WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil producing countries

  1. Do Oil-Producing Countries Have Normal Oil Overconsumption? An Investigation of Economic Growth and Energy Subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mirnezami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The data shows that oil-producing countries have low oil retail prices and low economic growth compared with other countries. Considering that oil-producing countries experience high oil consumption and low economic growth, it is possible to argue that economic growth is not an appropriate justification for oil consumption and that the main cause for high oil consumption is the low retail price. In addition, it should be noted that the global environmental movement against increasing greenhouse gas emissions—for example, the Kyoto 1998 agreement—seems to have had no effect on oil consumption in oil-producing countries.

  2. 1985 oil production of 21 oil producing non-OPEC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, A.J.

    1979-03-01

    This report assesses the possibility of increased oil production from 21 less developed non-OPEC countries (excluding the Middle East and Mexico) by 1985. The forecast is compared with those prepared by the World Bank, the International Energy Agency, and others. The 21 Latin American, African, and Far East (including Asia) countries produce 2.5 million barrels of oil per day (BD) or 4.2% of world production, and they have 21 billion barrels of proved reserves, or 3.2% of the world total. In recent years these countries have consumed 3.1 million BD, some 0.9 million barrels in excess of their production. By 1985, the 21 countries may produce 3.9 million BD, an average annual increase of 5.0%; however, demand is expected to increase at an annual rate of 3.5% to 4.4 million BD. The net effect is that the 1985 aggregated supply-demand balance will be in deficit, by nearly 560 thousand BD, compared to slightly more than 930 thousand BD in 1976.

  3. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  4. Introducing foreign capital in development of petroleum upstream development in Middle East gulf coast countries producing oil; Chuto wangan sanyukoku no sekiyu joryu kaihatsu eno gaika donyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Ryuhei

    1999-03-01

    Developments by foreign countries are activated in gulf coast countries producing oil (Iran,Iraq,Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman) where produced oil quantity occupies seventy percents among produced oil quantity of world. But the situation differs between countries. For example, the oil production development in Iraq is drawn back largely because of punishment by America. Forecast of raw oil production quantity in gulf coast countries where the increase of oil production is expected from now, situation of introduction of foreign capitals, investment forecast in each country from now, contract situation and production quantity were explained. (NEDO)

  5. Present condition of the pair outside release policy of oil-producing countries; Sanyukoku no taigai kaiho seisaku no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masumi [Japan National oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Brazil, Venezuela and Iran made the way to the pair outside release policy one after another between this several years. chauvinism in the flow of a period of big competition has ever come to a deadlock in this. Brazilian oil deposits are 7,300 million bbl in 1997, and it can be never said that it is big in rising oil-producing countries. As for the Venezuelan oil deposits, it is the oil-producing country of a world the 6th prize with 72,600 million bbl, the amount of production is a world the 6th prize with 3.2 million BPD in 1998. As for the Iranian oil deposits, with 89,700 million bbl in a world the 5th prize. The amount of petroleum production is a world the 4th prize with 3.6 million PD in 1998. (NEDO)

  6. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Panorama 2012 - The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the extent of their reserves, oil production in most countries of the Middle East and North Africa is not likely to increase significantly in the years ahead. Exports from the Middle East, 75% of which are to Asia, and those from North Africa, most of which are focused on Europe, should remain stable overall. The increase in gas production will contribute more to meeting fast-growing domestic demand than to boosting exports. Indeed, many Middle Eastern countries are paradoxically experiencing strains on domestic energy supplies due to energy demand stimulated by energy prices that are generally - and artificially - very low, and the adoption of economic development models based on energy-intensive industries. (author)

  8. How international oil and gas companies respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries: A narrative enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses narrative analysis to critically examine the business practices used by five international oil and gas companies (IOCs) (Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell, BP and Total) to respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries (Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Brazil, Indonesia, Yemen and Indonesia) during the period 2000–2012. The business practices include the formulation of local content strategies that are implemented through programmes and initiatives aimed at developing and using host country suppliers and workforce. Such practices and the narratives used to communicate them implicitly reflect the context in which the effectiveness of local content policies on economic development can be assessed. By comparing and contrasting the narratives across the five IOCs in relation to the wider literature, four emergent narrative strategies justifying the business practices of IOCs are identified and discussed. They include: (1) direct engagement to renegotiate local content requirements with governments, (2) legal compliance framework, (3) the business case for local content strategies, and (4) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The conclusion considers the policy implications of these findings for local content development in petroleum-producing developing countries. - Highlights: • Local content policies define the local context that shape IOCs’ business practices. • Provides a narrative analysis of the business practices of IOCs in developing countries. • IOCs use four narrative strategies to relate their business practices to local content policies. • The business practices of IOCs can determine the effectiveness of local content policies

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN CAPITAL AND ECONOMIC GROWTH EMPHASIZING SOCIALIST AND OIL-PRODUCING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effect of human capital on economic growth. Linear regression models with ordinary least squares method have been used for the analysis in which the dependent variable of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita growth is decided according to real price and independent variables for human capital are enrollment rate in different education levels and also literacy rate. For control variables, socialist countries and petroleum exporting countries are fe...

  10. Vertical integration by oil exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst; Rauscher, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Most oil-producing countries have now nationalised their oil reserves and are pursuing their own pricing and marketing policies; in recent years some of them have attempted to extend their influence over the oil market by undertaking processing activities downstream from oil production. What motives underlie this strategy of vertical integration? What is its economic justification? What effects will it have on oil-importing countries?

  11. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorde, Troy [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)], E-mail: troy.lorde@cavehill.uwi.edu; Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados); Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados)

    2009-07-15

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue.

  12. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorde, Troy; Thomas, Chrystol [Department of Economics, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, P.O. Box 64, Bridgetown, St. Michael (Barbados); Jackman, Mahalia [Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre (Barbados)

    2009-07-15

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

  13. The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country. The case of Trinidad and Tobago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology, this paper empirically investigates the macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, we find that the price of oil is a major determinant of economic activity of the country. Our impulse response functions suggest that following a positive oil price shock, output falls within the first two years followed by positive and growing response. We also investigate the macroeconomic impact of oil price volatility. Results suggest that an unanticipated shock to oil price volatility brings about random swings in the macroeconomy; however, only government revenue and the price level exhibit significant responses. With regard to the magnitude of the responses, shocks to oil price volatility tend to yield smaller macroeconomic impacts in comparison to shocks to oil prices. Variance decompositions suggest that the price of oil is a major component of forecast variation for most macroeconomic variables. Finally, Granger-causality tests indicate causality from oil prices to output and oil prices to government revenue. (author)

  14. Middle East: the cartel is weakened, but prices are holding. [Extensive survey of all drilling activities in Middle East oil-producing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-08-15

    The combination of high oil prices and an almost world-wide stagflation resulted in a markedly reduced demand for crude--in the face of ballooning capacity in the Middle East and other OPEC member nations. Under normal economic laws, a surplus supply and declining demand would result in falling prices. But although there was some miniscule price cutting (in the form of longer credit terms, elimination of premiums for low sulfur content, etc.), the cartel maintained its precarious balance in these uncertain economic times. Production curtailments in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Nigeria, Venezuela, and other exporters attested to the decline in demand. However, some of these countries will be strained to produce at a significantly reduced rate for too long a period, with Iran a good case in point. As long as OPEC members can maintain lower production rates, they can efficiently continue to mandate the world price of oil. The one possibility for a reduction is for one or more major producers to unilaterally drop the price. This would, of course, shake OPEC badly. However, Saudi Arabia remains the key simply because of its immense producing capacity and the fact that it can cut its production drastically--to maintain prices--and still accrue sufficient income to support domestic financial needs. Highlights of recent developments in Middle East oil-producing countries are summarized for Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjar, Fujairah, Ajman, Umm Al Quawain, Ras Al Khaima, Iraq, Qatar, Oman, Syria, Bahrain, Israel, Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, South Yemen, and Yemen. (MCW)

  15. De-carbonisation of electricity generation in an oil and gas producing country: 'A sensitivity analysis over the power sector in Egypt'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel are used in power generation in oil and gas producing countries due to the resource availability. However, the growing electricity demand, the potential exports revenues associated to hydrocarbons as well as the environmental policies have to be taken into account for the definition of the electricity generation mix. Thus, the development of the power generation capacities according to the resource availability and the economic factors (demand and costs) is investigated through a modeling approach. Over the past ten years, Egypt has become an important gas producer and a strategic gas supplier for Europe. Moreover, natural gas represents around eighty percent of the Egyptian power sector mix. However, this extensive share of natural gas in power generation mix could not be sustainable in long-term due to the limited hydrocarbons' resources of Egypt. In this study, the current and future power generation situation of the country is analyzed through a dynamic linear programming model. Finally, a power generation strategy based on a gradual integration of nuclear and renewable is suggested. (authors)

  16. Oil exporting countries need nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

  17. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  18. On the Economic Determinants of Oil Production. Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Evidence for Small Exporting Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cologni, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, decisions regarding production in oil exporting countries are studied by means of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Under the assumptions of exogenous oil prices and world oil demand, we are able to describe the relationship between oil production levels and changes in the conditions in world oil markets. Intertemporal production decisions by a representative oil producer are modelled by means of a partial equilibrium model. In this theoretical model, oil produc...

  19. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  20. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  1. The economic growth of oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  2. Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: → Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. → Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. → Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. → Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

  3. Removing oil from produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the design, operation, and performance of a new gas-assisted clarifier system which acts to remove oil from waste water. The system has no moving parts and uses no chemical additives. The results show that the system can be successfully used to reduce the oil content of waste water to acceptable effluent limits. The systems are designed for offshore oil and gas production facilities. Test results are provided which show the reduction of oil and grease from 211 mg/L to 3 mg/L

  4. Producers, Politicians, Warriors, and Forecasters: Who's Who in the Oil Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Medel, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    To what extent geopolitical tensions in major oil-producer countries and unexpected news related to the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) affect oil price? What are the effects of non-market externalities in oil price? Are oil price forecasters aware or affected by such externalities when making their predictions? In this article, I analyse the influence of these events on oil price by means of Granger causality, using an unique measure accounting for these events (2001...

  5. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

  6. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume.

  7. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ► We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ► The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ► The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ► The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ► These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  8. Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei-Amponsah, C.; Visser, L.E.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Struik, P.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Stomph, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by

  9. Oil Prices and Real Exchange Rate Movements in Oil-Exporting Countries: The Role of Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rickne, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    Political and legal institutions affect the extent to which the real exchange rates of oil-exporting countries co-move with the oil price. In a simple theoretical model, strong institutions insulate real exchange rates from oil price volatility by generating a smooth pattern of fiscal spending over the price cycle. Empirical tests on a panel of 33 oil-exporting countries provide evidence that countries with high bureaucratic quality and strong and impartial legal systems have real exchange ra...

  10. Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition

  11. World Oil Prices and Output Losses in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, David; Westoby, Richard

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the impact of the 1979 oil price "hike" on a selected group of developing countries. The model used for this exercise is an adaptation of a straightforward income-determination model in which domestic oil revenues are treated as a "tax" revenue from oil exports as an exogenous source of government revenue. The basis of the model is a standard GDP accounting identity modified such that government expenditure is disaggregated into domestic oil revenue, fo...

