WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil producing countries

  1. Do Oil-Producing Countries Have Normal Oil Overconsumption? An Investigation of Economic Growth and Energy Subsidies

    Seyed Reza Mirnezami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The data shows that oil-producing countries have low oil retail prices and low economic growth compared with other countries. Considering that oil-producing countries experience high oil consumption and low economic growth, it is possible to argue that economic growth is not an appropriate justification for oil consumption and that the main cause for high oil consumption is the low retail price. In addition, it should be noted that the global environmental movement against increasing greenhouse gas emissions—for example, the Kyoto 1998 agreement—seems to have had no effect on oil consumption in oil-producing countries.

  2. 1985 oil production of 21 oil producing non-OPEC countries

    Warner, A.J.

    1979-03-01

    This report assesses the possibility of increased oil production from 21 less developed non-OPEC countries (excluding the Middle East and Mexico) by 1985. The forecast is compared with those prepared by the World Bank, the International Energy Agency, and others. The 21 Latin American, African, and Far East (including Asia) countries produce 2.5 million barrels of oil per day (BD) or 4.2% of world production, and they have 21 billion barrels of proved reserves, or 3.2% of the world total. In recent years these countries have consumed 3.1 million BD, some 0.9 million barrels in excess of their production. By 1985, the 21 countries may produce 3.9 million BD, an average annual increase of 5.0%; however, demand is expected to increase at an annual rate of 3.5% to 4.4 million BD. The net effect is that the 1985 aggregated supply-demand balance will be in deficit, by nearly 560 thousand BD, compared to slightly more than 930 thousand BD in 1976.

  3. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  4. Introducing foreign capital in development of petroleum upstream development in Middle East gulf coast countries producing oil; Chuto wangan sanyukoku no sekiyu joryu kaihatsu eno gaika donyu

    Tsuji, Ryuhei

    1999-03-01

    Developments by foreign countries are activated in gulf coast countries producing oil (Iran,Iraq,Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman) where produced oil quantity occupies seventy percents among produced oil quantity of world. But the situation differs between countries. For example, the oil production development in Iraq is drawn back largely because of punishment by America. Forecast of raw oil production quantity in gulf coast countries where the increase of oil production is expected from now, situation of introduction of foreign capitals, investment forecast in each country from now, contract situation and production quantity were explained. (NEDO)

  5. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    Lorde, Troy; Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados); Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados)

    2009-07-15

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

  7. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    Lorde, Troy [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)], E-mail: troy.lorde@cavehill.uwi.edu; Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados); Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)

    2009-07-15

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

  8. Trends in petroleum production in newly rising Arab oil producing countries (Syria, Oman, and Yemen). Shinko Arab san'yukoku (Syria Oman Yemen) no sekiyu doko

    Endo, S. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the trends and future prospects of petroleum production in the newly rising oil producing countries: Syria, Oman, and Yemen. Syria, who has been depending on petroleum for its domestic energy demand, now plans to lay stress on natural gas development and utilization. Although the country is blessed with petroleum and gas resources, the energy demand and supply is in off-balance. Discussions on realistic measures aimed at complete utilization of energy resources are required to realize good demand and supply balance and expansion in petroleum export. Oman is a petroleum dependent country whose national revenue is accounted for by earning from petroleum at about 80%. If the nation succeeds in promoting natural gas introduction as a substitute energy, it may be able to suppress the growth of domestic petroleum demand, and export of more LNG may be expected as planned. Yemen needs to expand petroleum export to obtain foreign currencies required for its economic reconstruction. Therefore, it plans to cope with the domestic energy demand increase by converting fuels into natural gas. An LNG export plan has been surfaced recently. 6 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  10. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  11. International Capital Markets, Oil Producers and the Green Paradox

    van der Meijden, Gerard C.; van der Ploeg, Rick; Cees A. Withagen

    2014-01-01

    In partial equilibrium a rapidly rising carbon tax encourages oil producers to extract fossil fuels more quickly, giving rise to the Green Paradox. General equilibrium analysis for a closed economy shows that a rapidly rising carbon tax negatively affects the interest rate, which tends to weaken the Green Paradox. However, in a two-country world with an oil-importing and an oil-exporting region the Green Paradox may be amplified in general equilibrium if exporters are relatively patient. On t...

  12. Yemen - the next big player [as an oil producer

    Roberts, J.

    1993-03-01

    1993 should be the year in which United Yemen finally starts to fulfil its potential as a significant oil producer. In recession for three years, the country desperately needs the revenues and has spared no effort in its attempt to provide the right financial climate within which international oil companies can operate. But the last three years, in terms of revenues from actual oil production, have been disastrous, with production from the much-touted Shabwa fields persistently deferred and with the overall climate for the oil industry clouded by a border dispute with Saudi Arabia that prompted at least one western major, BP, to suspend operations for a while. (author)

  13. Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study

    Osei-Amponsah, C.; Visser, L.E.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Struik, P.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Stomph, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by

  14. ECOLOGICAL REGIONALIZATION METHODS OF OIL PRODUCING AREAS

    Inna Ivanovna Pivovarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses territory zoning methods with varying degrees of anthropogenic pollution risk. The summarized results of spatial analysis of oil pollution of surface water in the most developed oil-producing region of Russia. An example of GIS-zoning according to the degree of environmental hazard is presented. All possible algorithms of cluster analysis are considered for isolation of homogeneous data structures. The conclusion is made on the benefits of using combined methods of analysis for assessing the homogeneity of specific environmental characteristics in selected territories.

  15. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  16. Energy and the oil-importing developing countries

    Dunkerly, J.; Ramsay, W.

    1982-05-07

    The article discussed the problems those countries have in securing adequate and reliable quantities of energy to meet minimal economic needs and still maintain development rates. A number of alternatives are available; if possible, each country might use a mix appropriate to its own resource base and level of development. An increase in export earnings might be achieved in many countries (and may be the only answer for countries poorly endowed with energy resources). The countries with fossil fuel reserves and hydroelectric resources need to press ahead with their development. Many countries should pay more attention to biomass, particularly those in which it is their most plentiful fuel resource. Attention should be paid to conservation by increasing the efficiency with which energy is used by the reorientation of development strategy because of higher energy prices. The World Bank has estimated that by 1990, savings in the cost of oil imports from an aggressive conservation and fuel switching policy might be as great as a maximum effort to increase oil production. By 1990, oil bills might be reduced by as much as $30 x 10/sup 9/. The international community can help this process by technical assistance, better money management, and by expansion of capital assistance to oil-importing developing countries.

  17. Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries

    Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

    2010-09-15

    Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

  18. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  19. Hydrocarbon-Rich Territories in Central Asia: Producing Countries, Exporting Enclaves or Transit Countries?

    Aurelia Mañé

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.

  20. Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway

    Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

  1. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  2. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    2013-07-10

    ..., Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

  3. China's Oil Ties with Developing Countries Further Strengthened

    2004-01-01

    @@ Petronas teams up with Chinese counterparts For Petroliam Nasional Bhd (Petronas),Malaysia's national petroleum corporation, China is a strategically important partner for growth as it expands into the country's energy market.Established in August 1974, Petronas is vested with all of Malaysia's oil and gas resources and is entrusted with the responsibility of developing and adding value to these resources. The company's foray into China began in the early 1990s in the upstream sector of the petroleum industry.

  4. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  5. Palm olein oil produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil.

    Zaiton, Z; Merican, Z; Khalid, B A; Mohamed, J B; Baharom, S

    1997-06-01

    The soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats were used to investigate the effect of palm olein oil and soya bean oil on the production of lipid peroxidation products. It was found that palm olein oil but not soya bean oil significantly decreased malonaldehyde and conjugated diene levels of the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats. These findings suggest that palm olein per se produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil. Such an assay method gives a composite net picture of the propensity of an oil to produce lipid peroxidation products.

  6. Interfacial properties of dissolved crude oil components in produced water

    Eftekhardadkhah, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Produced water is a mixture of water trapped in underground formations and injection water that is brought to the surface along with oil or gas. In general, produced water is a mixture of dispersed oil in water (o/w), dissolved organic compounds (including hydrocarbons), residual concentration of chemical additives from the production line, heavy metals, dissolved minerals and suspended solids.In the year 2011, 131 million m3 of produced water were discharged on the Norwegian Continental Shel...

  7. Microbiological quality of saffron from the main producer countries.

    Cosano, Inmaculada; Pintado, Concepción; Acevedo, Olga; Novella, José Luis; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Carmona, Manuel; de la Rosa, Carmen; Rotger, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    A microbiological study of saffron spice was undertaken in the context of a European research project (Methodologies for Implementing International Standards for Saffron Purity and Quality, the acronym for which is SAFFIC), analyzing 79 samples obtained from the main producer countries, namely Greece, Iran, Italy, Morocco, and Spain. Current microbiological quality criteria are the same as for other spices, but saffron is added in minute quantities during the cooking process, so the health risk associated with microbial contamination might be lower. We did not detect Salmonella either by culture or by PCR methods in any sample, and Escherichia coli was only found in five samples. Enterobacteriaceae were frequently found (70.9% of the samples), but most of them belonged to species of probable environmental origin. Aerobic sporulated bacteria were also common, but only three samples contained Bacillus cereus at low levels (100 CFU g(-1), an acceptable value. Overall, microbial contamination in saffron was markedly lower than it was in other spices.

  8. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes.

  9. Produced Water Treatment for Beneficial Use: Emulsified Oil Removal

    Waisi, B.I.H.

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity

  10. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the State’s Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant...

  11. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  12. Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer

    Gurney, J.

    1994-02-01

    On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

  13. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  14. Cost effectiveness of palm oil in comparison to other oils and fats in the country with special emphasis on lower income group

    R P Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils in the form of vegetable oils are integral part of diet and comprise of an important source of calorie density and micronutrients in human diet. The per capita edible oil consumption in India (14.5 kg in 2012-2013 has been steadily rising over the decades but is still short of the average worldwide consumption in the developed countries. Especially the below poverty line population lags far behind in terms of per capita edible oil consumption and therefore is a major reason for widespread malnutrition. Inadequate consumption of edible oils, which acts as vehicle (mainly promotes absorption in intestine for important micronutrients like vitamin A, D, E and K, is the root cause behind this.  Palm oil is an important source of carotenoids (pro-vitamin A, tocols (Vitamin E, sterols, essential fatty acid and is cost effective in comparison to other edible oils. Crude palm oil which is orange red in color is refined, bleached and deodorized to produce the universally known bright golden oil. Palm oil is a natural semi-solid oil and on fraction it yields soft fraction and hard fraction. Olein (liquid fraction is mostly used as a cooking and frying oil. Stearin finds many applications in solid fat formulations and is extensively used in food processing.

  15. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary... Turkey and several other countries.\\1\\ The CVD investigation and the AD investigations cover the same... Duty Investigation of Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from the Republic of Turkey,''...

  16. 78 FR 45502 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    2013-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Initiation of... country tubular goods (``OCTG'') from India and the Republic of Turkey (``Turkey''), filed in proper form... Countervailing Duties on Imports of Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and the Republic of...

  17. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  18. New audit guidelines for oil- and gas-producing activities

    Weirich, T.R.; Blatz, R.E. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    During 1981, the Accounting Standards Executive Committee (AccSEC) declared the necessity of audit guidance for engagements involving oil and gas producing activities. The task of developing audit guidelines was assigned to the Oil and Gas Committee of AccSEC. After approximately two years of deliberations, a draft of a proposed audit guide on audits of oil and gas producing activities was discussed at the October 1983 meeting of AccSEC. Tentative plans call for an exposure draft of the audit guide to be released in March 1984, and a final audit guide to be issued in the fall of 1984. The objective of the proposed audit guide is to assist the independent auditor when examining financial statements of entities with oil and gas producing activities. Special emphasis in the proposed guide is placed on tax, internal control, and auditing considerations. This paper presents some preliminary insights through a summary and analysis of the proposed audit guide which should be of interest to all associated with audits of oil and gas producing entities.

  19. Non-Renewable Energy and Macroeconomic Efficiency of Seven Major Oil Producing Economies in Africa

    Awodumi Olabanji Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted two-stage DEA to estimate the technical efficiency scores and assess the impact of the two most important components of fossil fuel associated with oil production on macroeconomic efficiency of Seven oil producing African countries during 2005-2012. Our results showed that increasing the consumption of natural gas would improve technical efficiency. Furthermore, increasing the share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption has negative effect on the efficiency of the economies of the top African oil producers. Also, we found that increasing the consumption of primary energy improves efficiency in these economies. We therefore, recommend that governments and other stakeholders in the energy industry should adopt inclusive strategies that will promote the use of natural gas in the short term. However, in the long-run, efforts should be geared towards increasing the use of primary energy, thereby reducing the percentage share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption.

  20. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale.

  1. Comparison of Moringa Oleifera seeds oil characterization produced chemically and mechanically

    Eman, N. A.; Muhamad, K. N. S.

    2016-06-01

    It is established that virtually every part of the Moringa oleifera tree (leaves, stem, bark, root, flowers, seeds, and seeds oil) are beneficial in some way with great benefits to human being. The tree is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals. All Moringa oleifera food products have a very high nutritional value. They are eaten directly as food, as supplements, and as seasonings as well as fodder for animals. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of seeds particle size on oil extraction using chemical method (solvent extraction). Also, to compare Moringa oleifera seeds oil properties which are produced chemically (solvent extraction) and mechanically (mechanical press). The Moringa oleifera seeds were grinded, sieved, and the oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction technique with n-Hexane using three different size of sample (2mm, 1mm, and 500μm). The average oil yield was 36.1%, 40.80%, and 41.5% for 2mm, 1mm, and 500μm particle size, respectively. The properties of Moringa oleifera seeds oil were: density of 873 kg/m3, and 880 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity of 42.2mm2/s and 9.12mm2/s for the mechanical and chemical method, respectively. pH, cloud point and pour point were same for oil produced with both methods which is 6, 18°C and 12°C, respectively. For the fatty acids, the oleic acid is present with high percentage of 75.39%, and 73.60% from chemical and mechanical method, respectively. Other fatty acids are present as well in both samples which are (Gadoleic acid, Behenic acid, Palmitic acid) which are with lower percentage of 2.54%, 5.83%, and 5.73%, respectively in chemical method oil, while they present as 2.40%, 6.73%, and 6.04%, respectively in mechanical method oil. In conclusion, the results showed that both methods can produce oil with high quality. Moringa oleifera seeds oil appear to be an acceptable good source for oil rich in oleic acid which is equal to olive oil quality, that can be consumed in Malaysia where the olive oil

  2. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    2013-08-22

    ... tubular goods from India and Turkey and LTFV imports of certain oil country tubular goods from India... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  3. 78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...

    2013-09-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of...\\ See Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...) 482-3964 (India); Shane Subler at (202) 482-0189 (Turkey), AD/CVD Operations, Import...

  4. Produced water treatment for beneficial use: emulsified oil removal

    Waisi, B.I.H.

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity a

  5. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: cbarros@iseg.utl.p [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A., E-mail: alana@unav.e [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. {yields} Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. {yields} Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  6. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries. Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A. [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E. [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. (author)

  7. Oil demand and price elasticity of energy consumption in the GCC countries: A panel cointegration analysis

    Md Qaiser Alam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the cointegrating relationship between oil demand and price elasticity of energy consumption in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC countries during the period 1980-2010. The paper has applied the recently developed panel cointegration techniques, Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS and panel DOLS in a panel of GCC countries. The region is being recognized as the major region of oil production and export in the global economy. In recent times, the region is emerging as a fastest growing oil consuming region globally. This fast increase in the level of oil consumption in the major oil exporting countries raises the energy security implications in the sphere of the growing oil demand in the world economy. This is likely to bring many pitfalls in the form of price distortions and reduced growth rates in and outside the oil export region. The empirical finding reveals a cointegrating relationship among the variables and indicates an income elastic and price inelastic demand for oil in the long-run in the GCC countries. The outcomes of income elastic and price inelastic demand for oil are also consistent in the short-run. The income and price inelastic demand for oil though exists for a full panel of countries but vary across the GCC countries. The result of the Granger Causality test also depicts a unidirectional causality running from income to oil consumption and bidirectional causality running between oil prices and income in the GCC countries. Moreover, the outcomes reveal that demand for oil varies positively with the growth of income and negatively with the price level in the economy.

  8. Selection of Sinopec Lubricating Oil Producing Bases by Using the AHP Model

    Song Yunchang; Song Zhaozheng; Zheng Chengguo; Jiang Qingzhe; Xu Chunming

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting the development of Sinopec lubricating oil were analyzed in this paper,and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model for selecting lubricating-oil producing bases was developed. By using this model,nine lubricating oil producing companies under Sinopec were comprehensively evaluated. The evaluation result showed that the Maoming Lubricating Oil Company (Guangdong province),Jingmen Lubricating Oil Company (Hubei province) and Changcheng Lube Oil Company (Beijing) are top three choices,and should be developed preferentially for the development of Sinopec producing bases of lubricating oil in the future. The conclusions provide the theoretical basis for selecting lubricating oil producing bases for decision makers.

  9. Experience from Soybean Industry Development of Main Soybean Producing Countries

    MA Zenglin; GUO Xiangyu

    2009-01-01

    Soybean output and trade are mainly operated in America, Brazil, Argentina and China in recent years, especially in America. For China, the import output is number one, and the export output is the forth. For this reason, the soybean industry of China got a huge lash, and the soybean farmers got a large loss, it influenced the building of new countryside construction in China. Both U.S.A's soybean output and trade amout are the number one in the world, this achievement should be contributed to U.S.A's advanced production ability and its favorable subsidy policies. Contrary to U.S.A's large subsidy and cheap loan, Brazil and Argentina raise their soybean output and trade amount by high production technology and "untying" policies, such as abolishing some unreasonable rules and tax. So if we want to develop Chinese soybean industry and make sure our soybean industry's safety, it's necessary for us to experience soybean industry development of other countries' and improve ours.

  10. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  11. Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.

    Knight, John G; Clark, Allyson; Mather, Damien W

    2013-01-01

    Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced.

  12. A novel and innovative process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil

    Denivelle, C. [OSEAD, Paris (France); Fourt, J.F. [Truffle Capital, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands extraction by adsorption (OSEAD) was created in October 2006 to develop an innovative hydrocarbon extraction technology from oil sands. It has since grown by taking control of a lead, zinc and silver mine in Morocco. This paper discussed the novel and innovative OSEAD process to produce oil from tar sands and heavy oil. The paper provided a description of the oil sand samples and discussed lab testing. The adsorption and desorption phases were both outlined. The main properties of the agent were identified. A summary of the test work results was also presented. The optimized OSEAD process includes an ore preparation step involving mixing of oil sand and water at ambient temperature; an adsorption step involving addition of agent to the sand/water mix; a phase separation step; a desorption step; and a tailings treatment step. It was concluded that the laboratory test work performed on Canadian oil sands is conclusive in demonstrating the capacity of the OSEAD process to efficiently adsorb heavy and viscous hydrocarbon at ambient temperature and with limited amount of water addition. 11 figs., 1 appendix.

  13. The story of Fairbank Oil : four generations of the family producing oil longer than anyone in the world

    McGee, P.

    2004-07-01

    This book provides a historical account of the accomplishments of the four generations of Fairbank men who were instrumental in developing the petroleum industry in Ontario. The oil industry in Canada actually began in Oil Springs, Ontario where, in 1861, John Henry Fairbank surveyed 100 acres of land for oil drillings. In 1861 he founded Charles Fairbanks Oil Properties Ltd., an oil business which expanded to 600 acres with 350 working oil wells. By 1890, he had grown to be Canada's single largest oil producer, producing approximately 24,000 barrels of oil per year, and selling it to Imperial Oil. Today, the fourth generation of the Fairbank family still produces about 24,000 barrels of oil each year, but is now one of the smallest oil producers in Canada. For more than 150 years, the Fairbank family has pumped oil in the same place using the same technology. They are the oldest petroleum producing family in the world and have been supplying crude oil to Imperial Oil longer than anyone. refs., figs.

  14. Chinese-Brunei Oil Cooperation Benefits Two Countries

    2004-01-01

    @@ Thanks to joint efforts by both sides, the trade and economic relations between China and Brunei have in recent years witnessed a steady and healthy development, which will no doubt benefit the two countries and the two peoples.

  15. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Unknown

    2003-04-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

  16. A study on radon absorption efficiencies of edible oils produced in India.

    Karunakara, N; Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2010-04-01

    A study on absorption of radon by different edible oils of plant origins produced and used in India was conducted in order to identify efficient radon-absorbing oils. A comparative study of radon absorption by edible oils of India with that of olive oil, which is known as a good absorber of radon, was also carried out. The study was performed by bubbling known concentrations of radon through the oil contained in a bottle and then evaluating the bubbled oil by gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. The results show that oils such as coconut oil, gingelly oil (till oil), ground nut oil, mustard oil, sunflower oil, and saffola kardi oil are also good absorbers for radon, and among them coconut oil and gingelly oils are better absorbers than olive oil. The Henry's equilibrium constant (or the concentration factor), an indicator for the solubility of gas in liquids, was also measured for different types of oil by saturating a known volume of the oil with radon. The Henry's equilibrium constant varied in the range 7.32-8.22 for the Indian vegetable oils, and for olive oil it was found to be 7.88. The details of the experimental technique employed and results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. Oil Module Working Paper

    1973-12-01

    in any a^regate sense, or (b) to be "valid" for crude oil production in all countries. Neither, however, is it to provide detailed point... oil production by the oil companies through their regular channels. Such oil is said to be "sold back" by the countries to the coirpanies...a royalty to the producing country government. revenue received by the producing country government as a result of sales of its share of crude

  18. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of

  19. 78 FR 45505 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the...

    2013-07-29

    ... Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and the Republic of Turkey and Antidumping Duties on Imports of...; Antidumping Duty Investigation Initiation Checklist: Oil Country Tubular Goods from the Republic of Turkey... Korea and Turkey, the petitioners were unable to obtain home- market or third-country...

  20. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  1. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential

  2. Challenges of Membrane Filtration for Produced Water Treatment in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous amount of produced water are discharged into the sea from offshore oil & gas installations. Along with every barrel of oil three barrels of water are produced and this is only worsen as the fields mature. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is employed to increase production, as a part of EOR...

  3. Country Risk Volatility Spillovers of Emerging Oil Economies: An Application to Russia and Kazakhstan

    Sun, Xiaolei; He, Wan; Li, Jianping

    The emerging oil economies (EOEs) of geographical proximity, are usually impacted by some common risk factors which may make the interaction of their country risk closely related. This paper focuses on the interaction of country risk between EOEs by investigating the volatility spillovers of country risk. Taking Russia and Kazakhstan for example, a multivariate conditional volatility model is used to capture the dynamic spillovers of country risk. Empirical results show that there are significant bidirectional spillover effects with the asymmetrical volatility between Russia and Kazakhstan.

  4. DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Nourah Al Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional on finding cointegration, the paper extends the literature by employing the Pedroni Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS Dynamic OLS (DOLS procedure to generate. The study estimates the demand for Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. An attempt is also made to assess the impact of this demand on the future availability of OPEC oil exports.

  5. Peak oil and health in low- and middle-income countries: impacts and potential responses.

    Winch, Peter; Stepnitz, Rebecca

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil refers to the predicted peak and subsequent decline in global production of petroleum products over the coming decades. We describe how peak oil will affect health, nutrition, and health systems in low- and middle-income countries along 5 pathways. The negative effects of peak oil on health and nutrition will be felt most acutely in the 58 low-income countries experiencing minimal or negative economic growth because of their patterns of sociopolitical, geographic, and economic vulnerability. The global health community needs to take additional steps to build resilience among the residents of low- and middle-income countries and maintain access to maternal and other health services in the face of predicted changes in availability and price of fossil fuels.

  6. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  7. Oil price and exchange rate co-movements in Asian countries: Detrended cross-correlation approach

    Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney Figueira; Bashir, Usman; Donghong, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Most empirical literature investigates the relation between oil prices and exchange rate through different models. These models measure this relationship on two time scales (long and short terms), and often fail to observe the co-movement of these variables at different time scales. We apply a detrended cross-correlation approach (DCCA) to investigate the co-movements of the oil price and exchange rate in 12 Asian countries. This model determines the co-movements of oil price and exchange rate at different time scale. The exchange rate and oil price time series indicate unit root problem. Their correlation and cross-correlation are very difficult to measure. The result becomes spurious when periodic trend or unit root problem occurs in these time series. This approach measures the possible cross-correlation at different time scale and controlling the unit root problem. Our empirical results support the co-movements of oil prices and exchange rate. Our results support a weak negative cross-correlation between oil price and exchange rate for most Asian countries included in our sample. The results have important monetary, fiscal, inflationary, and trade policy implications for these countries.

  8. Sourcing Solutions to Oil Shortage Challenge in Asian Developing Countries

    Wang Tao

    2001-01-01

    @@ 21st century is an era with many development opportunities for Asia. It's time for Asia, particularly for developing countries in this region to be away from poverty, backwardness for rapid economic taking-off. According to the predictions of authoritative agencies,Asia will remain as one of the fastest growing regions in the world. Both China and India's economic growth rate will be over 6%. The rapid economic growth of the two largest population nations will not only drive the prosperity of Asian economy, but also bring tremendous impact on the world market.

  9. The economic growth of oil countries; La croissance economique des pays petroliers

    Arbod, G

    2007-02-15

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  10. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  11. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  12. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate

  13. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Italy 2010 update

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  14. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Spain 2011 update

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Spain for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  15. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  16. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  18. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  19. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  20. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Poland 2011 update

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Poland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  1. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Norway 2011 update

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Norway for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  2. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Luxembourg 2010 update

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  3. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  4. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  5. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe: assessment by national experts from 38 countries, May 2015.

    Albiger, Barbara; Glasner, Corinna; Struelens, Marc J; Grundmann, Hajo; Monnet, Dominique L

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) launched the 'European survey of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE)' project to gain insights into the occurrence and epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), to increase the awareness of the spread of CPE, and to build and enhance the laboratory capacity for diagnosis and surveillance of CPE in Europe. Data collected through a post-EuSCAPE feedback questionnaire in May 2015 documented improvement compared with 2013 in capacity and ability to detect CPE and identify the different carbapenemases genes in the 38 participating countries, thus contributing to their awareness of and knowledge about the spread of CPE. Over the last two years, the epidemiological situation of CPE worsened, in particular with the rapid spread of carbapenem-hydrolysing oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48)- and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. In 2015, 13/38 countries reported inter-regional spread of or an endemic situation for CPE, compared with 6/38 in 2013. Only three countries replied that they had not identified one single case of CPE. The ongoing spread of CPE represents an increasing threat to patient safety in European hospitals, and a majority of countries reacted by establishing national CPE surveillances systems and issuing guidance on control measures for health professionals. However, 14 countries still lacked specific national guidelines for prevention and control of CPE in mid-2015.

  8. Evaluation of oil-producing algae as potential biodiesel feedstock.

    Zhou, XuPing; Ge, HongMei; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Delu; Hu, ChunXiang

    2013-04-01

    This study attempted to connect the dots between laboratory research and the outdoors. Chlorella sp. NJ-18 was selected among seven oil-producing algae cultivated in this study because it had the highest lipid productivity. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for cultivating this Chlorella strain were optimized indoors. This strain was incubated outdoors in a 70 L photobioreactor, containing the favorable nitrogen (8.32 mM urea) and phosphorus (0.18 mM monopotassium phosphate) concentrations. Semi-continuous cultivation was performed by harvesting 30 L biomass and replacing it with fresh medium. The maximum biomass and lipid productivity acquired outdoors were 91.84 and 24.05 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, biomass productivity could be maintained at a high level throughout the cultivation process when using the semi-continuous mode, whereas it decreased dramatically in batch cultures. More than 95% of the total fatty acids obtained were C16 and C18, which are the main components for biofuel.

  9. Screening for kidney disease in an oil producing community in Nigeria: A pilot study.

    Okafor, Umezurike H; Ahmed, S; Arigbodi, O; Idogun, S; Unuigbe, E I

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum products have been associated with acute and chronic kidney disease. Nigeria is a major oil producing and exporting country. The aim of this study was to screen for kidney disease in an oil producing community in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Ido, Asari-Toru Local Government Area of Rivers State. All subjects were resident in the town and those aged 18 years and above were eligible. Spot urine samples were collected for dipstick urinalysis, and venous blood was collected for estimation of serum electrolyte, urea, creatinine, and lipid profile. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft and Gault formula. A total of 99 participants were screened: 75% were females, over 50% aged above 50 years, and the majority had low socioeconomic status. The mean eGFR of the participants was 80.2 ± 33.3 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , 32.6% of the participants had eGFR <60 mL/min, and 2% had eGFR <30 mL/min. Furthermore, 36.5% of the participants had proteinuria and 29.8% had 1 + proteinuria. There was a significant negative correlation of eGFR with a family history of diabetes mellitus (-0.35, P = 0.016), elevated systolic hypertension (-0.29, P = 0.035), and elevated total cholesterol (-0.23, P = 0.045), but there was a positive correlation with body mass index (0.24, P = 0.018). We conclude that the prevalence of kidney disease was high in the screened population in a Nigerian oil producing community.

  10. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  11. Is There an Optimal Strategic Oil Reserve for Each Country? A Study Based on the Game Theory

    Yang, Junan; Cong, Ronggang

    2014-01-01

    -cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own...... suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice....

  12. Determinants of Oil Demand in OECD Countries: An Application of Panel Data Model

    Burcu OZCAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze demand for oil in 20 selected OECD countries over the period 1980 to 2011, within the framework of panel data model. The long-run income and price elasticities of oil demand were computed and the Granger causality between variables of interest was tested. The results indicated that oil demand has positive and negative income and price elasticities, respectively. In addition, both income and price were inelastic in the long-run, but price elasticity was lower than income elasticity. Furthermore, a bidirectional causality running from economic growth to oil consumption and vice versa was obtained, providing evidence of feedback hypothesis. Based on these results, some crucial policy implications were suggested

  13. Highly oil-producing microalgae selected through directed-evolution on a microfludic chip

    Mestler, Troy; Estevez-Torres, Andre; Lambert, Guillaume; Austin, Robert H.

    2009-03-01

    Some species of photosynthetic microalgae produce signi?cant amounts of oil which can be easily converted to diesel fuel. However, as it stands today, biodiesel is signi?cantly more expensive than fossil fuels. We wish to improve the oil yield and production rate of a single species of microalgae through directed evolution. We propose to utilize our microfabication technology to create microhabitats to control the nutrient environment of the species, monitor oil production through Raman Spectroscopy, and punish colonies of algae which have low oil yield. We believe this process will produce a mutant species with a high oil yield.

  14. The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers

    Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.; Ferreira, G. C.

    Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers...... in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains...

  15. Sectoral Structure Change Modeling of European Oil and Gas Producing Country’S Economy

    Perepelkin Viacheslav Alexandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider identifying features of sectoral structuring within the national economy that has definite foreign trade product specialization. Examination of the sector-specific division methodology enabled identification of its strong association with certain sector dominance in the economy. It is against this background that we offer an explanation for the delay in transferring from the post-Soviet to the applicable international classification of economic structure elements in Russia and Belarus. We perform analysis of the three-component P-S-T model (primary, secondary, tertiary sector using statistical and econometric methods and define properties of the sectoral shares dynamics in national economies of oil and gas producing countries. Analysis of the Russian and Norwegian economies’ intersectoral changes suggests that it is necessary for the government to develop and implement selective structural policy to overcome the existing structural disproportions.

  16. Chemical investigation of Nigella sativa L. seed oil produced in Morocco

    Said Gharby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds are widely used in traditional Islamic medicine and for culinary purposes worldwide. Nigella seed oil is becoming popular in and out of the Islamic world. Composition of Nigella seed oil is known to be location-dependent. We investigated the composition of Nigella seed oil prepared by solvent- or cold press-extraction of Nigella seeds grown in Morocco. Oil extraction yield was 37% and 27% when solvent or cold press extraction methods were used, respectively. In terms of oil major components, composition of Nigella seed oil from Morocco is similar to that from other Mediterranean countries known for their Nigella seed-oil quality.

  17. World Economic Growth and Oil: a Producers' Perspective

    Shihab-Eldin, Adnan

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the following assertions: * A high share of oil price in GDP limits economic growth, * Oil Price shocks trigger recession, * These effects will be escalated by peaked oil supply and rising developing world demand and together with increasing contributions to climate change will result in a global emergency. The role of energy in societal development and economic growth, from primitive man through the industrial revolution and the oil age to the present and the evolution of energy intensity are described. The principle role of oil as a transport fuel and the possibilities of alternatives are examined. It is concluded that oil dependence will continue for the foreseeable future. The history of the industry, market behavior and its economic effects are presented to establish precedent and the assertions are then examined. It is shown that rising oil prices are an unavoidable consequence of economic growth, that they have stimulated efficient minimum functional use and made more difficult conventional and unconventional sources economic. It is then argued that potentially these additional resources eliminate the possibility of supply shortage and that diversification of supply lessens the possibility of shock, together rendering a global emergency less likely than could have been previously envisaged.

  18. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    2004-01-01

    Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured...

