid-liquid extraction assisted by microwave irradiation was shown as a good approach for removing hazard metals from used industrial oils. (Author) 22 refs.

  4. History of partnership between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkongho Raymond N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores the origin and changes in partnership agreements established between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders in Cameroon. The different forms of partnership which have existed over the years in the oil palm sector until now are assessed, notably the FONADER-sponsored smallholder scheme (1978 to 1991 and more recently the Afriland First Bank sponsored villagisation project of Socapalm Eseka (2007/2008 to present. Special attention is given to the factors and conditions that have influenced the outcomes of these partnerships, specifically the failure of the FONADER-sponsored smallholder scheme. The authors conclude that with the current absence of steady support from the government to oil palm smallholders, especially after the implementation of the structural adjustment plans, private partnership schemes between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders could be highly profitable for both stakeholders. Such partnerships can foster social cohesion and limit further encroachment of agro-industries into the primary forest, provided such partnership agreements are carefully planned and adequately implemented.

  5. [Reflection on developing bio-energy industry of large oil company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    China's energy supply becomes more serious nowadays and the development of bio-energy becomes a major trend. Large oil companies have superb technology, rich experience and outstanding talent, as well as better sales channels for energy products, which can make full use of their own advantages to achieve the efficient complementary of exist energy and bio-energy. Therefore, large oil companies have the advantages of developing bio-energy. Bio-energy development in China is in the initial stage. There exist some problems such as available land, raw material supply, conversion technologies and policy guarantee, which restrict bio-energy from industrialized development. According to the above key issues, this article proposes suggestions and methods, such as planting energy plant in the marginal barren land to guarantee the supply of bio-energy raw materials, cultivation of professional personnel, building market for bio-energy counting on large oil companies' rich experience and market resources about oil industry, etc, aimed to speed up the industrialized process of bio-energy development in China.

  6. Understanding and managing environmental risks in the Saskatchewan oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrychuk, L.D.; Delahanty, B. [MacPherson Leslie and Tyerman LLP, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    In Saskatchewan, environmental issues regarding the oil and gas industry are regulated at the provincial level, but the industry must be aware of the application of federal environmental law when dealing with federal lands, federal financial assistance, or international and interprovincial projects that have transboundary environmental impacts. The first part of this paper outlined some of the legislation that applies to the petroleum industry and which relates to the environment, including the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) and the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulation of 1985 (OGCR). This paper provided an overview of the legislative regime in Saskatchewan and described other laws that affect environmental considerations, such as the surface rights; licensing of oil and gas wells; environmental assessment approval; emission control and abatement; storage; disposal; discharge of pollutants; and, abandonment and decommissioning. The second part of this paper discussed environmental issues in property transactions, with reference to responsibility for clean-up for environmental damage. The final part of this paper described the elements of a corporate environmental management program with reference to liabilities and due diligence. 46 refs.

  7. Industrial vegetable oil by-products increase the ductility of polylactide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruellan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of industrial by-products of the vegetable oil industry as ductility increasing additives of polylactide (PLA was investigated. Vegetable oil deodorization condensates were melt-blended by twin-screw extrusion up to a maximum inclusion quantity of 20 wt% without preliminary purification. Sample films were obtained by single screw cast extrusion. Compounded PLA films featured largely improved ductility in tensile testing with an elongation at break up to 180%. The glass transition temperature remained higher than room temperature. The native mixture of molecules, which composed the deodorization condensates, had superior performance compared to a synthetic mixture of main compounds. The investigation of the correlation between composition of the additives and the ductility of the PLA blends by Principal Component Analysis showed synergy in property improvement between fatty acids having a melting point below and beyond the room temperature. Furthermore, a compatibilizing effect of molecules present in the native mixture was evidenced. Oil deodorization condensates, which are a price competitive by-product of the vegetable oil industry, are therefore a very promising biobased and biodegradable additive for improving the ductility of PLA.

  8. Uruguayan rice (Oritza sativa L.) oils characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Rodríguez; Grabiela Subúru; Marina Torres; Laura Olazabal; Alejandra Torre

    2011-01-01

    The rice crop is one of the most developed agricultural activities in Uruguay, having become the third item of export. Although the main product of the rice chain is the elaborated rice, in the recent years several industries have begun to produce co-products of rice: crude rice oil and refined oil, rice flour and cookies. The production of crude oil begins with ground, peeled and polished rice grain. This product can be used in animal nourishment or in oil extraction. Refinement from the cru...