  12. Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

  13. Aerobic biological treatment of produced water from oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Trine

    2011-01-01

    Produced water is the largest waste stream generated from the oil and gas industry. Water of varying quantities is always produced along with oil and has to be separated from the oil. The amount of produced water generated generally increases as the oil field gets older, because more water has to be injected into the reservoir in order to force the oil out. The produced water can either be injected back into the reservoirs or be treated, typically by floatation units or hydrocy...

  14. CRACKING OF PALM OIL TO PRODUCE OLEOCHEMICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Nwokedi I.C.; ,Okoye, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    The FTIR and GC - MS tests are necessary for identification of oleochemicals produced via cracking. In this research, thermal cracking (without catalyst) and catalytic cracking of palm oil were carried out in a batch reactor. The thermal cracking was performed at temperatures of 700 o C to 900 o C at a time of 30 to 150 minutes while the catalytic cracking was done at temperatures of 100 o C to 400 o C, time of 30 ...

  15. Nuclear industry in a country with a substantial oil reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the development of a nuclear industry in a country like Mexico, with a substantial oil reserve is analyzed, taking into account the technical, economical, political, ecological and social aspects of the problem. (author)

  16. Financial and monetary policy responses to oil price shocks:evidence from oil-importing and oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Filis, George; Chatziantoniou, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the financial and monetary policy responses to oil price shocks using a Structural VAR framework. We distinguish between net oil-importing and net oil-exporting countries. Since the 80s, a significant number of empirical studies have been published investigating the effect of oil prices on macroeconomic and financial variables. Most of these studies though, do not make a distinction between oil-importing and oil-exporting economies. Overall, our results indicate ...

  17. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  18. Energy and the oil-importing developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkerly, J.; Ramsay, W.

    1982-05-07

    The article discussed the problems those countries have in securing adequate and reliable quantities of energy to meet minimal economic needs and still maintain development rates. A number of alternatives are available; if possible, each country might use a mix appropriate to its own resource base and level of development. An increase in export earnings might be achieved in many countries (and may be the only answer for countries poorly endowed with energy resources). The countries with fossil fuel reserves and hydroelectric resources need to press ahead with their development. Many countries should pay more attention to biomass, particularly those in which it is their most plentiful fuel resource. Attention should be paid to conservation by increasing the efficiency with which energy is used by the reorientation of development strategy because of higher energy prices. The World Bank has estimated that by 1990, savings in the cost of oil imports from an aggressive conservation and fuel switching policy might be as great as a maximum effort to increase oil production. By 1990, oil bills might be reduced by as much as $30 x 10/sup 9/. The international community can help this process by technical assistance, better money management, and by expansion of capital assistance to oil-importing developing countries.

  19. Economics, producer politics will shape oil markets through 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main forces will shape the oil market during the next 3 years. The pace of worldwide economic growth will determine demand growth. Although energy use efficiency has improved, especially in the industrialized world, demand for energy and oil products remains chiefly a function of economic activity. And producing nation politics will have much to say about supply. A crucial and unpredictable variable is when Iraq, now subject to a United Nations trade embargo, resumes exports at significant rates. Demand growth will exceed production increases outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which means an ever-increasing role for the exporters' group. The paper discusses the demand outlook, economic projections, energy intensity, regional energy mixes, world energy mix, petroleum demand, petroleum product demand, supply questions, non-OPEC production, reserves and output capacity, production gains, industry operations (drilling, stocks, refining), prices, price forecasts, and the role of taxes

  20. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  1. Business Cycles in Oil Exporting Countries: A Declining Role for Oil?

    OpenAIRE

    Huseynov, Salman; Ahmadov, Vugar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the nature and possible sources of economic fluctuations in oil exporting countries using principle component and impulse-response analysis. The principal component analysis shows that the first two components can be statistically significantly explained by world GDP, but not by oil prices. We further develop our study using impulse-response analysis and find that a global demand shock is as important as oil supply and oil demand shocks in determining the dynamic...

  2. Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

    2010-09-15

    Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

  3. Political Economy of Oil-Revenue Sharing in a Developing Country; Illustrations from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ehtisham Ahmad; Raju Jan Singh

    2003-01-01

    Control over natural resource revenues is a contentious, politically divisive issue in most developing countries-especially for oil production. A typical policy response of the center in such cases has been to introduce revenue sharing arrangements. Such measures have generally not assuaged the aspirations of the oil-producing regions and have exposed them to volatility in their revenue flows that they are generally unable to cope with. An alternative is to assign more stable revenue bases to...

  4. The Impact of the Fracking Boom on Arab Oil Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the impact of the U.S. fracking boom on U.S. oil imports, on Arab oil exports, and on the global price of crude oil. First, I investigate the extent to which this oil boom has caused Arab oil exports to the United States to decline since late 2008. Second, I examine to what extent increased U.S. exports of refined products made from domestically produced crude oil have caused Arab oil exports to the rest of the world to decline. Third, the article ...

  5. Hydrocarbon-Rich Territories in Central Asia: Producing Countries, Exporting Enclaves or Transit Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Mañé

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.

  6. A dialogue between oil producers and consumers: the why and the how: OIES paper: SP2

    OpenAIRE

    Mabro, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The notion that a dialogue, leading to co-operation between oil-producing and oil consuming countries, may either avert oil shocks and excessive price instability or, at least, mitigate their adverse effects emerged early on in the 1970s. The very few observers who predicted the 1973 oil shock a year or two before its occurrence also sensed that the impending crisis would not be rapidly solved by smooth market responses and short-term economic adjustments. In their judgment the dramatic situa...

  7. A survey of oil product demand elasticities for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more and more developing countries join the ranks of the rich they will consume both more oil and higher percentage of the lighter products. To satisfy this growing demand oil production and refinery capacity that can provide the right quantity and mix of products must be developed. In a companion piece, Dahl (1993) found the total demand for oil to be price inelastic (-0.34) and income elastic (1.32) These elasticities can give information on the total quantity of oil that might be demanded, the total amount of distillation capacity that might be needed and the overall increases in product prices that might be necessary to choke off demand growth. However, with this overall growth in product demand, the more the shift towards the lighter portion of the barrel, the more complex the refinery and the greater the demand for downstream capital. To provide information on this mix in developing countries in the coming years, this paper surveys the available work on econometric demand elasticities by oil product. (author)

  8. Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

  9. Long-term oil strategy - creating an appropriate fiscal regime in OPEC countries to keep the upstream sector competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this paper is to examine the factors that governed the upstream activities in OPEC countries during three distinct periods, namely: 1950 to 1973, 1974 to 1985 and 1986 to the present. Particular emphasis will be placed on the fiscal and legal instruments adopted by a number of OPEC countries in attracting oil companies to their respective countries, so as to maintain the momentum of oil exploration and production which is commensurate with their huge hydrocarbon reserves and also be in consonance with their pace of economic development while continuing to exercise their sovereign rights. The first part of the paper reviews the concepts governing the strategic behaviour of oil companies and oil-producing countries. Part two is devoted to the evolution of fiscal regimes in OPEC countries showing how the behaviour of OPEC Member Countries and oil companies illustrates the concepts in part one. How the dynamics of the oil market influence the upstream planning in OPEC Member Countries is examined in part three of the paper. Part four looks at the new cooperation and strategic alliances that are evolving between some OPEC countries and a number of oil companies to ensure that OPEC retains a leadership position which is commensurate with its Members' hydrocarbon resources. Conclusions are drawn in part five. (author)

  10. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  11. China's Oil Ties with Developing Countries Further Strengthened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Petronas teams up with Chinese counterparts For Petroliam Nasional Bhd (Petronas),Malaysia's national petroleum corporation, China is a strategically important partner for growth as it expands into the country's energy market.Established in August 1974, Petronas is vested with all of Malaysia's oil and gas resources and is entrusted with the responsibility of developing and adding value to these resources. The company's foray into China began in the early 1990s in the upstream sector of the petroleum industry.

  12. The Relationships between Crude Oil Prices, Financial Performances and Share Prices of Oil and Gas Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying Gui

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationships between crude oil prices, financial performances and share prices of 233 studied oil and gas producers. Hamilton's (2003) study emphasized the significant correlation between increases in crude oil prices and US recessions. Hamilton (2010) also pointed out that almost all major economic downturns have been immediately preceded by a significant rise in oil prices. This study collects and uses all of the 233 worldwide listed oil and gas pr...

  13. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  14. Microbiological quality of saffron from the main producer countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosano, Inmaculada; Pintado, Concepción; Acevedo, Olga; Novella, José Luis; Alonso, Gonzalo Luis; Carmona, Manuel; de la Rosa, Carmen; Rotger, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    A microbiological study of saffron spice was undertaken in the context of a European research project (Methodologies for Implementing International Standards for Saffron Purity and Quality, the acronym for which is SAFFIC), analyzing 79 samples obtained from the main producer countries, namely Greece, Iran, Italy, Morocco, and Spain. Current microbiological quality criteria are the same as for other spices, but saffron is added in minute quantities during the cooking process, so the health risk associated with microbial contamination might be lower. We did not detect Salmonella either by culture or by PCR methods in any sample, and Escherichia coli was only found in five samples. Enterobacteriaceae were frequently found (70.9% of the samples), but most of them belonged to species of probable environmental origin. Aerobic sporulated bacteria were also common, but only three samples contained Bacillus cereus at low levels (100 CFU g(-1), an acceptable value. Overall, microbial contamination in saffron was markedly lower than it was in other spices.

  15. Oil prices impact on stock markets: what we learned for the case of oil exporting countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Guesmi; Salma Fattoum; Zied Ftiti

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides further evidence of the co-movements and dynamic volatility spillovers between stock markets and oil prices for a sample of four oil-exporting countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela). We make use of a multivariate GJR-DCCGARCH approach developed by Glosten et al. (1993). The results show that cross-market comovements as measured by conditional correlation coefficients increase positively in response to significant aggregate demand (precautionar...

  16. Methods of producing haploid and doubled haploid oil palms

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson , S. P. C.; Dunwell, James Martin; Wilkinson, M J; Caligari, P. D. S.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to haploid oil palm plants and homozygous doubled haploid oil palm plants. The invention also relates to methods for producing and selecting haploid and doubled haploid plants. More particularly, but not exclusively, the method may be used for selecting haploid and doubled haploid oil palm plants. Haploid and doubled haploid plants are selected by a large-scale screening based on a combination of the phenotype with the use of molecular methods combined with flow ...

  17. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes. PMID:27374520

  18. Asymmetric Effect of Oil Price on the Terms of Trade: Evidence from Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh; Somaye Sadeghi; Soraya Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    The oil price shocks are an important source that affect on TOT in both oil exporting and importing countries. Hence, this paper compares the effects of real oil price shock on TOT in both oil importing and exporting countries, using Panel Data technique and during 1980-2010. To the best of our knowledge, we applied the nonlinear approach in order to assess the asymmetric impact of the oil price shocks on TOT. The results show that the oil price shocks influenced the TOT in the oil exporting ...