  19. Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

    Chen Brian K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture international estimates, and the World Bank (234 annual observations; 23 countries. Outcomes included mortality from IHD and stroke for adults aged 50 and older. Predictors included per-capita consumption of palm oil and cigarettes and per-capita Gross Domestic Product as well as time trends and an interaction between palm oil consumption and country economic development level. Analyses examined changes in country-level outcomes over time employing linear panel regressions with country-level fixed effects, population weighting, and robust standard errors clustered by country. Sensitivity analyses included further adjustment for other major dietary sources of saturated fat. Results In developing countries, for every additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, IHD mortality rates increased by 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [21-115], whereas, in similar settings, stroke mortality rates increased by 19 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-12-49] but were not significant. For historically high-income countries, changes in IHD and stroke mortality rates from palm oil consumption were smaller (IHD: 17 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [5.3-29]; stroke: 5.1 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-1.2-11.0]. Inclusion of other major saturated fat sources including beef, pork, chicken, coconut oil, milk cheese, and butter did not substantially change the differentially higher relationship between palm oil and IHD mortality in developing countries. Conclusions Increased palm oil

  20. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... comment on EPA's analyses of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel...

  1. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel under the Renewable...

  2. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  3. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed

  4. Produced and Seep Oil along the California Coastline

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This map portrays the location, type, and chemical nature ("tribe") of oil samples along the Central and Southern California coast, including tar on beaches,...

  5. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil with hydrogenated cottonseed oil to produce trans free fat.

    Neeharika, T S V R; Rallabandi, Ramya; Ragini, Y; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rani, K N Prasanna; Prasad, R B N

    2015-08-01

    Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCSO) was carried out for producing a low trans free fat. The interesterification reaction was performed by varying parameters such as weight proportions of RBO and HCSO, reaction temperatures, time period and lipase concentration. Both non specific and specific lipases namely Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM were employed for this study. Based on the data generated, the optimum reaction conditions were found to be: weight proportion of RBO and HCSO, 80:20; lipase concentration, 5 % (w/w) of substrates; reaction temperature, 60 °C; reaction time, 4 h for Lipozyme TL IM and 5 h for Novozym 435. The degree of interesterification, calculated based on the results of solid fat characteristics was used for comparing the catalytic activity of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. It was observed that the degree of interesterification (DI) reached a near 100 % at the 4th hour for reaction employing Lipozyme TL IM with a rate constant of 0.191 h(-1) while Novozym 435 catalyzed reaction reached a near 100 % degree of interesterification at the 5th hour with a rate constant of 0.187 h(-1), suggesting that Lipozyme TL IM has a faster catalytic activity.

  6. Isolation and Identification of Crude Oil Degrading and Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from the Oil-Contaminated Soils of Gachsaran

    Seyyedeh Zahra Hashemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Petroleum hydrocarbons are harmful to the environment, human health, and all other living creatures. Oil and its byproducts in contact with water block sunshine to phytoplanktons and thus break the food chain and damage the marine food source. This study aims to isolate the crude oil degrading and biosurfactant producing bacteria from the oil contaminated soils of Gachsaran, Iran. Materials and Methods: Isolation was performed in peptone-water medium with yeast extract. Oil displacement area, emulsification index and bacterial phylogeny using 16S rRNA analysis were studied. Results and Conclusion: Three isolates were able to degrade the crude oil. In the first day, there were two phases in the medium; after a few days, these three bacteria degraded the crude oil until there was only one phase left in the medium. One strain was selected as a superior strain by homogenizing until the medium became clear and transparent. This method confirmed that the strain produces biosurfactant. According to the morphological and biochemical tests, the strain isolated from the oil contaminated soils is a member of Bacillus subtilis, so to study the bacterial phylogeny and taxonomy of the strain, an analysis of 16S rRNA was carried out, and the phylogenic tree confirmed them. The results verified that oil contaminated soils are good source for isolation of the biosurfactant producing bacteria.

  7. Identification of molecular species of polyol oils produced from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa e03-12 nrrl b-59991

    The objective of this study is to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil (Hou and Lin, 2013). The polyol oil produced by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NR...

  8. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  9. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  10. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-03-15

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  11. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  12. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Unknown

    2002-05-31

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

  13. Migration as Diplomacy: Labor Migrants, Refugees, and Arab Regional Politics in the Oil-Rich Countries

    Thiollet, Hélène

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the political dynamics of labor migration in the Middle East. It seeks to explain the politics of Arab population movements by looking at historical trends in regional integration and contends that migration to the oil-rich countries, including refugee flows, has been the key factor driving Arab integration in the absence of effective institutions and economic integration processes. To account for the influence of this largely forgotten factor, the article...

  14. The Changing Pattern in International Trade and Capital Flows of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries in Comparison with other Oil-Exporting Countries

    Marga PEETERS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC countries with the other oil-exporting OPEC countries that have a comparable size of natural resources. The GCC countries’ high investments in the world economy financed by their abundant income from oil revenues, showed their remarkably high degree of trade and financial integration in the world economy. Thanks to policies geared towards opening up borders, the GCC countries have imparted a significant stimulus to the world economy, to a much greater extent than other oil exporting countries in similar conditions. Aspects of globalization, trade and financial integration,such as the dependence on oil, “Dutch disease”, regional integration, foreign direct investment and cross-border assets and loans are addressed. The results show that the impact of the crisis has reverted international capital flows of the GCC, in particular cross-border bank loans, deposits and foreign direct investment. Current and future global policymaking needs however moretimely and consistent statistical information.

  15. Oil price and bank performance in the Middle Eastern oil exporting countries

    Kaffash, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Banks as the most evident financial institutions which provide a range of financial services in their primary role as intermediary from lenders and borrowers of money to sophisticated tools concerned with credit and liquidity provision, risk management and remittance of funds play a vital role in the economy of countries. Measuring the performance of banks, and identifying the factors which im...

  16. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  17. Bioflocculant Produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC and Its Application in the Treatment of Oil-field Produced Water

    YUE Lixi; MA Chunling; CHI Zhenming

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-nine strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 activated sludge samples. Among them, strain MYC was found to have the highest and stable flocculating rate for both kaolin clay suspension and oil-field produced water. The bacterial strain was identified as Klebsiella sp. MYC according to its morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA sequence. The optimal medium for bioflocculant production by this bacterial strain was composed of cane sugar 20gL 1, KH2PO4 2gL-1, K2HPO4 5gL-1, (NH4)2SO4 0.2gL-1, urea 0.5gL-1 and yeast extract 0.5gL 1, the initial pH being 5.5. When the suspension of kaolin clay was treated with0.5% of Klebsiella sp. MYC culture broth, the flocculating rate reached more than 90.0 % in the presence of 500 mg L-1 CaCl2, while the flocculating rate for oil-field produced water was near 80.0% in a pH range of 7.0 - 9.0 with the separation of oil and suspended particles from the oil-field produced water under similar conditions. The environm ent-friendly nature of the bioflocculant and high flocculating rate of the strain make the bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC an attractive bioflocculant in oil-field produced water treatment.

  18. Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy

    Samek, O.; Zemánek, P.; Jonáš, A.; Telle, H. H.

    2011-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy offers a powerful alternative analytical method for the detection and identification of lipids/oil in biological samples, such as algae and fish. Recent research in the authors' groups, and experimental data only very recently published by us and a few other groups suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be exploited in instances where fast and accurate determination of the iodine value (associated with the degree of lipid unsaturation) is required. Here the current status of Raman spectroscopy applications on algae is reviewed, and particular attention is given to the efforts of identifying and selecting oil-rich algal strains for the potential mass production of commercial biofuels and for utilization in the food industry.

  19. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-05

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative--even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl.

  20. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  1. Use of Rapeseed Straight Vegetable Oil as Fuel Produced in Small-Scale Exploitations

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a method to produce rapeseed and process it to obtain rapeseed oil and rapeseed cake meal from a small-scale point of view. It also shows how rapeseed oil can be used as fuel in diesel engines for agriculture self-consumption. A production, processing and use-as-fuel model for rapeseed oil is also presented, analysing environmentally and economically the use of rapeseed oil as fuel compared to other agricultural production alternatives. The results are evaluated for dry ...

  2. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased sig...

  3. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of t...... of this research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs....

  4. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  5. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units, free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%, and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg−1 of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%, medium chain fatty acids (69.65% and medium chain triglycerides (59.27% mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%, dilauricmonocaprin (18.89% and trilaurin (21.88% were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.Se analizaron y compararon las características físico-químicas y la composición de fitonutrientes de aceites de coco disponibles comercialmente preparados a partir de copra [aceite de coco sin refinar, UCNO; aceite de coco decolorado, y desodorizado (RBDCNO] y de la leche extraída de coco húmedo madurado [aceite de coco virgen (VCNO]. El color (2,6; 0,0; 1,6 unidades lovibond, los ácidos grasos libres (0,61; 0,58; 0,53% y el índice de peróxidos (1,35; 0,0; 0,0 meq·O2Kg−1 para UCNOs, VCNOs y RBDCNOs respectivamente, indican valores superiores de color y PV para UCNOs y FFA similar que para los otros dos aceites. Los aceites UCNOs mostraron valores de

  6. Rhamnolipids produced by indigenous Acinetobacter junii from petroleum reservoir and its potential in enhanced oil recovery

    Hao Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS. The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9 and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  7. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  8. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR. PMID:27872613

  9. Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry

    Izabel Cristina da Silva Grem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

  10. An exogenous surfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis facilitates indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Peike eGao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous Bacillus subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous Bacillus subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The Bacillus subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous Bacillus subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery.

  11. NEW LIPASE-PRODUCERS MICROORGANISMS FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA WHICH HYDROLYZE PALM OIL AND DERIVATIVES

    Roxana Trujillo; Pedro Peláez; Josep-Vicent Sinisterra

    2014-01-01

    Two yeasts: Cryptococcus uchicensis TMY9 and Pichia uchicensis TMY10 and one fungus Verticillium tingalensis TMFMB are described for the first time as lipase producer microorganisms. The strains have been isolated after an ecological screening in a palm oil industry. The yeasts- C. uchicensis and Pichia uchicensis - mainly produce extracellular lipases as active as those produced by traditional lipase producing microorganisms. The extracellular lipases are active in the hydrolysis of crude pa...

  12. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work...

  13. Epidemiology of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii in Mediterranean Countries

    Nassima Djahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii are of great concern to health services worldwide. These β-lactamases hydrolyse almost all β-lactams, are plasmid-encoded, and are easily transferable among bacterial species. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern. Infections caused by these bacteria have limited treatment options and have been associated with high mortality rates. Carbapenemase producers are mainly identified among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and A. baumannii and still mostly in hospital settings and rarely in the community. The Mediterranean region is of interest due to a great diversity and population mixing. The prevalence of carbapenemases is particularly high, with this area constituting one of the most important reservoirs. The types of carbapenemase vary among countries, partially depending on the population exchange relationship between the regions and the possible reservoirs of each carbapenemase. This review described the epidemiology of carbapenemases produced by enterobacteria and A. baumannii in this part of the world highlighting the worrisome situation and the need to screen and detect these enzymes to prevent and control their dissemination.

  14. Epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii in Mediterranean countries.

    Djahmi, Nassima; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Pantel, Alix; Dekhil, Mazouz; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii are of great concern to health services worldwide. These β-lactamases hydrolyse almost all β-lactams, are plasmid-encoded, and are easily transferable among bacterial species. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern. Infections caused by these bacteria have limited treatment options and have been associated with high mortality rates. Carbapenemase producers are mainly identified among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and A. baumannii and still mostly in hospital settings and rarely in the community. The Mediterranean region is of interest due to a great diversity and population mixing. The prevalence of carbapenemases is particularly high, with this area constituting one of the most important reservoirs. The types of carbapenemase vary among countries, partially depending on the population exchange relationship between the regions and the possible reservoirs of each carbapenemase. This review described the epidemiology of carbapenemases produced by enterobacteria and A. baumannii in this part of the world highlighting the worrisome situation and the need to screen and detect these enzymes to prevent and control their dissemination.

  15. Detection of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in the baltic countries and st. Petersburg area.

    Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Pai, Kristiine; Parv, Kristel; Pärna, Katri; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the bla NDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production.

  16. Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Baltic Countries and St. Petersburg Area

    Anastasia Pavelkovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae  n=1983 and E. coli  n=7774 clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the blaNDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production.

  17. [Treatment of simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production using dithiocarbamate-type flocculant].

    Gao, Yue; Jia, Yu-Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Cao, Bai-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Lei

    2010-10-01

    A dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the reaction of amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403 and carbon disulfide in alkaline solution. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) for simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production was studied by Jar-test. The effect of the dosage of DTC (T403), hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, and pH on the oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was investigated. The results showed that the chelate polymer formed by DTC (T403) and Fe2+ ion has good oil removal performance by net capturing mechanism. HPAM had a negative effect on oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403). For the treatment of the simulated wastewater containing 0-900 mg/L of HPAM and 300 mg/L of oil, the residual oil concentrations in water samples decreased below 10 mg/L when the dosage of Fe2+ and DTC (T403) was 10 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was affected by pH and good oil removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was below 7.5. DTC (T403) is appropriate for the treatment of oily wastewater containing Fe2+ ion.

  18. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE OIL AND MINING CONCESSION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

    Cătălina Georgeta DINU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Concession is the oldest form of cooperation between the state and companies to exploit oil being found in the Middle East since the late nineteenth century. In colonized countries the right of exploitation belonged to the companies of the suzerain states. Invoking national interest, dispute over natural resources has increased in direct proportion to the increasing importance of these resources and inversely proportional to the decrease in quantity. A dull but intense battle at this point characterizes natural resources, especially of oil and mining of precious metals. Therefore, we can say that the power exerted on natural resources determines the ranking of countries of the world economic power and living standards of the population. Use of natural resources as an effective weapon in the economic consolidation became state policy and the expansion of exploration and exploitation in foreign lands required the development of complex regulations. Therefore, this study aims at presenting an analytic perspective of foreign law - specific states with relevant impact on the exploitation of natural resources - and the presentation of some features of international law.

  19. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  20. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  1. 78 FR 23673 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    2013-04-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced... Class 3 (Native) Spearmint Oil for the 2012-2013 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service..., producers during the 2012-2013 marketing year under the Far West spearmint oil marketing order. The...

  2. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  3. Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches

    Tanasri Sihabut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

  4. Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques

    Wynn, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

  5. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

  6. POTENTIAL OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR PROTECTION OF GRAINS CONTAMINATED BY AFLATOXIN PRODUCED BY Aspergillus flavus

    Renata Hadad Esper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto and Origanum vulgare (oregano on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto and Origanum vulgare (oregano essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3×105 spores/ mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

  7. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil.

  8. Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

    2009-07-15

    Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased

  9. [Antibacterial activity of essential oil vapor for histamine-producing bacteria].

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of essential oil vapors against histamine-producing bacteria Morganella morganii NBRC3848 and Raultella planticola NBRC3317. We measured the minimum inhibitory dose (MID) of 14 essential oils towards these two strains. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and salicylaldehyde (SA) vapors showed higher antibacterial activity than the other 12 essential oil vapors. Both AIT and SA vapors suppressed growth of total aerobic bacteria and histamine-producing bacteria in bigeye tuna and mackerel meat during storage at 12°C. These vapors also inhibited histamine accumulation in bigeye tuna meat and mackerel meat. Thus, application of AIT and SA vapors is effective for preventing increase of histamine-producing bacteria and histamine formation in fish meat.

  10. A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil

    Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

  11. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  12. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  13. Risk assessment and remediation suggestion of impacted soil by produced water associated with oil production.

    Abdol Hamid, Hashim R; Kassim, Walid M S; El Hishir, Abdulah; El-Jawashi, Salem A S

    2008-10-01

    Produced water is water trapped in underground formations that is brought to the surface along with oil or gas production. Oilfield impacted soil is the most common environmental problem associated with oil production. The produced water associated with oil-production contaminates the soil and causes the outright death of plants, and the subsequent erosion of topsoil. Also, impacted soil serves to contaminate surface waters and shallow aquifers. This paper is intended to provide an approach for full characterization of contaminated soil by produced water, by means of analysis of both the produced water and the impacted soil using several recommended analytical techniques and then identify and assay the main constituents that cause contamination of the soil. Gialo-59 oilfield (29N, 21E), Libya, has been chosen as the case study of this work. The field has a long history of petroleum production since 1959, where about 300,000 bbl of produced water be discharged into open pit. Test samples of contaminated soil were collected from one of the disposal pits. Samples of produced water were collected from different points throughout the oil production process, and the analyses were carried out at the labs of Libyan Petroleum Institute, Tripoli, Libya. The results are compared with the local environmental limiting constituents in order to prepare for a plan of soil remediation. The results showed that the main constituents (pollutants) that impact the soil are salts and hydrocarbon compounds. Accordingly; an action of soil remediation has been proposed to remove the salts and degradation of hydrocarbons.

  14. Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia

    Tadjuddin, A.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

  15. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  16. Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.

  17. Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities

    Oluduro, Olubayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolonged military rule; a high level of corruption in the oil industry and the entire body polity of Nigeria; nonjusticiability of the right to a clean environment; and weak institutions such as the judiciary and the National Human Rights Commission. All of these deficiencies continue to date. Coming at a time when governments worldwide are striving to ensure corporate accountability for their activities in host nations, this work is unique in that it incisively analyses how the national and regional institutions could be strengthened to provide ef- fective protection against human rights abuses and ensure corporate accountability. The strengthening of these institutions and the promotion of a rights-based approach to environmental justice in the Niger Delta region therefore deserves concentrated attention and efforts by all actors in the industry.

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.

    Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products.

  19. Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures

    Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.

    2000-07-01

    The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig.

  20. Dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with inulin and corn oil: physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during storage.

    Menegas, Léia Zenaide; Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; Garcia, Sandra; Prudencio, Sandra Helena

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oil content reduction and the addition of inulin as a partial oil substitute on the physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during the storage (4 °C for 45 days) of dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with corn oil. Reducing the oil content did not influence the characteristics evaluated but tended to produce sausage with a dark reddish coloration. The addition of inulin did not change the physicochemical and microbiological parameters or the acceptability of the products, but resulted in an altered texture profile and a tendency toward lighter and less reddish coloration, similar to products with standard oil content. Fermented chicken sausages produced with standard amounts of corn oil, reduced amounts of corn oil, and inulin as a partial oil replacement remained stable without a significant loss of physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory attributes during storage at 4 °C for 45 days.

  1. New bioemulsifiers produced by Candida lipolytica using D-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources

    Vance-Harrop Mabel H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50% supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under fed batch fermentation for 60 hours with 5% of babassu oil. For the two media, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.02 h-1 and 0.04 h-1; the generation times were 34.6 h-1 and 17.3 h-1, and the emulsification activities were 0.666 and 0.158 units, respectively. The molecules of these new bioemulsifiers were contituted of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

  2. A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OIL PRICES CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FROM FRAGILE FIVE COUNTRIES

    Yuksel BAYRAKTAR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of oil prices in the Fragile-Five countries (Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, India, and Turkey on current account deficit and growth. In this study, the method of panel data analysis was used and the period of 1980-2014 was examined. The Levin, Lin, & Chu panel; Im, Pesaran, and Shin W-stat; ADF-Fisher Chi-square; and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests were used to determine the stability of data before panel data analysis. The results of the study can be expressed as follows. i There was a statistically meaningful relationship in oil prices with both GDP and the current account deficit. While there was a positive correlation between oil prices and GDP, there was a negative relationship between oil prices and current account deficit. ii No long-term relationship was found between GDP and oil prices; there was a long-term relationship between current account deficit and oil prices as determined by the cointegration tests. iii Causality test also showed the presence of a bidirectional relationship between GDP and oil prices.  Causality between oil prices and the current account deficit was one-way from the variable of oil price to the variable of current account deficit.

  3. Halotolerant, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus species potentially useful for enhanced oil recovery

    Jenneman, G.E.; McInerney, M.J.; Knapp, R.M.; Clark, J.B.; Feero, J.M.; Revus, D.E.; Menzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from oil-field injection water with properties potentially useful for in situ enhanced oil recovery. Conventional miscible flooding procedures use expensive synthetic detergents such as petroleum sulfonates that precipitate in high NaCl brines and adsorb to rock surfaces. The Bacillus sp. produced a biosurfactant when grown at 40 C in a sucrose mineral salts medium containing 5% NaCl. The biosurfactant was produced during the log phase of growth in the presence or absence of either crude oil or hexadecane. The surface tension of a 5% NaCl solution decreased from 74.0 mN/m to 27 mN/m when the surfactant was added. Interfacial tension of a 5% NaCl brine/octane mixture was as low as 0.43 mN/m when measured by a spinning drop tensiometer. The surfactant was extracted by acid precipitation at a pH of 2.0. The extracted surfactant exhibited optimal surface tension-lowering ability in 4-5% NaCl solutions between pH's of 6.0 to 10.0. The addition of calcium up to 340 mg/liter and incubation temperatures up to 100 C did not alter appreciably the surfactant activity. Mobilization of crude oil and oil bank formation occurred in a sandpack column after addition of the biosurfactant. 16 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  4. Industrialized countries and the oil price crisis: how are they coping

    Pringle, R.

    1975-03-01

    The ways in which Japan, France, the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the German Federal Republic reacted to the 1973 oil crisis were surveyed. The contrasts in their individual responses to this situation were very sharp, putting in the background the few collective measures agreed to in the OECD and in the International Monetary Fund. Each country's response can be seen to have been shaped by its intellectual tradition, by its resources, and by its total geo-political and geo-economic situation. The author concludes that ''France turned to its diplomats and its arms salesmen, using flair and its new-found economic dynamism; Germany left the field to the big guns of its heavy industry, still keeping its head down politically; Japan decided it was a matter of discipline, and of adjusting policy towards a greater emphasis on social goals; the United States behaved like the super power it is. All of these countries decided to tighten belts at home. Britain alone went off on an expansionary tack, because its economists and Chancellors wanted to show the world the way forward, and because of the bias towards expansionism that has been the hallmark of its economic policy, and the reason for its low growth, since the war.'' (MCW)

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Concerns in Nigeria: A Critical Focus on Oil Producing Communities

    Kabiru Isa Dandago

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-known fact about the Nigerian Niger Delta region is incessant conflicts between the Oil Transnational Corporations and the oil producing communities. This could be attributed to the fact that the activities of Oil TNCs have continued to unleash untold devastation on the environment of the oil producing communities and its consequences on the local economy and by extension the total obliteration of the livelihood of the inhabitants of the area. Therefore, the Oil TNCs are increasingly becoming conscious of their devastating impact on the ecology of the area and their blatant disregard for the socio-economic development of the host communities. Consequently, the Oil TNCs have come to embrace the idea of executing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR projects as a vehicle to intervene meaningfully in order to mitigate the adverse effects of their operations on the environments of the host communities. This paper attempts to review and analyze CSR practices of the two major Oil TNCs in Bayelsa State: Shell and Agip in six host communities: Olugboboro, Olugbobiri, Ikebiri 1, Oporoma, Angiama, and Peremabiri in Southern Ijaw local government area. The key question explored in this study is: has the practice of CSR in the Nigerian Niger Delta region by Oil TNCs brought about socio-economic  development and drastic reduction in conflict between the host communities and the Oil TNCs? The paper argues that CSR projects of transnational oil corporations in Nigeria are driven by short-term expediency rather than the long term environmental developmental needs of host communities through the provision of poor quality social amenities to these communities in order to secure social license to operate. For transnational oil corporations to make positive impact in the Nigerian Niger Delta Region, their CSR projects should belong tern in nature, taking into consideration the sustainable development needs of the local communities. The CSR projects should

  6. A novel method of producing a microcrystalline beta-sitosterol suspension in oil

    Christiansen, Leena I; Rantanen, Jukka T; von Bonsdorff, Anna K

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method of producing a microcrystalline oral suspension containing beta-sitosterol in oil for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. beta-Sitosterol pseudopolymorphs with different water contents were crystallized from acetone and acetone-water solutions. Structural...

  7. Oil producing plants of the wildflora as potential crop plants supplying industrial raw material

    Radatz, W.; Hondelmann, W.

    1981-01-01

    The wildflora exhibits a continuously renewing potential for the production of chemical constituents suitable for industrial uses. Among them seed oil producing species assume a preferred position. Forty-two indigenous as well as adaptable taxa along with their botanical, agronomical and biochemical data are presented. Furthermore an approach to their domestication and agronomic improvement is given. (Refs. 158).

  8. Influence of Frequency Converters on Insulation of Power Supply Cables at Oil-Producing Stations

    D. I. Zalizny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers consequences of negative frequency converter influence on insulation of  power supply cables used for submersible installations of electric-centrifugal pumps at oil-producing stations. The possible approaches to the solution of the problem are proposed on the basis of a harmonic analysis of actually measured voltages and currents in a cable.  

  9. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  10. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  11. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in sweet wines produced in Spain and other countries.

    Burdaspal, P; Legarda, T

    2007-09-01

    A survey for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) was undertaken from 2001 to 2005 in 188 samples of sweet wines produced in Spain and in 102 samples originating from other countries: France (n = 49), Austria (9), Chile (9), Portugal (9), Greece (6), Italy (5), Germany (3), Hungary (2), Slovenia (2), Switzerland (2), Canada (1), Japan (1), New Zealand (1), Ukraine (1), South Africa (1) and the USA (1). The analytical method was based on immunoaffinity chromatography clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The limit of detection (defined as a signal-noise ratio = 3) was estimated to be 0.01 microg l(-1). The limit of quantification (0.02 microg l(-1)) was checked as being the lowest measurable concentration. OTA was detected in 281 out of 290 samples analysed (96.9% positive) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 4.63 microg l(-1). The overall mean and median levels were estimated to be 0.50 and 0.14 microg l(-1), respectively. In Spanish sweet wines OTA was found in 99% of the samples, with mean and median values of 0.65 and 0.19 microg l(-1), respectively. The mean value obtained in this study for OTA in the Spanish sweet wines would result in an intake of about 37.5 and 3.2 ng day(-1) of OTA for regular consumers and for the overall population, respectively. These figures represent a minor contribution to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) or TWI established by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the European Food Safety Authority: 3.8 and 3.1% for regular consumers; and 0.4 and 0.3% for the whole adult population, respectively.

  12. Aqueous extractive upgrading of bio-oils created by tail-gas reactive pyrolysis to produce pure hydrocarbons and phenols

    Tail-gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) of biomass produces bio-oil that is lower in oxygen (~15 wt% total) and significantly more hydrocarbon-rich than traditional bio-oils or even catalytic fast pyrolysis. TGRP bio-oils lend themselves toward mild and inexpensive upgrading procedures. We isolated oxyge...

  13. Investigations into the characteristics of oils produced from co-pyrolysis of biomass and tire

    Cao, Qing; Jin, Li' e [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Bao, Weiren; Lv, Yongkang [Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China)

    2009-03-15

    Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and waste tire with such catalysts as SBA-15, MCM-41 and HZSM-5 was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The influences of the mixture composition on liquid yield and characteristics of the oil were investigated. The properties of the oil were determined by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), elemental analyzer (EA), thermal analyzer (TA), densimeter, ubbelohde viscosimeter and compared with that of diesel oil 0. The contents of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the oils were also determined by gas chromatograph (GC). The result shows that co-pyrolysis is in favor of inhibiting the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced from tire. There exist a hydrogen transfer and a synthetic effect during co-pyrolysis of the biomass and tire. They improve the quality of the oil. SBA-15 as a catalyst is more significant than MCM-41 or HZSM-5 for reducing the density and viscosity of the oil and it can effectively decompose some large molecular compounds into small ones. (author)

  14. 78 FR 65268 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the...

    2013-10-31

    ..., A-823-815, A-552-817] Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, the Republic of Turkey, Ukraine, and the... Nair at (202) 482- 3813 (Thailand); Catherine Cartsos at (202) 482-1757 (Turkey); David Lindgren...

  15. New perspectives for sustainably produced palm oil?; Neue Perspektiven fuer nachhaltiges Palmoel?

    Boenigk, Florian [KaiserCommunication GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Bereich erneuerbare Energien

    2010-12-15

    Power generation from biomass is one of the key issues of renewable power generation today, and the demand for raw materials like palm oil is increasing accordingly. Malaysia, the world's second biggest producer after Indonesia, considers that the time has come for a change of perspective in the political discussion of the global biomass potential. Palm oil may indeed become a staple in biomass supply for power generation and mobility, but only if rigid sustainability criteria are maintained to prevent environmental damage from the very biomass utilization technology originally developed to protect the environment.

  16. Formulating essential oil microemulsions as washing solutions for organic fresh produce production.

    Zhang, Linhan; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-15

    Applications of plant-derived organic essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobials for post-harvest produce operations are limited by their low water solubility. To dissolve EOs in water, microemulsions were studied using two surfactants permitted for organic production, sucrose octanoate ester (SOE) and soy lecithin that were mixed at various mass ratios before dilution with water to 40% w/w. EOs were then mixed with the surfactant solution by hand shaking. Based on visual transparency, intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios favoured the formation of microemulsions, e.g., up to 4.0% clove bud oil at ratios of 2:8 and 3:7, and 4.0% cinnamon bark oil and 3.0% thyme oil at ratios of 2:8 and 1:9, respectively. Microemulsions with intermediate lecithin:SOE mass ratios had a relatively low viscosity and better ability to wet fresh produce surfaces. The microemulsions established in this work may be used as washing solutions to enhance the microbial safety of organic fresh produce.

  17. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

  18. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

  19. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  20. Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.

    Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products.

  1. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  2. Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa

    Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

    2009-04-15

    The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

  3. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Unknown

    2001-05-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.

  4. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  5. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  6. Special ESP configurations designed to test and produce Yemen oil field. [Electric-Submersible Pump

    Wilkie, D.I. (Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1993-09-27

    Innovative electric-submersible-pump (ESP) configurations were used in the exploration phase of a Yemen oil field discovered by Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Because of subnormal reservoir pressure, CanOxy developed the field with ESPs and had to install surface components that could operate at the high, 130 F., ambient temperatures common in Yemen. The field is in a remote area that has seen very little development. The reservoirs produce a medium-to-heavy crude with a low gas/oil ratio, typically less than 20 scf/bbl. Problems faced in evaluating the field included drilling through unconsolidated sands with high flow capacity and subnormal reservoir pressure. CanOxy had to develop the technology to test the wells during the exploration phase, and intends to use new, or at least uncommon technology, for producing the wells. The paper describes testing the wells, the electric generators and variable speed drives, and the use of these pumps on production wells.

  7. WERE OIL PRICE MARKETS THE SOURCE OF CREDIT CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES? EVIDENCE USING A VAR-MGARCH-DCC MODEL

    Nadhem Selmi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of oil prices, credit, financial and commercial linkages in the propagation of industrial market crises during the period 2004-2012. Using VAR-MGARCH-DCC model regressions on seven markets finds that credit linkage played a significant role in the subprime, financial and global crises. Our results also show that the European debt crisis has already spread like a crisis from oil prices to Ireland and Portugal, and other countries are now at risk: Spain is a probable candidate for financial crisis.

  8. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    Renata Hadad Esper; Edlayne eGonçalez; Marcia Ortiz Mayo Marques; Roberto Carlos Felicio; Joana D'arc Felicio

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with ...

  9. Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.

    Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

  10. NEW LIPASE-PRODUCERS MICROORGANISMS FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA WHICH HYDROLYZE PALM OIL AND DERIVATIVES

    Roxana Trujillo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two yeasts: Cryptococcus uchicensis TMY9 and Pichia uchicensis TMY10 and one fungus Verticillium tingalensis TMFMB are described for the first time as lipase producer microorganisms. The strains have been isolated after an ecological screening in a palm oil industry. The yeasts- C. uchicensis and Pichia uchicensis - mainly produce extracellular lipases as active as those produced by traditional lipase producing microorganisms. The extracellular lipases are active in the hydrolysis of crude palm oil and its industrial derivatives. Contrarily in the isolated fungus, the lipase mainly remains bonded to biomass. In all cases, greater hydrolytic activities are observed in the hydrolysis of palm olein and super-olein than with saturated substrates as stearine. P. uchicensis lipase shows moderated selectivity versus saturated acid triglycerides compared to substrates with high proportion of oleic acid (olein or superolein. The opposite behavior is observed with C. uchicensis and fungal lipases. P. uchicensis produces a more active crude lipase than C. uchicensis with lower biomass production. The kinetic runs performed with crude yeast lipases suggest a three steps mechanism where the high penetration of lipase in the fat gouts favors the hydrolysis.

  11. Are There Smaller Leverage Effects in Less-Developed Markets? Evidence from an Oil Exporting Country

    Mosayeb Phalavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study uses daily data from the Tehran Stock Market (TSM to illustrate the nature of stock market volatility in an undeveloped and young stock market. Although most studies suggest that a negative shock to stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of equal magnitude but there is no evidence of asymmetric effect in TSM. Determine the nature of stock market volatility in an oil exporting country. Approach: Trading in Tehran Stock Market (TSM is based on orders sent by the brokers. The data consist of 2375 daily observations of the closing value of the Tehran stock market from 3/30/1998 to 5/04/2007. Our empirical finding shows that the unconditional variance is 0.18 but visual inspections of the time series suggests that volatility of the stock return rate displays the clustering phenomenon associated with GARCH processes. Results: The estimation and test results for all models suggest that the leverage effect term, γ, is not significant at 5% level. Although, in Asym. CARCH model based on normal distribution for errors, the estimated coefficient on the asymmetry term is -0.066 with a z-statistics of -1.749 recognized as significant at 10% level, but it has the wrong sign. It seems that good news and bad news has the same effect on stock prices in TSM, a result that is contradictory to other studies for developed countries. Conclusion: The estimated models containing TARCH, EGARCH, asymmetric CARCH and PARCH with different assumptions on error distributions suggest no strong and significant asymmetric effect. There are some reasons for this finding: (1 In Iran with Islamic laws, debt contracts are illegal or at least not enforced and Iranian firms do not have any financial leverage. As a result, we would expect to find smaller leverage effects in volatility in Iran than in the United States, for example. In deed the institutional differences with western financial markets manifest themselves in

  12. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  14. Characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil.

    Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil; Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, In-Tae

    2010-07-01

    An attempt has been made to recover high-calorific fuel gas and useful carbonaceous residue by the electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil were investigated in this study. The produced gas was mainly composed of hydrogen (35-40%), acetylene (13-20%), ethylene (3-4%) and other hydrocarbons, whereas the concentration of CO was very low. Calorific values of gas ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 kcal kg(-1) and the concentrations of toxic gases, such as NO(x), HCl and HF, were below the regulatory emissions limit. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of liquid-phase residues showed that high molecular-weight hydrocarbons in waste lubricating oil were pyrolyzed into low molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Dehydrogenation was found to be the main pyrolysis mechanism due to the high reaction temperature induced by electric arc. The average particle size of soot as carbonaceous residue was about 10 microm. The carbon content and heavy metals in soot were above 60% and below 0.01 ppm, respectively. The utilization of soot as industrial material resources such as carbon black seems to be feasible after refining and grinding.

  15. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    A. GÁMBARO; Raggio, L.; Ellis, A. C.; Amarillo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster ...

  16. Estimating Depth and Producing Formations of Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells Using Geospatial Analysis

    Christian, S.; Kang, M.; Celia, M. A.; Maloof, A. C.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    More than three million abandoned oil and gas wells exist in the U.S., and information on many of these wells are lost. Recent measurements of 93 abandoned wells in Pennsylvania show that they may be a significant source of methane emissions to the atmosphere. Data such as depth and producing formation of 98% of these measured wells are unavailable. Information on the likely depth of the well and the formation, from which the well likely produced from, is important when evaluating the wells' potential to emit methane and/or to contaminate overlying aquifers, and when developing mitigation strategies. We use geospatial analysis that combines available public databases from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and historic documents to determine the likely depth and formation from which the measured abandoned wells produced. We develop a framework to systematically evaluate the nearest well, pool, and field attributes and assign depth and producing formation to the measured wells based on how well these attributes match. We then use this information to perform a cost analysis for plugging based on well depth for Pennsylvania. The geospatial analysis framework presented here for determining abandoned well properties can be valuable for future field measurement designs, upscaling methane emissions, and mitigating abandoned wells in Pennsylvania but also the many other states with a long history of oil and gas production.

  17. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  18. Isolation and screening of native polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria from oil contaminated soils of Abadan refinery

    Hossein MOtamedi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Environmental contaminations due to petrochemical plastic usage have forced researchers to search new biological methods for biodegradable polymer production. The aim of this study was to find native PHA producing bacteria from Abadan oil refinery in order to be used in biodegradable polymer production studies.   Materials and method s : For this purpose soil samples were harvested from oil sludge contaminated soil of Abadan refinery. After primary enrichment, screening of PHA producing bacteria was done by PHA- Detection agar and was confirmed by Sudan black and Nile Blue A staining methods. These isolates were identified based on phenotypic methods and sequencing of 16s rRNA. Polymer extraction was performed and optimized using different concentrations of HClO and SDS.   Results : As a result of this study 26 different bacterial isolates were obtained from which 17 isolates were PHA producer with different potentiality. Based on the polymer accumulation 4 isolates were selected for further studies. The efficiency of PHA production in these isolates was 75.53±5.08, 82±19.05, 81.06±6.92 and 79.86±11.84%. Based on sequence analysis in NCBI database, these isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus.   Discussion and conclusion : With respect to the results of this study it can be suggested that oil contaminated soils due to high C/N and C/P ratios and also different carbohydrate contents are suitable candidates for PHA producer bacteria isolation. So the native strains in such habitats with high carbon content can be optimized for industrial polymer production.

  19. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage...

  20. Reduced hydrogen sulfide from crude oil using metal nanoparticles produced by electrochemical deposition

    Sahar Safarkhani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide is one of the most dangerous contaminants in crude oil and natural gas that must be removed before transport and refining. It has multiple effects on the environment and the industry is bad that these effects include acid rain, cancer, corrosion of pipelines, poison catalytic converters in car exhaust. In this study, to eliminate H2S crude oil Nano emulsion used ionic liquid. Ionic liquids also with metal nanoparticles (MNPs have been modified. Improve and reform the electrochemical deposition of metal salts is done. Ionic liquid 1 - Hydro One Atyl2- methyl imidazolium de cyanimide [HEMIM] [DCA] is inherently hydrophilic as Scavenger H2S was added to the crude oil. Two types of metal salts of Fe (acac 3 and Cu (SO4 electrochemical deposition method for producing metal nanoparticles in the ionic liquid [HEMIM] [DCA] was used. Suitable concentrations of ionic liquids for the complete removal of hydrogen sulfide from crude oil were determined by two methods: static and dynamic methods. Dynamic method to determine the required dose used to remove H2S. Static method using response surface and through statistical experimental design for modeling and assessment CCD H2S was removed parameters. Three factors, namely Scavengerdose, contact time and the reaction temperature were studied. The interaction between these factors on the concentration of H2S in the crude oil was studied. 3 important statistical models for ionic liquids and ionic liquid containing two types of metal nanoparticles were developed. This model has an index of noncompliance was not important. The ionic liquid modified with nanoparticles , activity and H2S removal capacity is significantly increased , to the extent that the effect of one or two major factors were considered too small or unimportant . Copper metal nanoparticles showed better performance for the removal of H2S to iron

  1. Physicochemical Properties of Jatropha Oil-Based Polyol Produced by a Two Steps Method

    Sariah Saalah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A low cost, abundant, and renewable vegetable oil source has been gaining increasing attention due to its potential to be chemically modified to polyol and thence to become an alternative replacement for the petroleum-based polyol in polyurethane production. In this study, jatropha oil-based polyol (JOL was synthesised from non-edible jatropha oil by a two steps process, namely epoxidation and oxirane ring opening. In the first step, the effect of the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of the oil double bond to formic acid, and the reaction time on the oxirane oxygen content (OOC of the epoxidised jatropha oil (EJO were investigated. It was found that 4.3% OOC could be achieved with a molar ratio of 1:0.6, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and 4 h of reaction. Consequently, a series of polyols with hydroxyl numbers in the range of 138–217 mgKOH/g were produced by oxirane ring opening of EJOs, and the physicochemical and rheological properties were studied. Both the EJOs and the JOLs are liquid and have a number average molecular weight (Mn in the range of 834 to 1457 g/mol and 1349 to 2129 g/mol, respectively. The JOLs exhibited Newtonian behaviour, with a low viscosity of 430–970 mPas. Finally, the JOL with a hydroxyl number of 161 mgKOH/g was further used to synthesise aqueous polyurethane dispersion, and the urethane formation was successfully monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR.

  2. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  3. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactof...

  4. Relationships between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries

    Skytte, Hans

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model of relationships between food producers and retailers. The model is built on the constructivist paradigm, conceptual frameworks and an analysis of a number of companies. In this paper two conceptual frameworks are developed; one concerns...

  5. Oil Price Shocks and Macroeconomic Activities in Asean-5 Countries: A Panel VAR Approach

    Mukhriz Izraf Azman AZIZ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks on real economic activities in ASEAN-5 from 1991 to 2014 using an unrestricted panel Vector Auto Regressive (VAR method. Results from the impulse response function (IRFs show evidence of an asymmetric relationship between oil prices and economic activities. Specifically, positive oil price shock measures negatively affect output growth both in the short term and in the long term. For oil price decrease specifications, real output responds negatively in the short term before recovering to its pre-shock level in the long term. The variance decomposition analysis (VDCs also exhibit differences between the effects of positive and negative oil price shocks on economic activities, supporting the evidence of asymmetric relationship obtain in the IRFs simulations.

  6. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2003-12-15

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback

  7. Spillover effects of oil price shocks across stock markets

    Ng, Zhan Jian; Sek, Siok Kun

    2014-12-01

    Oil price shock can impose detrimental effects to an economy. In this study, we empirically study the spillover effects of oil price shock on determining volatilities of stock markets across the main oil importing and oil producing countries. In particular, we are interested to compare the relative impact of oil price shock on the volatilities of stock markets and how each stock market reacts to oil price shock for oil importing and oil producing countries. We focus the study in four main oil importer and four oil producers respectively using the daily data starting from January 2009 to December 2013. The multivariate GARCH(1,1) model is applied for the purpose of this study. The results of the study suggest that there exist spillover effect between crude oil price and stock returns for all the countries. The short run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is lower than oil-importing countries but the long run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is higher than oil-importing countries. In general the short run persistency is smaller and the long run persistency is very high. The results hold for volatility of oil price and stock returns and also spillover volatility in all countries.

  8. Relation between the characteristics of the pitches produced on the basis of heavy gas-oil of catalytic cracking

    Nikolaeva, L.V.; Bulanova, V.V. [Rossiiskaya Akadeiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Mesophase pitches are often used to produce carbon fibers. Results of microanalysis and fiber-forming ability of the pitches are described. The pitches were obtained by the catalytic cracking of heavy gas-oil.

  9. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  10. Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-09-01

    This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

  11. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  12. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  13. Study of Plasma Treatment of Produced Water from Oil and Gas Exploration

    Wright, Kamau

    mg/L of bicarbonate ions. Water with bicarbonate ion concentration approaching zero resulted in prevention of scale. To enhance this new plasma induced fouling mitigation method, a plasma arc-in-water reactor was re-engineered, using a ground electrode, and two high-voltage electrodes, to stretch the arc discharge in water and increase contact between plasma and water. Results of simultaneous effects were also collected, showing within 5 min, a 4-log reduction in both Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Acid Producing Bacteria (APB), bacteria that are characteristic of oil-field produced waters; as well as oxidation of organics, with degradation of visually observable organics within 3 minutes, and decrease of oil and grease from 40 mg/L to under 10 mg/L within one min. With an arc-in-water system utilizing a stretched arc, simultaneous effects were exhibited on fouling ability of produced water, inactivation of bacteria, and degradation of organics. Plasma discharges in water represent a unique option in the treatment of produced waters from oil and gas production. While the water softening capabilities of arc-in-water systems present a new method for fouling mitigation and remediation of scale in heat exchangers, the simultaneous effects, including oxidation of organics and inactivation of bacteria, may allow application of plasma to water, to satisfy treatment targets that allow for the reuse of such waters in oil and gas operations.

  14. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceaein Europe: assessment by national experts from 38 countries, May 2015

    Albiger, B.; Glasner, C.; Struelens, M. J.; Grundmann, Hajo; Monnet, D. L.; ECKMANNS, TIM

    2015-01-01

    European Survey of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE) working group collaborators: Koraqi A, Bino S, Hartl R, Apfalter P, Glupczynski Y, Jans B, Marković T, Dedeić- Ljubović A, Kojić D, Strateva T, Sabtcheva S, Butić I, Andrašević AT, Pieridou-Bagatzouni D, Panayiota M, Hrabák J, Žemličková H, Hammerum AM, Skov R, Ivanova M, Jalava J, Dortet L, Vaux S, Kaase M, Eckmanns T, Vatopoulos A, Giamarellou H, Tóth Á, Kurcz A, Hardarson H, Kristinsson K, Boo TW, Burns K, Carmeli Y, P...

  15. Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company

    Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

  16. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  17. Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.

    Lomarat, Pattamapan; Phanthong, Phanida; Wongsariya, Karn; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

    2013-05-01

    The outbreak of histamine fish poisoning has been being an issue in food safety and international trade. The growth of contaminated bacterial species including Morganella morganii which produce histidine decarboxylase causes histamine formation in fish during storage. Histamine, the main toxin, causes mild to severe allergic reaction. At present, there is no well-established solution for histamine fish poisoning. This study was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria. Among the essential oils tested, clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils were found to possess the antibacterial activity. Clove oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Morganella morganii, followed by lemongrass and sweet basil oils. The results indicated that clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils could be useful for the control of histamine-producing bacteria. The attempt to identify the active components using preparative TLC and GC/MS found eugenol, citral and methyl chavicol as the active components of clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils, respectively. The information from this study would be useful in the research and development for the control of histamine-producing bacteria in fish or seafood products to reduce the incidence of histamine fish poisoning.

  18. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC

  19. Commercial Application of CPP for Producing Ethylene and Propylene from Heavy Oil Feed

    Hou Dianguo; Xie Chaogang; Wang Xieqing

    2003-01-01

    A new process named CPP (Catalytic Pyrolysis Process) for producing ethylene andpropylene from heavy oil feedstock has been developed. The catalyst CEP was specially designedfor this process, which has bi-functional catalytic activities for both carbonium ion reaction andfree radical reaction, so as to maximize the yields of ethylene and propylene. The commercial trialshowed that the yield of ethylene and propylene was 20.37% and 18.23% respectively inmaximum ethylene operation with Daqing AR as feedstock, and the yield of ethylene and propylenewas 9.77% and 24.60% respectively in maximum propylene operation by using the same feedstock.Compared with steam cracker, the feed cost of CPP is much lower for producing ethylene andpropylene.

  20. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Unknown

    1999-10-31

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  1. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Unknown

    2000-05-01

    During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  2. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Donald Duttlinger

    1999-12-01

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  3. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture.

  4. Isolation of palm oil-utilising, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing bacteria by an enrichment technique.

    Alias, Zazali; Tan, Irene K P

    2005-07-01

    In early attempts to isolate palm oil-utilising bacteria from palm oil mill effluent (POME), diluted liquid samples of POME were spread on agar containing POME as primary nutrient. 45 purified colonies were screened for intracellular lipids by staining with Sudan Black B. Of these, 10 isolates were positively stained. The latter were grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium with palm olein (a triglyceride) or saponified palm olein (salts of fatty acids) as carbon source. None of the isolates grew in the palm olein medium but all grew well in the saponified palm olein medium. Of the latter however, only one isolate was positively stained with Nile Blue A, indicating the presence of PHA. This method did not successfully generate bacterial isolates which could metabolise palm olein to produce PHA. An enrichment technique was therefore developed whereby a selective medium was designed. The latter comprised minerals and palm olein (1% w/v) as sole carbon source to which POME (2.5% v/v) was added as the source of bacteria. The culture was incubated with shaking at 30 degrees C for 4 weeks. Out of seven isolates obtained from the selective medium, two isolates, FLP1 and FLP2, could utilise palm olein for growth and production of the homopolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). FLP1 is gram-negative and is identified (BIOLOG) to have 80% similarity to Burkholderia cepacia. When grown with propionate or valerate, FLP1 produced a copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).

  5. Micro Fine Sized Palm Oil Fuel Ash Produced Using a Wind Tunnel Production System

    R. Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro fine sized palm oil fuel ash (POFA is a new supplementary cementitious material that can increase the strength, durability, and workability of concrete. However, production of this material incurs high cost and is not practical for the construction industry. This paper investigates a simple methodology of producing micro fine sized POFA by means of a laboratory scale wind tunnel system. The raw POFA obtained from an oil palm factory is first calcined to remove carbon residue and then grinded in Los Angeles abrasion machine. The grinded POFA is then blown in the fabricated wind tunnel system for separation into different ranges of particle sizes. The physical, morphological, and chemical properties of the micro fine sized POFA were then investigated using Laser Particle Size Analyser (PSA, nitrogen sorption, and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX. A total of 32.1% micro fine sized POFA were collected from each sample blown, with the size range of 1–10 micrometers. The devised laboratory scale of wind tunnel production system is successful in producing micro fine sized POFA and, with modifications, this system is envisaged applicable to be used to commercialize micro fine sized POFA production for the construction industry.

  6. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Unknown

    1998-10-31

    In pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) functions as a cohesive national organization that implements industry's directives through active regional programs. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) organization includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. PTTC relies on 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) as its main program delivery mechanism to industry. Through its regions, PTTC connects with independent oil and gas producers--through technology workshops, resources centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY98, and its strategy for achieving further growth in the future.

  7. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Donald Duttlinger

    2001-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization

  8. Masila mamba : as Nexen predecessor Canadian Occidental raced to produce first oil from its Yemen concession, its lead engineer juggled a succession of challenges

    Lorenz, A.W.

    2007-03-15

    This article described the challenges faced by Canadian Occidental's lead engineer when scouting and laying a pipeline for the Masila complex in Yemen. The engineer was sent to Yemen in 1991 to lay initial construction plans for the pipeline. The Yemeni president was relying on the project to boost the country's poor economic performance. The project's central processing facility was located on a plateau interspersed with deep canyons and limestone fault scarps. Wells drilled by Canadian Occidental produced a flow rate of 3,767 barrels per day of oil. A 24 inch pipeline was used to transport oil from holding tanks to a terminal located in Ash Shir. For the first 60 km, the pipeline climbed at an incline of 1 per cent, then sloped gradually for the next 30 km. The route included a cliff edge where pumps were used to push the oil to the edge of the escarpment. In order to build the pipeline, construction crews stockpiled equipment at several locations on the pipeline's route, which also bypassed several villages. The pipeline was buried to keep the oil at an even temperature as well as to avoid acts of vandalism. The buried pipelines did not interfere with the movement of Yemeni tribespeople. A road was then built along a series of switchbacks wide enough to allow for the haulage of hundreds of tonnes of equipment. An experienced workforce was coordinated to complete the pipeline, feeder lines, processing facility and storage tanks. The work camp assembled for the project housed approximately 5000 workers from various countries. While the initial estimates for the oilfield were 243 million barrels, drilling success led to a revised estimate of over a billion barrels of recoverable oil. Reservoir engineers were required to expand beyond their initial targets. It was concluded that the project was completed 1 year ahead of schedule. 5 figs.

  9. Essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits from various European countries.

    Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain; Arak, Elmar

    2008-02-15

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum L. fruits obtained from different geographical areas of Europe were determined using capillary GC and GC-MS techniques. The essential oil content of the samples was 10.0-53.6 mL kg(-1) and did not confirm to the European Pharmacopoeia standard in 5 samples out of 14. A total of 21 compounds were identified and significant quantitative differences were observed among the samples. The major component was trans-anethole (76.9-93.7%); the other principal compounds in oils were gamma-himachalene (0.4-8.2%), trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (0.4-6.4%), p-anisaldehyde (tr-5.4%) and methylchavicol (0.5-2.3%). The highest content of trans-anethole (>90%) was found in the samples from Greece, Hungary, Scotland, Lithuania, Italy, and Germany (2 samples). Essential oil of aniseed from Estonia was rich in gamma-himachalene (8.2%) and trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (6.4%). The sample from France contained the highest amount of anisaldehyde (5.4%) comparing with other samples (0-3.1%). beta-Bourbonene and alpha-farnesene are determined in anise oil for the first time.

  10. Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0 mL kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5 mL kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages.

  11. Analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the export revenues of OPEC member states and on the oil import requirements of non-Annex I countries

    Linden NH van der; Linde C van der; Lako P; Rooijen SNM van; Netherlands Energy Research; Netherlands Institute of International Relations; NOP

    2000-01-01

    The members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) continue to voice their concerns about the adverse impact of the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction policies on the oil exporting countries. Referring to Article 4.8 of the UNFCCC, the OPEC is of the opinion tha

  12. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Unknown

    2000-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

  13. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  14. Win-win strategies between countries in the oil and gas industry; Win-Win Laenderstrategien in der Oel- und Gasindustrie

    Dier, M. [Accenture GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Corporate Strategy fuer Europa, Naher Osten, Afrika und Lateinamerika; Haese, C. [Accenture GmbH, Kronberg (Germany). Bereich Corporate Strategy

    2008-08-15

    The stake of large international oil and gas companies in the world's raw material resources is declining, while the demand for fossil fuels is rising. At the same time these globally active companies are experiencing greater competition from state-owned oil and gas companies of developing and threshold countries, which often enjoy strong political support. Gaining access to the raw material resources of these countries will in future require new strategies which give greater consideration to the needs of these raw material countries than in the past.

  15. 76 FR 4204 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    2011-01-25

    ... fluctuations. Such small producers generally need to market their entire annual crop and do not have the luxury... little or no effect on consumer prices of products containing spearmint oil and likely does not result in... provide benefits for producers, handlers, manufacturers, and consumers. Based on projections available...

  16. 77 FR 21391 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    2012-04-10

    ... fluctuations. Such small producers generally need to market their entire annual crop and do not have the luxury... little or no effect on consumer prices of products containing spearmint oil and likely does not result in... provide benefits for producers, handlers, manufacturers, and consumers. Based on projections available...

  17. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters... following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of a mixture of either methyl or ethyl esters...

  18. 75 FR 28551 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

    2010-05-21

    ... Co., Ltd. Anshan Zhongyou Tipo Pipe & Anshan Zhongyou Tipo 32.07 Tubing Co., Ltd. Pipe & Tubing Co... Steel Group Qiqihaer Haoying Steel and Iron Co., Ltd.; Beijing Youlu Co., Ltd. Shanghai Zhongyou Tipo Steel Shanghai Zhongyou Tipo 32.07 Pipe Co., Ltd. Steel Pipe Co., Ltd. Shengli Oil Field Freet...

  19. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  20. Lipid characterization of an arachidonic acid-rich oil producing fungus Mortierella alpina

    Wenjia Wu; Jiacheng Yan; Xiaojun Ji; Xin Zhang; Jingsheng Shang; Lina Sun; Lujing Ren; He Huang

    2015-01-01

    Mortierel a alpina has been considered as the most effective producer of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil. It was found that several methods could improve the percentage of ARA in total lipids successful y, as they activated the desaturation system on the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, in M. alpina the ARA exists in several forms, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), and diacylglycerol (DAG). These forms are caused by different acyltransferases and they determine the nutrient value of the microbial oil. However, few works revealed de-tailed fatty acid distribution among lipid classes, which to some extent impeded the accurate regulation in ARA accumulation. Herein, this paper gives information on the accumulation process of main lipid classes and the changes of fatty acid composition in these lipids during ARA accumulation period in M. alpina. The result dem-onstrates that TAG was the dominant component of the total lipids, and it is the main form for ARA storage. The ARA enrichment stage occurred during 168–192 h when the amount of total lipids maintained steady. Further analysis indicated that the newly formed ARA-TAG might come from the incorporation and modification of sat-urated and monounsaturated fatty acids in other lipid classes. This work could be helpful for further optimization of ARA-rich TAG production.

  1. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  2. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

    Milin, Cedomila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

  3. Optimization and characterization of bio-oil produced by microwave assisted pyrolysis of oil palm shell waste biomass with microwave absorber.

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Mat, Ramli; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2015-08-01

    In this study, solid oil palm shell (OPS) waste biomass was subjected to microwave pyrolysis conditions with uniformly distributed coconut activated carbon (CAC) microwave absorber. The effects of CAC loading (wt%), microwave power (W) and N2 flow rate (LPM) were investigated on heating profile, bio-oil yield and its composition. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to study the significance of process parameters on bio-oil yield. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the bio-oil yield is 0.89017 indicating 89.017% of data variability is accounted to the model. The largest effect on bio-oil yield is from linear and quadratic terms of N2 flow rate. The phenol content in bio-oil is 32.24-58.09% GC-MS area. The bio-oil also contain 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine of 10.54-21.20% GC-MS area. The presence of phenol and 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine implies that the microwave pyrolysis of OPS with carbon absorber has the potential to produce valuable fuel products.

  4. Impacts from oil and gas produced water discharges on the gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone.

    Parker, M. E.; Satterlee, K.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division; ExxonMobil Production Co.; Shell Offshore

    2006-01-01

    Shallow water areas of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf experience low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) each summer. The hypoxic zone is primarily caused by input of nutrients from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which leads to reduction of the oxygen concentration near the sea floor. During the renewal of an offshore discharge permit used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified the need to assess the potential contribution from produced water discharges to the occurrence of hypoxia. The EPA permit required either that all platforms in the hypoxic zone submit produced water samples, or that industry perform a coordinated sampling program. This paper, based on a report submitted to EPA in August 2005 (1), describes the results of the joint industry sampling program and the use of those results to quantify the relative significance of produced water discharges in the context of other sources on the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. In the sampling program, 16 facilities were selected for multiple sampling - three times each at one month intervals-- and another 34 sites for onetime sampling. The goal of the sampling program was to quantify the sources and amount of oxygen demand associated with a variety of Gulf of Mexico produced waters. Data collected included direct oxygen demand measured by BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) and indirect oxygen demand measured by nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, nitrate, and TKN [total Kjeldahl nitrogen]) and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). These data will serve as inputs to several available computer models currently in use for forecasting the occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. The output of each model will be compared for consistency in their predictions and then a semi-quantitative estimate of the relative significance of

  5. Physiochemical properties of bio-oil produced at various temperatures from pine wood using an auger reactor.

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Adhikari, Sushil; Ravindran, Harideepan; Gupta, Ram B; Fasina, Oladiran; Tu, Maobing; Fernando, Sandun D

    2010-11-01

    A fast pyrolysis process produces a high yield of liquid (a.k.a. bio-oil) and has gained a lot of interest among various stakeholders. Nonetheless, some of the properties inherent by the bio-oil create significant challenges for its wider applications. Quality of the bio-oil and its yield are highly dependent on process parameters, such as temperature, feedstock, moisture content and residence time. In this study, the effect of temperature on bio-oil quality and its yield were examined using pine wood, an abundant biomass source in the southeastern part of the United States. Physical properties of bio-oil such as pH, water content, higher heating value, solid content and ash were analyzed and compared with a recently published ASTM standard. Bio-oil produced from pine wood using an auger reactor met specifications suggested by the ASTM standard. Thirty-two chemical compounds were analyzed. The study found that the concentration of phenol and its derivatives increased with the increase in pyrolysis temperature whereas the concentration of guaiacol and its derivatives decreased as the temperature increased. Concentration of acetic and other acids remained almost constant or increased with the increase in temperature although the pH value of the bio-oil decreased with the increase in temperature.

  6. Characterisation of crude palm oil O/W emulsion produced with Tween 80 and potential in residual oil recovery of palm pressed mesocarp fibre

    Ramly, N. H.; Zakaria, R.; Naim, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Surfactant-assisted aqueous extraction has been proposed as a “green” alternative to hexane extraction for the recovery of oil from plant matters. An efficient aqueous surfactant extraction system usually use an extended type of ionic surfactant with the ability to produce Winsor type III microemulsion, reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) between plant oil and surfactant solution to an ultralow level (10-3 mN/m). However, the safe used of this surfactant in food processing is uncertain leading to non-food application of the recovered oil. In the present study, the potential of Tween 80, a commercial food-grade non-ionic surfactant, was evaluated in the recovery of residual oil from palm-pressed mesocarp. The emulsion produced between Tween 80 and crude palm oil (CPO) was characterised in terms of IFT, droplet size, viscosity and phase inversion temperature (PIT). The effect of surfactant concentration, electrolyte (NaCl) and temperature were studied to determine whether a Winsor Type III microemulsion can be produced. Results shows that although these parameters were able to reduce the IFT to very low values, Winsor type III microemulsion was not produced with this single surfactant. Emulsion of CPO and Tween 80 solution did not produce a PIT even after heating to 100°C indicating that middle phase emulsion was not able to be formed with increasing temperature. The highest percentage of oil extraction (38.84%) was obtained at the concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 and CPO, which was at 0.5 wt% Tween 80 with 6% NaCl, and temperature of 60°C. At this concentration, the IFT value is 0.253 mN/m with a droplet size of 4183.8 nm, and a viscosity of 7.38 cp.

  7. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde m

  8. "How to" of fiscal sustainability in oil-rich countries: the case of Azerbaijan

    L. Bandiera; N. Budina; S. van Wijnbergen

    2008-01-01

    Assessing fiscal sustainability - i.e. considering whether or not a country can maintain its current fiscal policies without running into solvency problems and possible default - requires projections on a government’s future revenue stream, expenditures and contingent liabilities within a macroecono

  9. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  10. Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds

    Guangul, F. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ramli, A.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

  11. Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures

    Avin E. Pillay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in produced waste water and oily sludge and found abnormal levels of radioactivity. A total of 90 ground wastewater samples were collected from different sites for a period of one year. The presence of these radionuclides was identified by their characteristic gamma rays. The detection system consisted of a high-purity germanium detector. Our results show that about 20% of the samples exhibited 20–60 Bq/L radioactivity and ~6% of the samples exceeded 60 Bq/L. Roughly 70% of the experimental samples fell in the range of 2–20 Bq/L, which still exceeded the maximum admissible drinking-water limit 0.2 Bq/L.

  12. Dynamic assessment of the ecological risk of the discharge of produced water from oil and gas producing platforms

    Karman, C.C.; Reerink, H.G.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1991 the North Sea countries (UK, Netherlands, Norway and Denmark) have put a lot of effort in the development of a decision support system for the legislation of the use and discharge of offshore exploration, drilling and production chemicals. The heart of this so-called 'harmonised mandatory

  13. Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting

    Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

  14. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Crude Bio-oil Produced by Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Swine Manure and Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Cheng, Dan

    The distillation curve of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure was measured using an advanced distillation apparatus. The crude bio-oil had much higher distillation temperatures than diesel and gasoline and was more distillable than the bio-oil produced by the traditional liquefaction of swine manure and the pyrolysis of corn stover. Each 10% volumetric fraction was analyzed from aspects of its chemical compositions, chemical and physical properties. The appearance of hydrocarbons in the distillates collected at the temperature of 410.9°C and above indicated that the thermal cracking at a temperature from 410°C to 500°C may be a proper approach to upgrade the crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure. The effects of thermal cracking conditions including reaction temperature (350-425°C), retention time (15-60 min) and catalyst loadings (0-10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. Under the optimum thermal cracking conditions at 400°C, a catalyst loading of 5% by mass and the reaction time of 30 min, the yield of bio-oil was 46.14% of the mass of the crude bio-oil and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered in the upgraded bio-oil. The upgraded bio-oil with a heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg and viscosity of 3.6 cP was comparable to commercial diesel. In upgrading crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis, converting organic acids into neutral esters is significant and can be achieved by sulfonated activated carbon/bio-char developed from fermentation residues. Acitivated carbon and bio-char were sulfonated by concentrated sulfuric acid at 150°C for 18 h. Sulfonation helped activated carbon/bio-char develop acid functional groups. Sulfonated activated carbon with BET surface area of 349.8 m2/g, was effective in converting acetic acid. Acetic acid can be effectively esterified by sulfonated activated carbon (5 wt%) at 78°C for 60 min with the

  15. 78 FR 32070 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes the quantity of....'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7...

  16. Oil in the North Yemen. Impact of petroleum discoveries in western Arabia on the development of the country and the global economy

    Gabriel, E.F.

    1988-09-01

    The oil deposits found in the North Yemen and especially the export pipeline to the Red Sea are important not only for the Yemen's economy, but for the world economy, too. They mitigate the dependence on war-threatened gulf oil. Pressure on the bottle-neck of world oil supply, the Straight of Hormuz, is relieved. Together with the new pipelines from the oil province of the Persian-Arabic Gulf to the Mediterranean and Red Sea, they have begun to form a new important factor in the endangered region of the Middle East - development largely unnoticed by the world. The Straight of Hormuz is losing in importance; the western world is becoming much less susceptible to blackmail. Of course, the oil deposits carry great weight for North Yemen. In autumn 1987, a new chapter began in the long history of this ancient civilized country.

  17. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Antonia Tamborrino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non

  18. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Paolo Amirante

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non

  19. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    Q. Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  20. The Protective Role of Anise Oil in Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity Produced in Favism.

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Arbid, Mahmoud S; El-Gendy, Nadia F

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic disease favism is an acute hemolytic anemia. Anise oil was obtained from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds (family Apiaceae). The objective of this study was to establish the protective effect of anise oil in favism disorders. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into six groups: group 1 orally administrated 1 mL distilled water, group 2 orally received 300 mg/kg anise oil, and group 3 orally administrated 100 mg/kg anethole over a seven-day period, group 4 favism-induced rats, group 5 orally administrated 300 mg/kg anise oil and group 6 orally administrated 100 mg/kg anethole once a day over a seven-day period prior to favism induction. The result obtained revealed that oral administration of either anise oil or anethole into normal rats over a seven-day period did not induce any change. Following favism induction, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red and white blood cell counts, serum glucose, blood glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, total protein, globulin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases levels were significantly decreased, while serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin showed significant increase. Pretreatment with either anise oil or anethole into favism-induced rats prevented these changes. Favism also induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and prior treatment of anise oil maintained liver DNA content. These results were supported by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, anise oil pretreatment into favism-induced rats decreased the favism disorders, and this effect was related to the anethole ingredient of the oil.

  1. Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran.

    Allahghadri, Tolou; Rasooli, Iraj; Owlia, Parviz; Nadooshan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor

    2010-03-01

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative, and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of cumin. E. coli, S. aureus, and S. faecalis were sensitive to various oil dilutions. The total phenol content of the essential oil was estimated to be 33.43 microg GAE/mg of the oil. The oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of BHT and BHA. The cumin essential oil exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals and 5.4 microg of the oil was sufficient to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals/mL. At a concentration of 0.1 microL/mL, oil destructed Hela cells by 79%. The antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil might contribute to its cytotoxic activity. Acute and subchronic toxicity was studied in a 30-d oral toxicity study by administration to Wistar rats of the essential oil. A 17.38% decrease in WBCs count, and 25.77%, 14.24%, and 108.81% increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count, respectively, were noted. LDL/HDL ratio was reduced to half, which adds to the nutritional effects of cumin. Thus, cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods.