  9. The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehsani, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the wage laboring class in the Iranian oil industry during the first decades of the 20th century is studied as a tangled global-local social history. The analysis seeks to situate the oil complex in Iran within the interlinked contexts of the global transformations of World War One,

  10. Sterols and sterol oxides in the potato products, and sterols in the vegetable oils used for industrial frying operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta, Paresh Chandra

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the composition of sterols in vegetable oils used in industrial frying operations, and sterols and sterol oxides in the fried potato products. The sterols and sterol oxides were enriched by saponification of oils and by solid phase extraction. Preparative thin layer chromatography, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were used to give qualitative and quantitative data. The results revealed that the content of desmethylsterols in palm oil, sunflower oil, high oleic sunflower oil, and rapeseed oil/palm oil blend were, 790, 4501, 3550, and 4497 ppm, respectively. Sitosterol was the major desmethylsterol in all samples. Palm oil also contained the lowest levels of total unsaponifiables. The sterols and unsaponifiable contents in sunflower oil were, to some extent, higher than in higholeic sunflower oil. The compositions of sterols after two days of frying were neither markedly different in the oils nor in the potato products fried in these oils compared with the original oils. Isomerised sterols were tentatively quantified to account for 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 20 ppm, in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oils, respectively. Lipids extracted from French fries prepared in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend contained the highest levels of total sterol oxides, 191 ppm, and epoxides of both sitosterol and campesterol were the major contributors, together at a level of 172 ppm. On the other hand, lipids extracted from French fries prepared in sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil contained 7α-hydroxy-, 7β-hydroxy-, 7-keto- and both epimers of epoxysitosterol, generally in equal amounts. All samples also contained small amounts of different oxidation products of campesterol and stigmasterol.

  11. The party's over : oil, war and the fate of industrial societies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinberg, R. [New College of California, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    This book offers insight into the central role that energy has played in our world and why it will shape the fate of nations in the future. The industrial era began in the twelfth century with the Europeans' first use of coal. The basic driver for economic growth in our current industrialized society is cheap-oil based energy that is limited in quantity according to estimates of current reserves and extraction rates of oil resources. The author describes what society may look like decades from now when oil production and reserves begin to decline. Control of energy supplies may well determine the economic health and survival of nations, given that world food and transportation systems have become very dependent on growing supplies of oil, natural gas and coal. World supplies of petroleum, coal, natural gas, and uranium were examined and suggestions on how to prepare for the possibility of running out of fossil fuels were presented. In particular, substitutes for fast-depleting fossil fuels were examined to see if the use of renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar energy, hydrogen and cold fusion could enable industrialism to continue indefinitely. Policy recommendations for world leaders were proposed with reference to social, economic, political, and individual lifestyle changes that will be required if industrial civilization is to continue. Many recommendations described what people can do at a personal level in their own lives, particularly in the United States. The author also examined the global strategic competition for dwindling oil supplies and tried to predict the flash points for possible resource wars. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  13. Impact of refining process on quality of tea seed oil%油脂精炼对茶叶籽油品质变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常明; 朱晋萱; 刘睿杰; 朱跃进; 张士康; 金青哲; 王兴国

    2014-01-01

    The changes of fatty acid compositions, basic indicators, fat accompaniments, trans fatty acids and benzo ( a) pyrene of crude cold-pressed tea seed oil, deacidified oil, bleached oil and deodorized oil were systematically analyzed. The results showed that during refining of tea seed oil, the tetradecanoic acid and arachic acid almost disappeared;the contents of sterol and polyphenols declined gradually, and the loss rates were 43. 30% and 58. 40% respectively, besides, most of tocopherol and spinacene lost in deodorization process;the benzo ( a) pyrene content decreased by 85. 87%, while the contents of trans fatty acids during bleaching and deodorization reached 1. 20% and 1. 77% respectively, which did not exceed the EU and USA standards (5% and 2%) . The study could provide theoretical basis for further quality improvement, quality indicators formulation and products development of tea seed oil.%对冷榨茶叶籽毛油、脱酸油、脱色油、脱臭油的脂肪酸组成、基本指标、脂肪伴随物、反式脂肪酸和苯并( a)芘的变化进行了系统研究。结果表明:茶叶籽油在精炼过程中,肉豆蔻酸和花生酸大量损失;甾醇和多酚类物质含量逐渐下降,损失率分别为43.30%和58.40%,脱臭工序的生育酚和角鲨烯损失最大;苯并( a)芘含量降低了85.87%;在脱色和脱臭过程中,茶叶籽油的反式脂肪酸大幅上升至1.20%和1.77%,但均未超过欧盟(5%)和美国(2%)的标准。研究为进一步提升茶叶籽油的品质,制定茶叶籽油品质指标和开发新的茶叶籽油产品提供了理论依据。

  14. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaofu; Napier, Johnathan A; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2011-04-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MANAGING REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH LOCAL CONTENT REQUIREMENTS IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Olegovna Semykina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the regional economic impact of mineral resource endowment and offers specific inputs to the debate on the local content requirement (LCR policy, gaining urgency in modern economic and political environment. The paper considers the intricacies related to greenfield investment projects in Russian oil and gas industry. Focusing on the experience of the Krasnoyarsk region, the paper examines the way national companies operate in the newly developing oil and gas provinces of Russia. The analysis of key economic indices shows that the existing approach does not allow having significant benefits from resource endowment in the region. The main idea is that the establishment of completely new industry has to affect regional economic development, budget revenues dynamics and employment to influence the related industries and services in the region. The conducted analysis let to form possible scenarios and evaluate the dynamics of regional economic development depending on the scale of LCR policy. The developed approach based on statistical modeling allows assessing both direct and indirect effects of LCR policy. The obtained results allow to conclude that the implementation of LCR policy leads to the growth of real income per capita and the job creation in the region. The development of equipment and services suppliers for oil and gas industry by ripple effects can boost socio-economic development and diversify regional economy. The paper also dwells on some pitfalls and risks accompanying LCR policy and considers crucial points of introducing this kind of policy for local and federal government.