  19. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the State’s Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant...

  20. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  1. Oil supply security: the emergency response potential of IEA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the oil supply security and more particularly with the emergency response potential of International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. The first part describes the changing pattern of IEA emergency response requirements. It begins with the experience from the past, then gives the energy outlook to 2010 and ends with the emergency response policy issues for the future. The second part is an overview on the IEA emergency response potential which includes the organisation, the emergency reserves, the demand restraint and the other response mechanisms. The third part gives the response potential of individual IEA countries. The last part deals with IEA emergency response in practice and more particularly with the gulf crisis of 1990-1991. It includes the initial problems raised by the gulf crisis, the adjustment and preparation and the onset of military action with the IEA response.(O.L.). 7 figs., 85 tabs

  2. Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

  3. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beneficiary developing country. 10.177 Section 10.177 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... produced in the beneficiary developing country. (a) “Produced in the beneficiary developing country...) Wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of the beneficiary developing country; or (2)...

  4. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  5. Cost effectiveness of palm oil in comparison to other oils and fats in the country with special emphasis on lower income group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils in the form of vegetable oils are integral part of diet and comprise of an important source of calorie density and micronutrients in human diet. The per capita edible oil consumption in India (14.5 kg in 2012-2013 has been steadily rising over the decades but is still short of the average worldwide consumption in the developed countries. Especially the below poverty line population lags far behind in terms of per capita edible oil consumption and therefore is a major reason for widespread malnutrition. Inadequate consumption of edible oils, which acts as vehicle (mainly promotes absorption in intestine for important micronutrients like vitamin A, D, E and K, is the root cause behind this.  Palm oil is an important source of carotenoids (pro-vitamin A, tocols (Vitamin E, sterols, essential fatty acid and is cost effective in comparison to other edible oils. Crude palm oil which is orange red in color is refined, bleached and deodorized to produce the universally known bright golden oil. Palm oil is a natural semi-solid oil and on fraction it yields soft fraction and hard fraction. Olein (liquid fraction is mostly used as a cooking and frying oil. Stearin finds many applications in solid fat formulations and is extensively used in food processing.

  6. Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study

    OpenAIRE

    Osei-Amponsah, C.; VISSER, L. E.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Struik, P.C.; O. Sakyi-Dawson; Stomph, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by small-scale processors cannot be utilized by the larger scale industries in Ghana or abroad because of its poor quality. There is an urgent need to explore the causes and to identify ways to addre...

  7. Crude Oil Prices and Liquidity, the BRIC and G3 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ratti, Ronald A.; Vespignani, Joaquin L.

    2012-01-01

    Unanticipated increases in the BRIC countries’ liquidity lead to significant and persistent increases in real oil prices, global oil production and global real aggregate demand. Unanticipated shocks to the liquidity of developed countries over 1997:01-2011:12 do not. The relative contribution to real oil price of liquidity in BRIC countries to liquidity in developed countries is much greater since 2005 than before 2005. China and India drive the results for the effect of BRIC countries’ liqui...

  8. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale.

  9. Non-Renewable Energy and Macroeconomic Efficiency of Seven Major Oil Producing Economies in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awodumi Olabanji Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted two-stage DEA to estimate the technical efficiency scores and assess the impact of the two most important components of fossil fuel associated with oil production on macroeconomic efficiency of Seven oil producing African countries during 2005-2012. Our results showed that increasing the consumption of natural gas would improve technical efficiency. Furthermore, increasing the share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption has negative effect on the efficiency of the economies of the top African oil producers. Also, we found that increasing the consumption of primary energy improves efficiency in these economies. We therefore, recommend that governments and other stakeholders in the energy industry should adopt inclusive strategies that will promote the use of natural gas in the short term. However, in the long-run, efforts should be geared towards increasing the use of primary energy, thereby reducing the percentage share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption.

  10. Comparison of Moringa Oleifera seeds oil characterization produced chemically and mechanically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eman, N. A.; Muhamad, K. N. S.

    2016-06-01

    It is established that virtually every part of the Moringa oleifera tree (leaves, stem, bark, root, flowers, seeds, and seeds oil) are beneficial in some way with great benefits to human being. The tree is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals. All Moringa oleifera food products have a very high nutritional value. They are eaten directly as food, as supplements, and as seasonings as well as fodder for animals. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of seeds particle size on oil extraction using chemical method (solvent extraction). Also, to compare Moringa oleifera seeds oil properties which are produced chemically (solvent extraction) and mechanically (mechanical press). The Moringa oleifera seeds were grinded, sieved, and the oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction technique with n-Hexane using three different size of sample (2mm, 1mm, and 500μm). The average oil yield was 36.1%, 40.80%, and 41.5% for 2mm, 1mm, and 500μm particle size, respectively. The properties of Moringa oleifera seeds oil were: density of 873 kg/m3, and 880 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity of 42.2mm2/s and 9.12mm2/s for the mechanical and chemical method, respectively. pH, cloud point and pour point were same for oil produced with both methods which is 6, 18°C and 12°C, respectively. For the fatty acids, the oleic acid is present with high percentage of 75.39%, and 73.60% from chemical and mechanical method, respectively. Other fatty acids are present as well in both samples which are (Gadoleic acid, Behenic acid, Palmitic acid) which are with lower percentage of 2.54%, 5.83%, and 5.73%, respectively in chemical method oil, while they present as 2.40%, 6.73%, and 6.04%, respectively in mechanical method oil. In conclusion, the results showed that both methods can produce oil with high quality. Moringa oleifera seeds oil appear to be an acceptable good source for oil rich in oleic acid which is equal to olive oil quality, that can be consumed in Malaysia where the olive oil

  11. A biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strain enhances oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

  12. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: cbarros@iseg.utl.p [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A., E-mail: alana@unav.e [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. {yields} Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. {yields} Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  13. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: →Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. → Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. → Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  14. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries. Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A. [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E. [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. (author)

  15. Demand for Oil Products in OPEC Countries: A Panel Cointegration Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nourah Al Yousef

    2013-01-01

    The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional ...

  16. Response strategies for oil producers in the face of environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of environmental taxes on the oil export revenues of developing countries, particularly OPEC, is considered; the possibility of amelioration through production management is investigated. A model of oil market dynamics is considered and applied to for different tax secenarios. These are a base case scenario where no environmental tax is imposed; an unmanaged market where a $100/t of carbon tax is imposed in all OECD regions and the resulting fall in oil demand is absorbed by OPEC, thereby keeping oil prices at base case levels; a partially managed market where the same tax is imposed, but only OPEC responds by reducing oil production even further to maintain base case revenue; a totally managed market where the same tax is imposed but both OPEC and non-OPEC agree to manage and control the market. The conclusions reached is that as long as OPEC is not able to target a revenue-maximizing path, a totally managed market is likely to prove beneficial to all developing country producers with a much more manageable, higher than base case price in a partially managed market. If, however, OPEC were able to implement a revenue-maximizing course, there would be no need for total management, since non-OPEC revenue would be concomitantly maximized. (2 tables, 4 figures). (UK)

  17. Experience from Soybean Industry Development of Main Soybean Producing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zenglin; GUO Xiangyu

    2009-01-01

    Soybean output and trade are mainly operated in America, Brazil, Argentina and China in recent years, especially in America. For China, the import output is number one, and the export output is the forth. For this reason, the soybean industry of China got a huge lash, and the soybean farmers got a large loss, it influenced the building of new countryside construction in China. Both U.S.A's soybean output and trade amout are the number one in the world, this achievement should be contributed to U.S.A's advanced production ability and its favorable subsidy policies. Contrary to U.S.A's large subsidy and cheap loan, Brazil and Argentina raise their soybean output and trade amount by high production technology and "untying" policies, such as abolishing some unreasonable rules and tax. So if we want to develop Chinese soybean industry and make sure our soybean industry's safety, it's necessary for us to experience soybean industry development of other countries' and improve ours.

  18. Selection of Sinopec Lubricating Oil Producing Bases by Using the AHP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yunchang; Song Zhaozheng; Zheng Chengguo; Jiang Qingzhe; Xu Chunming

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting the development of Sinopec lubricating oil were analyzed in this paper,and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model for selecting lubricating-oil producing bases was developed. By using this model,nine lubricating oil producing companies under Sinopec were comprehensively evaluated. The evaluation result showed that the Maoming Lubricating Oil Company (Guangdong province),Jingmen Lubricating Oil Company (Hubei province) and Changcheng Lube Oil Company (Beijing) are top three choices,and should be developed preferentially for the development of Sinopec producing bases of lubricating oil in the future. The conclusions provide the theoretical basis for selecting lubricating oil producing bases for decision makers.

  19. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe : a survey among national experts from 39 countries, February 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, C; Albiger, B; Buist, Girbe; Tambić Andrasević, A; Canton, R; Carmeli, Y; Friedrich, A W; Giske, C G; Glupczynski, Y; Gniadkowski, M; Livermore, D M; Nordmann, P; Poirel, L; Rossolini, G M; Seifert, H; Vatopoulos, A; Walsh, T; Woodford, N; Donker, T; Monnet, D L; Grundmann, H

    2013-01-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a threat to healthcare delivery, although its extent differs substantially from country to country. In February 2013, national experts from 39 European countries were invited to self-assess the current epidemiological situation of CPE

  20. Microbial polysaccharide produced from crude oil and its applicability in secondary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Wang, C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with a strain of bacterium Brevibacterium viscogenes nov. sp. 74-230, which produces extracellular polysaccharide from curde oil and its fractions. The effects of ages of the inoculum, several kinds of crude oil and its fractions, and contents of crude oil on the synthesis of polysaccharide were investigated. When crude oil was used as the sole carbon source (12%, w/v) in 50 or 240 1 fermentors, 8.0 g/1 of polysaccharide was obtained. The changes of hydrocarbon components after fermentation were analysed. They indicated that the bacterium strain mainly had utilized n-alkane. The fermented gummy solution was diluted and used as a driving fluid in laboratory scale model experiments. When the injection volume corresponds to 20% of the pore volume, the secondary oil recovery was enhanced to about 9% of the initial reserves.

  1. Kazakhstan : Country Economic Memorandum, Getting Competitive, Staying Competitive, The Challenge of Managing Kazakhstan's Oil Boom

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Kazakhstan has made substantial progress in its economic transition, and faces a potentially bright future thanks to its oil wealth. The challenge is to increase the country's competitiveness, and expand the benefits of growth, while avoiding the economic and social risks typically associated with oil wealth. The overarching theme of the report is how to exploit the strengths of the Kazakhstan economy in the new oil environment, while avoiding the pitfalls that oil income typically brings. Th...

  2. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  3. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira; L. R. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of resi...