  2. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenario

  3. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Reservoirs of South Texas

    McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

    1995-07-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Play of South Texas is one example of a mature play where reservoirs are being abandoned at high rates, potentially leaving behind significant unrecovered resources in untapped and incompletely drained reservoirs. Nearly 1 billion barrels of oil have been produced from Frio reservoirs since the 1940`s, yet more than 1.6 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil is estimated to remain in the play. Frio reservoirs of the South Texas Gulf Coast are being studied to better characterize interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic depositional systems and determine controls on locations and volumes of unrecovered oil. Engineering data from fields throughout the play trend were evaluated to characterize variability exhibited by these heterogeneous reservoirs and were used as the basis for resource calculations to demonstrate a large additional oil potential remaining within the play. Study areas within two separate fields have been selected in which to apply advanced reservoir characterization techniques. Stratigraphic log correlations, reservoir mapping, core analyses, and evaluation of production data from each field study area have been used to characterize reservoir variability present within a single field. Differences in sandstone depositional styles and production behavior were assessed to identify zones with significant stratigraphic heterogeneity and a high potential for containing unproduced oil. Detailed studies of selected reservoir zones within these two fields are currently in progress.

  4. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG is a thermo-responsive gel, and it exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at roo...

  5. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  6. An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well

    Deni Saepudin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on

  8. Reduced hydrogen sulfide from crude oil using metal nanoparticles produced by electrochemical deposition

    Sahar Safarkhani; Ali Akbar MiranBeigi; Amir Vahi; Abolghasem Mirhoseini

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is one of the most dangerous contaminants in crude oil and natural gas that must be removed before transport and refining. It has multiple effects on the environment and the industry is bad that these effects include acid rain, cancer, corrosion of pipelines, poison catalytic converters in car exhaust. In this study, to eliminate H2S crude oil Nano emulsion used ionic liquid. Ionic liquids also with metal nanoparticles (MNPs) have been modified. Improve and reform the electro...

  9. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  10. Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred thank

    Sanjuan-Galindo, Rene; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    In this video, the mechanism followed to disperse an oil phase in water using a Scaba impeller in a cylindrical tank is presented. Castor oil (viscosity = 500 mPas) is used and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. The process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Initially, the oil is at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is dragged into the liquid bulk and rotates around the impeller shaft, then is pushed radially into the flow ejected by the impeller. In this region, the flow is turbulent and exhibits velocity gradients that contribute to elongate the oil phase. Viscous thin filaments are generated and expelled from the impeller. Thereafter, the filaments are elongated and break to form drops. This process is repeated in all the oil phase and drops are incorporated into the dispersion. Two main zones can be identified in the tank: the impeller discharge characterized by high turbulence and the rest of the flow where low velocity gradients appear. In this region surface f...

  11. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that

  12. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic

  13. Dynamics of Producing Renewable Energy in Poland and EU-28 Countries within the Period of 2004–2012

    Kukuła Karol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the estimation of trends describing the level of renewable energy resources in Poland and in EU-28 countries within the years 2004–2012. The process of the increase of the percentage of renewable energy in total production of energy was also presented. Comparative statistical analysis was carried out within the dynamics of the phenomena discussed in the paper with respect both to Poland and EU countries. It follows from the investigation that both in Poland and in the EU countries the increase in renewable energy resources has been observed. However, the rate of the increase of the level of renewable energy in Poland is not enough to catch up with the leading EU countries in near future.

  14. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

  15. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  16. Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.

    Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2015-02-01

    Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants.

  17. Characterization and Clinical Impact of Bloodstream Infection Caused by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Seven Latin American Countries

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Pallares, Christian J.; Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Correa, Adriana; Álvarez, Carlos; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Luna, Carlos; Zurita, Jeannete; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos; Cortesía, Manuel; Guzmán-Suárez, Alfonso; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health problem associated with higher mortality rates, longer hospitalization and increased healthcare costs. We carried out a study to describe the characteristics of patients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and non-CPE bloodstream infection (BSI) from Latin American hospitals and to determine the clinical impact in terms of mortality and antibiotic therapy. Methods Between July 2013 and November 2014, we conducted a multicenter observational study in 11 hospitals from 7 Latin American countries (Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela). Patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae were included and classified either as CPE or non-CPE based on detection of blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 by polymerase chain reaction. Enrolled subjects were followed until discharge or death. Demographic, microbiological and clinical characteristics were collected from medical records. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the information. Results A total of 255 patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSI were included; CPE were identified in 53 of them. In vitro non-susceptibility to all screened antibiotics was higher in the patients with CPE BSI, remaining colistin, tigecycline and amikacin as the most active drugs. Combination therapy was significantly more frequent in the CPE BSI group (p < 0.001). The most common regimen was carbapenem + colistin or polymyxin B. The overall mortality was 37% (94/255). Overall and attributable mortality were significantly higher in patients with CPE BSI (p < 0.001); however, we found that patients with CPE BSI who received combination therapy and those who received monotherapy had similar mortality. After multivariate adjustment, CPE BSI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–9.5; p = 0.002) and critical illness (aOR 6.5; 95% CI 3.1–13.7; p < 0

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum based contaminants with biosurfactant produced by a newly isolated petroleum oil degrading bacterial strain

    Debajit Borah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing bacterial strain was isolated from an automobile engine. The strain was identified as Bacillus cereus DRDU1 on the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. The strain was found to be efficiently degrading 96% of kerosene making it a potential tool for bioremediation of petroleum based contaminants. Production and optimization of the biosurfactant produced by the isolate were also carried out. Surface hydrophobicity trait of isolate was found to be 60.67 ± 1.53% and foaming percentage of the crude biosurfactant was found to be 31.33 ± 0.58%. The presence of amino acids and sugar moieties in the biosurfactant was confirmed by biochemical tests and were further validated by FTIR (the Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analysis revealing the presence of υOH, υCOO, υCOOH, υCH (stretching, υNH, υCH2, υCH3, and υCH (bending, and υCO (ester in the surfactant. The decrease in contact angle of hydrocarbon oil from (30.67 ± 1.15° to (21.3 ± 1.53° respectively after 3 and 6 days of incubation reveals its potential to emulsify petroleum oil. Further, emulsification index (E24 of biosurfactant against kerosene, crude oil, and used engine oil were determined to be 55.33 ± 1.53%, 29.67 ± 1.53%, and 20 ± 1% respectively which attracts its future application in MEOR (microbial enhanced oil recovery process.

  19. Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized by high contents of linoleic and oleic acids. Of the triacyl glycerols determined, those containing linoleyl and oleyl acyles are the major ones. The whole sterol profiles include β-sitosterol (as major component followed by 7-stigmasterol, campesterol and 5-stigmasterol, which were found in all the lettuce seed oil samples but with slight differences. Furthermore, sterol patterns of the free and acylated sterols, free and acylated sterylglycosides were determined. It was found that LS30 oil has the highest tocopherol content and α-tocopherol is the only constituent in all the lettuce seed oil samples. On the other hand, the 2-position in the lettuce seed oil samples is mainly acylated by unsaturated fatty acids (98.6% namely, oleic and linoleic acids. According to these results, it can be concluded that irrigation conditions do not affect the lipid constituents of the oil and the oil lettuce plant resists draught and its lipid profiles are in agreement with those of conventional vegetable oils.

    Tres muestras de semillas de lechuga (Lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 se cultivaron bajo tres condiciones de riego (bien regado, normal y con deficiencia de agua, después de 10, 20 y 30 días, respectivamente para evaluar sus aceites y ver hasta qué punto el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste las condiciones de riego. Los aceites extraídos de las tres muestras de semillas se evaluó mediante la determinación de ocho perfiles de lípidos usando cromatograf

  20. Diversity and similarity of microbial communities in petroleum crude oils produced in Asia.

    Yamane, Kunio; Maki, Hideaki; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2008-11-01

    To understand microbial communities in petroleum crude oils, we precipitated DNA using high concentrations of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) and purified. Samples of DNA from five crude oils, (Middle East, 3; China, 1; and Japan, 1) were characterized based upon their 16S rRNA gene sequences after PCR amplification and the construction of clone libraries. We detected 48 eubacterial species, one cyanobacterium, and one archaeon in total. The microbial constituents were diverse in the DNA samples. Most of the bacteria affiliated with the sequences of the three oils from the Middle East comprised similar mesophilic species. Acinetobacter, Propionibacterium, Sphingobium and a Bacillales were common. In contrast, the bacterial communities in Japanese and Chinese samples were unique. Thermophilic Petrotoga-like bacteria (11%) and several anaerobic-thermophilic Clostridia- and Synergistetes-like bacteria (20%) were detected in the Chinese sample. Different thermophiles (12%) and Clostridia (2%) were detected in the Japanese sample.

  1. Measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and patchouli alcohol of patchouli oil produced in Yogyakarta

    Istiningrum, Reni Banowati; Saepuloh, Azis; Jannah, Wirdatul; Aji, Didit Waskito

    2017-03-01

    Yogyakarta is one of patchouli oil distillation center in Indonesia. The quality of patchouli oil greatly affect its market price. Therefore, testing quality of patchouli oil parameters is an important concern, one through determination of the measurement uncertainty. This study will determine the measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and content of patchouli alcohol through a bottom up approach. Source contributor to measurement uncertainty of ester number is a mass of the sample, a blank and sample titration volume, the molar mass of KOH, HCl normality, and replication. While the source contributor of the measurement uncertainty of acid number is the mass of the sample, the sample titration volume, the relative mass and normality of KOH, and repetition. Determination of patchouli alcohol by Gas Chromatography considers the sources of measurement uncertainty only from repeatability because reference materials are not available.

  2. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  3. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  4. The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene

    Zyad Rafa'a Zair

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator. The materials were compounded by two roll-mills under the same conditions. The following parameters are involved: 1- Studying the use of a high density polyethylene as a binder to film components with (15-30 wt.%. 2- Studying the use of finely divided silica sand with (25-45 wt.% as a medium to oil adsorption.- Studying the use of two type plasticizers (Paraffin or DOP with (35-55 wt. %. as a creative medium to films porosity.The best results of the feed materials in the mixture were selected so as to give the highest porosity using 15 wt. % PE, 30 wt. % filler, and 55 wt. % oil. It has been found that the films with DOP oil give higher porosity.

  5. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties

    James Redfern

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

  6. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    Liq® process compared with combustion is that also wet material can be processed. In the process, the waste is transformed to bio-oil, combustible gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The raw material used in this study was DDGS (Dried Distilled Grain with Solubles), a residual product in 1st generation......) process is a second generation process for the production of bio-oil from different biomass-based waste materials. The process is carried out at subcritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar) and in the presence of homogeneous (KOH) and heterogeneous (ZrO2) catalysts. The great advantage with the Cat...... ethanol production, available in huge quantities. DDGS is today used as animal feed but in a future with increasing production of DDGS, converting it into bio-oil may be an attractive alternative. The bio-oil can be used for green electricity production or it can be upgraded to bio-diesel. In the current...

  7. 世界石油大国-俄罗斯石油能源供需情况及出口战略%Oil Energy Supply-demand Situation and Export Strategy of Russia as World Oil-rich Country

    2015-01-01

    俄罗斯是世界石油大国,拥有丰富的石油储量,在保证世界石油产量和需求方面,俄罗斯起着举足轻重的作用,因此了解俄罗斯石油能源供需情况及出口战略具有重要意义。介绍了俄罗斯的石油生产情况、石油产业的国际地位及能源消费情况,同时介绍了俄罗斯的石油长期战略及出口情况,并提出了一些建议。%Russia is an oil-rich country in the world; it has rich oil reserves and plays an important role in ensuring world’s oil supply and demand. So understanding Russian oil energy supply and demand situation and export strategy has important significance. In this paper, Russian oil production conditions, international status of the oil industry and energy consumption were introduced. The long-term strategy of Russian oil and export situation were also introduced, and some suggestions were put forward.

  8. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells

    Yanjun Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  9. SAGD pilot project, wells MFB-772 (producer) / MFB-773 (injector), U1,3 MFB-53 reservoir, Bare Field. Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Armas, F.; Vasquez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil and extra heavy oil fields, steam assisted gravity drainage is a thermal recovery method used to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil recovery. For SAGD to be successfully applied in deep reservoirs, drilling and completion of the producer and injector wells are critical. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently assessing the feasibility of SAGD in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and this paper aims at presenting the methodology used to ensure optimal drilling and completion of the project. This method was divided in several stages: planning, drilling and completion of the producer, injector and then of the observer wells and cold information capture. It was found that the use of magnetic guidance tools, injection pipe pre-insulated and pressure and temperature sensors helps optimize the drilling and completion process. A methodology was presented to standardize operational procedures in the drilling and completion of SAGD projects in the Orinoco oil belt.

  10. Efficacy of Cuminum cyminum essential oil on FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides strains

    Ali Reza Khosravi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum essential oil on the growth and FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides (F. verticillioides strains isolated from maize. Materials and Methods: All fungal strains were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA slopes at 30°C for 7 days. The antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. One set of primers was F. verticillioides species specific, which selectively amplified the intergenic space region of rDNA. The other set of primers was specific to FUM1 gene region of fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides. FUM1 transcript levels were quantified using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR protocol. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of C. cyminum oil against F. verticillioides strains varied from 0.195 to 0.781 µl.ml-1 (mean MIC value: 0.461 µl.ml-1 indicating 54.5% of the fungal strains inhibited at 0.390 µl.ml-1. PCR analysis of FUM1 gene expression revealed that DNA fragment of 183 bp was amplified in all the isolates of F. verticillioides before treatment with C. cyminum essential oil. Based on RT-PCR analyses, reduction in the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes was significant only for FUM1 gene (p

  11. Impact of biochar produced from post-harvest residue on the adsorption behavior of diesel oil on loess soil.

    Jiang, Yu Feng; Sun, Hang; Yves, Uwamungu J; Li, Hong; Hu, Xue Fei

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar, produced from wheat residue at different temperatures, on the adsorption of diesel oil by loess soil. Kinetic and equilibrium data were processed to understand the adsorption mechanism of diesel by biochar-affected loess soil; dynamic and thermodynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to characterize this adsorption. The surface features and chemical structure of biochar, modified at varying pyrolytic temperatures, were investigated using surface scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The kinetic data showed that the adsorption of diesel oil onto loess soil could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the rate-controlling step being intraparticle diffusion. However, in the presence of biochar, boundary layer control and intraparticle diffusion were both involved in the adsorption. Besides, the adsorption equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich isothermal model. The saturated adsorption capacity weakened as temperature increased, suggesting a spontaneous exothermic process. Thermodynamic parameter analysis showed that adsorption was mainly a physical process and was enhanced by chemical adsorption. The adsorption capacity of loess soil for diesel oil was weakened with increasing pH. The biochar produced by pyrolytic wheat residue increased the adsorption behavior of petroleum pollutants in loess soil.

  12. Enrichment and identification of biosurfactant-producing oil field microbiota utilizing electron acceptors other than oxygen and nitrate.

    Kryachko, Yuriy; Semler, Diana; Vogrinetz, John; Lemke, Markus; Links, Matthew G; McCarthy, E Luke; Haug, Brenda; Hemmingsen, Sean M

    2016-08-10

    Microorganisms indigenous to an oil reservoir were grown in media containing either sucrose or proteins in four steel vessels under anoxic conditions at 30°C and 8.3MPa for 30days, to enrich biosurfactant producers. Fermentation of substrate was possible in the protein-containing medium and either fermentation or respiration through reduction of sulfate occurred in the sucrose-containing medium. Growth of microorganisms led to 3.4-5.4-fold surface tension reduction indicating production of biosurfactants in amounts sufficient for enhancement of gas-driven oil recovery. Analysis of sequenced cpn60 amplicons showed that Pseudomonas sp. highly similar to biosurfactant producing P. fluorescens and to Pseudomonas sp. strain TKP predominated, and a bacterium highly similar to biosurfactant producing Bacillus mojavensis was present in vessels. Analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allowed only genus-level identification of these bacteria. Thus, cpn60-amplicon analysis was a more relevant tool for identification of putative biosurfactant producers than 16S rDNA-amplicon analysis.

  13. Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations, bioavailability and doses to marine biota

    Sidhu, R.; Eriksen, D. Oe.; Straalberg, E.; Iden, K. I.; Rye, H.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Roeyset, O.; Berntssen, M. H. G.

    2006-03-15

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. Preliminary results indicate that presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in the produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bio-availability of radium (and barium) may be larger than anticipated. Also, the bio-availability of radium may be increased due to presence of such chemicals, and this is presently being studied. (author) (tk)

  14. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone reservoirs of South Texas

    Knox, P.R.; Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E. [and others

    1996-09-01

    Domestic fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs contain more than 30 Billion barrels (Bbbl) of remaining oil, more than any other type of reservoir, approximately one-third of which is in danger of permanent loss through premature field abandonments. The U.S. Department of Energy has placed its highest priority on increasing near-term recovery from FDD reservoirs in order to prevent abandonment of this important strategic resource. To aid in this effort, the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, began a 46-month project in October, 1992, to develop and demonstrate advanced methods of reservoir characterization that would more accurately locate remaining volumes of mobile oil that could then be recovered by recompleting existing wells or drilling geologically targeted infill. wells. Reservoirs in two fields within the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas, a mature play which still contains 1.6 Bbbl of mobile oil after producing 1 Bbbl over four decades, were selected as laboratories for developing and testing reservoir characterization techniques. Advanced methods in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, and engineering were integrated to (1) identify probable reservoir architecture and heterogeneity, (2) determine past fluid-flow history, (3) integrate fluid-flow history with reservoir architecture to identify untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool compartments, and (4) identify specific opportunities for near-term reserve growth. To facilitate the success of operators in applying these methods in the Frio play, geologic and reservoir engineering characteristics of all major reservoirs in the play were documented and statistically analyzed. A quantitative quick-look methodology was developed to prioritize reservoirs in terms of reserve-growth potential.

  15. Development of a mobile water maker, a sustainable way to produce safe drinking water in developing countries

    Groendijk, L.; Vries, de H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Moreover, there is a growing demand for a simple, low capacity drinking water treatment used by local people in developing countries to reduce mortality caused by water born diseases. To solve this problem a small portable water treatment unit with a production capacity of approximately 500 L/day wa

  16. Investigation on the quality of bio-oil produced through fast pyrolysis of biomass-polymer waste mixture

    Jourabchi, S. A.; Ng, H. K.; Gan, S.; Yap, Z. Y.

    2016-06-01

    A high-impact poly-styrene (HIPS) was mixed with dried and ground coconut shell (CS) at equal weight percentage. Fast pyrolysis was carried out on the mixture in a fixed bed reactor over a temperature range of 573 K to 1073 K, and a nitrogen (N2) linear velocity range of 7.8x10-5 m/s to 6.7x10-2 m/s to produce bio-oil. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics of the pyrolysis process inside the reactor was visualised by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The CFD modelling was validated by experimental results and they both indicated that at temperature of 923 K and N2 linear velocity of 7.8x10-5 m/s, the maximum bio-oil yield of 52.02 wt% is achieved.

  17. Un Manifesto economico per i paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio(An Economic Manifesto for the Oil Exporting Countries of the Persian Gulf

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, waste, corruption, military expenditures and wars will be reduced, there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies, and equity across generations may be enhanced. Hope may be slowly restored to a region that has lost hope. I paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio hanno fallito dal punto di vista economico e sociale. È tempo di adottare un approccio radicalmente nuovo alla gestione dei ricavi petroliferi finché vi sono ancora riserve di petrolio e di gas. Noi proponiamo un approccio finalizzato ad azzerare il livello dei ricavi disponibili per i governi, istituendo allo stesso tempo un formale “Fondo petrolifero per tutte le generazioni”. Fondi petroliferi sono stati ipotizzati e realizzati anche da altri, ma nella nostra proposta il governo perderebbe (col tempo qualunque accesso ai ricavi petroliferi; sottraendo denaro facile ai governi e ai sovrani, la probabilità di sprechi, corruzione e guerre risulterebbe ridotta, e vi sarebbe maggiore possibilità di adottare e mettere in pratica politiche economiche razionali finalizzate ad accrescere l’equità tra le generazioni.  JEL Codes: O13, O53, Q48Keywords: Gas; Oil

  18. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Synthetically Produced Oil Field Seawater

    Subir Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The life of offshore steel structure in the oil production units is decided by the huge corrosive degradation due to SO42-, S2−, and Cl−, which normally present in the oil field seawater. Variation in pH and temperature further adds to the rate of degradation on steel. Corrosion behavior of mild steel is investigated through polarization, EIS, XRD, and optical and SEM microscopy. The effect of all 3 species is huge material degradation with FeSx and FeCl3 and their complex as corrosion products. EIS data match the model of Randle circuit with Warburg resistance. Addition of more corrosion species decreases impedance and increases capacitance values of the Randle circuit at the interface. The attack is found to be at the grain boundary as well as grain body with very prominent sulphide corrosion crack.

  20. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  1. LCA METHODS TO COMPARE TREATMENT OPTIONS ON BIOMASS RESIDUES PRODUCED IN A PALM-OIL SYSTEM

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Bessou, Cécile; Heijungs, Reinout; de Snoo, Geert

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Palm oil systems generate large amounts of biomass residues. According to best agri-cultural practices, they are supposed to be returned back to plantation to maintain soil fertility. However, there are variations in practice. Differences in economic status and treatment options on biomass residues cause variations on the preference to perform LCA, leading to divergence in results that complicate interpretation. Difficulties found in comparing LCA results based on lite...

  2. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernández, Jorge A; Valdés, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers.

  3. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from Iranian medicinal plants on extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Roointan, A; Shahri, F; Ayatollahi, S A M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Molaee, N; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-09-19

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli strains can lead to various infections particularly urinary tract infections. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) from different Iranian medicinal plants against TEM gene positive ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections. EOs were extracted using hydrodistillation method. E. coli strains were isolated by different specific Medias. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections in Shiraz hospital, Iran. Then, ESBL- producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test, phenotypic disc confirmatory test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TEM gene detection. The antibacterial activity of the EOs from different plants (Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Echinophora platyloba DC., Lallemantia royleana, Nepeta persica Boiss., Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn., Salvia nemorosa, and Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey) and antibiotics against ESBL-producing strains was studied using the microdilution method for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The 103 out of 295 E. coli strains with 97 (90.65%) TEM gene distributions were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All of the EOs derived from different plants displayed high inhibitory effects against ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The results of our investigations may propose a good treatment option against resistant infectious bacteria.

  4. Produce More Oil and Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner; Ben Grunewald

    2005-07-22

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  5. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    . Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  6. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on properties of bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus wood in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Chang, Sheng; Zhao, Zengli; Zheng, Anqing; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaobo; Huang, Zhen; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Eucalyptus wood powder was first subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment in a high-pressure reactor at 160-190°C, and subsequently fast pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor at 500°C to obtain high quality bio-oil. This study focused on investigating effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on bio-oil properties. Hemicellulose and some metals were effectively removed from eucalyptus wood, while cellulose content was enhanced. No significant charring and carbonization of constituents was observed during hydrothermal pretreatment. Thus pretreated eucalyptus wood gave higher bio-oil yield than original eucalyptus wood. Chemical composition of bio-oil was examined by GC/MS and (13)C NMR analyses. Bio-oil produced from pretreated eucalyptus wood exhibited lower contents of ketones and acids, while much higher levoglucosan content than bio-oil produced from original eucalyptus wood, which would help to improve thermal stability of bio-oil and extract levoglucosan from bio-oil. Hydrothermal pretreatment also improved bio-oil fuel quality through lowering water content and enhancing heating value.

  7. Isolation and evaluation of oil-producing microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.

    David K Y Lim

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates is an important prerequisite for their successful cultivation as a bioenergy source, a process that can be compared to the initial selection and domestication of agricultural crops. We developed standard protocols for the isolation and cultivation for a range of marine and brackish microalgae. By comparing growth rates and lipid productivity, we assessed the potential of subtropical coastal and brackish microalgae for the production of biodiesel and other oil-based bioproducts. This study identified Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaniella salina and new isolates of Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis sp. as suitable candidates for a multiple-product algae crop. We conclude that subtropical coastal microalgae display a variety of fatty acid profiles that offer a wide scope for several oil-based bioproducts, including biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. A biorefinery approach for microalgae would make economical production more feasible but challenges remain for efficient harvesting and extraction processes for some species.

  8. Isolation and evaluation of oil-producing microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.

    Lim, David K Y; Garg, Sourabh; Timmins, Matthew; Zhang, Eugene S B; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schuhmann, Holger; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates is an important prerequisite for their successful cultivation as a bioenergy source, a process that can be compared to the initial selection and domestication of agricultural crops. We developed standard protocols for the isolation and cultivation for a range of marine and brackish microalgae. By comparing growth rates and lipid productivity, we assessed the potential of subtropical coastal and brackish microalgae for the production of biodiesel and other oil-based bioproducts. This study identified Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaniella salina and new isolates of Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis sp. as suitable candidates for a multiple-product algae crop. We conclude that subtropical coastal microalgae display a variety of fatty acid profiles that offer a wide scope for several oil-based bioproducts, including biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. A biorefinery approach for microalgae would make economical production more feasible but challenges remain for efficient harvesting and extraction processes for some species.

  9. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF GAS-UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCED FROM TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT

    IZZATI NADIA MOHAMAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, a high energy demand has led to massive research efforts towards improved gas-separation techniques for more energy-efficient and environmenttally friendly methods. One of the potential alternative energies is biogas produced from the fermentation of liquid waste generated from the oil-extraction process, which is known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. Basically, the gas produced from the POME fermentation process consists mainly of a CO2 and H2 gas mixture. CO2 is known as an anthropogenic greenhouse gas, which contributes towards the climate change phenomenon. Hence, it is crucial to determine a suitable technique for H2 separation and purification with good capability for CO2 capture, as this will reduce CO2 emission to the environment as well. This paper reviewed the current gas-separation techniques that consist of absorption, adsorption and a membrane in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques towards the efficiency of the separation system. Crucial aspects for gas-separation techniques such as energy, economic, and environmental considerations are discussed, and a potential biohydrogen and biogas-upgrading technique for industrial POME application is presented and concluded in this paper. Based on the comparison on these aspects, water scrubbing is found to be the best technique to be used in the biogas-upgrading industry, followed by membrane and chemical scrubbing as well as PSA. Hence, these guidelines are justified for selecting the best gas-upgrading technique to be used in palm oil mill industry applications.

  11. Generalized Representation of the Oil and Gas Producing Areas from the Miocene in Southern Louisiana

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — For each of the four Miocene sequences, polygons representing producing areas within fields were created by constructing a grid of ¼ sq. mi. cells and proximal...

  12. Robust optimization on sustainable biodiesel supply chain produced from waste cooking oil under price uncertainty.

    Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Yunjian

    2017-02-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO)-for-biodiesel conversion is regarded as the "waste-to-wealthy" industry. This paper addresses the design of a WCO-for-biodiesel supply chain at both strategic and tactical levels. The supply chain of this problem is studied, which is based on a typical mode of the waste collection (from restaurants' kitchen) and conversion in the cities. The supply chain comprises three stakeholders: WCO supplier, integrated bio-refinery and demand zone. Three key problems should be addressed for the optimal design of the supply chain: (1) the number, sizes and locations of bio-refinery; (2) the sites and amount of WCO collected; (3) the transportation plans of WCO and biodiesel. A robust mixed integer linear model with muti-objective (economic, environmental and social objectives) is proposed for these problems. Finally, a large-scale practical case study is adopted based on Suzhou, a city in the east of China, to verify the proposed models.

  13. THE GEOPOLITICS OF OIL AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    BACIU Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the role of oil in today’s world, society, and economy. It is important because anything nowadays is about oil, from economy, and society, to international politics. Since the development of air and road transportation, but especially after World War II, the transfer of wealth from some countries (the consuming countries to another countries (the producing countries is unique in human history; and the influence of the second group of countries in world politics is very high due to this situation.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  14. NORM in the East Midlands' oil and gas producing region of the UK.

    Garner, Joel; Cairns, James; Read, David

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a common feature in North Sea oil and gas production offshore but, to date, has been reported from only one production site onshore in the United Kingdom. The latter, Wytch Farm on the Dorset coast, revealed high activity concentrations of (210)Pb in metallic form but little evidence of radium accumulation. NORM has now been discovered at two further onshore sites in the East Midlands region of the UK. The material has been characterized in terms of its mineralogy, bulk composition and disequilibrium in the natural uranium and thorium series decay chains. In contrast to Wytch Farm, scale and sludge samples from the East Midlands were found to contain elevated levels of radium and radioactive progeny associated with crystalline strontiobarite. The highest (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations found in scale samples were 132 and 60 Bq/g, with mean values of 86 and 40 Bq/g respectively; somewhat higher than the mean for the North Sea and well above national exemption levels for landfill disposal. The two East Midlands sites exhibited similar levels of radioactivity. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the presence of tabular, idiomorphic and acicular strontiobarite crystals with elemental mapping confirming that barium and strontium are co-located throughout the scale. Bulk compositional data show a corresponding correlation between barium-strontium concentrations and radium activity. Scales and sludge were dated using the (226)Ra/(210)Pb method giving mean ages of 2.2 and 3.7 years, respectively. The results demonstrate clearly that these NORM deposits, with significant radium activity, can form over a very short period of time. Although the production sites studied here are involved in conventional oil recovery, the findings have direct relevance should hydraulic fracturing for shale gas be pursued in the East Midlands oilfield.

  15. Challenges of Membrane Filtration for Produced Water Treatment in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    the Water Flooding Technology (WFT) is employed. The quality requirements for WFT and the increasing environmental concerns for produced water discharge lead to increased interest in zero-pollutant discharge. Traditional Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technologies(such as hydrocyclones) are already...... struggling to their fundamental limit, therefore the membrane filtration technology turns to be a potential candidate for zero pollutant discharge. Membrane filtration technology suffers from the notorious fouling problem, where many methods for fouling prevention and removal are explored, the general idea...

  16. Food Safety and Quality: Five Countries’ Efforts to Meet U.S. Requirements on Imported Produce

    1990-03-01

    growers we interviewed produced a variety of fruits and vegetables for export to the United States, including pineapples, strawberries, chayote , and...trying to improve their economies through increased exports of non- traditional fruits and vegetables, such as chayote , yucca, and some Chi- nese...of a chayote cooperative in Costa Rica told us that to control pests on its growers’ crops, the cooperative was using a selection of chemicals that

  17. Characterization of Arbequina virgin olive oils produced in different regions of Brazil and Spain: Physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile.

    Borges, Thays H; Pereira, José Alberto; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Lara, Luis; Oliveira, Adelson F; Seiquer, Isabel

    2017-01-15

    Production of virgin olive oil is beginning in Brazil. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the EVOO Arbequina from Brazil in comparison with Spanish Arbequina from different regions. Quality parameters, oxidative stability, pigments, colour and fatty acid profile were assessed, and relationships with geographic and climatic conditions were studied. All the samples presented good quality and met EU standards for extra-virgin olive oil, but there were significant differences between regions and countries for many of the parameters evaluated. Major differences between Brazilian and Spanish samples were observed for free acidity and colour of the oils, as well as minor variations in the fatty acid profile. The colour differences were related to rainfall, whereas the fatty acid content was strongly influenced by altitude and temperature. These results highlight the fact that geographic area and environmental factors influence the characteristics of Arbequina oil and play an important role in newly introduced cultivars.

  18. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Almudena Escobar-Niño

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale.

  19. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale.

  20. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW.

  1. Characterization of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate produced from olive oil deodorizer distillate.

    Cruz, Madalena V; Araújo, Diana; Alves, Vítor D; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil deodorizer distillate (OODD) was used for the first time as the sole substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production by the bacterium Pseudomonas resinovorans in bioreactor cultivation. A PHA content in the biomass of 36 ± 0.8 wt% was attained within 19 h of cultivation. A final polymer concentration of 4.7 ± 0.3 gL(-1) was reached, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 5.9 ± 0.2 gL(-1)day(-1). The PHA was composed of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (48.3 ± 7.3 mol%), 3-hydroxydecanoate (31.6 ± 2.6 mol%), 3-hydroxyhexanoate (12.1 ± 1.1 mol%) and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (8.0 ± 0.7 mol%) and it had a glue-like consistency that did not solidify at room temperature. The polymer was highly amorphous, as shown by its low crystallinity of 6 ± 0.2%, with low melting and glass transition temperatures of 36 ± 1.2 and -16 ± 0.8°C, respectively. The polymer exhibited a shear thinning behavior and a mechanical spectrum with a predominant viscous contribution. Its shear bond strength for wood (67 ± 9.4 kPa) and glass (65 ± 7.3 kPa) suggests it may be used for the development of biobased glues.

  2. Oceanotoga teriensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from offshore oil-producing wells.

    Jayasinghearachchi, Himali S; Lal, Banwari

    2011-03-01

    A novel, moderately thermophilic, chemo-organotrophic bacterium was isolated from formation fluid samples from an offshore oil-production well head at Bombay High (Western India). Cells were rod-shaped with a sheath-like outer structure ('toga'); the cells appeared singly, in pairs or in short chains. Cells grew at 25-70 °C (optimum 55-58 °C), pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 7.3-7.8) and 0-12  % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 4.0-4.5  %). The isolate was able to grow on various carbohydrates or complex proteinaceous substances. The isolate reduced thiosulfate and elemental sulfur. The major end products of glucose fermentation were acetate, H₂ and CO₂. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 26.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene placed the strain within the order Thermotogales in the bacterial domain. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and in combination with morphological and physiological characteristics, the isolate represents a novel species of new genus, for which the name Oceanotoga teriensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is OCT74(T) (=JCM 15580(T)=LMG 24865(T)).

  3. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost

    Azhari S. Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99% with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME compost and characterized.