  16. Valorization of Palm Oil Industrial Waste as Feedstock for Lipase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erick A; Tardioli, Paulo W; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-06-01

    The use of residues from the industrial processing of palm oil as carbon source and inducer for microbial lipase production can be a way to add value to such residues and to contribute to reduced enzyme costs. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using palm oil industrial waste as feedstock for lipase production in different cultivation systems. Evaluation was made of lipase production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Lipase activity levels up to 15.41 IU/mL were achieved under SSF. The effects of pH and temperature on the lipase activity of the SSF extract were evaluated using statistical design methodology, and maximum activities were obtained between pH 4.0 and 6.5 and at temperatures between 37 and 55 °C. This lipase presented good thermal stability up to 60 °C and higher specificity towards long carbon chain substrates. The results demonstrate the potential application of palm oil industrial residues for lipase production and contribute to the technological advances needed to develop processes for industrial enzymes production.

  17. Prioritization of Effective Risk Factors on Oil Industry Construction Projects (By PMBOK Standard Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Baharmand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an applied, analytic-descriptive research in terms of nature. It is thus an analysis in which a sample has been applied for data collection and it is descriptive since its variables are assessed and reported as they are in reality. This study seeks to identify effective risks existing in construction industry specifically in the national macro projects such as oil industry projects through utilizing Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK model and to estimate the relative impact of each risk on the projects. It aims at prioritizing the effective risk factors on the construction projects (a case study of National Iranian Oil Company. Thus NIOC construction projects, consulting engineers companies and contractor companies in construction projects of oil industry have been selected as the statistical universe to identify and prioritize the risks. Due to the focus of oil industry construction projects on South Pars Special Economic Zone, under planning, implementation or completion phases and with regard to the phases' expansion in terms of number and volume of activities and also strategic features and confidentiality of information, three phases out of 28 ones have been case-studied. It is generally concluded in this study that with respect to the country significant strategic, geopolitical, geographical, economic and military position in the world, it is a matter of great magnitude to regard the risks identification and management as one of the important areas in the project management and to consider it as a national and comprehensive plan when designing and ratifying industrial projects of the country.

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL COMPLEX OF EQUIPMENT FOR REFINING AND CASTING OF STEEL AND ALLOYS IN THE FOUNDRY AND STEEL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zolotukhin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulcan TM is a small innovative company, specializing in the manufacture of steel and alloys casting systems and refractory accessories.Available for foundry and metallurgical industries, special technological equipment, designed and manufactured by LLC NPP “Vulkan-TM.”

  19. Refined Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois Essomba

    2011-01-01

    THE Republic of Chad has put an end to importing oil products,with the inauguration of its first refinery by Chadian President Idriss Deby.Located near Ndjamena,the country's capital,the refinery will process and transform the country's crude oil reserves into gasoline,kerosene,gas oil and other fuels.Chad began producing oil in 2003 and has to date discovered 13 oil fields.

  20. Refined Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois; Essomba

    2011-01-01

    Chad no longer dependent on oil product innports as the country opens its primary oil refinery THE Republic of Chad has put an end to importing oil products,with the inauguration of its first refinery by Chadian President Idriss Deby.Located near Ndjamena,the country’s capital,the refinery will process and transform the country’s crude oil reserves into gasoline,kerosene,gas oil and other fuels.

  1. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon.

  2. Comparative Study of Crude Oil Contamination Effect on Industrial and Forest Soil Microbial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Ansari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Petroleum hydrocarbons are widespread pollutant that enters to soil by some pathwayssuch as: Transportation of crude oil, conservation of oil compounds, crude oil spill and treatment process on refineries. Oil pollution has some ecological effect on soil that disturbed composition and diversity of microbial community. Also this pollution has some effects on microbial activity and enzymes of soil. Forests ecosystems may be polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons via different ways such as transportation and spill of crude oil from resource of petroleum storage. Industrial soil defined as the soils that located in industrial area such as petrochemical plant, mine, chemical factories and etc. These soils always contaminated to many pollutant such as: oil, diesel and heavy metals. These pollutants have some effects on the texture of the soil and microbial community. The aim of this research is to understand the effect of oil pollution on two different soils. Material and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of crude oil on soil microbial community, two different soil samples were collected from industrial and forest soils. Six microcosms were designed in this experiment. Indeed each soil sample examined inthree microcosms asunpolluted microcosm, polluted microcosm, and polluted microcosm with nutrient supply of Nitrogen and PhosphorusSome factors were assayed in each microcosm during 120 days of experiment. The included study factors were: total heterotrophic bacteria, total crude oil degrading bacteria, dehydrogenase enzyme and crude oil biodegradation. For enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria nutrient agar medium was used. In this method serial dilutions were done from each soil and spread on nutrient agar medium then different colonies were counted. For enumeration of degrading bacteria Bushnel-Hass (BH medium were used. The composition of this medium was (g/lit: 1 gr KH2PO4, 1gr K2HPO4, 0.2 gr MgSO4.7H2O, 0.02 gr CaCl2, 1 gr NH4

  3. A New Fisheries Price of Refined Oil Subsidy Payment Model%渔业成品油价格补助发放模式新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄士林; 宋杰

    2013-01-01

    以中央财政渔业成品油价格补助为切入点,建立了新的渔业成品油价格补助发放模型,探讨了模型的实际运作能力,以及对提高渔船作业效率、促进渔船安全规范生产,维护渔船良好性能的作用.结果表明新模型不仅可以产生良好的社会效益,还能够对提高渔船的综合作业能力产生积极影响.%Based on central financial refined oil price subsidy policy of fishery, a new oil price subsidy payment model was established and the actual operational capability of the model was discussed, as well as the effects of the model on improving the efficiency of fishing, promoting the safe production of fishing vessels and maintaining fishing vessels performance. The results showed the model not only can produce good social benefits, but also has positive impact on improving fishing vessels operating capability.