  4. Oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S. and 13 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)

  5. Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John G; Clark, Allyson; Mather, Damien W

    2013-01-01

    Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced. PMID:24002524

  6. Potential damage of GM crops to the country image of the producing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John G; Clark, Allyson; Mather, Damien W

    2013-01-01

    Frequently heard within New Zealand are arguments that release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment will harm the "clean green" image of the country, and therefore do irreparable harm to export markets for food products and also to the New Zealand tourism industry. But where is the evidence? To investigate the likelihood of harmful effects on New Zealand's clean green image in relation to food exports, we have previously used face-to-face interviews with gatekeepers in the food distribution channel in five countries in Europe, in China, and in India. To investigate potential impacts on the New Zealand tourism sector, we have surveyed first-time visitors to New Zealand at Auckland International Airport soon after arrival. We conclude that it is highly unlikely that introduction of GM plants into New Zealand would have any long-term deleterious effect on perceptions in overseas markets of food products sourced from New Zealand. Furthermore it is highly unlikely that New Zealand's image as a tourist destination would suffer if GM plants were introduced.

  7. Novel bioemulsifier produced by a Paenibacilus sp. strain and its applicability in microbial enhanced oil recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce surface active compounds reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Paenibacillus sp. #510, isolated from crude oil samples obtained from a Brazilian oil field, produc...

  8. The Causality between Human Capital and Economic Growth in Oil Exporting Countries: Panel Cointegration and Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrara, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between education and GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit root tests and panel cointegration analysis for the period 1970-2010. A three-variable model is formulated with oil exports as the third variable. The results show a strong causality from oil revenues and economic growth to education in the oil exporting countries. Yet, education does not have any significant effects on GDP in short- and long-run. It ...

  9. The Oil Supply and Demand Context for Security of Oil Supply to the EU from the GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Skinner; Robert Arnott

    2005-01-01

    In examining the prospects for oil and gas supply from the GCC countries, we draw on the evidence that the supply of oil and gas from the region has been relatively reliable, notwithstanding the region’s perceived political instability. The approach taken here starts from this empirical observation; namely, that supply from the region will be available when called upon, as it has in the past. Oil and gas are of central importance to the economies of most GCC countries. Hydrocarbons provide th...

  10. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis test, emulsification test and measurement of surface tension were conducted. We also evaluated the effect of different pH, salinity concentrations, and temperatures on biosurfactant production. Among importance features of the isolated strains, one of the strains (NO.4: Bacillus.sp showed high salt tolerance and their successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH and temperature domain and reduced surface tension to value below 40 mN/m. This strain is potential candidate for microbial enhanced oil recovery. The strain4 biosurfactant component was mainly glycolipid in nature.

  11. The story of Fairbank Oil : four generations of the family producing oil longer than anyone in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, P.

    2004-07-01

    This book provides a historical account of the accomplishments of the four generations of Fairbank men who were instrumental in developing the petroleum industry in Ontario. The oil industry in Canada actually began in Oil Springs, Ontario where, in 1861, John Henry Fairbank surveyed 100 acres of land for oil drillings. In 1861 he founded Charles Fairbanks Oil Properties Ltd., an oil business which expanded to 600 acres with 350 working oil wells. By 1890, he had grown to be Canada's single largest oil producer, producing approximately 24,000 barrels of oil per year, and selling it to Imperial Oil. Today, the fourth generation of the Fairbank family still produces about 24,000 barrels of oil each year, but is now one of the smallest oil producers in Canada. For more than 150 years, the Fairbank family has pumped oil in the same place using the same technology. They are the oldest petroleum producing family in the world and have been supplying crude oil to Imperial Oil longer than anyone. refs., figs.

  12. Price elasticity of demand for crude oil: estimates for 23 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses a multiple regression model derived from an adaptation of Nerlove's partial adjustment model to estimate both the short-run and long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in 23 countries. The estimates so obtained confirm that the demand for crude oil internationally is highly insensitive to changes in price. (author)

  13. Determinants of Oil Demand in OECD Countries: An Application of Panel Data Model

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu OZCAN

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze demand for oil in 20 selected OECD countries over the period 1980 to 2011, within the framework of panel data model. The long-run income and price elasticities of oil demand were computed and the Granger causality between variables of interest was tested. The results indicated that oil demand has positive and negative income and price elasticities, respectively. In addition, both income and price were inelastic in the long-run, but price elasticity ...

  14. Screening for kidney disease in an oil producing community in Nigeria: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Umezurike H; Ahmed, S; Arigbodi, O; Idogun, S; Unuigbe, E I

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum products have been associated with acute and chronic kidney disease. Nigeria is a major oil producing and exporting country. The aim of this study was to screen for kidney disease in an oil producing community in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Ido, Asari-Toru Local Government Area of Rivers State. All subjects were resident in the town and those aged 18 years and above were eligible. Spot urine samples were collected for dipstick urinalysis, and venous blood was collected for estimation of serum electrolyte, urea, creatinine, and lipid profile. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft and Gault formula. A total of 99 participants were screened: 75% were females, over 50% aged above 50 years, and the majority had low socioeconomic status. The mean eGFR of the participants was 80.2 ± 33.3 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , 32.6% of the participants had eGFR cholesterol (-0.23, P = 0.045), but there was a positive correlation with body mass index (0.24, P = 0.018). We conclude that the prevalence of kidney disease was high in the screened population in a Nigerian oil producing community. PMID:27424698

  15. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-04-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

  16. Chinese-Brunei Oil Cooperation Benefits Two Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Thanks to joint efforts by both sides, the trade and economic relations between China and Brunei have in recent years witnessed a steady and healthy development, which will no doubt benefit the two countries and the two peoples.

  17. A study on radon absorption efficiencies of edible oils produced in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakara, N; Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2010-04-01

    A study on absorption of radon by different edible oils of plant origins produced and used in India was conducted in order to identify efficient radon-absorbing oils. A comparative study of radon absorption by edible oils of India with that of olive oil, which is known as a good absorber of radon, was also carried out. The study was performed by bubbling known concentrations of radon through the oil contained in a bottle and then evaluating the bubbled oil by gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. The results show that oils such as coconut oil, gingelly oil (till oil), ground nut oil, mustard oil, sunflower oil, and saffola kardi oil are also good absorbers for radon, and among them coconut oil and gingelly oils are better absorbers than olive oil. The Henry's equilibrium constant (or the concentration factor), an indicator for the solubility of gas in liquids, was also measured for different types of oil by saturating a known volume of the oil with radon. The Henry's equilibrium constant varied in the range 7.32-8.22 for the Indian vegetable oils, and for olive oil it was found to be 7.88. The details of the experimental technique employed and results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  18. Oil price and the development of financial intermediation in developing oil-exporting countries: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinazaekpere Nwani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between crude oil price and financial sector intermediary development in Nigeria over the period 1975–2011, using the autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration analysis. Four measures of financial intermediary development are used including an index of financial intermediary development constructed from three indicators of financial intermediary development using principal component analysis. The results show that crude oil price is a key driver of financial intermediary development in Nigeria. A positive and significant long run relationship between financial intermediary development and crude oil price coexists with a negative short run relationship. The results show that even if we control for economic growth, inflation and trade openness, crude oil price still has significant influence on the development of financial intermediation in Nigeria. The findings of this study have important policy implications for financial intermediary development in Nigeria and other developing oil-exporting countries.

  19. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of

  20. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  1. Pollution of an aquifer by produced oil field water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brine is produced from reservoirs as a waste material from crude oil and gas after processing. Waste water may be discharged at the surface or reinjected underground. When it is reinjected, it may be mixed with an underground fresh water source for several reasons. From this point of view, forecasting the pollutant concentrations by knowing the historical data at several locations on a field has great importance when planning the necessary precautions for environmental safety. Aquifer-M in Turkey, having the properties of potable water, is contaminated by oil field water that is injected for disposal purposes. A numerical model is used to determine the extent of pollution due to the injection of saline produced water into aquifer-M. Eight observation wells are drilled to take water and core samples in order to identify both rock and fluid properties of aquifer-M. Water samples taken from different intervals of aquifer-M are analyzed to determine the flow paths for the pollutant movement. The results are interpreted with the help of core property data obtained by computerized tomography (CT) analysis and routine core analysis. By using drilling records, log data, and CT analysis results, two subunits in aquifer-M with different lithological properties are identified. All data are used in a ground water pollution model. Aquifer-M has fresh water with salinity of 5-10 ppm, and the chlorine concentration of injected waste water is approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a significant difference between these concentrations, the chlorine ion is selected as the indicative ion for locating the pollution front. The model study indicated that the contaminated water has propagated 18.7 km from the site of injection. (author)

  2. Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale Eduardo J Gudiña, Lígia R. Rodrigues, José A. Teixeira IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using micro...

  3. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The mater...

  4. Country Risk Volatility Spillovers of Emerging Oil Economies: An Application to Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolei; He, Wan; Li, Jianping

    The emerging oil economies (EOEs) of geographical proximity, are usually impacted by some common risk factors which may make the interaction of their country risk closely related. This paper focuses on the interaction of country risk between EOEs by investigating the volatility spillovers of country risk. Taking Russia and Kazakhstan for example, a multivariate conditional volatility model is used to capture the dynamic spillovers of country risk. Empirical results show that there are significant bidirectional spillover effects with the asymmetrical volatility between Russia and Kazakhstan.

  5. Production and use of plant oil as fuel in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical possibilities for the production and use of plant oil as fuel are given: cultures supplying interesting seeds containing oil are known, simple and small oil presses for decentralized oil production have been developed and engines which can use plant oil are ready for use. As the plants supplying seeds containing oil are used as protective hedges around gardens and to protect fields to be harvested against animals and the soil against erosion, there is a positive feedback in this case between energy production and agricultural production. The feedback of the pressed cake produced in obtaining the oil as an organic fertiliser is particularly important here. Due to the monetarisation of erosion protection measures, the fight against desertification can receive a great boost, or it can become self-sustaining, from previous experience in the field. (orig.)

  6. Enhanced oil recovery under laboratory conditions using biosurfactant-producing microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, J.A.P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Oil recovery comprises a primary phase, which produces oil using the natural pressure drive of the reservoir, and a secondary phase, which includes the injection of water to improve the flow of oil to the wellhead [1,2]. While primary recovery produces 5-10% of the original oil in place, recovery efficiencies in the secondary stage vary from 10% to 40% [1]. Most of the unrecovered oil (up to two-thirds of the total oil reserves) is trapped in the reservoir pores by high capillary forces [2]. ...

  7. Implications for the Venezuelan oil industry of new environmental regulations in consumer countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New and tighter environmental regulations are being enacted in major oil consumer countries, inducing a reshaping of oil business strategies and operations in oil exporting countries. The priority areas include air and water pollution control, waste management, conservation of natural resources and oil spill control among others. This paper summarizes the more significant of those regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, their aims, as well as the implications for Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) in terms of investment in new product specifications and pollution prevention programmes. A review of the Venezuelan environmental regulations has also been done recently, and the necessary investment to comply with the new national standards in existing installations are estimated in US$500 million for the period 1992-1996. Investment in local environmental protection, associated with the new installations in Venezuela for manufacturing cleaner products during the same period, are included in the costs of these installations presented in this document. (author)

  8. DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Al Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional on finding cointegration, the paper extends the literature by employing the Pedroni Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS Dynamic OLS (DOLS procedure to generate. The study estimates the demand for Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. An attempt is also made to assess the impact of this demand on the future availability of OPEC oil exports.