  5. ENTEROBACTERIACAE, PRODUCING ESBLS AND METALLO-β-LACTAMASE NDM-1, ISOLATED IN HOSPITALS OF BALTIC REGION COUNTRIES

    S. A. Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We studied the prevalence of K. pneumoniae and E. coli resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, isolated from patients of eight hospitals in St-Petersburg from January to May, 2012. Prevalence of cephalosporin resistant isolates varied in different hospitals: E. coli – from 7,8 to 50%, K. pneumoniae – from 25,4 to 88,4%. Isolates produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases СТХ-М, mainly СТХ-М-1, also СТХ-М-2 and СТХ-М-9. Twenty two carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains (also resistant to other antimicrobials were isolated in three hospitals. MALDI-TOF MS showed that carbapenem resistance was caused by carbapenemase. Carbapenemases of all isolates belonged to metallo-β-lactamases according to results of the ROSCO Diagnostica tests. The gene coding production of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM-1 were detected in all strains. Our data confirmed that the main cephalosporin resistance mechanism of E. coli и K. pneumoniae in Baltic region (including Russia, St-Petersburg is CTX-M-1 production. For the first time in Russia K. pneumoniae strains  producing metallo-β-lactamases NDM-1 were isolated in several hospitals of St-Petersburg.

  6. Engine performance and emission characteristics of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene and its blends with diesel fuel

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada)], Email: tanz@uwaterloo.ca

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes an experiment to determine the possibility of transforming waste plastics into a potential source of diesel fuel. Experiments were done on the use of various blends of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene (WPE) with diesel fuel (D) at different volumetric ratios and the results were reviewed. WPE was thermally degraded with catalysis of sodium aluminum silicate at optimum conditions (414-480 degree celsius range and 1 h reaction time) and the collected oil was fractionated at various temperatures. The properties of the fuel blends at different volumetric ratios were measured in this study. It was shown that these blends can be used as fuel in compression ignition engines without any modification. With respect to engine performance and exhaust emission, it was found that using a 5% WPE-D (WPE5) blend instead of diesel fuel reduced carbon monoxide (CO) emission. However, the results of experiment showed that carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rose.

  7. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    Fitriani Kasim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 at low concentrations (1% using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the observed reducing sugar levels by using a method Luff Schoorl. The results showed that setting temperature and time influence on sugar levels resulting hydrolyzate where the optimum temperature and time to produce the highest sugar content reducing at 130 ° C with a long 60 minutes, with the resulting reducing in sugar content was 3.51%. The results obtained are much higher than previous studies conducted by researchers who carried out the straw fibers under the same conditions by using a solution of 1% H2SO4 and hydrolysis time 1 hour, but no temperature control and heating is only done on a gas stove, which acquired sugar 0.22%. As for the gain of 0.78% sugar, hydrolysis takes 4 hours, with a concentration of 10% sulfuric acid.

  8. Implications of crude oil pollution on natural regeneration of plant spe-cies in an oil-producing community in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    U.D Chima; G. Vure

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the impact of crude oil pollution on natu-ral regeneration of plant species in a major oil-producing community in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three sites-unpolluted site (US), polluted and untreated site (PUS), and polluted and treated site (PTS)-were purposively chosen for the study. The seedling emergence method was used to evaluate soil seed banks in the various sites at two depths, 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm. Woody-plant species richness, abundance, and diversity were higher in the US seed bank than in the PUS and PTS seed banks. The highest number of non-woody plants was observed in the US, followed by the PTS, and then the PUS. Both species richness and diversity of non-woody plants were highest at the US, followed by the PUS, and lowest in the PTS. Woody species in the US seed bank were 87.5% and 80% dissimilar with those of the PUS and PTS at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm respectively. No variation was observed between woody species in the PUS and PTS seed banks. Non-woody species at 0-10 cm US seed bank were 73.08% dissimilar with those of PUS at the two soil depths and 81.48/88.46%dissimilar with those of the 0-10/10-20 cm of the PTS respectively. At 10-20 cm, non-woody species of the US were 69.66% dissimilar with those from each of the two soil depths in PUS;and 73.91/81.82% dissimilar with those of 0-10/10-20 cm of the PTS respectively. Non-woody species variation between the PUS and PTS was higher at 10-20 cm than 0-10 cm. The poor seed bank attributes at the polluted sites demonstrates that crude oil pollution negatively af-fected the natural regeneration potential of the native flora because soil seed banks serve as the building blocks for plant succession. Thorough remediation and enrichment planting are recommended to support the recovery process of vegetation in the polluted areas.

  9. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....

  10. The Effect of Fe Concentration on the Quality and Quantity of Biogas Produced From Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Irvan Matseh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Fe concentration as a trace metal on the quality and quantity of biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Raw POME as feed was obtained from one of the palm oil mills belong to PTPN IV, other materials used were hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and trace metals. Observed variables were volume of biogas, concentration of Fe in raw POME and biodigester, degradation rate of total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS, M-Alkalinity, pH, H2S and CO2 concentration in biogas at hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 days. Before HRT of 6 days reached, initial trace metal compositions were 25.2 mg/L of Fe, 0.42 mg/L of Co, and 0.49 mg/L of Ni. After that, composition of trace metal were consisted only Co and Ni. The results showed that Fe as a trace metal did not affect the production or quantity of biogas. When Fe concentration reached over to 330 mg/L then concentration of CH4, total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS decreased. Moreover, the higher the Fe contents the smaller of H2S production. Fe content in POME from the same mill had different concentration, as the consequence biogas with different H2S concentrations were produced as well. Thus, Fe in the trace metals is no longer required if high concentration of Fe already existed in POME because it can reduce the formation of H2S. In addition, too high concentration of Fe in POME can be toxic for microorganism in the fermentation of biogas.

  11. Precipitation Chemistry and Occurrence of Acid Rain over the Oil-Producing Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    John Kanayo Chukwu Nduka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nitrate, sulfate, total dissolved solid (TDS, electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH, and bicarbonates of rainwater samples collected from Warri and Port Harcourt between April–June, July–August, and September–October of 2005 and 2006 to depict onset of rainy season, mid-rainy season, and end of rainy season for the two major crude oil–producing cities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (although Port Harcourt is also noted for non-oil manufacturing industries. The same was done in Awka, a non-oil producing city in the hinterland of southeastern Nigeria. In each of the cities, rain samples were collected from three points in a triangular equilibrium using a clean plastic basin fastened to a table 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. The parameters were determined after filtering, using their respective standard methods. Averages of 1.50, 1.81, 1.13 and 2.14, 1.50, 1.86 mg/l of nitrate for April–June, July–August, and September–October were recorded for Warri in 2005 and 2006, respectively. While 15.21, 3.23, 22.31 and 20.89, 9.96, and 14.27 mg/l were recorded in Port Harcourt. Sulfate levels for Warri and Port Harcourt for the same periods are follows: 1.38, 1.88, 1.06, 1.50, 1.43, 1.50 and 2.64, 1.15, 5.88, 4.73, 1.90, 1.55 mg/l, respectively. Nitrate levels were higher than sulfate. Other parameters include TDS (5.44, 4.79, 3.30 and 7.63, 3.69, 2.56 mg/l for Warri in 2005 and 2006; 12.57, 2.07, 25.214 and 28.87, 6.73, 7.80 mg/l for Port Harcourt for the same periods. Other parameters also varied in that order for the 2 years in same cities. Crude oil exploration and gas flaring in the Niger Delta, and multiplicity of cottage industries in Awka, impacted on the inorganic ion pollution of the rainwater. This may have public health implications in the region.

  12. Effects from offshore oil production: chronic exposure of fish to produced water

    Holth, Tor Fredrik

    2009-07-01

    The results of this study demonstrated that environmentally relevant levels of components of produced water may affect condition factor, maturation, biochemical processes and gene expression in fish. The usefulness of bile PAH and AP metabolite measurements to evaluate exposure was demonstrated in two fish species. The development of bio marker responses was shown to depend on exposure regime as well as exposure period. Lysosomal stability (LMS) in cod kidney was related to dose, the effects were observed early (within two weeks) and remained at a stable level throughout the exposure period in fish receiving both continuous and pulsed exposure. Thus, LMS appeared to be a useful marker for effects in Atlantic cod. Formation of DNA adducts in female cod liver was also related to dose, but in contrast to LMS, more than 16 weeks was required for formation of significant levels. This parameter may therefore be underestimated following short-term exposures, such as most offshore fish caging studies (often 4-6 weeks). Although a time-dependent increase was observed, it also required a continuous exposure regime, which is not often observed in the environment. Other bio markers were demonstrated either to adapt or appeared to be insensitive to the exposures. CYP1A activity (EROD) in female cod was responsive on occasion, but a reduction of activity over time was observed. Protein levels of vitellogenin and hepatic CYP1A in zebra fish, as well as AOX in cod kidneys, were not affected in the current study. Gene transcription of several distinct cellular mechanisms was clearly affected in both species, and a predominance of differentially expressed genes in zebra fish was down regulated. This indicated that down-regulation of responsive pathways may be as important or more important than up-regulation. As both presence and absence of effects following pulsed exposure were apparent (DNA adduct formation; oocyte maturation; condition factor), the effects of exposure regime on

  13. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Sue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels. These assessments evaluate feedstock production, logistics of transporting the feedstock, and conversion of the feedstock to biofuel. There are two general types of TEAs. A design case is a TEA that outlines a target case for a particular biofuel pathway. It enables identification of data gaps and research and development needs, and provides goals and targets against which technology progress is assessed. On the other hand, a state of technology (SOT) analysis assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases, and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available.

  14. Centrifugal Step Emulsification can Produce Water in Oil Emulsions with Extremely High Internal Volume Fractions

    Friedrich Schuler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The high throughput preparation of emulsions with high internal volume fractions is important for many different applications, e.g., drug delivery. However, most emulsification techniques reach only low internal volume fractions and need stable flow rates that are often difficult to control. Here, we present a centrifugal high throughput step emulsification disk for the fast and easy production of emulsions with high internal volume fractions above 95%. The disk produces droplets at generation rates of up to 3700 droplets/s and, for the first time, enables the generation of emulsions with internal volume fractions of >97%. The coefficient of variation between droplet sizes is very good (4%. We apply our system to show the in situ generation of gel emulsion. In the future, the recently introduced unit operation of centrifugal step emulsification may be used for the high throughput production of droplets as reaction compartments for clinical diagnostics or as starting material for micromaterial synthesis.

  15. Hello oil rig: The role of simulacra images in producing future reality

    Ibrahim, Abdallah

    This project is the first approach to address the problem of the image through a discussion between science, philosophy, art history, art theory, and fine arts based on one body of specific art work designed especially to explain the role of the image in producing future reality models. This study is a continuation of the dialogue between important philosophers and thinkers about the image and its place in the contemporary scene. The technical fossil medium used in painting this project crosses the boundary between scientific research with its data sheets to art theory and fine arts with their aesthetic rhetoric thus bringing many disciplines together. Seven images were created to discuss the problem. The artwork and the academic research are both interacting in this paper in a multidiscipline discussion to uncover the role of the images in creating a new reality and in forging the hyperreal culture.

  16. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  17. 76 FR 61933 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    2011-10-06

    ... the current marketing year or by releasing oil from the reserve pool. As of May 31, 2011, the Committee estimated the Scotch reserve pool to contain 454,715 pounds of spearmint oil and the Native reserve pool to contain 606,942 pounds of spearmint oil. When the allotment percentage...

  18. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  19. Characterization of Oilseed Lipids from “DHA-Producing Camelina sativa”: A New Transformed Land Plant Containing Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Maged P. Mansour; Pushkar Shrestha; Srinivas Belide; Petrie, James R.; Peter D Nichols; Surinder P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C20) omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3) are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG) as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid). Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM) extraction recovered fur...

  20. Computer technology of quantitative interwell correlation of sediments on the oil and gas fields in the CIS countries

    Barinova, O.I.; Kalinina, E.E.; Ovtchinnikova, M.I. (Oil and Gas Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1993-09-01

    In the course of studies of the oil and gas fields of the former USSR (including Romashkinskoye, Western Uzbekistan, Orenburg, Odoptu-more, and Karachaganak), methods have been developed to subdivide the rock sequences into sedimentation cycles and subcyles, and to identify washouts and breaks in the section. An IBM-PC program (MSLA) has been developed that enables subdivision and correlation of the well section to be made according to the multilevel hierarchy model of sequences devised by Guberman. With the help of the MSLA program, this model can be applied to well-correlation problems where there are no preliminary data available such as geological markers, cores, or ditch samples. The technique has been used in studies of the structure of oil and gas fields involving computer models and as an [open quotes]expert[close quotes] system.

  1. The Investigation Of Utilizing Rapeseed Flowers Oil As A Reliable Feedstock To Produce Biofuel And To Be Applied In Iraqi Kurdistan Region

    Ribwar K. Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world demand for energy in recent decade has been dramatic. Indeed, several hydrocarbons reservoirs are depleted around the world. Moreover, the using of fossil fuels for example, natural gas and coal is emitted high quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the environment that contributed in global worming phenomenon. Hence, many researchers and energy companies are attended and investigated to find out a new and reliable renewable energy source for example, biogas and biodiesel. Indeed, biodiesel can consider a reliable fuel due to many advantages for instance, reduce the global worming phenomenon, reduces carbon dioxide emissions and sustainable energy source. In fact, biodiesel can be produced from several resources for example, vegetable oil and animal fats. Rapeseed oil may consider a quite reliable and cheap source to produce biodiesel. Indeed, it has been observed that during the spring session in Iraqi Kurdistan region, wild rapeseed flowers are growing naturally in many cities of Iraqi Kurdistan for example, Sulaymaniyah, Ranya and Koya. The observed wild rapeseed flowers are produced considerable amounts of rape seed that can be invested to produced rapeseed oil and biodiesel. Therefore, this study is aimed to produce a reliable biodiesel from rapeseed flower oil by adopting transesterification reaction. Furthermore, this study has also applied process production parameters to find out the optimum operating conditions to produce biodiesel form the rapeseed oil for instance, amount of catalyst 1.25 % KOH and amount of methanol on biodiesel production yield about 7:1.Moreover, several laboratory tests for example, density, cloud point, pour point and cetane value have been applied for the produced biodiesel.

  2. Utilization of tuna roe and using inulin as oil replacer for producing value added omega-3 mayonnaise product

    Kanrawee Hunsakul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fishery industry has been important for Thailand’s economy for more than 30 years. For example, Thailand isthe world’s largest canned tuna producer and exporter. However, onlyordinary meat or white meatis usedfor raw materialin canned tuna products. Whileroe, viscera, head and dark meataresold at cheap prices,with theseby-products being usedto feed plant or local human food,its nutritive values withfat,protein and minerals arestill high. It is well known that tuna is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, including Eicosapentaenoicacid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA.People around the world pay more attention to eatingsaladsconsisting of fruits and vegetables, in addition todressing. Generally, mayonnaise, a kind of salad dressing, consists of chicken egg yolk(12-15% and soybean oil (30-65%. Both of these ingredients contain very high saturated fatty acid contents. Therefore, because normal mayonnaise is high in fat content and low in polyunsaturated fatty acid, this product is not ideal for people on a diet or those who are trying to control their weight. Objective: To increase omega-3 through tuna roe substitution and to replace fat content using inulin gel. Methods: Tuna roe was prepared by soaking in galangalsolutionextracted with 95% ethanol for removal fishy/rancidity odor. Inulin powder 45 g was suspended in 55 ml of water before being brought to heat at temperature 80oC for 30min to form a gel and stored at 4oC. Treatment ofmakingomega-3 mayonnaise product was started using 100% tuna roe substitution for egg yolk. Thereafter, inulin gel was added to replace vegetable oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Basic mayonnaise containing egg yolk and 0% inulin gel (100% soy bean oil was used asthecontrol sample. Color and emulsion stability testswere monitored for physical quality. pH value, peroxide value (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were used for chemical qualityanalyses. Total viable

  3. Present status of business participation in refinery-selling by OPEC countries. OPEC san prime yukoku no karyu bumon shinshutsu no genjo

    Endo, S. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    The OPEC countries being arranged in business participation status in the infrastructure, particularly its recent trend, the main countries among them were analyzed in oil policy. As the oil price depends considerably upon the oil situation, the oil producing countries can secure a stabilized income by amplifying the exportation of oil products, small in price change and high in additional value. Having early started an uninterrupted direct participation in the infrastructure of oil consuming countries, Kuwait was securing a comparatively stabilized income therefrom. Among the OPEC countries participating in the infrastructure, Venezuela is at the head in number and refining capacity of refineries owned overseas. Later than Kuwait and Venezuela, Saudi Arabia started a participation in the infrastructure with a venturing foundation jointly with Texaco in 1988. Though proceeding with a participation in the infrastructure almost concurrently with Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi was almost limited to capital investments in the worldwide major oil companies. 6 refs., 22 tabs.

  4. Solvent-tolerant bioconversion: construction and analysis of a phenol producing Pseudomonas putida S12

    Wierckx, N.J.P

    2009-01-01

    Organic chemicals play a fundamental role in modern civilization. Today, almost all of these chemicals are produced from oil. This leads to pollution and creates a dependency on often politically unstable oil producing countries. It is possible to make the same chemicals from sugar, using microorgan

  5. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN POST-CONFLICT COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF IRAQ’S OIL AND ELECTRICITY SECTORS

    Ghassan Faraj Hanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment is new phenomenon to Iraq, a post conflict country with abundance of natural resources. With dominant state-controlled public sector, attracting foreign investment is an added challenge to an economy devastated by years of wars. A qualitative case study was conducted to assess determinants of foreign direct investment in Iraq’s energy sector. Data was collected from interviews with business and government subject matter experts, and a review of publically available documents. Lack of security, political instability, corruption, and inadequate government policies towards foreign direct investment as symptoms found and typically shared by other post-conflict countries. The persistence of violence was not seen as a deterrent; however, foreign direct investment activity in the energy sector was virtually limited to the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Investments were either wholly-owned or joint-venture enterprises. Implications to other post conflict countries, using Kuwait and Nigeria as illustrative examples, are presented and recommendations made.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid to produce medium-, long- and medium-chain-type structured lipids

    Wang, Yingyao; Xia, Luan; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) containing medium-chain fatty acid (M) at position sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acid (L) at the sn-2 position in a solvent-free system. Six commercial lipases from different sources were s...

  7. The chemistry and beneficial bioactivities of carvacrol (4-isopropyl-2-methylphenol), a component of essential oils produced by aromatic plants and spices

    Aromatic plants produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of plants against phytopathogenic insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. One of these compounds called carvacrol that is found in high concentrations in essential oils such as oregano has been reported to exhibit numerous...

  8. Non-invasive rapid harvest time determination of oil-producing microalgae cultivations for bio-diesel production by using Chlorophyll fluorescence

    Yaqin eQiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the large-scale cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, one of the key problems is the determination of the optimum time for algal harvest when algae cells are saturated with neutral lipids. In this study, a method to determine the optimum harvest time in oil-producing microalgal cultivations by measuring the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, also called Fv/Fm, was established. When oil-producing Chlorella strains were cultivated and then treated with nitrogen starvation, it not only stimulated neutral lipid accumulation, but also affected the photosynthesis system, with the neutral lipid contents in all four algae strains – Chlorella sorokiniana C1, Chlorella sp. C2, C. sorokiniana C3, C. sorokiniana C7 – correlating negatively with the Fv/Fm values. Thus, for the given oil-producing algae, in which a significant relationship between the neutral lipid content and Fv/Fm value under nutrient stress can be established, the optimum harvest time can be determined by measuring the value of Fv/Fm. It is hoped that this method can provide an efficient way to determine the harvest time rapidly and expediently in large-scale oil-producing microalgae cultivations for biodiesel production.

  9. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Mendil, Durali, E-mail: dmendil@gop.edu.tr [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluoezlue, Ozguer Dogan; Tuezen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 {mu}g/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 {mu}g/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  10. China Expands Oil Refining Capacity to Meet Rising Demand

    Yin Yin

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the booming of China's auto market, the oil refining industry is falling over itself to boost capacity in the coastal regions. Sinochem Corporation is the latest out of the starting blocks. Its new oil refining project in southeastern Fujian Province will see it move into territory already occupied by the nation's big-three oil companies - China National Petrochemical Corporation(Sinopec), China's largest oil refiner,China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),the largest crude producer in the country, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation(CNOOC), the giant offshore oil player.

  11. Promoting sustainable palm oil: viewed from a global networks and flows perspective

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for palm oil is increasing to fulfil worldwide needs for cooking oil, food ingredients, biofuels, soap and other chemicals. In response, palm oil production is rapidly expanding which promotes economic growth in producing countries but also leads to serious environmental and social pro

  12. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  13. EU’S DEPENDENCE ON RUSSIAN ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE NEW ALTERNATIVE OF OIL AND GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author tackles the EU-Russia energy relations from the beginning of their cooperation in this field until now. Likewise, the disputes that emerged, along the time, at the EU’s border and vicinity are presented and analyzed, by trying to explain how Russia uses its energy resources as a tool of hard power in its foreign policy. However, taking into consideration the previous gas crises and the policy of Russia toward the Eastern Partnership (EaP states that aim to follow Euro-Atlantic integration, the author treats and highlights the EU’s strategic interest to establish new partnerships with other energy exporting states. In this regard, one of the EaP states that present a huge interest for the EU in order to develop a bilateral energy relation is Azerbaijan, a Caspian state with great oil and gas resources.

  14. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  15. In Vivo Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells on Electrospun Poly-L-Lactide Acid Scaffolds Coated with Matricaria chamomilla L. Oil

    Afsaneh Fazili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined the in vivo differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs into insulin producing cells (IPCs on electrospun poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA scaffolds coated with Matricaria chammomila L. (chamomile oil. Materials and Methods: In this interventional, experimental study adipose MSCs (AMSCs were isolated from 12 adult male New Zealand white rabbits and characterized by flow cytometry. AMSCs were subsequently differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lines. Cells were seeded onto either a PLLA scaffold (control or PLLA scaffold coated with chamomile oil (experimental. A total of 24 scaffolds were inserted into the pancreatic area of each rabbit and placement was confirmed by ultrasound. After 21 days, immunohistochemistry analysis of insulin-producing like cells on protein levels confirmed insulin expression of insulin producing cells (IPSCs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR determined the expressions of genes related to pancreatic endocrine development and function. Results: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results confirmed the existence of oil on the surface of the PLLA scaffold. The results showed a new peak at 2854 cm-1 for the aliphatic CH2 bond. Pdx1 expression was 0.051 ± 0.007 in the experimental group and 0.009 ± 0.002 in the control group. There was significantly increased insulin expression in the scaffold coated with chamomile oil (0.09 ± 0.001 compared to control group (0.063 ± 0.009, P≤0.05. Both groups expressed Ngn3 and Pdx1 specific markers and pancreatic tissue was observed at 21 days post transplantation. Conclusion: The pancreatic region is an optimal site for differentiation of AMSCs to IPCs. Chamomile oil (as an antioxidant agent can affect cell adhesion to the scaffold and increase cell differentiation. In addition, the oil may lead to increased blood glucose uptake in pathways in the muscles, liver and fatty tissue of a diabetic animal model by some probable molecular

  16. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop.

  17. 75 FR 13445 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    2010-03-22

    ... range of 700,000 pounds to 750,000 pounds of Scotch spearmint oil trade demand. Although consumer demand... market their entire annual allotment and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion seasons... spearmint oil is expected to grow slowly for the foreseeable future because the demand for consumer...

  18. 75 FR 27631 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    2010-05-18

    ... range of 700,000 pounds to 750,000 pounds of Scotch spearmint oil trade demand. Although consumer demand... market their entire annual allotment and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion seasons... because the demand for consumer products that use spearmint oil will likely expand slowly, in line...

  19. Variation in Scent Compounds of Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) Produced by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction, Hydrodistillation and Solvent Extraction

    Sabri Erbaş; Hasan Baydar

    2016-01-01

    In this research, rose oil and rose water were hydro-distilled from the fresh oil-bearing rose flowers (Rosa damascena Mill.) using Clevenger-type apparatus. Rose concretes were extracted from the fresh rose flowers by using non-polar solvents, e.g. diethyl ether, petroleum ether, cyclo-hexane, chloroform and n-hexane, and subsequently by evaporation of the solvents under vacuum. Absolutes were produced from the concretes with ethyl alcohol extraction at -20°C, leaving behind the wax and othe...

  20. Directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapor produced by prairie cordgrass pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 using a two stage reactor

    Shouyun Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking is one of the most promising processes for thermochemical conversion of biomass to advanced biofuels in recent years. However, current effectiveness of catalysts and conversion efficiency still remain challenges. An investigation of directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapors produced in prairie cordgrass (PCG pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5 in a two stage packed-bed reactor was carried out. The Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst was synthesized using an impregnation method. Fresh and used catalysts were characterized by BET and XRD. The effects of catalysts on pyrolysis products yields and quality were examined. Both catalysts improved bio-oil product distribution compared to non-catalytic treatment. When PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with absence of catalyst, the produced bio-oils contained higher alcohols (10.97% and furans (10.14%. In contrast, the bio-oils contained the second highest hydrocarbons (34.97%)and the highest phenols (46.97% when PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with Ni/HZSM-5. Bio-oils containing less ketones and aldehydes were produced by both Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5, but no ketones were found in Ni/HZSM-5 treatment compared to HZSM-5 (2.94%. The pyrolysis gas compositions were also affected by the presenting of HZSM-5 or Ni/HZSM-5 during the catalytic upgrading process. However, higher heating values and elemental compositions (C, H and N of bio-chars produced in all treatments had no significant difference.

  1. Control of origin of sesame oil from various countries by stable isotope analysis and DNA based markers--a pilot study.

    Micha Horacek

    Full Text Available The indication of origin of sesame seeds and sesame oil is one of the important factors influencing its price, as it is produced in many regions worldwide and certain provenances are especially sought after. We joined stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis with DNA based molecular marker analysis to study their combined potential for the discrimination of different origins of sesame seeds. For the stable carbon and hydrogen isotope data a positive correlation between both isotope parameters was observed, indicating a dominant combined influence of climate and water availability. This enabled discrimination between sesame samples from tropical and subtropical/moderate climatic provenances. Carbon isotope values also showed differences between oil from black and white sesame seeds from identical locations, indicating higher water use efficiency of plants producing black seeds. DNA based markers gave independent evidence for geographic variation as well as provided information on the genetic relatedness of the investigated samples. Depending on the differences in ambient environmental conditions and in the genotypic fingerprint, a combination of both analytical methods is a very powerful tool to assess the declared geographic origin. To our knowledge this is the first paper on food authenticity combining the stable isotope analysis of bio-elements with DNA based markers and their combined statistical analysis.

  2. SELECTING THE DIRECTION FOR TECHNICAL RE-EQUIPMENT OF THE TPP OIL-GAS BLOCKS OF 300 MW CAPACITY IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE EAST-EUROPEAN REGION

    V. M. Neuimin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents analysis of renovation variants for 300 MW oil-gas power blocks: substitution of the steam-power energy blocks by those with gas-steam cycle units, technical re-equipment of the energy blocks by means of reconstruction or modernization of the steam turbine, substitution implementation of the steam turbine with an analogous new one, prolongation of the operation life of the equipment in service. Renovation variants for the power blocks of the specified type in the TPPs of Russia can be chosen based on various engineering solutions concluded on the following grounds: mediumand long-term perspectives of their fuel balance structure (natural gas, synthetic gas fuel-oil residual, pulverized coal fuel including clean-coal and coal-benefication production wastes; the demands laid by JSC the JI UES on the participation of power blocks in frequency regulation and node inter-flow; development in the country of the distributed generation and the perspectives associated with it of the reconstructed TPPs installed capacity utilization in corresponding power-grid nodes; the development of related industries of the country’s economy; the speed of mastering the eco-friendly homegrown steam-gas and coal technologies; creation of the competitive national element base of microelectronics.Introduction of foreign steam-gas generators in this country requires development of the repair-and-service maintenance, provokes elevated risks and tangible costs, conduces to level decrease in the energy and national safety of the state. Orientation of the country’s power engineers to foreign gas-turbines of large single-unit capacity does not contribute to domestic power-plant industry development. With the view of reduction in value of the TPP-equipment by 12–15 %, it is prudent for power engineers to form a perspective manufacturing order for the period after 2016. In light of emerging political and economic situation in the world, technical re

  3. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production.

    El Afifi, E M; Awwad, N S; Hilal, M A

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78+/-2.8, 64.8+/-4.1 and 76.4+/-5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to approximately 91+/-3.5, 87+/-4.1 and 90+/-6.2%, respectively.

  4. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    El Afifi, E.M. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Awwad, N.S. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: nsawwad20@yahoo.com; Hilal, M.A. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 {+-} 2.8, 64.8 {+-} 4.1 and 76.4 {+-} 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to {approx}91 {+-} 3.5, 87 {+-} 4.1 and 90 {+-} 6.2%, respectively.

  5. Studying the effect of compression ratio on an engine fueled with waste oil produced biodiesel/diesel fuel

    Mohammed EL_Kassaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wasted cooking oil from restaurants was used to produce neat (pure biodiesel through transesterification, and then used to prepare biodiesel/diesel blends. The effect of blending ratio and compression ratio on a diesel engine performance has been investigated. Emission and combustion characteristics was studded when the engine operated using the different blends (B10, B20, B30, and B50 and normal diesel fuel (B0 as well as when varying the compression ratio from 14 to 16 to 18. The result shows that the engine torque for all blends increases as the compression ratio increases. The bsfc for all blends decreases as the compression ratio increases and at all compression ratios bsfc remains higher for the higher blends as the biodiesel percent increase. The change of compression ratio from 14 to 18 resulted in, 18.39%, 27.48%, 18.5%, and 19.82% increase in brake thermal efficiency in case of B10, B20, B30, and B50 respectively. On an average, the CO2 emission increased by 14.28%, the HC emission reduced by 52%, CO emission reduced by 37.5% and NOx emission increased by 36.84% when compression ratio was increased from 14 to 18. In spite of the slightly higher viscosity and lower volatility of biodiesel, the ignition delay seems to be lower for biodiesel than for diesel. On average, the delay period decreased by 13.95% when compression ratio was increased from 14 to 18. From this study, increasing the compression ratio had more benefits with biodiesel than that with pure diesel.

  6. Problems Associated with Declining National Oil Production

    Jackson, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Forecasts of peak oil production have focussed on the global impacts of declining production. Meanwhile, national oil production has declined in 20 countries, leading to local problems that receive little comment outside of the effected regions. Two problems deserve wider recognition: declining state revenues and fuel substitution. Most oil producing countries with large reserves adopted licensing practices that provide significant revenues to the host governments such that oil revenues generate from 40 to 80 percent of total government funds. Typically these governments allocate a fraction of this revenue to their state oil companies, utilizing the remainder for other activities. As oil revenues decline with falling production, host governments face a dilemma: either to increase state oil company budgets in order to stem the decline, or to starve the state oil company while maintaining other government programs. The declining oil revenues in these states can significantly reduce the government's ability to address important national issues. Mexico, Indonesia, and Yemen illustrate this situation in its early phases. Fuel substitution occurs whenever one fuel proves less expensive than another. The substitution of coal for wood in the eighteenth century and oil for coal in the twentieth century are classic examples. China and India appear to be at peak oil production, while their economies generate increasing demand for energy. Both countries are substituting coal and natural gas for oil with attendant environmental impacts. Coal-to-liquids projects are proposed in in both China, which will require significant water resources if they are executed. These examples suggest that forecasting the impact of peak oil at a regional level requires more than an assessment of proven-probable-possible reserves and a forecast of supply-demand scenarios. A range of government responses to declining oil income scenarios must also be considered, together with scenarios describing

  7. Synthetic gasoline and diesel oil produced by Fischer-Tropsch Technology. A possibility for the future? IEA/AMF annex XXXI

    Rehnlund, B., (Atrax Energy AB, Goeteborg (SE)); Blinge, M., (The Swedish Transport Research Institute, TFK (SE)); Schramm, J.; Larsen, Ulrik, (Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-03-15

    GTL has the potential of contributing about the same or slightly less greenhouse gas to the atmosphere than production and use of conventional diesel. Production and use of CTL emits more than twice as much greenhouse gases than traditional fuels. Production and use of BTL reduces the emissions of greenhouse gases by 60-90 % compared to fossil diesel and gasoline. 4) The technology to gasify biomass is not yet ready for market introduction. Further research and development are needed in this area. 5) The FT process is still a relatively expensive technology and requires large-scale production plants or further development, in order to be economically viable. The option of making FTD and/or FTG from remotely located and/or low quality (flare gas) resources of natural gas is today less capital intensive than other production methods. 6) According to information from Sasol it is possible to produce FT-fuels with coal as feedstock to a market competitive price as soon as the crude oil price is higher than 30 to 40 USD per barrel. 7) The production and use of FT-fuels reduces smog-inducing matter with about 90 and the emissions affecting acidification and eutrofication are about 5-40 % reduced. 8) Compared to conventional diesel, various kinds of pollutant emissions are reduced with the vehicle use of FT-fuels: HC, CO, NOx, PM, SOF, VOF and PAHs. 9) A biomass based FT production scenario will have a large impact on the feedstock transport and logistic systems and many obstacles must be considered. It will not only be investment costs for the plants, but also for infrastructure around the plant and a significant amount of heavy traffic towards the fuel production plants will be the result of this system. 10) To substitute 15 % of the EU 15 countries transport fuel consumption would for example require an area of the size of Poland and it would furthermore require 122 FT-plants of 1.6 GW each. (au)

  8. Gasoils de substitution à partir d'esters d'huiles végétales: une opportunité pour certains pays ? Replacement Gas Oils from Vegetable Oil Esters: an Opportunity for Some Countries ?