  4. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-03-15

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  5. CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction through black liquor gasification and energy efficiency in pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, J.M.; Gustavsson, L. [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    We examine consequences of new energy technologies in the pulp and paper industry with respect to net CO{sub 2} emissions and oil use. The entire production chain from the extraction of primary resources is included in the analysis. Stand-alone production of electricity and transportation fuel from biomass is included to balance the systems compared, so that they produce the same CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reductions. The technologies considered are black liquor gasification (BLG) with electricity and motor fuels production in chemical pulp mills and increased energy efficiency in thermomechanical pulp mills. The technologies are evaluated with respect to net CO{sub 2} emission, oil use, primary energy use, biomass use and monetary cost. We find that BLG in chemical pulp mills is favourable compared to stand-alone production of fuels and electricity from biomass. It is more efficient to implement BLG with motor fuels production and stand-alone electricity production from biomass, than to implement BLG with electricity production and stand-alone production of motor fuels. Increased energy efficiency in refining of thermomechanical pulp gives CO{sub 2} savings more efficiently than stand-alone production of electricity from biomass. Sensitivity analysis indicates that our conclusions are robust with respect to energy and biomass prices and the choice of coal or natural gas for marginal electricity. Newsprint from thermomechanical pulp would require slightly less biomass and have lower costs than paper from chemical pulp, per metric ton (t) product, when the systems are also required to render the same oil use and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. Substituting mineral fillers for 25% of the chemical pulp changes the balance in favour of the chemical pulp paper. At an oil price of 40 US$/barrel, all studied pulp and paper mill technology improvements give unchanged or reduced monetary costs also when oil use and CO{sub 2} emissions are not balanced with stand

  6. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  7. The Factors Affecting the Adoption of Enviromental Management Accounting in the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Companies with Structural Equation Modeling Aprpoach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Karimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, businesses must focus on profits on the one hand and social and environmental issues on the other hand to make balance between them. Conservation and sustainability are increasingly dependent on observance of corporate social responsibilities. For this reason, business units report on their sustainability and environmental accounting. The aim of this study was to examine and model the factors influencing the use of environmental management accounting tools from the points of view of financial managers and assistants who are in the oil refining and petrochemical companies. Method: The method used in this study was based on a descriptive survey and its design was quasi-experimental. For the field of study, a questionnaire including 5 general and 31 specific questions was used. The population consisted of financial administrators and assistants in oil refining and petrochemical companies, a subsidiary of the national oil company. There was no sampling method used and we tested the whole society including 182 people. To evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s Alpha and spilit-half were used. The measurement tools used in the study were reliable and none of the questions was removed. One sample t-test, Pearson correlation, confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis, structural equation modeling, two sample T-test and analysis of variance were performed by using LISREL and SPSS software. Results: The result of this test by using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation test showed that the significance level of all the factors were larger than 1/96 and all the routes specified in the model were significant. Culture of the society in dealing with environmental issues, with a significance level of 5/54, had the greatest impact among the factors influencing the use of environmental management accounting tools. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it is recommended that, by using

  8. Environmental and economic problems in the oil-extracting industry of north territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Sergeevna Krestovskikh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is substantiation of environmental and economic problems in the sphere of nature protection activities of oil-extracting industry of north territories (on the example of the Komi Republic and development of proposals for decreases a negative effect on the environment and population health. The authors have made the analysis of nature protection activities of the Komi Republic oil-extracting enterprises. Strengthening negativeimpact on theenvironment wasestablished despite growth ofexpenses for environmental measures. It is related to the fact that enterprises invest in the elimination of consequences of man-made impact technogenicinfluence and man-made accidents, instead of fortheirconsecutivereduction and prevention. In the work, the assessment of socio-economiceffects from oil waste disposal iscarried out. Proposals for regional integrated programs of an environmental orientation are developed.

  9. Vital Importance of Unconventional Oil-gas Resources in China's Energy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lijie; Zeng Wang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The first World Heavy Oil Conference (WHOC)was held in Beijing on November 12, 2006. Present at the conference were more than 600 delegates from over 40 countries and regions worldwide. Themed as "Heavy Oil - The Future of Global Energy?", the 1st WHOC aims to discuss the strategies and measures to promote the development of global heavy oil industry..The WHOC is initiated and proposed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and Alberta government of Canada. Approved by the state council of China, the 1st WHOC was jointly hosted by CNPC, Sinopec, CNOOC,Sinochem, three government departments of Canada and Indonesia, and several national petroleum corporations,such as PDVSA, Petrobras, Statoil, IOC, and Shell.