  9. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  10. 78 FR 32070 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... avoiding extreme fluctuations in supplies and prices to help maintain stability in the spearmint oil market..., and producer prices for all classes of spearmint oil. Input from spearmint oil handlers and producers... year; (5) the quantity of reserve oil, by class, in storage; (6) producer prices of oil,...

  11. The political role of national oil companies in the large exporting countries : the Venezuela case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper starts by defining the role of mining companies vis-a vis the landlords in a modern economy. Then it examines the role international oil companies played in exporting countries. Finally the role of national oil companies is analyzed following the same scheme : what is their contribution to the development of a new landlord-tenant relationship, nationally and internationally ? ''Petroleos de Venezuela'' is taken as an example. (Author). 27 refs

  12. Sourcing Solutions to Oil Shortage Challenge in Asian Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao

    2001-01-01

    @@ 21st century is an era with many development opportunities for Asia. It's time for Asia, particularly for developing countries in this region to be away from poverty, backwardness for rapid economic taking-off. According to the predictions of authoritative agencies,Asia will remain as one of the fastest growing regions in the world. Both China and India's economic growth rate will be over 6%. The rapid economic growth of the two largest population nations will not only drive the prosperity of Asian economy, but also bring tremendous impact on the world market.

  13. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  14. The economic growth of oil countries; La croissance economique des pays petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbod, G

    2007-02-15

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  15. Successful Producer Owned Marketing Organisations in a Transition Country: Two Case Studies from Hungarian Agribusiness

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Gabor G.

    2009-01-01

    Starting point of our analysis is that independent privately owned farm organisations in transition countries like Hungary can not countervail the market power of their business partners; therefore closer coordination (integration) of agricultural producers seems an appropriate solution. Apart from some theoretical considerations on co-operative rationale (based on New Institutional Economics), the main aim of the paper is presenting 2 case studies on producer owned marketing organisations fr...

  16. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.; Gopala Krishna, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO) or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO)] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units), free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%), and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg−1) of UCNOs, VCNOs, an...

  17. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy

  18. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  19. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated. PMID:27534114

  20. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

  1. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

  2. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs.

  3. 78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ..., income tax incentives, and the provision of goods and services for less than adequate remuneration. Due... Investigations, 78 FR 45502 (July 29, 2013). Postponement of Due Date for the Preliminary Determination Section... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement...

  4. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate

  5. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Spain for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  8. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  9. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  10. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  11. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Italy 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  12. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  13. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  14. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Poland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  15. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  16. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Highly oil-producing microalgae selected through directed-evolution on a microfludic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestler, Troy; Estevez-Torres, Andre; Lambert, Guillaume; Austin, Robert H.

    2009-03-01

    Some species of photosynthetic microalgae produce signi?cant amounts of oil which can be easily converted to diesel fuel. However, as it stands today, biodiesel is signi?cantly more expensive than fossil fuels. We wish to improve the oil yield and production rate of a single species of microalgae through directed evolution. We propose to utilize our microfabication technology to create microhabitats to control the nutrient environment of the species, monitor oil production through Raman Spectroscopy, and punish colonies of algae which have low oil yield. We believe this process will produce a mutant species with a high oil yield.

  18. Oil spill hazards at the upstream level: a risk management paradigm for a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents the experience of recent oil spills internationally and in Nigeria and proposes an appropriate system of risk management. In the best of circumstances, externality problems are difficult to handle; they are even worse in developing countries with weak sociopolitical institutions and where transnational companies tend to have lower operating standards. Typically, a company would invest in spill prevention up to the point where the marginal benefit just equals marginal costs. In a situation where spill detection and clean up enforcement are weak, as is the case in many developing countries, investment in prevention will tend to be low. Consequently, an insurance-type oil spill contingency fund, financed through an oil tax, is proposed. (author)

  19. Sectoral Structure Change Modeling of European Oil and Gas Producing Country’S Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepelkin Viacheslav Alexandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider identifying features of sectoral structuring within the national economy that has definite foreign trade product specialization. Examination of the sector-specific division methodology enabled identification of its strong association with certain sector dominance in the economy. It is against this background that we offer an explanation for the delay in transferring from the post-Soviet to the applicable international classification of economic structure elements in Russia and Belarus. We perform analysis of the three-component P-S-T model (primary, secondary, tertiary sector using statistical and econometric methods and define properties of the sectoral shares dynamics in national economies of oil and gas producing countries. Analysis of the Russian and Norwegian economies’ intersectoral changes suggests that it is necessary for the government to develop and implement selective structural policy to overcome the existing structural disproportions.

  20. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed

  1. Bubble scrub : process aims to reduce oil content and dispose of solids in produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil and water separation processes used by the petroleum industry typically leave behind between 5000 and 30,000 parts per million of oil in its produced water. The water is then injected back into the ground or disposed of in tailings ponds. This article described a water-oil remediation technology designed to reduce the hydrocarbon content in injected water to less than 5 parts per million. The process used aeration in a tank configuration that injected gas into the produced water. The aeration process created micron-sized gas bubbles that super-saturated the produced water in order to break the oil-water interfaces. A prototype unit has been designed to process 1000 bbls per day of water-oil mixture and is currently being used by an Alberta producer. It was concluded that the new system will help to reduce the massive amounts of water used in oil sands production. 1 fig

  2. Determinants of Oil Demand in OECD Countries: An Application of Panel Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu OZCAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze demand for oil in 20 selected OECD countries over the period 1980 to 2011, within the framework of panel data model. The long-run income and price elasticities of oil demand were computed and the Granger causality between variables of interest was tested. The results indicated that oil demand has positive and negative income and price elasticities, respectively. In addition, both income and price were inelastic in the long-run, but price elasticity was lower than income elasticity. Furthermore, a bidirectional causality running from economic growth to oil consumption and vice versa was obtained, providing evidence of feedback hypothesis. Based on these results, some crucial policy implications were suggested

  3. Water and Energy in the GCC: Securing Scarce Water in Oil-Rich Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states has traditionally been addressed by finding new ways of producing water. Desalination techniques have allowed these countries to satisfy their increasing water demand, driven by economic and demographic development. The high CAPEX and OPEX costs of desalinated water production are borne by the State through subsidies in the forms of low water and electricity prices. As this trend is not environmentally or economically sustainable, new strategies are now giving priority to cost recovery and efficient resource management. This comparative study will show that in the GCC countries, whose oil or gas reserves are among the largest worldwide, the management of water and energy resources has been relying upon vertically integrated government agencies and companies, with water supply policies fueled by cheap energy. Wealth redistribution coming from oil and gas revenues has been ensured through low or nonexistent water and electricity tariffs. Groundwater resources, which are the only water sources of the region (there are no surface waters available, except for few dams in Saudi Arabia), are quickly diminishing. Desalination has been developing very fast and now seems to be the only reliable form of supplying water for future requirements. Saudi Arabia alone might need 18 billion cubic meter (bcm) of fresh water per year by 2050 to sustain current consumption patterns. For this reason, huge amounts of energy will be required and the question of the right energy/water balance is at stake. Technological choices in the electricity sector will influence the way water is produced in the future, and vice versa. In particular, water production fueled by gas or heavy fuel can be linked to power generation, enhancing efficiency but lowering flexibility. Membrane technologies, which require only electricity inputs, allow for a diversified energy and electricity mix but they have smaller critical sizes and therefore produce

  4. Is There an Optimal Strategic Oil Reserve for Each Country? A Study Based on the Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Junan; Cong, Ronggang

    2014-01-01

    -cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own...... suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice....

  5. Produced and Seep Oil along the California Coastline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This map portrays the location, type, and chemical nature ("tribe") of oil samples along the Central and Southern California coast, including tar on beaches,...

  6. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  7. Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

  8. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... comment on EPA's analyses of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel...

  9. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel under the Renewable...

  10. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil with hydrogenated cottonseed oil to produce trans free fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeharika, T S V R; Rallabandi, Ramya; Ragini, Y; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rani, K N Prasanna; Prasad, R B N

    2015-08-01

    Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCSO) was carried out for producing a low trans free fat. The interesterification reaction was performed by varying parameters such as weight proportions of RBO and HCSO, reaction temperatures, time period and lipase concentration. Both non specific and specific lipases namely Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM were employed for this study. Based on the data generated, the optimum reaction conditions were found to be: weight proportion of RBO and HCSO, 80:20; lipase concentration, 5 % (w/w) of substrates; reaction temperature, 60 °C; reaction time, 4 h for Lipozyme TL IM and 5 h for Novozym 435. The degree of interesterification, calculated based on the results of solid fat characteristics was used for comparing the catalytic activity of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. It was observed that the degree of interesterification (DI) reached a near 100 % at the 4th hour for reaction employing Lipozyme TL IM with a rate constant of 0.191 h(-1) while Novozym 435 catalyzed reaction reached a near 100 % degree of interesterification at the 5th hour with a rate constant of 0.187 h(-1), suggesting that Lipozyme TL IM has a faster catalytic activity.

  11. Technological breakthrough to boost oilsand/heavy oil production : Imperial Oil at Cold Lake - steam it, soak it, produce it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-07-01

    Next to Syncrude and Suncor, Imperial Oil is one of the major players in improving the technology to increase oil sand and heavy oil recovery. In 1985, Imperial Oil brought on production of 25,000 barrels per day from its Cold Lake project. During the summer of 1997, the company produced 130,000 barrels of oil from 2,300 wells using 380,000 barrels of steam daily for well injection. Currently, Imperial Oil is planning a 500 million dollar, 30,000 barrels per day capacity plant, the fifth one at Cold Lake. The project has been delayed until mid-1998 due to backlog in applications for approval before the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. 1 fig.

  12. Identification of molecular species of polyol oils produced from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa e03-12 nrrl b-59991

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil (Hou and Lin, 2013). The polyol oil produced by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NR...

  13. Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Brian K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture international estimates, and the World Bank (234 annual observations; 23 countries. Outcomes included mortality from IHD and stroke for adults aged 50 and older. Predictors included per-capita consumption of palm oil and cigarettes and per-capita Gross Domestic Product as well as time trends and an interaction between palm oil consumption and country economic development level. Analyses examined changes in country-level outcomes over time employing linear panel regressions with country-level fixed effects, population weighting, and robust standard errors clustered by country. Sensitivity analyses included further adjustment for other major dietary sources of saturated fat. Results In developing countries, for every additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, IHD mortality rates increased by 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [21-115], whereas, in similar settings, stroke mortality rates increased by 19 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-12-49] but were not significant. For historically high-income countries, changes in IHD and stroke mortality rates from palm oil consumption were smaller (IHD: 17 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [5.3-29]; stroke: 5.1 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-1.2-11.0]. Inclusion of other major saturated fat sources including beef, pork, chicken, coconut oil, milk cheese, and butter did not substantially change the differentially higher relationship between palm oil and IHD mortality in developing countries. Conclusions Increased palm oil

  14. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-05-31

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

  15. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  16. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  17. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  18. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE OIL AND MINING CONCESSION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina Georgeta DINU

    2014-01-01

    Concession is the oldest form of cooperation between the state and companies to exploit oil being found in the Middle East since the late nineteenth century. In colonized countries the right of exploitation belonged to the companies of the suzerain states. Invoking national interest, dispute over natural resources has increased in direct proportion to the increasing importance of these resources and inversely proportional to the decrease in quantity. A dull but intense battle at this point ch...