    Stern R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les procédés IFP de fabrication d'esters méthylique ou éthylique à partir d'huiles végétales offrent le double avantage d'assurer une production valorisable à la fois en tant que substitut du gasoil, notamment pour certains pays en voie de développement, et comme matière première chimique pour l'industrie. Le point clé de l'économie de la transformation réside dans la valorisation du sous produit principal qu'est la glycérine; l'intérêt de lui trouver de nouveaux débouchés est la conclusion immédiate qui ressort de toutes les études à caractère économique entreprises sur le sujet. IFP processes for manufacturing methyl or ethyl esters from vegetable oils have the double advantage of upgrading production both as a replacement for gas oil, particularly for some developing countries, and as a chemical raw material for industry. The key point in the economics of processing lies in the upgrading of the main byproduct, which is glycerine. The advantage of finding new outlets for it is the immediate conclusions shown by all the economic studies undertaken on this subject.

  9. Oil and Gas Producing Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1998)[platforms_MMS_1998

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point data set for the location of over 4300 MMS administered platform structures used for oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico. Groups of platform...

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Luxembourg -- 2008 Review

    NONE

    2009-03-20

    Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. The country has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the development of the evolving Central West European regional electricity system. Luxembourg has also prepared a broad action plan on energy efficiency, improved the support system for renewable energy sources and revised taxes to mitigate climate change. The country's energy policy in the coming decade will be shaped by the EU 2020 targets that call for substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and strong increases in renewable energy and energy efficiency. These targets will be hard to meet, given that roughly half of energy-related CO2 emissions come from transport fuel use by foreign truckers and motorists, and that Luxembourg's potential for producing much more renewable energy is limited. Luxembourg is heavily dependent on oil. Although oil sources are well diversified by country of origin, more than 85% of oil stocks are held in neighbouring countries and often based on short-term leasing contracts. This leaves the country vulnerable to potential oil supply disruptions. Luxembourg should swiftly implement a plan to improve the security of oil supply. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards achieving its sustainability targets.

  11. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  12. Distribution behavior and risk assessment of metals in bio-oils produced by liquefaction/pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Huang, Huajun; Peng, Xin; Chen, Hongmei; Wang, Hou; Wang, Lele; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    The distribution behaviors of metals in bio-oils derived from sewage sludge (SS) by liquefaction with different solvents (ethanol, methanol, or acetone) and by pyrolysis at different temperatures (550-850 °C) were investigated. The concentrations of crust metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al) in bio-oils were much higher than those of the anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, V, Mn, Ba, Co, Ti, Sn, As, and Hg), but the anthropogenic metals were more inclined to distribute in bio-oil phase compared with crust metals. The anthropogenic metals in bio-oils can be divided in three groups in terms of the distribution similarities according to Cluster analysis: (A) Cu, Co, Ni, V, and Sn; (B) Cr, Ti, Mn, and Ba; (C) Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Zn. Cu, Cr, Hg, Cd, V, Co, and Sn distributed in the liquefaction/pyrolysis bio-oils accounted for as high as 5-20% of the metals in SS and were evaluated "moderate enrichment" by the enrichment factors method. According to the potential ecological risk index (PERI) method, Hg presented very high risk, Cu presented moderate risk, and Cd presented low to moderate risk; and the overall risk levels of these bio-oils were very high risk (except P550, presented considerable risk).

  13. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica Strain B6, a 2,3-Butanediol-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    Shin, Sang Heum; Um, Youngsoon; Beak, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sehwan; Lee, Soojin; Oh, Min-Kyu; Kim, Young-Rok; Lee, Jinwon; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2013-06-27

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica strain B6, a Gram-negative aerobic bacillus belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This 2,3-butanediol-producing bacterium was isolated from oil-contaminated soil on Backwoon Mountain in South Korea. Strain B6 contains 5,398,151 bp with 4,909 protein-coding genes, 104 structural RNAs, and 55.88% G+C content.

  15. Oil Price Fluctuation Reflects International Power Balance

    张宇燕; 管清友

    2008-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the oil economy,economists have yet to build a perfect analytical framework for the oil market.Over a period of time,oil price fluctuates according to the supply and demand of the international market.In the long run,however,given the political nature of oil,oil price fluctuation is also dependent on the power balance between oil consumer and producer countries.History has proven that the world energy landscape is constantly in a process of change and evolution,which underlies the increasing oil price uncertainty in the long run.From the perspective of the world energy landscape and its evolution,this article applies international political-economic methodology in addressing the energy security issues facing China,with the purpose of offering recommendations for further areas of energy research.

  16. Effect of carrageenan level and packaging during ripening on processing and quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages produced with olive oil.

    Koutsopoulos, D A; Koutsimanis, G E; Bloukas, J G

    2008-05-01

    Eight low-fat fermented sausages were produced with partial replacement of pork backfat with olive oil. The total fat content of the sausages was 10% of which 8% was animal fat and 2% was olive oil. The sausages were produced with two types of carrageenan (ι- and κ-) in four levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%). ι-Carrageenan had a better effect (psausages, as well as, on sensory attributes. Low-fat fermented sausages with κ-carrageenan had the same (p>0.05) firmness as high-fat commercial sausages (control). The carrageenan level of 3% negatively affected the firmness of the sausages. In a 2nd experiment, a high-fat control (30% total fat) and three low-fat fermented sausages (10% total fat) with olive oil were produced with three levels of ι-carrageenan (0%, 1% and 2%). Low-fat sausages were vacuum packed for the last two weeks of ripening. ι-Carrageenan added at levels up to 2% had a positive effect (pfermented sausages. The application of vacuum packaging over last two weeks of ripening improved the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the sausages and resulted in sensory attributes equal to or better than the high-fat controls.

  17. Management of Water for Unconventional Oil and Gas Operations Enhanced with the Expanded U.S.Geological Survey Produced Waters Geochemical Database

    Gans, K. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Thordsen, J. J.; Thomas, B.; Reidy, M. E.; Engle, M.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Rowan, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in hydraulic fracturing practices for shale gas and tight oil reservoirs have dramatically increased petroleum production in the USA, but have also made the issue of water management from these operations a high priority. Hydraulic fracturing requires ~ 10,000 to 50,000 m3 of water per well for injection in addition to water used to drill the well. Initially much of the water used for hydraulic fracturing was fresh water, but attitudes and operations are changing in response to costs and concerns. Concerns about groundwater depletion and contamination have prompted operators to increase the amount of produced water that can be recycled for hydraulic fracturing and to find suitable locations for salt-water injection. Knowledge of the geochemistry of produced waters is valuable in determining the feasibility of produced water recycling. Water with low salinity can be reclaimed for use outside of the petroleum industry (e.g. irrigation, municipal uses, and industrial operations). The updated and expanded USGS Produced Waters Database available at http://eerscmap.usgs.gov/pwapp/ will facilitate and enhance studies on management of water, including produced water, for unconventional oil and gas drilling and production. The USGS database contains > 160,000 samples. Expanding on the 2002 database, we have filled in state and regional gaps with information from conventional and unconventional wells and have increased the number of constituents to include minor and trace chemicals, isotopes, and time series data. We currently have produced water data from 5,200 tight gas wells, 4,500 coal-bed methane (CBM) wells, 3,500 shale gas wells, and 700 tight oil wells. These numbers will increase as we continue to receive positive responses from oil companies, state oil and gas commissions, and scientists wanting to contribute their data. This database is an important resource for a wide range of interested parties. Scientists from universities, government agencies, public

  18. Effect of castor oil enrichment layer produced by reaction on the properties of PLA/HDI-g-starch blends.

    Xiong, Zhu; Zhang, Lisheng; Ma, Songqi; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Chuanzhi; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2013-04-15

    Blends of entirely bio-sourced polymers, namely polylactide (PLA) and starch, have been melt-compounded by lab-scale co-extruder with castor oil (CO) as a plasticizer. The enrichment of castor oil on starch had great effect on the properties of the blends. If the castor oil was mainly dispersed in PLA matrix, the properties of the blends were poor, but when the hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) was grafted on starch granules the ready reactions between the hydroxyl on CO and the isocyante on the HDI-grafted starch (HGSTs) brought CO molecules enriched on starch particles. DSC analysis shows that the CO layer on starch has a positive effect on the crystallization of PLA in the ternary blend. The accumulation of CO on starch greatly improves the toughness and impact strength of PLA/starch blends. The grafting content of HDI on the starch granules primarily determined the compatibility and properties of the resulted blends.

  19. SUSTAINABILITY OF SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL: A MARKET INTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Diana Chalil

    2016-01-01

    Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO). India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for I...

  20. PRODUCTION MECHANISM OF THE CONVERTED OIL-PUMPING PRODUCER FROM WATER INJECTOR%注水井转抽油井出油机理

    姜涛

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of harnessing low-efficiency well, tapping the potentials of remained oil, enhancing oil recovery and so on, the corresponding water injectors are often converted into oil-pumping producer. The research results of the mechanism of the above conversion are summarized. According to Gilman A. Hill oil floating experiment and the principle of Thomas experiment of hydrocarbon migration and moreover integrating the practices of oilfield development and production, the mechanism has been further studied, finally a new principle model-structural-buoyancy physical model has been developed. The studies show that oil can be produced by low-efficiency oil well reopening/rejuvenation and inverted pumping well. At the same time, long-term used Leverett mathematical model is a simplified one; the comprehension of the model towards water flooding is too skin-deep and cannot accurately understand the effects of the flooded oil underground. The structural-buoyancy model can much better explain the mechanism of the following technologies: such as the oil production by bailing for those low-productivity producers, intermittent oil production for low-efficiency wells, cyclic water injection to improve the efficiency of water flooding and so on. All the achievements above possess important guiding signifi-cance for old well pattern adjustment, remained oil production and so forth.%为治理低效井、挖掘剩余油及提高采收率等需要,常将注水井转为抽油井.对注水井转抽出油机理研究成果进行了总结,根据奇尔曼A·希尔石油上浮实验和托马斯石油运移实验原理,并结合油田开发生产实践对注水井转抽油井出油机理进行深入研究,提出了一种新的原理模型——构造—浮力物理模型.认为低效井重新开井和水井转抽能够产油,同时还指出长期以来人们使用的是简化的莱弗里特数学模型,对水驱油的过程理解过于简单,无法正确理解地

  1. 76 FR 33969 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    2011-06-10

    ... need to market their entire annual crop and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion... consumer prices of products containing spearmint oil and likely does not result in fewer retail sales of..., handlers, manufacturers, and consumers. This rule will not impose any additional reporting or...

  2. Dynamic headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of volatiles produced in fish oil enriched mayonnaise during storage.

    Hartvigsen, K; Lund, P; Hansen, L F; Holmer, G

    2000-10-01

    Protection against lipid oxidation and formation of unpleasant fishy and rancid off-flavors in oil-in-water food emulsions, such as fish oil enriched mayonnaise, is difficult to achieve. Volatile profiles from stored mayonnaises with different oil phase compositions were collected using a developed dynamic headspace sampling technique, in which interfering acetic acid was removed in situ with potassium hydroxide, and subsequently 148 volatiles were characterized and monitored by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistics showed correlation between the concentration of 62 volatiles and the fish oil and storage parameters, indicating the formation of lipid oxidation products, which impose fishy off-flavors. Further verification was obtained by gas chromatography/olfactometry, by which, among 78 odors, cis-4-heptenal and trans,cis-2,4-heptadienal were detected as distinct fishy notes. In total, 27 volatiles, including 1-penten-3-one, cis-2-penten-1-ol, cis-3-hexenal, cis-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1,cis-5-octadien-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, trans,cis-2, 4-heptadienal, and trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, were suggested to contribute to the developed unpleasant fishy and rancid off-flavors.

  3. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    2010-04-01

    ... geological features as opposed to the broader terms of basins, trends, provinces, plays, areas-of-interest... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial accounting and... of General Application § 210.4-10 Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas...

  4. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  5. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams.

    Hladik, Michelle L; Focazio, Michael J; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L(-1) with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L(-1)). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L(-1)) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L(-1)). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L(-1)) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L(-1) total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  6. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  7. Study of a hydrocarbon-utilizing and emulsifier-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain isolated from heating oil.

    Marín, M M; Pedregosa, A M; Ortiz, M L; Laborda, F

    1995-12-01

    Twenty bacterial strains were isolated from a sample of contaminated heating oil and screened for their ability to use petroleum and several common fuels as the sole source of carbon and energy. One of the isolates, named MM5, was able to grow on petroleum derivatives and brought about an emulsification of those compounds. Gas chromatography studies showed that strain MM5 was able to degrade hydrocarbons of heating oil. MM5 has been tentatively identified as a strain of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The fine structure of MM5 was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Incubation in the presence of hydrocarbon substrates resulted in the development of intracellular electron-transparent inclusions. These structures were absent in the non-hydrocarbon cultures studied.

  8. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

  9. An investigation into physicochemical characteristics of ash produced from combustion of oil palm biomass wastein a boiler

    Yin, Chun Yang; Kadir, Sharifah Aishah Syed Abdul; Lim, Ying Pei; Syed-Ariffin, Sharifah Nawirah; Zamzuri, Zurinawati [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2008-07-15

    Ash derived from combustion of Malaysian oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches consisting of fibers) was physically and chemically characterized in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of its specific properties in terms of toxicity, compositions and reusability. Principal analyses conducted include particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, elemental dispersive X-ray, elemental analysis, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) as well as thermogravimetric, X-ray diffractometry and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. TCLP result indicated that the oil palm ash (OPA) should not be classified as toxic wastes in terms of heavy metal leachability since leachable copper, cadmium, lead and nickel concentrations were detected below the stipulated leachability limits. It was determined that the OPA contained high amount of potassium as well as presence of silica which implied its suitability to be reused as crude fertilizer or cement replacement material. (author)

  10. Variation in Scent Compounds of Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa damascena Mill. Produced by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction, Hydrodistillation and Solvent Extraction

    Sabri Erbaş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, rose oil and rose water were hydro-distilled from the fresh oil-bearing rose flowers (Rosa damascena Mill. using Clevenger-type apparatus. Rose concretes were extracted from the fresh rose flowers by using non-polar solvents, e.g. diethyl ether, petroleum ether, cyclo-hexane, chloroform and n-hexane, and subsequently by evaporation of the solvents under vacuum. Absolutes were produced from the concretes with ethyl alcohol extraction at -20°C, leaving behind the wax and other paraffinic substances. Scent compounds of all these products detected by gas chromatography (GC-FID/GC-MS were compared with the natural scent compounds of fresh rose flower detected by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 46 compounds analysis were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS in the fresh flower, and a total of 15 compounds were identified by GC-MS in the hydrodistilled rose oil. While main compounds in rose oil were geraniol (35.4%, citronellol (31.6%, and nerol (15.3%, major compound in fresh rose flower, rose water and residue water was phenylethyl alcohol (43.2, 35.6 and 98.2%, respectively. While the highest concrete yield (0.7% was obtained from diethyl ether extraction, the highest absolute yield (70.9% was obtained from the n-hexane concrete. The diethyl ether concrete gave the highest productivity of absolute, as 249.7 kg of fresh rose flowers was needed to produce 1 kg of absolute.

  11. Composition of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum radix oil from different extraction methods and activities against human body odor-producing bacteria

    A.S.M. Tanbirul Haque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oils from Asarum heterotropoides were extracted by traditional solvent extraction and supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 extraction methods and their antioxidant activities along with antimicrobial and inhibitory activities against five human body odor-producing bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium jeikeium, and Corynebacterium xerosis were evaluated. The oil was found to contain 15 components, among which the most abundant component was methyl eugenol (37.6%, which was identified at every condition studied in different extraction methods. The oil extracted with n-hexane and ethanol mixture exhibited a strong antioxidant activity (92% ± 2% and the highest ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activities (89% ± 0.2%. The highest amounts of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were 23.1±0.4 mg/g and 4.9±0.1 mg/g, respectively, in the traditional method. In the SC-CO2 method performed at 200 bar/50°C using ethanol as an entrainer, the highest inhibition zone was recorded against all the aforementioned bacteria. In particular, strong antibacterial activity (38±2 mm was found against M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the oil against bacteria ranged from 10.1±0.1 μg/mL to 46±2 μg/mL. The lowest MIC was found against M. luteus. Methyl eugenol was found to be one of the major compounds working against human body odor-producing bacteria.

  12. Development a method for producing vegetable oil from safflower seeds by pressing in the field of ultrasound

    S. T. Antipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the prospects of production in agriculture safflower seeds for food and extract biologically active components. The physicochemical composition of safflower, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Safflower oil has a soothing and moisturizing effect, provides a barrier function of the skin, therefore, fatty oil is promising in terms of scientific evidence use in medical practice. In the article the task of developing a set of processes to extract oil from the seeds of safflower and effective use. The ways of processing safflower seed to obtain oil. It is the most productive and promising method for processing seeds of safflower scheme press extruder. Described compression step in the processing of safflower seeds scheme press extruder. Crucial processing technology safflower seeds have two fundamental rheological characteristics of viscosity and elasticity, which depend on the structure of the raw material, the molecular weight distribution, and processing conditions such as temperature, pressure and flow rate. The dependence of the density of its safflower cake moisture concluded that with humidity increase the particle density increases, due to the swelling of colloids grain. Furthermore, the dependence of shear stress and the effective viscosity versus shear rate, it is concluded that with increasing shear rate influence of temperature on the viscosity gradient weakens. The article shows the study of the prospects of the extrusion process in the presence of the ultrasound field and the creation of equipment that takes into account these properties. The use of ultrasound significantly reduces energy consumption and necessary to prevent the molding ion safflower seeds, improves product quality.

  13. Nanoemulsion of orange oil with non ionic surfactant produced emulsion using ultrasonication technique: evaluating against food spoilage yeast

    Sugumar, Saranya; Singh, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, food industries have shown great interest in developing nanoemulsion (NE) using essential oils (EOs) to prevent food spoilage caused by microorganisms. The hydrophobic properties of EOs have lead to reduced solubilization effect of food, which in turn, created a negative impact on the quality of food and its antimicrobial efficacy. Focusing this issue, we attempted a unique NE preparation using orange oil, Tween 80 (organic phase) and water (aqueous phase) by sonication technique. Based on thermodynamic stability studies, the effective diameter was reported to be in the size range from 20 to 30 nm. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in testing the anti-yeast effect. Their activity was studied in both growth medium and apple juice. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this NE was determined using broth dilution method. At 2 μl/ml, orange oil NE demonstrated inhibition of tested microorganisms. The kinetics of killing curve, have shown that the NE treated cells had lost its viability within 30 min of interaction. Also, SEM image revealed that the treated cells became distorted in comparison to their control cells. NE treated apple juice showed complete loss of viability even on dilution as compared to their controls.

  14. Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil and natural gas producing region of the western US

    R. Ahmadov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional scale air quality model WRF-Chem to simulate high ozone (O3 episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high resolution meteorological simulations are able to qualitatively reproduce the wintertime cold pool conditions that occurred in 2013, allowing the model to reproduce the observed multi-day buildup of atmospheric pollutants and accompanying rapid photochemical ozone formation in the UB. Two different emission scenarios for the oil and NG sector were employed in this study. The first emission scenario (bottom-up was based on the US EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI (2011, version 1 for the oil and NG sector for the UB. The second emission scenario (top-down was based on the previously derived estimates of methane (CH4 emissions and a regression analysis for multiple species relative to CH4 concentration measurements in the UB. WRF-Chem simulations using the two emission data sets resulted in significant differences for concentrations of most gas-phase species. Evaluation of the model results shows greater underestimates of CH4 and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the simulation with the NEI-2011 inventory than the case when the top-down emission scenario was used. Unlike VOCs, the NEI-2011 inventory significantly overestimates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, while the top-down emission scenario results in a moderate negative bias. Comparison of simulations using the two emission data sets reveals that the top-down case captures the high O3 episodes. In contrast, the simulation case using the bottom-up inventory is not able to reproduce any of the observed high O3 concentrations in the UB. A

  15. Evaluating the Feasibility of Using Produced Water from Oil and Natural Gas Production to Address Water Scarcity in California’s Central Valley

    Measrainsey Meng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current California drought has reduced freshwater availability, creating tensions between water users across the state. Although over 518 million m 3 of water were produced during fossil fuel production in California in 2014, the majority was disposed into Class II injection wells. There have been few attempts to assess the feasibility of using produced water for beneficial purposes, due in part to the difficulties of accessing, synthesizing and analyzing data regarding produced water quality and quantity. This study addresses this gap and provides a techno-economic assessment of upgrading produced water from California’s oil and natural gas activities and moving it to adjacent water-stressed regions. Results indicate that the four population centers facing the greatest water shortage risk are located in the Central Valley within a 161 km (100 mile radius of 230 million m 3 of total treatable produced water. This volume can supply up to one million people-years worth of potable water. The cost of desalinating and transporting this water source is comparable in magnitude to some agricultural and local public water supplies and is substantially lower than bottled water. Thus, utilizing reverse osmosis to treat produced water might be a feasible solution to help relieve water scarcity in some drought-stricken regions of California.

  16. A field pilot-scale study of biological treatment of heavy oil-produced water by biological filter with airlift aeration and hydrolytic acidification system.

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Junming; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Song, Zhaozheng; Zhang, Zhenjia; Zhang, Beiyu; Zhang, Guangqing; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Heavy oil-produced water (HOPW) is a by-product during heavy oil exploitation and can cause serious environmental pollution if discharged without adequate treatment. Commercial biochemical treatment units are important parts of HOPW treatment processes, but many are not in stable operation because of the toxic and refractory substances, salt, present. Therefore, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of hydrolytic acidification-biological filter with airlift aeration (HA-BFAA), a novel HOPW treatment system. Four strains isolated from oily sludge were used for bioaugmentation to enhance the biodegradation of organic pollutants. The isolated bacteria were evaluated using 3-day biochemical oxygen demand, oil, dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals as evaluation indices. Bioaugmentation enhanced the COD removal by 43.5 mg/L under a volume load of 0.249 kg COD/m(3) day and hydraulic retention time of 33.6 h. The effluent COD was 70.9 mg/L and the corresponding COD removal was 75.0 %. The optimum volumetric air-to-water ratio was below 10. The removal ratios of the total extractable organic pollutants, alkanes, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons were 71.1, 94.4, and 94.0 %, respectively. Results demonstrated that HA-BFAA was an excellent HOPW treatment system.

  17. Bioremediation of waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced by Penicillium chrysogenum SNP5 grown in solid medium containing waste grease.

    Kumar, Sunil; Mathur, Anisha; Singh, Varsha; Nandy, Suchismita; Khare, Sunil Kumar; Negi, Sangeeta

    2012-09-01

    The aim of present work was to bioremediate the waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced in solid medium containing waste grease and wheat bran by Penicillium chrysogenum. Enzyme extracted with phosphate buffer was purified 10.6 and 26.28-fold after 90% ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, respectively. The partial characterization of enzyme revealed its K(m) and V(max) value for p-nitrophenolpamitate as 0.4mM and 47.61 U/ml, respectively. The relative molecular mass of lipase was 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by zymogram. Purified lipase was most stable at 40°C and at 8.0 pH. Lipase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+) and non-ionic surfactant TritonX-100, while suppressed in the presence of SDS. Crude lipase was applied on cooking oil waste and the acid value was 26.92 mg/g. This showed that the enzyme could be employed for the bioremediation of used cooking oil.

  18. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Ibragimov Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  19. Oil: Lessons from Comparative Perspectives for Ghana

    Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema

    Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.

  20. 77 FR 57037 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    2012-09-17

    ... expected to benefit producers, handlers, and consumers. DATES: Comments must be received by November 16... timely manner. The proposed changes are expected to benefit producers, handlers, and consumers of... annual crop and do not have the luxury of having other crops to cushion seasons with poor spearmint...

  1. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  2. Physicochemical characterization and quality of cold-pressed peanut oil obtained from organically produced peanuts from Macedonian “Virginia” variety

    Kostadinović Veličkovska, S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical characterization and quality of cold pressed peanut edible oil from the “Virginia” variety, organically produced from the region of Macedonia, were examined in this work for the first time. The fatty acid composition of the oil showed almost equal levels of oleic and linoleic acids with an abundance of 34.19±0.01 and 36.13±0.01%, respectively. The most dominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid with a level of 10.06±0.00%. The level of tocopherols and other vitamin-E-related compounds was in strong agreement with the antioxidant activity of the oils measured by the DPPH assay. Almost equal amounts of α and γ tocopherols indicated an antioxidant potential of 288.63±59.78 mg·L−1 α-tocopherol. Phytosterols, as minor compounds present in the oils, can be additional antioxidants responsible for the health benefits of this oil in human nutrition. The four major pytosterols were β-sitosterol (1812.21±22.17 mg·kg−1 oil, champesterol (320.55±17.07 mg·kg−1 oil, Δ5-avenasterol (236.16±14.18 mg·kg−1 and stigmasterol (133.12±12.51 mg·kg−1 oil. Induction time, Peroxide number, FFA and specific extinction (K232 and K270, values 1.82 and 0.22 gave us an indication of the oxidative stability of cold pressed peanut oil.Se ha abordado por primera vez, en este trabajo, la caracterización físico-química y la calidad de aceite comestible de maní prensado en frío de la variedad “Virginia”, de producción ecológica y procedente de la región de Macedonia La composición de ácidos grasos del aceite mostró casi los mismos niveles de los ácidos oleico y linoleico: 34,19±0,01 y 36,13±0,01%, respectivamente. El ácido graso saturado dominante fué el palmítico, 10,06±0,00%. El nivel de tocoferoles y otros compuestos relacionados con la vitamina-E estaba en estrecha relación con la actividad antioxidante de los aceites medidos mediante el ensayo de DPPH. Casi igual cantidad de α y γ tocoferol indic

  3. Oil Giants to Build Electric Charging Infrastructure

    Dou Yali

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's Domestic oil companies have started developing charging stations for electric vehicles to cash in on the growth in clean energy.The country is pushing forward development of new energy vehicles,in particular electric vehicles,consistent with its status as the world's largest car market and auto-producing country,as well as the world's largest exporter of new energy vehicles.

  4. Mauritius country study

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  5. Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide water-in-oil microemulsions: dependence of the minimum amount of alkanol required to produce a microemulsion with the alkanol and organic solvent topology.

    Abuin, E; Lissi, E; Olivares, K

    2004-08-01

    The amount of alcohol required to produce a microemulsion in a quaternary water-in-oil system was evaluated for a series of alcohols and hydrocarbon solvents of different size or topology. It was observed that the amount of n-hexanol and n-decanol required was similar in all the solvents considered. On the other hand, considerably higher concentrations of the branched alcohols (2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol and 3-ethyl-3-pentanol) were required to produce the microemulsion, irrespective of the solvent topology (n-hexane or 2,2,4-trimethylpentane). From an analysis of the change in the analytical alcohol concentration with the surfactant concentration the amounts of alcohol present at the microaggregates' surface at the point of microemulsion formation were obtained. It is concluded that the high amounts of branched alcohols required are due to both less efficient incorporation at the interface and the larger number of alcohol molecules per surfactant required to stabilize the microemulsion.

  6. Oligoesters and polyesters produced by the curing of sunflower oil epoxidized biodiesel with cis-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride: Synthesis and characterization

    Reiznautt, Quelen B. [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Department of Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Garcia, Irene T.S. [Department of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry and Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Pelotas, 96010-900, Pelotas (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios, E-mail: dsamios@iq.ufrgs.br [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Department of Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-08-31

    Oligoesters and polyesters produced from sunflower oil biodiesel were synthesized and characterized. The polymers were obtained through the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy esters (EE) with cis-1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride (CH) and triethylamine (TEA) as initiator. Some reactions were conducted by adding small amounts of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE). The intermediate products of the synthesis process, including sunflower oil, methyl ester, epoxidised methyl esters, and the oligoesters and polyesters produced, were followed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance. The products obtained from the curing of the epoxidised esters with different compositions present similar chemical structures; however, they still depend on the amount of the epoxy resin BDGE that was added in the polymerization reaction. Thermoplastic materials with molecular weights (MW) starting at 3800 g/mol and reaching very high MWs, resulted in cross linked polymers. The thermal behaviour of the different products was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the structure of the materials increases the bonding capacity, resulting in higher molecular weight materials, which present good thermal stability.

  7. Europe and oil: beware of the glass ceiling; L'europe et le petrole: attention au plafond de verre

    Durand, B. [ASPO France et de SLC France (France)

    2011-01-15

    Because current oil exporting countries consume an increasing share of their production and will shortly be producing less and less, available amounts of oil for the international market will decrease faster than world production, in spite of the emergence of new exporting countries such as Brazil or Kazakhstan. Owing to expanding consumption of major emerging countries, the share le for developed countries will drop rapidly, by approximately one third in the coming fifteen years. Europe, whose oil reserves will soon be exhausted, will almost entirely depend on outside sources. If it does not adjust through massive and swift consumption reduction, its material growth will be durably jeopardized due to substantial oil price increases. The adjustment requires strong and urgent measures to reduce the consumption of oil-based fuel in transportation, as well as of fuel oil by the residential and tertiary sectors. A selection of measures is set out. (author)

  8. Treatment of produced water by means of a new technology (MDIF): application for waters containing oil at low concentrations; Tratamento de aguas produzidas por meio de nova tecnologia (MDIF): aplicacao para aguas contendo baixas concentracoes em oleo

    Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [PETROBRAS S.A., Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao. Ativo de Producao Mossoro]. E-mail: wilaci@petrobras.com.br; Paulo, Joao Bosco de Araujo; Moraes, Norberto Araujo de Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica). E-mails: jbosco@eq.ufrn.br; norberto@eq.ufrn.br; Lima, Antonio Faria; Lacerda, Geraldo de Moura [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao. Gerencia de Engenharia de Instalacoes, Processamento e Automacao]. E-mails: farialima@petrobras.com.br; geraldoml@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The production of oil is associated with waters which exist naturally at the reservoirs or were injected into wells. These waters, named produced waters, contain beside free oil, emulsioned or micro-emulsioned oil which can not be discharged directly at the environment. The conventional decanters are not efficient to separate this kind of oil dispersed as fine droplets. In this case, a promising alternative to solve the problem of oil/water separation is accomplished by means of the phase inversion method. This method is the basis of working of a new model of mixer-settler which has a vertical disposition and occupies a small surface area. The last characteristic becomes especially important when exist a limitation of place, for example, over the maritime platforms to explore oil. The device of laboratory of the equipment named MDIF (mixer-settler based on phase inversion) has been efficient for treat waters containing up to 2 000 mg/L of emulsioned oil. This equipment on a semi-industrial scale was installed in the entrance of oil/water separator (OWS) from effluent treatment plant from Guamare, Rio Grande do Norte (ETP/GMR) and treats produced waters contaminated with oil at low concentrations (ranging from 30 to 150 mg/L) and throughputs of 320 m3/d (47,4 m3 m-2 h-1). Good results were obtained on oil/water separation which leads to the necessary specification to discharge waters. Besides, the non dependence of the efficiency of separation in the face of the salinity of the medium becomes the equipment a new technology to treat wastewaters containing oil at low concentrations. In this condition conventional equipment do not present a good efficiency of separation, till dispersed droplets are very small (less than 100 {mu}m) requiring a long time of sedimentation. (author)

  9. Radium content of oil- and gas-field produced waters in the northern Appalachian Basin (USA)—Summary and discussion of data

    Rowan, E.L.; Engle, M.A.; Kirby, C.S.; Kraemer, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radium activity data for waters co-produced with oil and gas in New York and Pennsylvania have been compiled from publicly available sources and are presented together with new data for six wells, including one time series. When available, total dissolved solids (TDS), and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities also were compiled. Data from the 1990s and earlier are from sandstone and limestone oil/gas reservoirs of Cambrian-Mississippian age; however, the recent data are almost exclusively from the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. The Marcellus Shale represents a vast resource of natural gas the size and significance of which have only recently been recognized. Exploitation of the Marcellus involves hydraulic fracturing of the shale to release tightly held gas. Analyses of the water produced with the gas commonly show elevated levels of salinity and radium. Similarities and differences in radium data from reservoirs of different ages and lithologies are discussed. The range of radium activities for samples from the Marcellus Shale (less than detection to 18,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/L)) overlaps the range for non-Marcellus reservoirs (less than detection to 6,700 pCi/L), and the median values are 2,460 pCi/L and 734 pCi/L, respectively. A positive correlation between the logs of TDS and radium activity can be demonstrated for the entire dataset, and controlling for this TDS dependence, Marcellus shale produced water samples contain statistically more radium than non-Marcellus samples. The radium isotopic ratio, Ra-228/Ra-226, in samples from the Marcellus Shale is generally less than 0.3, distinctly lower than the median values from other reservoirs. This ratio may serve as an indicator of the provenance or reservoir source of radium in samples of uncertain origin.

  10. Complete Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of the Hydrocarbon Oil-Producing Green Microalga Botryococcus braunii Race B (Showa).

    Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Kalinowski, Jörn; Kruse, Olaf

    2016-06-09

    The green alga Botryococcus braunii is capable of the production and excretion of high quantities of long-chain hydrocarbons and exopolysaccharides. In this study, we present the complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes of the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa), with a total length of 156,498 and 129,356 bp, respectively.

  11. 76 FR 11971 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    2011-03-04

    ... much of the pressure on the industry's current oversupply situation may be relieved moving forward. In... the estimated season average price to producers is likely to exceed parity. Conformity with the USDA's... brought about through group action of essentially small entities acting on their own behalf. There...