  10. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  11. Hydrotreating of used oil; Prediction of industrial trickle-bed operation from pilot-plant data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, D.U.; Saban, M.D.; Orlovie, M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Tehnolosko-Metalurski Fakultet); Meyn, V.W.; Severin, D.K.; Rahimian, I.G.H. (German Inst. for Petroleum Research, 3392 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (DE)); Marjanovic, M.V. (Refinery Beograd, Pancevacki put 83, 11001 Beograd (YU))

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on oil hydrotreating that was investigated in a pilot trickle-bed reactor (TBR) at 270-350{degrees} C, 5-7 MPa, and 1.1-4.6 liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and with different hydrogen/oil ratios using a commercial Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), and metals removal were investigated by using a modified power- law kinetic model with a power term for LHSV. It was found that the HDS and HDO reactions can be described by pseudo- first-order kinetics. The removal of metals was found to be primarily due to the physical process of deposition on the catalyst bed. With the use of the kinetic data from a pilot plant, the simulation of an industrial TBR was performed. Simulated HDS and HDO, removal of metals, and prediction of catalyst deactivation agreed well with the industrial data for three charges of catalyst.

  12. Early considerations: NAFTA: Possible indications for Mexico's oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-20

    After rancorous debate in the US over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the treaty is scheduled to become effective January 1, 1994. The topic of energy was scarcely mentioned during all of the discussions because NAFTA is expected to have only a negligible effect on the US energy industry. But NAFTA is a trade agreement among three oil producers, and that is worth remembering. According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, the U.S. energy industry can expect marginal gains and a framework for future opportunities in Mexico's energy sector as NAFTA takes effect. In terms of energy, Mexico gains the most from NAFTA.

  13. Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

    2001-01-01

    The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment.

  14. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  15. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil and ground water pollution with organic matter and toxic materials is an ordinary environmental problem. In this case, oil compounds are among the most important environmental pollutants. Tehran oil refinery is one of the largest and oldest refineries in Iran located south of Tehran city. Since the beginning of its activity in 1968, its waste materials (solid, semisolid and liquid have been disposed in large lagoons next to the refinery site. During this long period, considerable changes in soil properties have occurred, which are of great research interests for soil and environmental scientists. Materials and Methods: The studied area (about 60 ha was located in the south of Tehran (latitude: 35°30.299' to 35°30.814' N and longitude: 51°25.682' to 51°26.296' E. Six pedons, including four Technosols developed on the oil refinery waste materials (pedons no. 1, 3, 4 and 6 and two reference pedons (pedons no. 2 and 5 were fully described and sampled. Particle size distribution (PSD of gypsiferous samples was determined by the specific method for gypsiferous soils (Hesse, 1976. PSD of non-gypsiferous samples were determined according to the standard hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder, 1986, but the oil-polluted samples were analyzed according to the standard ultrasound method (Sawhny, 1996. Organic carbon content was determined by Walkley and Black (1934. pH and EC were measured in soil saturation extracts using EC and pH meter (Jenway. Gypsum and CaCO3 contents were determined using acetone (Sparks, 1996, and calcimetery methods, respectively. Mineralogical analysis was done by Decarreau (1990. Micromorphological descriptions were carried out using the terminology of Stoops (2003. Diagnostic horizons were identified and finally the studied pedons were classified according to the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2014 and the World Reference Base (FAO, 2014. Results and Discussion: Horizons of both polluted and

  16. 中水在炼油循环冷却水系统中的应用%The Application of Water Reused into Circulating Cooling Water System in Oil Refining Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建权; 刘丽娜; 王炜; 魏志朝

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of recycled water reusing as circulating cooling water for oil refining plants were analyzed.The results of corrosion and scale inhibitor experiment indicated that the water treatment agents for recycled water can inhibit the corrosion and scale completely.After eight months' system optimization and industrial application,the circulating cooling system was still in good working order with five ratio cyele of concentration or more.%分析了中水作为炼油循环冷却水系统补水的特点及对循环水系统的影响。缓蚀和阻垢实验结果表明,中水回用水处理剂完全可以有效控制系统的腐蚀和结垢。经过8个月的不断优化和工业运行,系统在浓缩倍数为5以上的情况下,运行状况良好。

  17. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks. © 2012 CSIRO Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The Technology Contribution Analysis on Crude Palm Oil Industry in Jambi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahrial Sahrial

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analysis the technology contribution coeficient (TCC on crude palm oil industry in Jambi Province. This research was conducted in several steps i.e. determination of the research object, assessment of technology components, analysis of experimental data (tabulation of data, estimation the degree of sophisticated, analysis the state-of-the-art for technology components, calculation of technology component contribution, calculation of contribution intensity, and calculation of technology contribution coeficient (TCC. The research obtained 0,590 TCC value for PT. Sumbertama Nusa Pertiwi Bakrie Sumatra Plantation Tbk. Palm Oil Mill and  0,585TCC value for PSB II Bunut PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VI (PerseroPalm Oil Mill. The both of values indicated the level of technology in the crude palm oil industry on Jambi Province based on a qualitative assessment of TCC interval are in good classification and based on the level of technology is at the level of semi-modern technology. 