  19. Oil and gas equipment and services country sector profile in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Pakistan where government efforts to privatize state-owned companies will help make the sector more efficient. The potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise was also described along with the key factors shaping market growth, sector reform and opportunities for actual and planned projects. Pakistan is a modest producer of oil and gas. It imports 80 per cent of its crude oil requirements but is self-sufficient in natural gas. This may change as demand increases. The key player in the Pakistani petroleum industry is the state-owned Oil and Gas Development Corporation Ltd. (OGDCL). Most domestic natural gas is produced by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. Proposed pipelines from oil and gas deposits in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan could provide Pakistan with revenue through transport fees. Pakistan is offering a full range of options to investors through an ambitious privatization program. This report described the competitive environment with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the organizations that manage and approve oil and gas projects. Considerations for market-entry in Pakistan were also outlined

  20. Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectroscopy offers a powerful alternative analytical method for the detection and identification of lipids/oil in biological samples, such as algae and fish. Recent research in the authors' groups, and experimental data only very recently published by us and a few other groups suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be exploited in instances where fast and accurate determination of the iodine value (associated with the degree of lipid unsaturation) is required. Here the current status of Raman spectroscopy applications on algae is reviewed, and particular attention is given to the efforts of identifying and selecting oil-rich algal strains for the potential mass production of commercial biofuels and for utilization in the food industry

  1. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaher, F. A.; Aly, Saadia M.; El-Kinawy, O. S.

    1998-01-01

    Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase) in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium&...

  2. Science for wine: A bibliometric assessment of wine and grape research for wine-producing and consuming countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Glänzel, Wolfgang; Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2006-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis of wine publications and citations by country and over time related a country's scientific performance in wine research to its position in the global wine market as a producer, a consumer, or both. Results highlight the extent to which scientific positions can help to explain the emergence of some countries as new participants in the wine industry and established countries as old participants defending their positions. We also examined the extent to which the scientifi...

  3. The Changing Pattern in International Trade and Capital Flows of the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries in Comparison with other Oil-Exporting Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga PEETERS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of the pattern of the gross capital flows of the current and capital accounts of the balance of payments of the group of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries during the last decade that includes the global crisis years. As a comprehensive overview is lacking in the literature, while this country group has gained in importance in the global economy in particular in the years before the global crisis, this study tries to fill this gap. It benchmarks the GCC countries with the other oil-exporting OPEC countries that have a comparable size of natural resources. The GCC countries’ high investments in the world economy financed by their abundant income from oil revenues, showed their remarkably high degree of trade and financial integration in the world economy. Thanks to policies geared towards opening up borders, the GCC countries have imparted a significant stimulus to the world economy, to a much greater extent than other oil exporting countries in similar conditions. Aspects of globalization, trade and financial integration,such as the dependence on oil, “Dutch disease”, regional integration, foreign direct investment and cross-border assets and loans are addressed. The results show that the impact of the crisis has reverted international capital flows of the GCC, in particular cross-border bank loans, deposits and foreign direct investment. Current and future global policymaking needs however moretimely and consistent statistical information.

  4. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    2004-01-01

    lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...

  5. Oil price risk management in the 1990s - issues for producers and lenders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil prices have exhibited considerable volatility over the past five or ten years and the management of oil price risk has become an important factor in underpinning the viability of many oil producing operations from both a lender's and investor's perspective. Various oil based hedging products are now available to protect against such volatility, ranging from products which fix forward prices to option based arrangements which set a floor price but retain some (or all) of the potential upside. These products have particular relevance for petroleum companies with limited financial resources or who are looking to limit recourse to particular assets/cash flows. There are a number of techniques which can be successfully combined to mitigate oil price volatility and the most relevant of these to a producer are discussed. The recent development of the Tapis swap and option markets, which have provided flexibility to Australasian producers, is also discussed. Oil based financial products can also be used as a method of funding (e.g. for a development or acquisition) as an alternative to traditional cash based borrowing structures, thus creating a natural hedge against oil price movements. It is estimated that the use of such structures, coupled with a well structured revenue hedging program, can enhance a project's attractiveness from a lender's perspective (particularly with respect to protection against down side movements in oil price) and/or provide greater certainty of returns to producers. A case study of a recent commodity risk management based financing is presented. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  6. Produce More Oil Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner

    2004-09-30

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  7. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  8. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased sig...

  9. Use of Rapeseed Straight Vegetable Oil as Fuel Produced in Small-Scale Exploitations

    OpenAIRE

    Baquero, Grau; Esteban, Bernat; Riba, Jordi-Roger; Puig, Rita; Rius, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a method to produce rapeseed and process it to obtain rapeseed oil and rapeseed cake meal from a small-scale point of view. It also shows how rapeseed oil can be used as fuel in diesel engines for agriculture self-consumption. A production, processing and use-as-fuel model for rapeseed oil is also presented, analysing environmentally and economically the use of rapeseed oil as fuel compared to other agricultural production alternatives. The results are evaluated for dry ...

  10. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of t...... of this research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs....

  11. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units, free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%, and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg−1 of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%, medium chain fatty acids (69.65% and medium chain triglycerides (59.27% mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%, dilauricmonocaprin (18.89% and trilaurin (21.88% were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.Se analizaron y compararon las características físico-químicas y la composición de fitonutrientes de aceites de coco disponibles comercialmente preparados a partir de copra [aceite de coco sin refinar, UCNO; aceite de coco decolorado, y desodorizado (RBDCNO] y de la leche extraída de coco húmedo madurado [aceite de coco virgen (VCNO]. El color (2,6; 0,0; 1,6 unidades lovibond, los ácidos grasos libres (0,61; 0,58; 0,53% y el índice de peróxidos (1,35; 0,0; 0,0 meq·O2Kg−1 para UCNOs, VCNOs y RBDCNOs respectivamente, indican valores superiores de color y PV para UCNOs y FFA similar que para los otros dos aceites. Los aceites UCNOs mostraron valores de

  12. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  13. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  14. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of

  15. Can Oil-Rich Countries Encourage Entrepreneurship? ‘Yes’, ‘No’ but not ‘Perhaps’

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first empirical investigation to test one of transmission channels of resource curse, i.e., marginalized entrepreneurship activities. Our panel data analysis of 65 countries from 2004 to 2011 shows a negative and statistically significant association between oil rents dependency and entrepreneurship indicator. This finding is robust to control of other major drivers of entrepreneurship, unobservable country and time fixed effects and a different measurement of oil rent...

  16. Characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oils produced from pretreated pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, El-Barbary M; Steele, Philip H; Ingram, Leonard

    2009-05-01

    The pretreatment of biomass prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass feed stocks leading to a change in the mechanism of biomass thermal decomposition. Pretreatment of feed stocks prior to fast pyrolysis provides an opportunity to produce bio-oils with varied chemical composition and physical properties. This provides the potential to vary bio-oil chemical and physical properties for specific applications. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we applied six chemical pretreatments: dilute phosphoric acid, dilute sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated 10-year old pine wood feed stocks in an auger reactor at 450 degrees C. The bio-oils' physical properties of pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Mean molecular weights and polydispersity were determined by gel permeation chromatography. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Results showed that the physical and chemical characteristics of the bio-oils produced from pretreated pine wood feed stocks were influenced by the biomass pretreatments applied. These physical and chemical changes are compared and discussed in detail in the paper. PMID:19050831

  17. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

  18. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia

  19. Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Brian K; Seligman Benjamin; Farquhar John W; Goldhaber-Fiebert Jeremy D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture inter...

  20. 19 CFR 10.196 - Cost or value of materials produced in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... composed is not wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of a beneficiary country and (2) the tanning... would be eligible for duty-free treatment only if the direct costs attributable to the tanning operation... transporting the materials to the manufacturer's plant; (iii) The actual cost of waste or spoilage...

  1. 78 FR 9368 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain oil country tubular goods (``OCTG'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We preliminarily determine that Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Wuxi'') and Jiangsu Chengde Steel......

  2. Long-term relationship between oil revenue and government expenditure in the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses the Engle-Granger method of co-integration and the Johansen-Juselius maximum-likelihood technique of co-integration to test the long-term relationship between government expenditure (for both consumption and investment purposes) and oil exports in the oil-producing members of the GCC. The regression results suggest that, using the Engle-Granger method, the null hypothesis of no co-integration could only be rejected in the case of Oman. However, the Johansen technique suggests the existence of a unique co-integrating vector, and hence long-term relationship between the two variables in Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There is no evidence of a long-term relationship between government expenditure and oil exports in the case of Kuwait. (Author)

  3. Detection of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in the baltic countries and st. Petersburg area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Balode, Arta; Edquist, Petra; Egorova, Svetlana; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Konovalenko, Irina; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lillo, Jana; Lipskaya, Lidia; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Pai, Kristiine; Parv, Kristel; Pärna, Katri; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Naaber, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae (n = 1983) and E. coli (n = 7774) clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the bla NDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production. PMID:24724086

  4. Epidemiology of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii in Mediterranean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Djahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii are of great concern to health services worldwide. These β-lactamases hydrolyse almost all β-lactams, are plasmid-encoded, and are easily transferable among bacterial species. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern. Infections caused by these bacteria have limited treatment options and have been associated with high mortality rates. Carbapenemase producers are mainly identified among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and A. baumannii and still mostly in hospital settings and rarely in the community. The Mediterranean region is of interest due to a great diversity and population mixing. The prevalence of carbapenemases is particularly high, with this area constituting one of the most important reservoirs. The types of carbapenemase vary among countries, partially depending on the population exchange relationship between the regions and the possible reservoirs of each carbapenemase. This review described the epidemiology of carbapenemases produced by enterobacteria and A. baumannii in this part of the world highlighting the worrisome situation and the need to screen and detect these enzymes to prevent and control their dissemination.

  5. Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Baltic Countries and St. Petersburg Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Pavelkovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem; however, no exact data on the epidemiology of carbapenemase in the Baltic countries and St. Petersburg area is available. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Baltic States and St. Petersburg, Russia, and to compare the different methods for carbapenemase detection. From January to May 2012, all K. pneumoniae  n=1983 and E. coli  n=7774 clinical isolates from 20 institutions in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia were screened for carbapenem susceptibility. The IMP, VIM, GIM, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48 genes were detected using real-time PCR and the ability to hydrolyze ertapenem was determined using MALDI-TOF MS. Seventy-seven strains were found to be carbapenem nonsusceptible. From these, 15 K. pneumoniae strains hydrolyzed ertapenem and carried the blaNDM gene. All of these strains carried integron 1 and most carried integron 3 as well as genes of the CTX-M-1 group. No carbapenemase-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains were found in Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania; however, NDM-positive K. pneumoniae was present in the hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia. A MALDI-TOF MS-based assay is a suitable and cost-effective method for the initial confirmation of carbapenemase production.