  12. 78 FR 22202 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    2013-04-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the... 2013-2014 Marketing Year AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY..., that handlers may purchase from, or handle on behalf of, producers during the 2013-2014 marketing...

  13. Biodegradation pattern of hydrocarbons from a fuel oil-type complex residue by an emulsifier-producing microbial consortium.

    Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Esteves, J L; Bucalá, V

    2008-06-15

    The biodegradation of a hazardous waste (bilge waste), a fuel oil-type complex residue from normal ship operations, was studied in a batch bioreactor using a microbial consortium in seawater medium. Experiments with initial concentrations of 0.18 and 0.53% (v/v) of bilge waste were carried out. In order to study the biodegradation kinetics, the mass of n-alkanes, resolved hydrocarbons and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) hydrocarbons were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Emulsification was detected in both experiments, possibly linked to the n-alkanes depletion, with differences in emulsification start times and extents according to the initial hydrocarbon concentration. Both facts influenced the hydrocarbon biodegradation kinetics. A sequential biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC was found for the higher hydrocarbon content. Being the former growth associated, while UCM biodegradation was a non-growing process showing enzymatic-type biodegradation kinetics. For the lower hydrocarbon concentration, simultaneous biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC were found before emulsification. Nevertheless, certain UCM biodegradation was observed after the medium emulsification. According to the observed kinetics, three main types of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, biodegradable UCM and recalcitrant UCM) were found adequate to represent the multicomponent substrate (bilge waste) for future modelling of the biodegradation process.

  14. The producing technology of douchi and fermented soybean oil%豆豉及豉油的生产技术

    李学贵

    2011-01-01

    The raw materials,ingredients,technological process,operating points and product features of mucorale-type douchi,aspergillus-type douchi and bacteria douchi are introduced.And the production of fermented soybean oil with aspergillus-type douchi,including its recipe,technological process,operating points and products features are also discussed as well.%为了更好地传承我国传统发酵食品豆豉的生产技术,介绍了毛霉型豆豉、曲霉型豆豉和细菌型豆豉等3种豆豉的原料、配方、工艺流程、操作要点和产品特点,同时还介绍了利用曲霉型豆豉生产豉油的配方、工艺流程、操作要点和产品特点。

  15. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Property of the Oils from Oil Palm Produced in Wenchang City, Hainan%海南文昌油棕油脂的脂肪酸组成及抗氧化活性研究

    夏秋瑜; 李瑞; 唐敏敏; 王威; 雷新涛; 赵松林

    2011-01-01

    采用GC-MS测定了海南文昌小叶杜拉种(E.guineensis-S.L Dura)油棕果中棕榈油(P0)和棕榈仁油(PKO)的脂肪酸组成,并对二者的体外抗氧化活性进行评价.结果表明,PO中总酚含量为(0.014±0.000 2)mg/g,而PKO中未测出多酚;PO及PKO的硫代巴比妥酸值(TBARS)显著低于空白样品;75%PO对DPPH,的清除能力显著高于Vc、苹果酸和儿茶酸,达98.86%,而PKO对DPPH·的清除能力低于对照;PO中多酚提取物(PO-PF)及75% PKO对Fe2+的络合能力显著高于Vc、苹果酸和儿茶酸;PO-PF和75%PO对Fe3+的还原能力显著高于Vc及苹果酸,75% PKO对Fe3+的还原能力与Vc相当.PO-PF及25%~75%PKO对ABTS+·的清除能力优于Vc和苹果酸.%GC-MS was used to detect fatty acid composition of palm oil (PO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) from oil palm (E. Guineensis -S.L.Durd) produced in Wenchang, Hainan, and the antioxidant property of the oils was evaluated. The results showed that the polyphenol content of PO was (0.014±0.000 2) mg/g and which was not detected in PKO. The TBARS value of PO and PKO were obviously lower than the check. The scavenging ability to DPPH radical of 75% PO was 98.86%, which was remarkably higher than Vc, malic acid and catechin, while the scavenging ability to DPPH radical of PKO was lower than the three contrasts. The complexation ability to ferrous iron of 75% PKO and polyphenol fraction of palm oil (PO-PF) were obviously higher than Vc, malic acid and catechin. The reducing capacity to Fe3+ of PO-PF and 75% PO were obviously hither than Vc and malic acid, which of 75% PKO was comparable to Vc. The scavenging rate to ABTS+ radical of PO-PF and 25%~75% PKO were higher than Vc and malic acid.

  16. Industrial Test of Blending the Third Side-draw VGO from Imported Crude Oil and Shengli Crude Oil to Produce HVIⅡ6 Lubricating Base Oil%掺炼胜利进口原油减三线生产HVIⅡ6基础油的工业试验

    宗军; 温传忠; 吴艳萍; 李慧

    2015-01-01

    Based on crude oil separately-feeding-separately-refining, the new technology which integrated high-pres-sure hydrogenation refining to three kinds of traditional processes was applied in SINOPEC Jinan Company. The furfural refi-ning raw materials was broadened by blending the third side-draw VGO from imported crude oil and Shengli crude oil, so as to the quality grade of lubricating base oil was improved and HVIⅡ6 lubricating base oil and 62 # paraffin were produced. Through production tracking analysis, various suitable raw materials,product control indicators and operating conditions were found, and then the lubricant processing programs were optimized and the profits per ton of crude oil were maximized.%在原油分输分炼的基础上,通过掺炼胜利进口原油的减三线蜡油拓宽糠醛精制原料,应用高压加氢和"老三套"结合的工艺,生产优质HVIⅡ6润滑油基础油和62 #石蜡. 通过生产跟踪分析,摸索各装置合适的原料和产品控制指标以及操作条件,从而达到优化润滑油加工方案,实现吨油利润最大化的目的.

  17. POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2011-02-01

    Commercial scale oil shale and oil sands development will require water, the amount of which will depend on the technologies adopted and the scale of development that occurs. Water in oil shale and oil sands country is already in scarce supply, and because of the arid nature of the region and limitations on water consumption imposed by interstate compacts and the Endangered Species Act, the State of Utah normally does not issue new water rights in oil shale or oil sands rich areas. Prospective oil shale and oil sands developers that do not already hold adequate water rights can acquire water rights from willing sellers, but large and secure water supplies may be difficult and expensive to acquire, driving oil shale and oil sands developers to seek alternative sources of supply. Produced water is one such potential source of supply. When oil and gas are developed, operators often encounter ground water that must be removed and disposed of to facilitate hydrocarbon extraction. Water produced through mineral extraction was traditionally poor in quality and treated as a waste product rather than a valuable resource. However, the increase in produced water volume and the often-higher quality water associated with coalbed methane development have drawn attention to potential uses of produced water and its treatment under appropriations law. This growing interest in produced water has led to litigation and statutory changes that must be understood and evaluated if produced water is to be harnessed in the oil shale and oil sands development process. Conversely, if water is generated as a byproduct of oil shale and oil sands production, consideration must be given to how this water will be disposed of or utilized in the shale oil production process. This report explores the role produced water could play in commercial oil shale and oil sands production, explaining the evolving regulatory framework associated with produced water, Utah water law and produced water regulation

  18. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC

  19. Nanoemulsions produced with varied type of emulsifier and oil content: An influence of formulation and process parameters on the characteristics and physical stability

    Đorđević Sanela M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized with a novel natural alkyl polyglucoside surfactant and to compare them with corresponding lecithin/polysorbate 80 - based nanoemulsions in terms of physicochemical properties and physical stability. Nanoemulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenization, using 20, 30 and 40% (w/w medium chain triglyceride as oil phase, and 4, 6 and 8% (w/w lecithin/polysorbate 80 mixture (1/1 or caprylyl/capryl glucoside as emulsifiers. The influence of emulsifier type, emulsifier concentration and oil content was investigated with respect to changes in particle size, particle size distribution, surface charge and physical stability. The influence of production parameters (number of homogenization cycles, type of homogenization process, homogenization pressure on particle size was also investigated. Analysis was performed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction, zeta potential, pH and electrical conductivity measurements. All formulations produced revealed a small droplet size ranging from 147 to 228 nm and a very narrow size distribution (polydispersity index range 0,072-0,124. Zeta potentials were about -20 mV and -50 mV for nanoemulsions stabilized with lecithin/polysorbate 80 and caprylyl/capryl glucoside, respectively. The results obtained during the stability studies (6 months at 25°C and 1 month at 40°C indicated that nanoemulsion stability was influenced by their composition. Acquired results also suggested the most appropriate production parameters: 9 homogenization cycles, homogenization pressure of 500 bar and discontinuous process of homogenization.

  20. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND EXTRACTION OF BITUMEN FROM BITUMINOUS SAND AND HEAVY OIL IN NIGERIA

    Nwizug-bee L. K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has the largest oil sands and bitumen resources in Africa and is one of the main leading countries in the world from the point of view of its significant potential heavy oil deposits. Research of geological and physicochemical properties confirmed that the Nigerian bitumen is an important energy source and an alternative source of hydrocarbon feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Nigeria imports black oil for the petrochemical industry and its heavy oil can act in place of this black oil. In addition, researchers have successfully established the possibility of producing electrical energy from this heavy oil. Tar sands and bitumen are able to help improve the economy of Nigeria

  1. Determination of the kinetic parameters during continuous cultivation of the lipase-producing thermophile Bacillus sp. IHI-91 on olive oil.

    Becker, P; Abu-Reesh, I; Markossian, S; Antranikian, G; Märkl, H

    1997-08-01

    A thermostable lipase was produced in continuous cultivation of a newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus sp. strain IHI-91 growing optimally at 65 degrees C. Lipase activity decreased with increasing dilution rate while lipase productivity showed a maximum of 340 U l-1 h-1 at a condition rate of 0.4 h-1. Lipase productivity was increased by 50% compared to data from batch fermentations. Up to 70% of the total lipase activity measured was associated to cells and by-products or residual substrate. Kinetic and stoichiometric parameters for the utilisation of olive oil were determined. The maximal biomass output method led to a saturation constant Ks of 0.88 g/l. Both batch growth data and a washout experiment yielded a maximal specific growth rate, mu max, of 1.0 h-1. Oxygen uptake rates of up to 2.9 g l-1 h-1 were calculated and the yield coefficient, Y X/O, was determined to be 0.29 g dry cell weight/g O2. From an overall material balance the yield coefficient, Y X/S, was estimated to be 0.60 g dry cell weight/g olive oil.

  2. Oil Reserve Center Established

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  3. Effect of different stress conditions on the stability of quercetin-loaded lipid microparticles produced with babacu ( Orbignya speciosa oil: evaluation of their potential use in food applications

    Camila Pinheiro Silva CAZADO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid micro and nanoparticles have been extensively investigated as carriers for hydrophobic bioactives in food systems because they can simultaneously increase the dispersibility of these lipophilic substances and help improve their bioavailability. In this study, lipid microparticles of babacu oil and denatured whey protein isolate were produced, and their ability to protect quercetin against degradation was evaluated over 30 days of storage. Additionally, the lipid microparticles were subjected to the typical stress conditions of food processing (presence of sucrose, salt, and thermal stresses, and their physico-chemical stability was monitored. The data show that the babacu microparticles efficiently avoided the oxidation of quercetin because 85% of the initial amount of the flavonoid was preserved after 30 days. The particles were notably stable up to a temperature of 70 °C for 10 minutes at relatively high concentrations of salt and sucrose. The type of stirring (mechanical or magnetic also strongly affected the stability of the dispersions.

  4. Transformation of gray forest soils upon technogenic salinization and alkalization and subsequent rehabilitation in oil-producing regions of the southern Urals

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleimanov, R. R.

    2007-09-01

    The technogenically induced salinization and alkalization (solonetzization) of gray forest soils results in their transformation into soils similar to natural solonchaks and solonetzes. Their density increases, the structure is disturbed, and the water stability of the aggregates becomes poorer. The humus content decreases, the nutrition regime is deteriorated, and the enzymatic activity is hindered. Under natural conditions, soil desalinization is seen within a ten-year-long period after its contamination with strongly saline oil-field waste water, while soil solonetzization remains very high. The soil properties are regenerated after application of an adequate rate of phosphogypsum and manure. Phosphogypsum applied alone causes a deterioration of the agrophysical properties as it produces an extremely high water stability of aggregates and strong soil compaction.

  5. Cyclodextrin-Complexed Ocimum basilicum Leaves Essential Oil Increases Fos Protein Expression in the Central Nervous System and Produce an Antihyperalgesic Effect in Animal Models for Fibromyalgia

    Simone S. Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD, on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o., LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle (saline, and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey, motor coordination (Rota-rod and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia.

  6. Cyclodextrin-complexed Ocimum basilicum leaves essential oil increases Fos protein expression in the central nervous system and produce an antihyperalgesic effect in animal models for fibromyalgia.

    Nascimento, Simone S; Araújo, Adriano A S; Brito, Renan G; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Paula P; DeSantana, Josimari M; Lucca, Waldecy; Alves, Pericles B; Blank, Arie F; Oliveira, Rita C M; Oliveira, Aldeidia P; Albuquerque, Ricardo L C; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Quintans, Lucindo J

    2014-12-29

    O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO) rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD), on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o.), tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (saline), and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey), motor coordination (Rota-rod) and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter) in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC), thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia.

  7. Biodegradation of diesel oil by a novel microbial consortium: comparison between co-inoculation with biosurfactant-producing strain and exogenously added biosurfactants.

    Mnif, Inès; Mnif, Sami; Sahnoun, Rihab; Maktouf, Sameh; Ayedi, Younes; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-10-01

    Bioremediation, involving the use of microorganisms to detoxify or remove pollutants, is the most interesting strategy for hydrocarbon remediation. In this aim, four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Tunisia. They were identified by the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, as Lysinibacillus bronitolerans RI18 (KF964487), Bacillus thuringiensis RI16 (KM111604), Bacillus weihenstephanensis RI12 (KM094930), and Acinetobacter radioresistens RI7 (KJ829530). Moreover, a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis SPB1, confirmed to increase diesel solubility, was tested to increase diesel biodegradation along with co-inoculation with two biosurfactant-producing strains. Culture studies revealed the enhancement of diesel biodegradation by the selected consortium with the addition of SPB1 lipopeptide and in the cases of co-inoculation by biosurfactant-producing strain. In fact, an improvement of about 38.42 and 49.65 % of diesel degradation was registered in the presence of 0.1 % lipopeptide biosurfactant and when culturing B. subtilis SPB1 strain with the isolated consortium, respectively. Furthermore, the best improvement, evaluated to about 55.4 %, was recorded when using the consortium cultured with B. subtilis SPB1 and A. radioresistens RI7 strains. Gas chromatography analyses were correlated with the gravimetric evaluation of the residual hydrocarbons. Results suggested the potential applicability of the selected consortium along with the ex situ- and in situ-added biosurfactant for the effective bioremediation of diesel-contaminated water and soil.

  8. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  9. Construction Characteristic of Foreign Country Oil Gathering Center Detective and Protective System for Fire and Gas%国外集油站火灾与气体检测及保护系统的施工特点

    李信龙; 程红

    2001-01-01

    The article introduces function of foreign country oil gatheringcenter detective and protective system for fire and gas, hand over of its installation and service from construction and installation angles. The article considers that the system is designed rationally, suitable for application in oil and chemical engineering and has high reliability.%从施工安装的角度,介绍火灾与气体检测及保护系统的基本功能、安装调试以及工程交工与服务的工作要求,认为该系统设计合理、可靠性高,能有效地进行火气保护,因而适合在国内石油、化工领域推广应用。

  10. Characterization of Oilseed Lipids from “DHA-Producing Camelina sativa”: A New Transformed Land Plant Containing Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Maged P. Mansour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C20 omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3 are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid. Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM extraction recovered further lipid (~50% polar lipid, comprising glycolipids and phospholipids and residual TAG. The main phospholipid species were phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The % DHA was: 6.8% (of total fatty acids in the TAG-rich hexane extract and 4.2% in the polar lipid-rich CM extract. The relative level of ALA (α-linolenic acid, 18:3ω3 in DHA-camelina seed was higher than the control. Major sterols in both DHA- and control camelina seeds were: sitosterol, campesterol, cholesterol, brassicasterol and isofucosterol. C16–C22 fatty alcohols, including iso-branched and odd-chain alcohols were present, including high levels of iso-17:0, 17:0 and 19:0. Other alcohols present were: 16:0, iso-18:0, 18:0 and 18:1 and the proportions varied between the hexane and CM extracts. These iso-branched odd-chain fatty alcohols, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported. These components may be derived from wax esters, or free fatty alcohols.

  11. Characterization of oilseed lipids from "DHA-producing Camelina sativa": a new transformed land plant containing long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Mansour, Maged P; Shrestha, Pushkar; Belide, Srinivas; Petrie, James R; Nichols, Peter D; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-02-21

    New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C₂₀) omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3) are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG) as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid). Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM) extraction recovered further lipid (~50% polar lipid, comprising glycolipids and phospholipids) and residual TAG. The main phospholipid species were phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The % DHA was: 6.8% (of total fatty acids) in the TAG-rich hexane extract and 4.2% in the polar lipid-rich CM extract. The relative level of ALA (α-linolenic acid, 18:3ω3) in DHA-camelina seed was higher than the control. Major sterols in both DHA- and control camelina seeds were: sitosterol, campesterol, cholesterol, brassicasterol and isofucosterol. C₁₆-C₂₂ fatty alcohols, including iso-branched and odd-chain alcohols were present, including high levels of iso-17:0, 17:0 and 19:0. Other alcohols present were: 16:0, iso-18:0, 18:0 and 18:1 and the proportions varied between the hexane and CM extracts. These iso-branched odd-chain fatty alcohols, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported. These components may be derived from wax esters, or free fatty alcohols.

  12. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  13. 借鉴大豆主产国经验促进我国大豆产业健康发展%Learn from the Major Soybean Producing Countries Experience to Promote the Healthy Development of China's Soybean Industry

    程遥

    2012-01-01

    China is the origin of soybean,and has planted soybean for more than five thousand years. Before the reform and o-pening up,China's soybean production and export volume ranks first in the world. Since 1996,China has become a net importer, and the import volume increased year after year,which seriously affected China's grain security. In this paper,we analyzed the reasons why China becomes a net soybean importer, and discussed the disadvantages of relying too heavily on soybean import from the perspectives of maintaining national food security and protecting the health and the wisdom of the Chinese nation. Finally, based on the experiences of major soybean producing countries, we proposed the following suggestions to develop China soybean industry:increase investments to developing well-adapted varieties and innovating cultivation and field management; adjust the layout of the soybean industry to make the production and deep processing of soybean centralized in the same region; enlarge the planting area of peanuts, rapeseed and other oil crops to replace imported transgenic soybean; enhance the policy supporting efforts to promote the rapid development of soybean industry.%我国是大豆原产国,已有五千多年种植史.改革开放前,我国大豆产量和出口量雄居世界首位,但从1996年开始,我国由大豆出口国变为大豆净进口国,且进口量连年递增,严重影响了我国粮食安全.本文简述了我国大豆由净出口国变为净进口国的发展过程,分析了其转变的原因,从维护国家粮食安全、保护中华民族健康的战略高度思考,深入分析,指出了大豆严重依赖进口对我国经济社会发展的巨大危害,并对大豆主产国在发展大豆产业方面的经验进行了总结,提出了加大科技投入培育优良品种、创新栽培和田间管理方法,调整大豆产业布局使大豆产供销精深加工集中区域化,扩大花生菜籽及其它油料作物种植替代进口大豆,加

  14. North African oil and foreign investment in changing market conditions

    Fattouh, Bassam [SOAS, University of London (United Kingdom); Darbouche, Hakim [Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Since the 1960s, the experiences of the North African oil producers of Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan within the oil industry have followed separate paths, which have led them into different relations with foreign oil companies. While reflecting broader trends of 'resource nationalism', these relations have also been affected by a number of factors specific to these countries. In tracing the evolution of the oil investment frameworks of these countries, as well as their concomitant relations with IOCs, this paper probes the roles played by these factors and argues that the type and size of remaining reserves as well as the capability of NOCs are likely to determine the most future developments in the region's oil industry. (author)

  15. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    Grimpe, Christoph

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...... originally produced in December 2012, focusing on policy developments over the previous twelve months. The reports were produced by independent experts under direct contract with IPTS. The analytical framework and the structure of the reports have been developed by the Institute for Prospective Technological...

  16. [Isolation, Identification and Characteristic Analysis of an Oil-producing Chlorella sp. Tolerant to High-strength Anaerobic Digestion Effluent].

    Yang, Chuang; Wang, Wen-guo; Ma, Dan-wei; Tang, Xiao-yu; Hu, Qi-chun

    2015-07-01

    A Chlorella strain tolerant to high-strength anaerobic digestion effluent was isolated from the anaerobic digestion effluent with a long-term exposure to air. The strain was identified as a Chlorella by morphological and molecular biological methods, and named Chlorella sp. BWY-1, The anaerobic digestion effluent used in this study was from a biogas plant with the raw materials of swine wastewater after solid-liquid separation. The Chlorella regularis (FACHB-729) was used as the control strain. The comparative study showed that Chlorella sp, BWY-Ihad relatively higher growth rate, biomass accumulation capacity and pollutants removal rate in BG11. and different concentrations of anaerobic digestion effluent. Chlorella sp. BWY-1 had the highest growth rate and biomass productivity (324.40 mg.L-1) in BG11, but its lipid productivity and lipid content increased with the increase of anaerobic digestion effluent concentration, In undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent, the lipid productivity and lipid content of Chlorella sp. BWY-1 were up to 44. 43% and 108. 70 mg.L-1, respectively. Those results showed that the isolated algal strain bad some potential applications in livestock wastewater treatment and bioenergy production, it could be combined with a solid-liquid separation, anaerobic fermentation and other techniques for processing livestock wastewater and producing biodiesel.

  17. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  18. Nanoemulsion Thermoreversible Pluronic F127-Based Hydrogel Containing Hyptis pectinata (Lamiaceae) Leaf Essential Oil Produced a Lasting Anti-hyperalgesic Effect in Chronic Noninflammatory Widespread Pain in Mice.

    Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Brito, Renan G; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Santos, Priscila L; Camargo, Zaine T; Barreto, Péricles A; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria F; Lucca-Júnior, Waldecy; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus T; Kolker, Sandra J; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2017-02-13

    We evaluated if a nanostructured thermoreversible Pluronic F127-based hydrogel incorporated with Hyptis pectinata leaf essential oil (NE-EOH) produces a long-lasting anti-hyperalgesic effect on chronic muscle pain in an animal model. We induced chronic muscle pain by injecting the gastrocnemius with saline injections. Paw and muscle withdrawal thresholds and motor performance were evaluated after treatment and compared with morphine, diazepam, or vehicle. Naloxone and methysergide administration tested the involvement of opioid and serotonin receptors, respectively. Sites of action in the central nervous system for the NE-EOH were examined by measuring substance P (SP) levels in the spinal cord and Fos protein in the brainstem. NE-EOH increased paw and muscle withdrawal thresholds when compared with vehicle but had no effect on motor function. This analgesic effect was reversed by both naloxone and methysergide. NE-EOH decreased elevated substance P levels and reduced Fos-labeled neurons in the spinal cord and increased the number of Fos-labeled neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), and locus coeruleus (LC). NE-EOH was shown to produce a lasting anti-hyperalgesic effect. It uses opioid and serotonin receptors, activates brainstem inhibitory pathways, and reduces the release of excitatory neurotransmitters in the spinal cord and is a substance with potential to be used in the treatment of noninflammatory pain conditions. Graphical Abstract.

  19. Development potential and policies in the South Arabian countries Yemen Arab Republic, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Sultanate of Oman

    Hofmann, M.

    1982-01-01

    The South Arabian countries are small and economically and socio-economically among the least developed countries in the world. Nonetheless, the two Yemens and Oman have some international importance due to their position in the tense Middle East. The Arabian peninsula is likely to remain one of the world's trouble spots in the foreseeable future. Oil progressively became the determining factor in the economic development of the Arabian peninsula in the 1970s, and the shortage of labour in the oil-producing countries (including Oman) enabled the two Yemens to share in the wealth it created through the remittances of their migrant workers. Since the mid-1970s the two Yemens and Oman have received preferential treatment from the rich oil states in respect of financial cooperation (capital aid in the form of loans and grants), a commitment which is to be further increased. It is principally for the oil countries to speed up reforms aimed at improving structures in the South Arabian countries by pursuing an appropriate aid policy (conditionality). As the general change that oil has brought to the Arabian peninsula means that the two Yemens can no longer be regarded as typical LLDCs, the industrialized countries should concentrate their development cooperation with the South Arabian countries chiefly on technical assistance and planning consultancy coordinated with the wealthy oil countries. (orig./HSCH).

  20. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  1. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  2. Shigellosis Caused by CTX-M Type ESBL Producing Shigella flexneri in Two Siblings of Rural Nepal: First Case Report from the Country

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery. In Nepal, drug resistant strains of Shigella spp. have been reported, but MDR and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing strains were previously unknown. Here, we report two Shigella flexneri isolates harboring ESBL genotype-CTX-M associated with acute dysentery in two siblings which were presented and treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  3. Shigellosis Caused by CTX-M Type ESBL Producing Shigella flexneri in Two Siblings of Rural Nepal: First Case Report from the Country

    Joshi, Govardhan; Pardhe, Bashu Dev; Shakya, Jyotsna; Shakya, Shreena; Pandit, Roshan; Shrestha, Sumesh Shreekhanda; Khanal, Puspa Raj

    2017-01-01

    Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery) and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery. In Nepal, drug resistant strains of Shigella spp. have been reported, but MDR and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains were previously unknown. Here, we report two Shigella flexneri isolates harboring ESBL genotype-CTX-M associated with acute dysentery in two siblings which were presented and treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal. PMID:28321350

  4. Oils and fats: changes due to culinary and industrial processes.

    Sanchez-Muniz, F J

    2006-07-01

    Diets of developed countries contain substantial quantities of fat subjected to different processing and heat treatments. Heating in the presence of air produces oxidative and thermal degradations in the unsaturated acyl groups of triacylglycerols and in other unsaturated compounds present in the oils and fats. These changes modify the nutritional properties of culinary fat and lead to the formation of many oxidized and polymerized compounds that present higher polarity than that of the original triacylglycerols. Some aspects of lipid peroxidation that occur in heated and used frying oils will be briefly presented and discussed. This paper will focus on appropriate methodology for the assessment of fat alteration (e.g. chromatography) and the point at which any oil used for frying should be discarded. Polar material (PM) and triacylglycerol oligomer content (TOC) determinations constitute the basis of legislation for oil discarding in some European countries; we will try to open some debate on whether PM or TOC is preferred for oil discarding assessment. Correct frying performance helps to lengthen oil frying-life and to decrease the alteration content in the fried food. Because many factors are present in the culinary and industrial frying, the effect of the process itself and that of the food and the type of oil used will be reviewed. The present report analyses and describes a wide variety of topics related to frying performance, and their nutritional implications with a special focus on the behavior during frying of most consumed oils in Mediterranean countries.

  5. 含压裂液采出油乳化特性及破乳剂筛选研究%Research on Emulsifying Properties and Demulsifer Selection of Produced Oil Containing Fracturing Fluid

    贺凤云; 吕雅楠; 李伊兰; 梁霄; 董静

    2016-01-01

    After the large-scale fracturing of oil wells, produce d oil contains large amounts of chemical additives what make the oil-water separation more difficult. If these additives enter into the ground crude oil treatment system, they will impact on the stable operation of the oil system in the united station. The existing emulsion breaker is not adapted for the treatment of produced oil containing fracturing fluid. In order to ensure the normal operation of production, emulsifying properties of produced oil containing fracturing fluid were studied as well as particle size distribution, determination of the potential value of Zeta, selection and compound of demulsifiers. Finally the most effective demulsifier was determined as follows:PT6682B and PS-639-06 in the combination of 1:3.%油井大规模压裂后,采出油中含有大量化学添加剂,使油水分离难度增大,若进入地面原油处理系统,将对联合站油系统平稳运行造成冲击。现有破乳剂不适应含压裂采出油处理,为了保证生产正常平稳运行,对含压裂液采出油的乳化特性,粒径分布,Zeta电位值的测定以及破乳剂的筛选和复配进行了研究,最终确定了破乳剂PT6682B与PS-639-06按1∶3复配脱水效果最好。

  6. Systematic approach to the treatment of crude oil produced by small concessionaires in marginal areas of the Reconcavo Basin; Abordagem sistematizada para o tratamento do oleo produzido em campos marginais da Bacia do Reconcavo por pequenos concessionarios

    Lima, Edson Jorge Alves [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Araujo, Marcia Queiroz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Geofisica Aplicada

    2008-07-01

    The establishment of the 'Petroleum Law' (Law No. 9.478/97) abolished the Exploration and Production State Monopoly in Brazil. Attaining concessions through the bidding rounds promoted by the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) became the only legal means for exploring and/or producing oil and natural gas in Brazil. In order to attract small and medium companies to this niche, inactive areas with marginal accumulations were offered by the Agency. These areas were returned to ANP by PETROBRAS. Currently, six small companies operate in the Reconcavo Oil Province, extracting and processing different types of oil. The available infrastructure is mostly deteriorated and obsolete. Additionally, there are serious limitations in the separation and storage capacity. This scenario resulted in the fragmentation of the old PETROBRAS production infrastructure. A possible solution to this problem could involve the establishment of a collective treatment unit which would work as a condominium. However, the operation of this plant must take into account the diversity of oils being produced in the Reconcavo Basin (physical-chemicals characteristics). This paper is aimed at (1) establishing a preliminary characterization of the different types of oil which will be delivered by local producers; (2) the critical variables for the oil model (it includes all oils received from different areas of the Reconcavo); (3) the identification of the main stake holders within this process; and (4) suggestions for operating models for the treatment unit taking into account the potential innovations and opportunities for R and D and spin-offs. (author)

  7. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration.

  8. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012 : Norway

    Bulanova, Oxana; Madsen, Einar Lier

    2014-01-01

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The re...

  9. EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI

    Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

    2004-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal

  10. Numerical simulation of downhole temperature distribution in producing oil wells%生产油井井下温度场数值模拟分析

    石颖; 宋延杰; 刘洪

    2008-01-01

    An improved numerical simulation method is presented to calculate the downhole temperature distribution for multiple pay zones in producing oil wells. Based on hydrodynamics and heat transfer theory, a 2-D temperature field model in cylindrical coordinates is developed. In the model, we considered general heat conduction as well as the heat convection due to fluid flow from porous formation to the borehole. We also take into account the fluid velocity variation in the wellbore due to multiple pay zones. We present coupled boundary conditions at the interfaces between the wellbore and adjacent formation, the wellbore and pay zone, and the pay zone and adjacent formation. Finally, an alternating direction implicit difference method (ADI) is used to solve the temperature model for the downhole temperature distribution. The comparison of modeled temperature curve with actual temperature log indicates that simulation result is in general quite similar to the actual temperature log. We found that the total production rate, production time, porosity, thickness of pay zones, and geothermal gradient, all have effects on the downhole temperature distribution.

  11. Vegetative changes in boreal peatlands along salinity gradients resulting from produced water spills : implications for the environmental assessment and remediation of upstream oil and gas sites

    Bright, D.; Harris, C.; Meier, M. [AECOM Canada Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In the province of Alberta, there are approximately 8,000 registered oil effluent and produced pipelines that have significant potential for ruptures and spills due to the highly corrosive nature of the emulsions and produced water they transport. Most releases occur in or adjacent to northern boreal wetlands. The first objective in spill response involves assessment and remediation for residuals, which involves handling and disposal of large volumes of salinized water. This presentation reported on a study that addressed the issues regarding the ecological features of semi-terrestrial and semi-aquatic components of boreal wetland environments as a basis for environmental protection at salt release sites. The fate of salt ions in such environments was examined along with the implications for secondary succession and ecological restoration. The study also examined the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in soils or water beyond which there is an inhibition to wetlands plants and bryophyte secondary succession; the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in water beyond which there may be adverse effects on invertebrates, vertebrates and other non-plant taxa; and species sensitivity distributions for floral and faunal assemblages found in boreal wetland habitats. The presentation summarized the 3 phases of a project that examined pipeline ruptures at 9 sites. Field methods and site sampling summaries were presented. It was difficult to locate study sites with residual salt contamination in surface media at concentrations above effects threshold for many species. It was concluded that the departures between surface and subsurface salinity indicates a smaller potential for effects on site vegetation. tabs., figs.

  12. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    2010-01-01

    ... oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation from... the production area, that produce a spearmint flavored oil. Oil shall be segregated into the following... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4...

  13. CNPC Speeds up Overseas Oil Assets Purchase Plan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation(CNPC),the country's largest oil and gas producer,will speed up overseas acquisitions in regions such as Africa,Asia-Pacific and South America this year.Currently,the company is in talks with foreign partners for several deals because the relatively low prices of overseas assets this year have offered the company unprecedented opportunities for acquisition.

  14. Oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary countries development; O impacto do pagamento de royalties do petroleo no desenvolvimento socio-economico dos municipios beneficiarios

    Lucchesi, Cesar Augusto M.; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes to evaluate oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary counties indicators. In the first step, it has been made royalties payments distribution among beneficiary counties (942), what showed a meaningful paid resources concentration between 1993 and 1999, when 20% of the beneficiaries apportioned of 98,5% from this period paid royalties. For these 188 greatest exaction counties the royalties impact analyses on County Human Development Index (IDH-M) evolution showed the received royalties amount positively influenced the 2000 IDH-M additional comparing to 1991. It indicates the petroleum industry contribution to municipal development of those counties which receive these resources. (author)

  15. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  16. Oil spill remediation by using the remediation agent JE1058BS that contains a biosurfactant produced by Gordonia sp. strain JE-1058.