  19. Helicopter passenger survival suit standards in the UK offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leese, W.L.; Norman, J.N.

    1979-02-01

    Special protective clothing for helicopter passengers in transit to and from installations in the U.K. offshore oil industry is considered essential. Such clothing is required to increase the survival chances in the unlikely event of a helicopter ditching. This paper discusses the nature of the threat to life in such an event and proposes standards for the specific protective clothing required to meet it. Test criteria are also outlined, to ensure that standards set are maintained.

  20. Economic Performance of China's Oil and Petrochemical Industry in First Quarter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    @@ International oil price continued souring in the first quarter of 2008. It was bouncing up and down above $100/barrel and even getting close to $120/barrel by the end of April. Products related to energy and resources all responded with higher prices, triggering a general increase in cost of petroleum and petrochemical industry. World's economy was seriously affected by USA's subprime lending crisis, weakening US dollar, sullen stock markets,and etc, major economies lowered their expectations for economic growth rate.

  1. Sustainable Development in Emerging Markets & CSR Codes of Conduct: Oil and Gas Industry in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ligia Maura; FGV-EAESp

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to provide a comparative analysis of corporate social responsibility codes of conduct (CSR Codes) of the oil and gas industry operating in Brazil with the provisions embodied in the international legal framework system, such as the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights and the Fundamental Conventions of the International Labour Organization. For comparative purposes, and given the usual structure that CSR Codes tend to follow, the analysis has been developed around the...

  2. Automation and control trends in the upstream sector of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plucenio, Agustinho; Pagano, Daniel J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Automacao, Controle e Instrumentacao para a Industria do Petroleo e Gas, PRH-34

    2004-07-01

    The need to continuously improve the aspects of Health, Safety and Environment to operators, installation's security, optimization of oil reservoir recovery in wells operating with different artificial lift methods, subject to different secondary recovery techniques, has motivated the development of technologies in the automation and control for the upstream sector of the oil industry. While the application of control and automation techniques is well established in the downstream sector of the oil industry that is not the case in the downstream sector. One tendency in this sector is the utilization of control via Field bus Networks. This technology uses equipment that communicate with each other in a two wire digital network and can be programmed to execute function blocks algorithms designed to perform a designed control strategy. The most noticeable benefits are the improvements in the process performance and the equipment reusability and interoperability. Proprietary solutions can be replaced by systems composed of equipment supplied by different manufacturers connected in the same network. These equipment operate according to a strategy designed by automation and control engineers under the supervision of professionals working in computer terminals located in different company departments. Other gains are a better understanding about the industry processes, application of optimization techniques, fault detection, equipment maintenance follow-up, and improved operators working conditions and workers qualification. Other tendencies are: permanent well monitoring. Either with installation of down hole sensors based on fiber grating sensors or surface sensors using embedded electronic processors. Developments of instrumentation technology for low cost multiphase flow measurements. Application of control techniques for flow regime control and optimization of reservoir recovery through better identification, optimization and Model Based Predictive Control

  3. Persisting in Reform and Open Policy to Develop Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan

    1994-01-01

    @@ Offshore Petroleum Industryis one of China's industries that takes the lead in cooperation with foreign companies.Through considerable development in 1980s, CNOOC has made the breakthrough progress in technology, administration and available qualified personnel. It has become a state oil corporation with independent operations taking whole responsibility for the profits and losses, independ ent development and self-control and risen rapidly from strong international petroleum competition.

  4. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004).

  5. Structural health monitoring of localized internal corrosion in high temperature piping for oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Thomas J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lozev, Mark G.

    2015-03-01

    Crude oil is becoming more corrosive with higher sulfur concentration, chloride concentration, and acidity. The increasing presence of naphthenic acids in oils with various environmental conditions at temperatures between 150°C and 400°C can lead to different internal degradation morphologies in refineries that are uniform, non-uniform, or localized pitting. Improved corrosion measurement technology is needed to better quantify the integrity risk associated with refining crude oils of higher acid concentration. This paper first reports a consolidated review of corrosion inspection technology to establish the foundation for structural health monitoring of localized internal corrosion in high temperature piping. An approach under investigation is to employ flexible ultrasonic thin-film piezoelectric transducer arrays fabricated by the sol-gel manufacturing process for monitoring localized internal corrosion at temperatures up to 400°C. A statistical analysis of sol-gel transducer measurement accuracy using various time of flight thickness calculation algorithms on a flat calibration block is demonstrated.

  6. Standardization of industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals: TRANSPETRO's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Correa, Marcelo Leal [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO concerning standardization of its industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, preparation and implementation of standards and five corporate operational procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, and consequently the sense of unity and creation of a nucleus consisting of 30 professionals who mobilized a learning network with great capillarity. In this context, the paper presents the results of implementing corporate standards, based on internationally recognized yardsticks such as American Petroleum Institute (API), US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), as well as PETROBRAS standards. It covers the following topics: an overview of the whole process; preparation of corporate operational procedures, which resulted in a total of 5 standards against 60 in the original situation; preparation and implementation of visual quick guides corresponding to the new corporate operational procedures; and proposal of a set of industrial maintenance performance indicators in compliance with operational guidelines established by TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals business segment. (author)