  6. An exogenous surfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis facilitates indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peike eGao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous Bacillus subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous Bacillus subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The Bacillus subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous Bacillus subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery.

  7. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work...

  8. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of

  9. [Treatment of simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production using dithiocarbamate-type flocculant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Jia, Yu-Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Cao, Bai-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Lei

    2010-10-01

    A dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the reaction of amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403 and carbon disulfide in alkaline solution. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) for simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production was studied by Jar-test. The effect of the dosage of DTC (T403), hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, and pH on the oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was investigated. The results showed that the chelate polymer formed by DTC (T403) and Fe2+ ion has good oil removal performance by net capturing mechanism. HPAM had a negative effect on oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403). For the treatment of the simulated wastewater containing 0-900 mg/L of HPAM and 300 mg/L of oil, the residual oil concentrations in water samples decreased below 10 mg/L when the dosage of Fe2+ and DTC (T403) was 10 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was affected by pH and good oil removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was below 7.5. DTC (T403) is appropriate for the treatment of oily wastewater containing Fe2+ ion.

  10. 76 FR 4204 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... extreme fluctuations in supplies and prices and to help maintain stability in the Far West spearmint oil... market information on the current supply, demand, and price of spearmint oil. In a vote with seven... storage; (6) producer prices of oil, including prices for each class of oil; and (7) general...

  11. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  12. Challenges of Membrane Filtration for Produced Water Treatment in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    the Water Flooding Technology (WFT) is employed. The quality requirements for WFT and the increasing environmental concerns for produced water discharge lead to increased interest in zero-pollutant discharge. Traditional Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technologies(such as hydrocyclones) are already......Tremendous amount of produced water are discharged into the sea from offshore oil & gas installations. Along with every barrel of oil three barrels of water are produced and this is only worsen as the fields mature. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is employed to increase production, as a part of EOR...... struggling to their fundamental limit, therefore the membrane filtration technology turns to be a potential candidate for zero pollutant discharge. Membrane filtration technology suffers from the notorious fouling problem, where many methods for fouling prevention and removal are explored, the general idea...

  13. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  14. Oil revenue and the economic development of exporting countries; La rente petroliere et le developpement economique des pays exportateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoun, M.C. [Paris Dauphine Univ., 75 (France)

    2008-09-15

    Oil receipts confer a substantial financial power and a strategic position on the international scene for exporting countries. However, these streams are also a source of vulnerability r their economies. Development experiences of many oil exporting countries reveal that the possession of natural resources is a limit to growth opportunities. The literature on the oil curse is abundant, but did not reach a consensus on the factors explaining growth decline. The Dutch Disease phenomenon is well known, but we argue that on top of economic issues, there are also pains linked to bad governance. We explore some propositions to escape the curse, such as the implementation of oil funds: Other political actions led by the international community and the civil society are contributing to improve governance and transparency in the oil sector. (author)

  15. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in

  16. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokrat Saisa-ard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substrates were found to belong to 42 different bacterial genera. Among these sixteen (Caryophanon; Castellaniella; Filibacter; Geminicoccus; Georgenia; Luteimonas; Mesorhizobium; Mucilaginibacter; Nubsella; Paracoccus; Pedobacter; Psychrobacter; Rahnella; Sphingobium; Sphingopyxis and Sporosarcina were first reported as biosurfactant-producing strains. By using low-cost, agro-industrial by-products or wastes, Azorhizobium doebereinerae AS54 and Geminicoccus roseus AS73 produced extracellular biosurfactant, which exhibited the lowest surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m and highest emulsification activity (69.0% when palm oil decanter cake and used palm oil was used as a carbon sources, respectively. Overall, this is the first study of a phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from palm oil refinery industry site and their ability to produce biosurfactant on renewable substrates.

  17. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  18. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE OIL AND MINING CONCESSION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Georgeta DINU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Concession is the oldest form of cooperation between the state and companies to exploit oil being found in the Middle East since the late nineteenth century. In colonized countries the right of exploitation belonged to the companies of the suzerain states. Invoking national interest, dispute over natural resources has increased in direct proportion to the increasing importance of these resources and inversely proportional to the decrease in quantity. A dull but intense battle at this point characterizes natural resources, especially of oil and mining of precious metals. Therefore, we can say that the power exerted on natural resources determines the ranking of countries of the world economic power and living standards of the population. Use of natural resources as an effective weapon in the economic consolidation became state policy and the expansion of exploration and exploitation in foreign lands required the development of complex regulations. Therefore, this study aims at presenting an analytic perspective of foreign law - specific states with relevant impact on the exploitation of natural resources - and the presentation of some features of international law.

  19. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kanokrat Saisa-ard; Atipan Saimmai; Suppasil Maneerat

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substra...

  20. Nutritional Status of some Aromatic Plants Grown to Produce Volatile Oils under Treated Municipal Wastewater irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Ramadan Khalifa Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    To avoid any contamination risk of edible crops, the safety use of treated municipal wastewater is growing industrial non-food crops such as aromatic plants to produce volatile oils for manufacturing soaps, cosmetics and perfumes, etc. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in a sandy soil to investigate the influence of treated domestic sewage effluents or freshwater (control) on the essential oils of geranium, peppermint, fennel, marjoram, and chamomile plants. In the first experim...

  1. Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasri Sihabut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

  2. Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Guowen

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid systems are included for comparison. In a wide sense of the word, the term of unconventional reservoir is including tight gas sand, coal bed methane, gas hydrate deposits, heavy oil gas shale and etc. In this study we specify the unconventional reservoir to only mean the low and ultra low permea...

  3. Aquatic model for engine oil degradation by rhamnolipid producing Nocardiopsis VITSISB

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Suki; Chandni, Shreta; Das, Ishita; Karthik, Loganathan; Kumar, Gaurav; Bhaskara Rao, Kokati Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The present study was focused on isolation, screening, characterization and application of biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria. Twenty actinobacteria were isolated from marine water sample and were primarily screened for biosurfactant production using hemolytic activity method. Among the 20 isolates, six showed positive result for hemolytic activity and those were taken for further secondary screening tests such as oil collapse method, oil spreading method and emulsification method....

  4. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; Anita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389) and P. moraviensis (JX149542). Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas ...

  5. Combined effect of ultrasound and essential oils to reduce Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Gülçin; Demirel Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer

    2016-06-01

    Salads prepared from contaminated fresh produce have a high risk of causing food-borne illnesses. Essential oils obtained from plants have antimicrobial activity and may provide a natural approach to reduce the pathogens on fresh produce. Additionally, ultrasound treatments have been shown to reduce the microbial counts on different foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of cinnamon and lemon essential oils in vitro and in food applications. Mixtures of lettuce, parsley and dill were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and then dip-treated for 5 min in one of the following treatments: sterile tap water, chlorinated water, 1% lemon essential oil, 2% cinnamon essential oil or 2% cinnamon essential oil + ultrasound. The samples were stored at 4 ℃ and collected at d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post inoculation. The 1% lemon (4 log) and 2% cinnamon (2 log) essential oil washes provided partial inhibition against L. monocytogenes by d 1. The combined application of 2% cinnamon oil and ultrasound resulted in only 0.85 log inhibition by d 1; however, the number of L. monocytogenes increased during storage and became nearly equal to the control at d 9. Therefore, different combinations of essential oils with other antimicrobials or novel technologies are required. PMID:26377335

  6. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  7. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil. PMID:27047705

  8. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil.

  9. Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

    2009-07-15

    Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased

  10. Risk assessment and remediation suggestion of impacted soil by produced water associated with oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdol Hamid, Hashim R; Kassim, Walid M S; El Hishir, Abdulah; El-Jawashi, Salem A S

    2008-10-01

    Produced water is water trapped in underground formations that is brought to the surface along with oil or gas production. Oilfield impacted soil is the most common environmental problem associated with oil production. The produced water associated with oil-production contaminates the soil and causes the outright death of plants, and the subsequent erosion of topsoil. Also, impacted soil serves to contaminate surface waters and shallow aquifers. This paper is intended to provide an approach for full characterization of contaminated soil by produced water, by means of analysis of both the produced water and the impacted soil using several recommended analytical techniques and then identify and assay the main constituents that cause contamination of the soil. Gialo-59 oilfield (29N, 21E), Libya, has been chosen as the case study of this work. The field has a long history of petroleum production since 1959, where about 300,000 bbl of produced water be discharged into open pit. Test samples of contaminated soil were collected from one of the disposal pits. Samples of produced water were collected from different points throughout the oil production process, and the analyses were carried out at the labs of Libyan Petroleum Institute, Tripoli, Libya. The results are compared with the local environmental limiting constituents in order to prepare for a plan of soil remediation. The results showed that the main constituents (pollutants) that impact the soil are salts and hydrocarbon compounds. Accordingly; an action of soil remediation has been proposed to remove the salts and degradation of hydrocarbons.

  11. Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Ukita

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

  12. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  13. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production. PMID:26802271

  14. Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A K

    2003-08-20

    A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

  15. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  16. Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluduro, Olubayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work found that the continuous violations of human rights of the people together with the poor regulation of oil MNCs in Nigeria are caused by a combination of several factors including: an inadequate legal framework which denies local inhabitants of their rights to land and natural resources; scant regard for environmental considerations; poor enforcement of the relevant environmental laws meant to protect the people and the environment; the Nigerian state´s over-reliance on oil; prolonged military rule; a high level of corruption in the oil industry and the entire body polity of Nigeria; nonjusticiability of the right to a clean environment; and weak institutions such as the judiciary and the National Human Rights Commission. All of these deficiencies continue to date. Coming at a time when governments worldwide are striving to ensure corporate accountability for their activities in host nations, this work is unique in that it incisively analyses how the national and regional institutions could be strengthened to provide ef- fective protection against human rights abuses and ensure corporate accountability. The strengthening of these institutions and the promotion of a rights-based approach to environmental justice in the Niger Delta region therefore deserves concentrated attention and efforts by all actors in the industry.

  17. Desulfurization of pyrolysis fuel produced from waste lube oils, tyres and plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Lal Baeza, Ana María; Bolonio Martín, David; Llamas Lois, Alberto; Lapuerta, M.; Canoira López, Laureano

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur compounds remaining in petroleum fractions from topping, hydroskimming or deep conversion processes are a growing concern for oil refiners since in the lapse of a few years the sulphur specification for motor fuels has dropped from 500 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg in most European countries. This increasingly stringent regulation has forced refineries to greatly improve their hydrodesulfurization units, increasing the desulfurization rates and thus consuming huge amounts of hydrogen.