    Saeki, Hisashi; Sasaki, Masaru; Komatsu, Koei; Miura, Akira; Matsuda, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A remediation agent containing a biosurfactant was prepared by spray drying the sterilized culture broth of Gordonia sp. strain JE-1058, and the agent was designated as JE1058BS. On subjection to the baffled flask test developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, JE1058BS showed a strong potential to be applied as an oil spill dispersant even in the absence of a solvent. It also proved to be an effective bioremediation agent for the remediation of oil spills at sea. The addition of JE1058BS to seawater stimulated the degradation of weathered crude oil (ANS 521) via the activity of the indigenous marine bacteria. Its addition also stimulated the removal of crude oil from the surface of contaminated sea sand. These results indicate that biosurfactant-containing JE1058BS has a strong potential to be applied as a remediation agent for the clean-up of oil spills at sea and on shorelines.

  17. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands.

  18. Chinese Players Active in International Oil and Gas Investment

    Di Xuefeng

    2011-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Chinese oil companies have been pacing the globe to secure energy assets to fuel the fast- growing Asian powerhouse's economy.China's enterprises eyed global expansion via mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in 2010 as the country's economic power was on increase.Apparently, China accelerated the pace of cross-border cooperation "in" its "go-world" policy last year, to tap into more natural resources through the M&A activities of its big oil and gas producers.Among the deals, 80 percent took place in Canada and South America and unconventional sources, including deepwater drilling and oil sands assets.

  19. Specifications and Quality of Lube Oil Base Stocks in China

    Wang Ping

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese standard Q/SHR001-95 for base stocks is compared with the API specifications. The viscosity-temperature characteristics of base stock required by lube oil in use and market demand on oil quality are analyzed. The quality indicators of base stocks in China and other countries are compared. A new classification of base stocks in response to the requirements of modem lube oil is proposed and the research on new technology to produce premium base stocks meeting API specification is recommended on the basis of current base stock processing technology.

  20. Application of Photo-Fenton Process for COD Removal from Wastewater Produced from Surfactant-Washed  Oil-Contaminated (TPH Soils

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: The base structure of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH is made of hydrogen and carbon. Widespread use, improper disposal and accidental spills of this compounds lead to long term remaining of contaminations such as organic solvents and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the soil and groundwater resources, resulting in critical environmental issues. In this study, an oil-contaminated soil was washed using Tween 80 surfactant and the application of photo-Fenton process (UV/Fe2+/H2O2 for treatment of the produced wastewater was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Tween 80 is a yellow liquid with high viscosity and soluble in water. In order to determine of the photo-Fenton process efficiency, we studied effective variables including Fe concentration, pH, H2O2 concentration, and irradiation time. The UV irradiation source was a medium-pressure mercury vapor lamp (400 w vertically immersed in the solution within 2L volume glass cylindrical reactor.Results: The results showed that efficiency of COD removal depends on the initial Fe concentration, pH, H2O2 concentration and irradiation time. Under optimum conditions, (Fe: 0.1mM, H2O2: 0.43 mM, pH: 3 and UV light irradiation time: 2 hours the removal efficiency of COD was 67.3%. pH plays a crucial role in the photo-Fenton process such that the removal efficiency increased with decreasing of pH. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, under acidic condition, this process is an efficient method for COD removal from the wastewater studied.

  1. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  2. BRIGHT PROSPECT FOR CHINA- ARAB OIL COOPERATION

    2012-01-01

    Now is the perfect time for China and Arab League countries to cooperate more in the oil and gas sector as the development of shale gas in the United States changes the global energy business. The United States produced 180 billion cubic meters of shale gas in 2011, an amount that constituted 34 percent of the coumry's total output of natural gas. As a result, it imported less gas and liquefied natural gas.

  3. Description and discussion of governmental participations for companies producing oil and gas in marginal fields; Descricao e discussao do regime tributario e participacoes governamentais para empresas produtoras de petroleo e gas em campos marginais

    Eduardo, Antonio Sergio [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil); Rodrigues, Jose Allankardec Fernandes [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Rodrigues, Livia da Silva Modesto [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil); Fundacao Visconde de Cairu, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This article reports taxing and government participation in oil and gas extraction in peripheral fields as defined by the Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Combustivel (ANP) and the need to discuss the essence of the contributing capacity as a means to take into account the characteristics of this specific niche in gas and oil production. Their own particular policies distinguish them from other segments. The analysis is founded on the Aristotelian view which treats equals equally and unequals unequally. The analysis shows these companies' present situation and makes it clear that taxing in Brazil acts as an obstacle to the development of several sectors, including the small oil and gas production sector. Also worth mentioning is, besides taxes in the oil business, there is also the incidence of financial indemnity established by the Petroleum Law, illustrating an analysis of this legislation. Initially, when peripheral fields are still seen as great opportunities (according to the regulatory definition adopted by the ANP), mainly because of the high price of the barrel of oil (over US$ 100 ) the weight of taxes may not be a critical factor. However, when marginal oil wells do not attract interest in the average independent producer, the only mechanisms capable of extending the activity, and as a consequence, the positive impacts generated in producing communities, may well be tax relief and government involvement. The method used was a reference research and technical visits to leasers of concessions at peripheral fields. The present study will continue with the object of showing econometric models by simulating the impact taxing has on marginal production projects at different stages of maturity. (author)

  4. Waste oil derived biofuels in China bring brightness for global GHG mitigation.

    Liang, Sai; Liu, Zhu; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed a novel way for global greenhouse gas reduction through reusing China's waste oil to produce biofuels. Life cycle greenhouse gas mitigation potential of aviation bio-kerosene and biodiesel derived from China's waste oil in 2010 was equivalent to approximately 28.8% and 14.7% of mitigation achievements on fossil-based CO2 emissions by Annex B countries of the Kyoto Protocol in the period of 1990-2008, respectively. China's potential of producing biodiesel from waste oil in 2010 was equivalent to approximately 7.4% of China's fossil-based diesel usage in terms of energy. Potential of aviation bio-kerosene derived from waste oil could provide about 43.5% of China's aviation fuel demand in terms of energy. Sectors key to waste oil generation are identified from both production and consumption perspectives. Measures such as technology innovation, government supervision for waste oil collection and financial subsidies should be introduced to solve bottlenecks.

  5. The role of the US in the geopolitics of climate policy and stranded oil reserves

    Jaffe, Amy Myers

    2016-10-01

    Computer-assisted technological innovation and breakthroughs in drilling are revolutionizing the energy landscape, creating greater uncertainty about the future trends for oil use. These new dynamics are prompting major oil producers to reconsider the commercial value of their assets, potentially changing the long-term outlook for oil prices. A shift in investment and production strategy by major oil-producing countries and large multinational companies to pre-empt the risk of stranded assets would have significant implications on energy markets. This Perspective surveys the competitive forces at play that are able to shift the dynamics of the global oil market and discusses their implications for US climate and energy policy. A declining long-term oil price might imply that energy and climate scientists and policymakers should revisit the road map of the optimum policies to promote the transition to lower carbon energy and to defend technology gains already achieved.

  6. Composition of natural gas and crude oil produced from 10 wells in the Lower Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone, Trumbull County, Ohio: Chapter G.7 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Burruss, Robert A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gases and associated crude oils in the “Clinton” sandstone, Medina Group sandstones, and equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone in the northern Appalachian basin are part of a regional, continuous-type or basin-centered accumulation. The origin of the hydrocarbon charge to regional continuoustype accumulations is poorly understood. We have analyzed the molecular and stable isotopic composition of gases and oils produced from 10 wells in the “Clinton” sandstone in Trumbull County, Ohio, in an initial attempt to identify the characteristics of the accumulated fluids. The analyses show that the fluids have remarkably uniform compositions that are similar to previously published analyses of oils (Cole and others, 1987) and gases (Laughrey and Baldasarre, 1998) in Early Silurian reservoirs elsewhere in Ohio; however, geochemical parameters in the oils and gases suggest that the fluids have experienced higher levels of thermal stress than the present-day burial conditions of the reservoir rocks. The crude oils have an unusual geochemical characteristic: they do not contain detectable levels of sterane and triterpane biomarkers. The origin of these absences is unknown.

  7. Country News.

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  8. FY 1998 annual report on the dispatching Japanese experts on oil-alternative energy to EU countries; Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren senmonka haken jigyo1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to further promote introduction of oil-alternative energy sources, two Japanese experts on alternative energy were dispatched to EU countries, ahead in R and D statuses in these areas, to collect useful information from these countries, deepen mutual understanding for R and D, establish close cooperative relationships, and thereby help the R and D of alternative energy in Japan. These experts are Mr. M. Hanao of Geothermal Engineering and Mr. I. Hayashi of Asahi Glass. Mr. Hanano was dispatched to Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands and UK for surveying spread and utilization status of geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), while Mr. Hayashi to Denmark, the Netherlands and UK for surveying wind power generation, utilization of biomass, and tidal/wave power generation, respectively. Mr. Hanano has reported that he gets much information and discussions are more meaningful than expected. Mr. Hayashi has reported that he gets much information related to technical and political challenges involved in development of renewable energy, and is impressed by positive attitudes of the experts in the Netherlands and UK for the international cooperation with Japan. (NEDO)

  9. CREATING THE STANDARD FOR SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Alfa Firdaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no standard for the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC in the palm oil industry. SEC is a value that can be used as an indicator to measure the optimization level in the use of energy. Indonesia as one of the largest palm oil producing countries requires a standard for energy intensity in the palm oil industry. SEC in palm oil mill is defined in the amount of energy per unit of production (kWh/kg. The classifying method that has been used in this study is K-means cluster analysis with the measurement samples in 14 palm oil mills for 12 months of period. This study has suggested the SEC standard for Indonesian palm oil industry and it is expected to be SEC reference for other studies in the palm oil industry.

  10. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oils of a Citronellol Producing New Chemotype of Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak

    Satyajit D. Sarker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowering aerial parts of two populations of Thymus pubescens, collected from Mishov-Dagh, was determined by the GC-MS analyses. A total of 18 compounds, representing about 95% of the total oils, were identified in both samples of the essential oils. The essential oils of these two populations showed the presence of high amounts of citronellol (42.0% and 42.6%, geranyl acetate (14.0 and 14.0%, geraniol (13.0 and 13.1%, citronellyl acetate (3.9 and 3.8%, L-linalool (7.8% and 7.9%, cis-nerodiol (5.9% and 5.5% and citronellyl acetate (3.9% and 3.8%. However, in the published literature, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene were reported to be the major compounds in T. pubescens. This significant difference in the composition of the essential oils was a clear evidence of chemical polymorphism with in the T. pubescens taxon, suggesting that these two populations of T. pubescens were in deed a new chemotype of this species, and the name Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak chemotype Citronellol for this new chemotype has been proposed . The antibacterial and free-radical-scavenging properties of the essential oils of T. pubescens have also been evaluated.

  11. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E.; Haekkinen, R.; Kuoppala, E.; Koskela, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  12. Allometric scaling of countries

    Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Tongkui

    2010-11-01

    As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, and urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with the GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic (labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to the population between countries and cities were pointed out. First, population increases sub-linearly with area in countries. Second, the GDP increases linearly in countries but not super-linearly as in cities. Finally, electricity or oil consumption per capita increases with population faster than cities.

  13. Fiscal 1997 technological survey report. Engineer exchange project - coal mine technological field (Advanced coal producing country survey - U.S.A. survey); 1997 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) senshin santankoku chosa. Beikoku chosa

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    While the introduction and adaptation of the Longwall excavation technology were carried forward for coal producing countries in the Pacific region, U.S.A. information was collected by making tours of coal mines in the West and Washington/Colorado/Utah States, with the intention of ascertaining technological trend so as to carry out efficient technological transfer, and for the purpose of replenishing the contents and contributing to the smooth implementation of the engineer exchange project in 'coal mine technological field'. The coal reserves are 400 billion tons, with 840 million tons produced and with 80 million tons exported; not less than 56% of the U.S. domestic electricity rests on coal. Production by open-pit mining is the majority while the output by underground mining is 38%; the Longwall method has increased as a digging method, taking 18% of all digging output. The productivity is 4.24 ton/person per day and ranks as the world highest. The coal mining technological trend in the U.S. can be summarized as follows. The coal mining output in the West is increasing, with the number of mines decreasing, so that the output per mine is increasing. With the output ratio by open-pit mining increasing, the digging method in the mine is being changed to the Longwall. (NEDO)

  14. Oil for development 2009

    2010-09-15

    In this report present key achievements for each of the various cooperation countries. Oil for Development (OfD) assistance has been important for the ability of a country like Ghana to improve petroleum resource management on its most important oil and gas field, and to better safeguard that the petroleum activities are conducted in an environmentally sustainable way. Competence building on Increased Oil Recovery (IOR), and negotiation training have helped to increase both the resource extraction potential and the revenue generation potential of a more mature oil producing country like Iraq. Furthermore, OfD has contributed to improving the legislative frameworks in several of our cooperating countries, including Afghanistan, Cambodia and Madagascar, although it will take time before we can assess to what extent the laws have been implemented. OfD's strong focus on providing legal assistance reflects our belief that clear divisions of roles and firm legal mandates are prerequisites for good governance of the petroleum sector and for attracting serious investors. A lot of our capacity building took place through seminars and more tailored workshops with a national or regional scope. We believe that some of these events have significantly increased awareness as well as the level of debate among government institutions and civil society. The oil production accounting workshop in Nigeria and the NOC workshop in Timor-Leste are particularly valid examples. Timor-Leste also addressed other petroleum sector governance issues with a focus on including civil society and by the end of 2009 had nearly fulfilled all criteria for becoming Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) compliant. It should be noted that OfD assistance only made a relatively small contribution to this process, which was very much nationally driven. Petroleum related environmental issues were addressed at different levels and from different angles. A thorough environmental needs

  15. Research and Produce of Olive Oil and Chinese Angelica Oil Soft Capsules Reducing Blood Lipid of Rats%橄榄岷归油软胶囊辅助降血脂功能保健食品的研制

    赵煜; 于长青; 朱刚; 魏文慧

    2011-01-01

    The study adopt centrifugal separation technology to refine olive oil and supereritical CO2 extraction technology to extract angelica oil, blend olive oil with angelica oil and make them into to Olive and Angelica Oil Soft Capsules, according to the property of olive and angelica. This product has been already tested for the functions and toxicity, the result shows that the Olive and Angelica Oil Soft Capsules could assist to reduce blood lipid.%本研究根据油橄榄鲜果和当归原料特性,分别采用离心分离技术提取橄榄油和超临界CO2流体萃取技术提取当归油,进而以橄榄油为主要原料复配当归油,制备橄榄岷归油软胶囊保健食品,并进行了功能试验和毒理学安全性评价试验,试验结果证明橄榄岷归油软胶囊具有辅助降低血脂功效。

  16. EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS WASTE OILS AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Danilo Nikolić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping represents a significant source of diesel emissions, which affects global climate, air quality and human health. As a solution to this problem, biodiesel could be used as marine fuel, which could help in reducing the negative impact of shipping on environment and achieve lower carbon intensity in the sector. In Southern Europe, some oily wastes, such as wastes from olive oil production and used frying oils could be utilized for production of the second-generation biodiesel. The present research investigates the influence of the second-generation biodiesel on the characteristics of gaseous emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO from marine diesel engines. The marine diesel engine that was used, installed aboard a ship, was a reversible low-speed two-stroke engine, without any after-treatment devices installed or engine control technology for reducing pollutant emission. Tests were carried out on three regimes of engine speeds, 150 rpm, 180 rpm and 210 rpm under heavy propeller condition, while the ship was berthed in the harbor. The engine was fueled by diesel fuel and blends containing 7% and 20% v/v of three types of second-generation biodiesel made of olive husk oil, waste frying sunflower oil, and waste frying palm oil. A base-catalyzed transesterification was implemented for biodiesel production. According to the results, there are trends of NOx, SO2, and CO emission reduction when using blended fuels. Biodiesel made of olive husk oil showed better gaseous emission performances than biodiesel made from waste frying oils.

  17. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  18. Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis of Cinnamomum camphora seed oil with oleic acid to produce human milk fat substitutes enriched in medium-chain fatty acids.

    Zou, Xian-Guo; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhao, Man-Li; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Rong; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2014-10-29

    In the present study, a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) enriched in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction from Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) with oleic acid in a solvent-free system. A commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, from Rhizomucor miehei, was facilitated as a biocatalyst. Effects of different reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the optimal oleic acid incorporation. After optimization, results showed that the maximal incorporation of oleic acid into HMFS was 59.68%. Compared with CCSO, medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-2 position of HMFS accounted for >70%, whereas oleic acid was occupied predominantly at the sn-1,3 position (78.69%). Meanwhile, triacylglycerol (TAG) components of OCO (23.93%), CCO (14.94%), LaCO (13.58%), OLaO (12.66%), and OOO (11.13%) were determined as the major TAG species in HMFS. The final optimal reaction conditions were carried out as follows: substrate molar ratio (oleic acid/CCSO), 5:1; enzyme concentration, 12.5% (w/w total reactants); reaction temperature, 60 °C; and reaction time, 28 h. The reusability of Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis reaction was also evaluated, and it was found that it could be reused up to 9 times without significant loss of activities. Urea inclusion method was used to separate and purify the synthetic product. As the ratio of HMFS/urea increased to 1:2, the acid value lowered to the minimum. In a scale-up experiment, the contents of TAG and total tocopherols in HMFS (modified CCSO) were 77.28% and 12.27 mg/100 g, respectively. All of the physicochemical indices of purified product were within food standards. Therefore, such a MCFA-enriched HMFS produced by using the acidolysis method might have potential application in the infant formula industry.

  19. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  20. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce high levels of novel acetyl glyceride oils with reduced viscosity, freezing point and calorific value.

    Liu, Jinjie; Rice, Adam; McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Park, Hyunwoo; Clemente, Tom; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Durrett, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina and soybean transformed with the EaDAcT gene accumulate acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) at up to 70 mol% of seed oil. A similar strategy of coexpression of EaDAcT together with RNAi suppression of DGAT1 increased acetyl-TAG levels to up to 85 mol% in field-grown transgenic Camelina. Additionally, total moles of triacylglycerol (TAG) per seed increased 20%. Analysis of the acetyl-TAG fraction revealed a twofold reduction in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), consistent with their displacement from the sn-3 position by acetate. Seed germination remained high, and seedlings were able to metabolize the stored acetyl-TAGs as rapidly as regular triacylglycerols. Viscosity, freezing point and caloric content of the Camelina acetyl-TAG oils were reduced, enabling use of this oil in several nonfood and food applications.

  1. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics, sensory quality and acceptability of native chicken and rabbit sausage produced with corn oil, margarine and beef fat

    Hendronoto Arnoldus Walewangko Lengkey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluated the effect of certain oils or fats (corn oil, margarine and beef fat on the physico-chemical, microbiological characteristics and sensory quality of native chicken and rabbit sausages as low fat sausages. The sausages were evaluated by physicochemical analysis of pH, aw, moisture content, protein and fat, TPC and Salmonella as microbiological characteristics, as well as flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability as sensory quality, and with regards to diversification of meat products in Indonesia. Three formulations for native chicken (FA and rabbit (FB sausages were prepared: FA1 and FB1 (with 10% corn oil; FA2 and FB2 (with 10% margarine: FA3 and FB3 (with 10% beef fat. Results indicated no significant difference (p<0.05 between the pH and aw values of native chicken and rabbit sausages using different fat sources. The moisture content was significantly different (p<0.05 both between the native chicken and rabbit sausages and the types of fat source (corn oil, margarine and beef fat added. No effect on protein content was found both in native chicken and rabbit sausages. The lowest fat content was found in rabbit sausages (18.79 + 0.70% where corn oil was added as a fat source. Lowest TPC was also observed. Salmonella were not detected in any of the sausage groups. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in various sensory attributes. In conclusion, native chicken and rabbit meat seems to be a suitable alternative for low fat sausages production, particularly with corn oil as fat source.

  2. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (δ7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  3. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  4. Comments on 'Organic sulphur compounds produced by flash pyrolysis of Timhadit oil shale' by M. Ishiwatari, H. Sakashita, T. Tatsumi and H-O. Tominaga

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Since we have analysed three different stratigraphic units of the Timhadit oil shale for sulphur compounds by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Eglinton and Sinninghe DamstC, unpublished results), we believe that the identification by Ishiwatari et al. is not correct. In a recent paper we demon

  5. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-10-01

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h-1. The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  6. Underwater superoleophobicity, anti-oil and ultra-broadband enhanced absorption of metallic surfaces produced by a femtosecond laser inspired by fish and chameleons

    Yin, K.; Song, Y. X.; Dong, X. R.; Wang, C.; Duan, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    Reported here is the bio-inspired and robust function of underwater superoleophobic, anti-oil metallic surfaces with ultra-broadband enhanced optical absorption obtained through femtosecond laser micromachining. Three distinct surface structures are fabricated using a wide variety of processing parameters. Underwater superoleophobic and anti-oil surfaces containing coral-like microstructures with nanoparticles and mount-like microstructures are achieved. These properties of the as-prepared surfaces exhibit good chemical stability when exposed to various types of oils and when immersed in water with a wide range of pH values. Moreover, coral-like microstructures with nanoparticle surfaces show strongly enhanced optical absorption over a broadband wavelength range from 0.2-25 μm. The potential mechanism for the excellent performance of the coral-like microstructures with a nanoparticle surface is also discussed. This multifunctional surface has potential applications in military submarines, amphibious military aircraft and tanks, and underwater anti-oil optical counter-reconnaissance devices.

  7. A Non-sulfided flower-like Ni-PTA Catalyst that Enhances the Hydrotreatment Efficiency of Plant Oil to Produce Green Diesel.

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Pan; Deng, Lihong; He, Jing; Wang, Luying; Rong, Long; Lei, Jiandu

    2015-10-27

    The development of a novel non-sulfided catalyst with high activity for the hydrotreatment processing of plant oils, is of high interest as a way to improve the efficient production of renewable diesel. To attempt to develop such a catalyst, we first synthesized a high activity flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst used in the hydrotreatment processes of plant oils. The obtained catalyst was characterized with SEM, EDX, HRTEM, BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and TGA. A probable formation mechanism of flower-like Ni(OH)2 is proposed on the basis of a range of contrasting experiments. The results of GC showed that the conversion yield of Jatropha oil was 98.95%, and the selectivity of C11-C18 alkanes was 70.93% at 360 °C, 3 MPa, and 15 h(-1). The activity of this flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst was more than 15 times higher than those of the conventional Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the flower-like Ni-PTA catalyst exhibited good stability during the process of plant oil hydrotreatment.

  8. 东北地区产油能源微藻的筛选和鉴定%Selection and Identification of Oil-producing Energy Microalgae in Northeast Region

    师文静; 廖莎; 孙启梅; 王鹏翔; 李晓姝

    2015-01-01

    微藻作为21世纪生物柴油的理想燃料已被人们广泛的关注,但是目前微藻种类很多,如何从诸多的微藻中筛选油脂含量高的微藻已成为人们函待解决的问题。从东北地区水样中分离纯化出93种藻种,采用尼罗红染色法对其中30株藻种进行了筛选获得了8种具有产油潜力的藻种,并利用自制的柱式反应器微藻评价装置对这8株藻株进行了产油能力的评价,获得了一株总脂产率达到133.9 mg/(L·d)的产油能源微藻。在此基础上,对该藻株进行了18S rRNA的鉴定,确定为Chlorellasp.。%In the 21st century, the ideal microalgae biodiesel fuel has been widespread concern, but how to filter high in fat content from a lot of microalgae species has become a problem to be addressed. In this study, 93 strains of microalgae were isolated and purified from the water samples of the Northeast region, and 30 strains were screened to obtain eight oil-producing algae by Nile red fluorescence. Oil production capacity of these eight microalgae were evaluated with bubble column photobioreactor. This experiment obtained a higher oil yield algal and its total oil yield reached 133. 9 mg /(L · d). On this basis an oil-producing energy microalgae was identificated by 18S rRNA. This oil-producing energy microalgae was identificated asChlorellasp.

  9. Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update

    Greene, D.L.

    2005-03-08

    For thirty years, dependence on oil has been a significant problem for the United States. Oil dependence is not simply a matter of how much oil we import. It is a syndrome, a combination of the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to higher oil prices and oil price shocks and a concentration of world oil supplies in a small group of oil producing states that are willing and able to use their market power to influence world oil prices. Although there are vitally important political and military dimensions to the oil dependence problem, this report focuses on its direct economic costs. These costs are the transfer of wealth from the United States to oil producing countries, the loss of economic potential due to oil prices elevated above competitive market levels, and disruption costs caused by sudden and large oil price movements. Several enhancements have been made to methods used in past studies to estimate these costs, and estimates of key parameters have been updated based on the most recent literature. It is estimated that oil dependence has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars) since 1970, with the bulk of the losses occurring between 1979 and 1986. However, if oil prices in 2005 average $35-$45/bbl, as recently predicted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, oil dependence costs in 2005 will be in the range of $150-$250 billion. Costs are relatively evenly divided between the three components. A sensitivity analysis reflecting uncertainty about all the key parameters required to estimate oil dependence costs suggests that a reasonable range of uncertainty for the total costs of U.S. oil dependence over the past 30 years is $2-$6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars). Reckoned in terms of present value using a discount rate of 4.5%, the costs of U.S. oil dependence since 1970 are $8 trillion, with a reasonable range of uncertainty of $5 to $13 trillion.

  10. The role of health systems and policy in producing behavior and social change to enhance child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries: an examination of the evidence.

    Vélez, Luis F; Sanitato, Mary; Barry, Donna; Alilio, Martin; Apfel, Franklin; Coe, Gloria; Garcia, Amparo; Kaufman, Michelle; Klein, Jonathan; Kutlesic, Vesna; Meadowcroft, Lisa; Nilsen, Wendy; O'Sullivan, Gael; Peterson, Stefan; Raiten, Daniel; Vorkoper, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based behavior change interventions addressing health systems must be identified and disseminated to improve child health outcomes. Studies of the efficacy of such interventions were identified from systematic searches of the published literature. Two hundred twenty-nine of the initially identified references were judged to be relevant and were further reviewed for the quality and strength of the evidence. Studies were eligible if an intervention addressed policy or health systems interventions, measured relevant behavioral or health outcomes (e.g., nutrition, childhood immunization, malaria prevention and treatment), used at least a moderate quality research design, and were implemented in low- or middle-income countries. Policy or systems interventions able to produce behavior change reviewed included media (e.g., mass media, social media), community mobilization, educational programs (for caregivers, communities, or providers), social marketing, opinion leadership, economic incentives (for both caregiver and provider), health systems strengthening/policy/legislation, and others. Recommendations for policy, practice, and research are given based on fairly strong data across the areas of health service delivery, health workforce, health financing, governance and leadership, and research.

  11. A multi-country Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak associated with eggs from a German producer: 'near real-time' application of whole genome sequencing and food chain investigations, United Kingdom, May to September 2014.

    Inns, T; Lane, C; Peters, T; Dallman, T; Chatt, C; McFarland, N; Crook, P; Bishop, T; Edge, J; Hawker, J; Elson, R; Neal, K; Adak, G K; Cleary, P

    2015-04-23

    We report an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b (PT14b) in the United Kingdom (UK) between May and September 2014 where Public Health England launched an investigation to identify the source of infection and implement control measures. During the same period, outbreaks caused by a Salmonella Enteritidis strain with a specific multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile occurred in other European Union Member States. Isolates from a number of persons affected by the UK outbreak, who had initially been tested by MLVA also shared this particular profile. Cases were defined as any person infected with S. Enteritidis PT14b, resident in England or Wales and without history of travel outside of this geographical area during the incubation period, reported from 1 June 2014 onwards, with a MLVA profile of 2–11–9-7–4-3–2-8–9 or a single locus variant thereof. In total, 287 cases met the definition. Food traceback investigations in the UK and other affected European countries linked the outbreaks to chicken eggs from a German company. We undertook whole genome sequencing of isolates from UK and European cases, implicated UK premises, and German eggs: isolates were highly similar. Combined with food traceback information, this confirmed that the UK outbreak was also linked to a German producer.

  12. Manufacturing of environment friendly biolubricants from vegetable oils

    Ebtisam K. Heikal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environment friendly products such as fuels and lubricants are among the candidates which are studied in several countries including Egypt. The purpose of this work was to utilize commercially available palm oil and Jatropha oil for the production of biolubricants, through two stages of Transesterification. The first stage is the process of using methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide to produce biodiesel. The second stage is the reaction of biodiesel with trimethylolpropane using sodium methoxide as catalyst to yield palm or Jatropha oil base trimethylolpropane esters (biolubricants. Palm oil based trimethylolpropane esters with yield of 97.8% was obtained after 4 h of reaction at 130 °C. Under similar reaction conditions, Jatropha oil based trimethylolpropane esters with a yield of 98.2% was obtained. The resulting products were confirmed by FTIR and evaluated by ASTM analyses. The obtained Jatropha oil based trimethylolpropane esters exhibited high viscosity indices (140, low pour point temperature (−3 °C, and moderate thermal stabilities and met the requirement of commercial industrial oil ISO VG46 grade. In spite of the high pour point of Palm oil based trimethylolpropane esters (5 °C, which needs pour point depressant to reduce the pour point, other lubrication properties such as viscosity, viscosity indices and flash point are comparable to commercial industrial oil ISO VG32 and VG46.

  13. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  14. Technology Study on Producing High Melting Point Microcrystalline Wax From Shenbei/Daqing Vacuum Residue Oil%沈北/大庆减压渣油生产高熔点微晶蜡工艺研究

    金秀英; 陈白莉; 杜晓敏; 王玉玲; 范燕

    2013-01-01

      沈北/大庆减压渣油中含有丰富的微晶蜡。将渣油亚临界丙烷脱沥青得到轻脱油,再经酮苯脱油-白土精制生产高熔点微晶蜡。说明大庆、沈北混合原油减压渣油经脱沥青等系列工艺处理生产光亮油和微晶蜡的技术可行性,提出了大庆、沈北混合原油减压渣油综合利用的途径。%There is abundant microcrystalline wax in Shenbei/Taqing vacuum residue oil. Light deasphalting oil is often obtained from vacuum residue oil by subcritical propane deasphalting process, then microcrystalline wax with high melting point can be produced by butanone-toluene solvent deoiling and clay-treated refining. In this paper,the technical and economic feasibility of producing bright stock and microcrystalline wax from the vacuum residue of Daqing and Shenbei mixed crude by deasphalting etc.processes was discussed according to the pilot plant test results .Utilization ways of vacuum residue of Daqing and Shenbei mixed crude were put forward.

  15. Middle East oil money and its future expenditure

    Fallon, N.

    1975-01-01

    A description of the economics of the oil-producing countries requires attention to history, and their possible future developments need to be placed against a worldwide background. The first part of this book examines fundamentals of the oil situation before going on to forecasts of the revenues and wealth of the producing countries, with emphasis on the interdependence of producers and consumers. The banks and other financial institutions that are in a position to assist the plans of the Middle East governments and individuals are described, followed by general problems of development. More detail is then given for each country; information available up to the middle of 1975 has generally been used here, as in other sections. A chapter on aid and a general summary conclude the book. The countries covered are not precisely those described by either Arab or Gulf states, and so Middle East has been used to mean the region which includes all the states around the Gulf and extends westward to Libya but excludes Algeria. This is not a mere matter of prejudice, although Algeria astride the Greenwich meridian is as much Middle West as Middle East, nor is it because the countries of the Maghrib have long historical connections with southern Europe much closer than those further east. It is because Libya is expected to resemble the Arab countries of the Gulf in having a surplus of oil revenues over its own requirements, while Algeria together with the non-Arab OPEC countries will undoubtedly have full employment for all its revenues. A further consideration is that the Arab countries between Libya and the Gulf are likely to be the main beneficiaries of the aid which the surplus states will be able to grant. (MCW)

  16. China Depends More on Imported Oil

    Chen Qian

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's oil imports will continue to see solid growth in 2010,with more than half of the country's total oil consumption coming from abroad.It is inevitable for the country-the world's second largest oil consumer-to see a robust increase of imports,as domestic production cannot keep up with rising demand.

  17. Manganese Countries

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  18. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Elaine L.Y. Man

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

  19. Corrosion behavior of Cu Al Ni shape memory alloy in an oil land field produced fluid; Corrosao da liga com memoria de forma CuAlNi em fluido produzido de campo terrestre de petroleo

    Souza, Ricardo Estefany Aquino [PETROBRAS S.A., Aracaju/Maceio, SE/AL (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios SE-AL; Cruz, Maria Clara Pinto; Figueiredo, Renan T.; Souza, Luciete da Paixao; Araujo, Paulo M.M. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of the CuAlNi shape memory alloy in oil landfield produced groundwater was investigated with polarization curve and mass loss measurements, the latter carried out by immersion in laboratory and field tests. The physico-chemical analysis of five types of oil landfield produced groundwater showed the presence of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}, high salinity, chloride, sulfide and iron ions and relatively neutral pH. The results from electrochemical tests in aerated produced groundwater, in the range of salinity encountered, suggested that the corrosion rate increases at higher saline concentrations. The results from field tests with corrosion test specimens showed a moderate to severe corrosion rate and suggested, in the other hand, that corrosion rates were influenced not only by salinity and oxidizing ions present in the flowing fluid, but also by solid materials in suspension, the fluid's temperature, and the flow velocity. This research is part of a major project which aims to develop couplings for landfield produced fluid transportation pipe connections without welded nor threaded joints. (author)

  20. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Jianjun Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the