  7. Responsible management of peatlands in Canada, from peat industry to oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Line

    2013-04-01

    Canada harbors one third of the peat resources of the world. Peat is an accumulated organic matter composed of dead and partly decomposed plant material, forming huge deposit through time in wetlands like peatlands and boreal coniferous swamps. Peat is a valuable resource as a growing media and soil amendments, an eco-friendly absorbent, also used as biofilters, for body care and for wastewater treatment. Peatlands also offer valuable ecological services : for example, they are the most efficient terrestrial ecosystem to store carbon on a long-term basis. Their ability to "cool off" the planet warrants a good look at their management. The horticultural peat industry of Canada has invested 22 years in R&D in habitat restoration and is now a strong leader in managing industrial peatlands in a sustainable way. The oil sand industry, which is strongly impacting the wetland landscapes of northern Canada, does realize that it has to reduce its ecological footprint, which is heavily criticized around the world. Decommissioned open mines near Fort McMurray have already begun recreating peatland ecosystems, and some restoration attempts of former oil pads are underway in the Peace River region. But the restoration of the largely disturbed wetland landscape of the oil sands is commanding innovative solutions.

  8. European refiners re-adjust margins strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.G. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    Refiners in Europe are adjusting operating strategies to reflect the volatilities of tight operating margins. From the unexpected availability of quality crudes (e.g., Brent, 0.3% sulfur), to the role of government in refinery planning, the European refining industry is positioning itself to reverse the past few years of steadily declining profitability. Unlike expected increases in US gasoline demand, European gasoline consumption is not expected to increase, and heavy fuel oil consumption is also declining. However, diesel fuel consumption is expected to increase, even though diesel processing capacity has recently decreased (i.e., more imports). Some of the possible strategies that Europeans may adapt to improve margins and reduce volatility include: Increase conversion capacity to supply growing demand for middle distillates and LPG; alleviate refinery cash flow problems with alliances; and direct discretionary investment toward retail merchandising (unless there is a clear trend toward a widening of the sweet-sour crude price differential).

  9. A New Graphical Technique for Energy Efficient Design of Heat Recovery System in Chemical/Refining Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ahmed Kamel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical processes are energy intensive industries; the majority of energy consumed in industrial processes is mainly used for heating and cooling requirements. This results in increasing the interest in obtaining the optimum design of the heat exchanger networks to reduce the energy consumption and face the growing energy crises. Most of the published literature over the last fifty years promotes the process integration technology as a main part of the process system engineering science. Graphical Pinch Analysis method normally includes two key steps, firstly obtaining the energy targets which include the minimum energy required for the HEN design, then designing the heat exchanger network (HEN. This paper introduces a new graphical approach for the design of new heat exchanger networks (HENs based on pinch analysis rules. The HEN is represented on a simple graph, where the cold stream temperatures are plotted on the X-axis while the driving forces for each exchanger are plotted on the Y-axis. This graphical technique can describe the energy analysis problems in term of temperature driving force inside the heat exchanger, which is an important factor in the design process as the differences in these driving forces are involved in calculating the area of heat exchangers, and consequently affecting the cost.

  10. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  11. High temperature process steam application at the Southern Union Refining Company, Hobbs, New Mexico. Solar energy in the oil patch. Final report, Phase III: operation, maintenance, and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, L.E.; McGuire, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    This final report summarizes the technical reports for Phase III of this project. The third phase included the operation, maintenance, upgrade and performance reporting of a 10,080 square foot Solar Industrial Process Heat System installed at the Famariss Energy Refinery of Southern Union Refining Company near Hobbs, New Mexico. This report contains a description of the upgraded system, and a summary of the overall operation, maintenance and performance of the installed system. The results of the upgrade activities can be seen in the last two months of operational data. Steam production was significantly greater in peak flow and monthly total than at any previous time. Also monthly total cost savings was greatly improved even though natural gas costs remain much lower than originally anticipated.

  12. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities: A conjoint study of purchase of vegetable oils in the mayonnaise and margarine industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Skytte, Hans

    Executive summary The purpose of this working paper is to study whether current market and technological developments in the vegetable oil industry can be used as the outset for a price and/or quality based segmentation of the major industrial markets for this product. More specifically we want......, then follows current developments in the demand and technology conditions on the market for vegetable oil. Later we discuss how concepts from industrial buying behaviour can add to the understanding of commodity buying and segmentati Following this a conjoint model of vegetable oil procurement in the vegetable....../S, and the MAPP Centre. The majority of theoretically-founded segmentation studies in industrial buying behaviour has dealt with large investments or technologically complex products, whereas research in commodities is almost non-existent. Based on the results of a preliminary study, this paper argues...

  13. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diametersoperations for power generation, which also take advantage of the high heating value of the emulsion components. The ability of CML to stabilize emulsions and to contribute in their combustion was tested with light fuels (kerosene, diesel, and jet fuel) after formulation of high internal phase systems (70% oil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results highlight the possibilities in high volume application for lignin biomacromolecules.

  14. Ecological effectiveness of constructed wetlands in treating oil refined wastewater%人工湿地处理炼油废水的生态效益研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏汉平; 柯宏华; 邓钊平; 谭鹏; 刘世忠

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater produced from the oil refinery of the Maoming Petro-Chemical Company, China Petro-Chemical Corporation contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants, therefore it cannot be discharged directly into river or sea unless being treated first. Four plant species, Vetiveria zizanioides, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Lepironia articutala were planted in large containers as constructed vertical flow wetland to test their efficiencies in the purification of oil refined wastewater and their growth in wetlands soaked with oil refined wastewater. The results gotten from a 2-month treatment indicated that the purifying rates of constructed wetlands for oil refined wastewater were all very high at the beginning, which removed 97.7% of ammonia N, 78.2% of COD, 91.4% of BOD, and 95.3% of oil in the first batch of highly-concentrated wastewater (HCW), and 97.1% of ammonia N, 71.5% of COD, 73.7% of BOD, and 89.8% of oil in the first batch of low-concentrated wastewater (LCW). But the performance of wetlands was decreased and became basically stable as time passed. The efficiency of wetlands in removing the pollutants was always in order of ammonia N > oil > BOD > COD, but the net removal of plants to them was ranked as COD > BOD > oil and ammonia N. In the beginning, the purifying function of plants was quite weak, but it gradually increased with the acceleration of plants growth. However, there was almost no significant difference in the removal efficiencies among the four species. The four tested species produced better growth in wetlands with HCW or LCW than with clean water, but V. zizanioides, P. australis, T. latifolia produced fewer tillers in HCW than those in LCW, while this was contrary to L. articutala. This inferred that HCW might damage the first three species, and promote the growth of L. articutala. During the period of clean water cultivation, the new tiller producing rate of V. zizanioides was the lowest among the four

  15. Facilitating Oil Industry Access to Federal Lands through Interagency Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Ben Grunewald

    2007-05-31

    Much of the environmental and technical data useful to the oil and gas industry and regulatory agencies is now contained in disparate state and federal databases. Delays in coordinating permit approvals between federal and state agencies translate into increased operational costs and stresses for the oil and gas industry. Making federal lease stipulation and area restriction data available on state agency Web sites will streamline a potential lessors review of available leases, encourage more active bidding on unleased federal lands, and give third-party operators independent access to data who otherwise may not have access to lease restrictions and other environmental data. As a requirement of the Energy Policy Conservation Act (EPCA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of inventorying oil and natural gas resources beneath onshore federal lands and the extent and nature of any stipulation, restrictions, or impediments to the development of these resources. The EPCA Phase 1 Inventory resulted in a collection of GIS coverage files organized according to numerous lease stipulation reference codes. Meanwhile, state agencies also collect millions of data elements concerning oil and gas operations. Much of the oil and gas data nationwide is catalogued in the Ground Water Protection Council's (GWPC's) successfully completed Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS). The GWPC and the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Montana are implementing a pilot project where BLM lease stipulation data and RBDMS data will be displayed in a GIS format on the Internet. This increased access to data will increase bid activity, help expedite permitting, and encourage exploration on federal lands. Linking environmental, lease stipulation and resource inventory assessment data and making a GIS interface for the data available to industry and other agencies via the internet represents an important step in the GWPC strategy for all oil and gas regulatory e

  16. 基于供应链的成品油库存管理优化措施分析%Analysis of the Refined Oil Inventory Management based on Supply Chain Optimization Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹微

    2015-01-01

    成品油是指原油经过生产加工后而炼成的油,主要包括生物柴油、乙醇汽油、煤油、柴油和汽油等。在成品油物流过程中,库存管理是非常重要的环节,同时,因为成品油具有一定的特殊性,所以,对库存管理提出了更高的要求。分析了我国成品油库存管理过程中存在的问题,提出了有关成品油库存管理的策略,并指出了成品油库存管理的优化措施,以期为相关人员提供必要的参考。%The refined oil is the production and processing of crude oil after the oil and Tempered, including bio-diesel, ethanol, gasoline, kerosene, diesel and gasoline. In the process of refined oil logistics, inventory management is a very important part, but because of the refined oil has a certain particularity, so inventory management put forward higher requirements. Analysis of China's oil inventory management process problems rose concerning oil inventory management strategy, and pointed out the optimization measures oil inventory management in order to provide the necessary reference to relevant personnel.

  17. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes; Proposition de loi visant a soumettre a la taxe interieure de consommation le gaz naturel utilise pour la production d'hydrogene a des fins de raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO{sub 2} is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  18. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining: the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of...

  19. Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory factors were assessed. POC were incorporated as a replacement material for aggregates and their engineering characteristics were ascertained. Almost 7% of density was reduced with the introduction of POC as aggregates. A sustainability assessment was made through greenhouse gas emission (GHG and cost factor analyses to determine the contribution of the addition of POC to the construction industry. Addition of POC helps to lower the GHG emission by 9.6% compared to control specimens. By channeling this waste into the construction industry, an efficient waste-management system can be promoted; thus, creating a cleaner environment. This study is also expected to offer some guides and directions for upcoming research works on the incorporation of POC.

  20. Ways of Light Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The planning of the right industry restructuring and revitalization" was officially released on May 18th this year. This planning mainly includes food, cereals, oil, batteries, leather, paper, fermentation, brewing, sugar refining and home electrical appliances. As a response to a comprehensive action plan, the planning period is from 2009 to 2011.