  18. Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig

  19. Sedimentological sand grain orientation in oil-producing U1 layer Kazan oil-gas-condensate field (Tomsk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekova, L.; Cherdansteva, D.; Vologdina, I.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the results in identifying the prevalent directions of elongated quartz grains being the major oil-producing layer component in sand reservoirs. Studying the orientation of quartz to its grain shapes in paleogeographical oriented core samples made it possible to identify the hydrodynamic reservoir regimes and facies type. The spatial confinement of pore spaces and cataclasis fractures in grain material to the prevalent elongated quartz grain directions was defined.

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products. PMID:25104002

  1. Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks produced from vegetable oil based polyurethane and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2008-08-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared using polyurethane produced from a canola oil based polyol with primary terminal functional groups and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The properties of the material were studied and compared to the IPNs made from commercial castor oil using dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, as well as tensile measurements. The morphology of the IPNs was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical diversity of the starting materials allowed the evaluation of the effects of dangling chains and graftings on the properties of the IPNs. The polymerization process of canola oil based IPNs was accelerated because of the utilization of polyol with primary functional groups, which efficiently lessened the effect of dangling chains and yielded a higher degree of phase mixing. The mechanical properties of canola oil based IPNs containing more than 75 wt % PMMA were comparable to the corresponding castor oil based IPNs; both were superior to those of the constituent polymers due to the finely divided rubber and plastic combination structures in these IPNs. However, when PMMA content was less than 65 wt %, canola oil based IPNs exhibited a typical mechanical behavior of rigid plastics, whereas castor oil based IPNs showed a typical mechanical behavior of soft rubber. It is proposed that these new IPN materials with high performance prepared from alternative renewable resources can prove to be valuable substitutes for existing materials in various applications. PMID:18624453

  2. New bioemulsifiers produced by Candida lipolytica using D-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance-Harrop Mabel H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50% supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under fed batch fermentation for 60 hours with 5% of babassu oil. For the two media, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.02 h-1 and 0.04 h-1; the generation times were 34.6 h-1 and 17.3 h-1, and the emulsification activities were 0.666 and 0.158 units, respectively. The molecules of these new bioemulsifiers were contituted of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

  3. Dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with inulin and corn oil: physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegas, Léia Zenaide; Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; Garcia, Sandra; Prudencio, Sandra Helena

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oil content reduction and the addition of inulin as a partial oil substitute on the physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during the storage (4 °C for 45 days) of dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with corn oil. Reducing the oil content did not influence the characteristics evaluated but tended to produce sausage with a dark reddish coloration. The addition of inulin did not change the physicochemical and microbiological parameters or the acceptability of the products, but resulted in an altered texture profile and a tendency toward lighter and less reddish coloration, similar to products with standard oil content. Fermented chicken sausages produced with standard amounts of corn oil, reduced amounts of corn oil, and inulin as a partial oil replacement remained stable without a significant loss of physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory attributes during storage at 4 °C for 45 days.

  4. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in sweet wines produced in Spain and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdaspal, P; Legarda, T

    2007-09-01

    A survey for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) was undertaken from 2001 to 2005 in 188 samples of sweet wines produced in Spain and in 102 samples originating from other countries: France (n = 49), Austria (9), Chile (9), Portugal (9), Greece (6), Italy (5), Germany (3), Hungary (2), Slovenia (2), Switzerland (2), Canada (1), Japan (1), New Zealand (1), Ukraine (1), South Africa (1) and the USA (1). The analytical method was based on immunoaffinity chromatography clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The limit of detection (defined as a signal-noise ratio = 3) was estimated to be 0.01 microg l(-1). The limit of quantification (0.02 microg l(-1)) was checked as being the lowest measurable concentration. OTA was detected in 281 out of 290 samples analysed (96.9% positive) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 4.63 microg l(-1). The overall mean and median levels were estimated to be 0.50 and 0.14 microg l(-1), respectively. In Spanish sweet wines OTA was found in 99% of the samples, with mean and median values of 0.65 and 0.19 microg l(-1), respectively. The mean value obtained in this study for OTA in the Spanish sweet wines would result in an intake of about 37.5 and 3.2 ng day(-1) of OTA for regular consumers and for the overall population, respectively. These figures represent a minor contribution to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) or TWI established by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the European Food Safety Authority: 3.8 and 3.1% for regular consumers; and 0.4 and 0.3% for the whole adult population, respectively.

  5. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such

  6. A novel method of producing a microcrystalline beta-sitosterol suspension in oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Leena I; Rantanen, Jukka T; von Bonsdorff, Anna K;

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method of producing a microcrystalline oral suspension containing beta-sitosterol in oil for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. beta-Sitosterol pseudopolymorphs with different water contents were crystallized from acetone and acetone-water solutions. Structural...

  7. Influence of Frequency Converters on Insulation of Power Supply Cables at Oil-Producing Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Zalizny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers consequences of negative frequency converter influence on insulation of  power supply cables used for submersible installations of electric-centrifugal pumps at oil-producing stations. The possible approaches to the solution of the problem are proposed on the basis of a harmonic analysis of actually measured voltages and currents in a cable.  

  8. Oil producing plants of the wildflora as potential crop plants supplying industrial raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radatz, W.; Hondelmann, W.

    1981-01-01

    The wildflora exhibits a continuously renewing potential for the production of chemical constituents suitable for industrial uses. Among them seed oil producing species assume a preferred position. Forty-two indigenous as well as adaptable taxa along with their botanical, agronomical and biochemical data are presented. Furthermore an approach to their domestication and agronomic improvement is given. (Refs. 158).

  9. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...

  10. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  11. A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OIL PRICES CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FROM FRAGILE FIVE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel BAYRAKTAR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of oil prices in the Fragile-Five countries (Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, India, and Turkey on current account deficit and growth. In this study, the method of panel data analysis was used and the period of 1980-2014 was examined. The Levin, Lin, & Chu panel; Im, Pesaran, and Shin W-stat; ADF-Fisher Chi-square; and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests were used to determine the stability of data before panel data analysis. The results of the study can be expressed as follows. i There was a statistically meaningful relationship in oil prices with both GDP and the current account deficit. While there was a positive correlation between oil prices and GDP, there was a negative relationship between oil prices and current account deficit. ii No long-term relationship was found between GDP and oil prices; there was a long-term relationship between current account deficit and oil prices as determined by the cointegration tests. iii Causality test also showed the presence of a bidirectional relationship between GDP and oil prices.  Causality between oil prices and the current account deficit was one-way from the variable of oil price to the variable of current account deficit.

  12. Industrialized countries and the oil price crisis: how are they coping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, R.

    1975-03-01

    The ways in which Japan, France, the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the German Federal Republic reacted to the 1973 oil crisis were surveyed. The contrasts in their individual responses to this situation were very sharp, putting in the background the few collective measures agreed to in the OECD and in the International Monetary Fund. Each country's response can be seen to have been shaped by its intellectual tradition, by its resources, and by its total geo-political and geo-economic situation. The author concludes that ''France turned to its diplomats and its arms salesmen, using flair and its new-found economic dynamism; Germany left the field to the big guns of its heavy industry, still keeping its head down politically; Japan decided it was a matter of discipline, and of adjusting policy towards a greater emphasis on social goals; the United States behaved like the super power it is. All of these countries decided to tighten belts at home. Britain alone went off on an expansionary tack, because its economists and Chancellors wanted to show the world the way forward, and because of the bias towards expansionism that has been the hallmark of its economic policy, and the reason for its low growth, since the war.'' (MCW)

  13. Impact on world oil prices when larger and fewer producers emerge from a political restructuring of the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate how a redistribution of oil reserves among a (probably reduced) set of producers affects OPEC's oil extraction policies and thus international crude oil-prices. The empirical investigation shows that this impact is fairly small, as long as OPEC members do not cooperate. Only cooperation will have a substantial impact. (author)

  14. Investigations into the characteristics of oils produced from co-pyrolysis of biomass and tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qing; Jin, Li' e [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Bao, Weiren; Lv, Yongkang [Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China)

    2009-03-15

    Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and waste tire with such catalysts as SBA-15, MCM-41 and HZSM-5 was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The influences of the mixture composition on liquid yield and characteristics of the oil were investigated. The properties of the oil were determined by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), elemental analyzer (EA), thermal analyzer (TA), densimeter, ubbelohde viscosimeter and compared with that of diesel oil 0. The contents of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the oils were also determined by gas chromatograph (GC). The result shows that co-pyrolysis is in favor of inhibiting the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced from tire. There exist a hydrogen transfer and a synthetic effect during co-pyrolysis of the biomass and tire. They improve the quality of the oil. SBA-15 as a catalyst is more significant than MCM-41 or HZSM-5 for reducing the density and viscosity of the oil and it can effectively decompose some large molecular compounds into small ones. (author)

  15. Characterization of mannosylerythritol lipids containing hexadecatetraenoic acid produced from cuttlefish oil by Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Kawamura, Daisuke; Morita, Naoki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are promising biosurfactants produced by Ustilaginomycetes, and their physicochemical and biochemical properties differ depending on the chemical structure of their hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic moieties. To further develop MEL derivatives and expand their potential applications, we focused our attention on the use of cuttlefish oil, which contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid, C₂₂:₆, and eicosapentaenoic acid, C₂₀:₅, as the sole carbon source. Among the microorganisms capable of producing MEL, only nine strains were able to produce them from cuttlefish oil. On gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, we observed that Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96 was particularly suitable for the production of MEL-A, a MEL containing hexadecatetraenoic acid (C₁₆:₄) (23.6% of the total unsaturated fatty acids and 7.7% of the total fatty acids). The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of the new MEL-A were 5.7×10⁻⁶ M and 29.5 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A produced from soybean oil were 2.7×10⁻⁶ M and 27.7 mN/m, respectively. With polarized optical and confocal laser scanning microscopies, the self-assembling properties of MEL-A were found to be different from those of conventional MEL. Furthermore, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the anti-oxidative activity of MEL-A was found to be 2.1-fold higher than that of MEL-A produced from soybean oil. Thus, the newly identified MEL-A is attractive as a new functional material with excellent surface-active and antioxidative properties. PMID:23648407

  16. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche; James Chukwuma Ogbonna

    2011-01-01

    In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

  17. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

  18. 77 FR 34013 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...\\ Moreover, U.S. Steel contends that financial statements will show that that surrogate financial ratios can... financial ratios.\\26\\ \\24\\ See Letter from U.S. Steel, ``Oil Country Tubular Goods from the People's... whether financial ratios reflect labor expenses that are included in other elements of the...

  19. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389 and P. moraviensis (JX149542. Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. moraviensis degraded 79.02 % petrol engine oil @ 2% in the soil planted with mustard (Brassica juncea var. Kranti crop after 120 days. GC-MS of biodegraded fuel showed the presence of new product like hexadecanoic acid 2, oxo-methyl ester.

  20. Oil-water Separation Properties of Produced Fluid by Polymer Flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jiexun; Yue Jihong; Niu Weidong

    1996-01-01

    @@ In order to keep stabilized production, the tertiary recovery by polymer flooding has become an important technical measure to increase oil recovery in the late high water cut stage of Daqing Oil Fields.In 1995. a total of 217 injectionproduction wells (including 120producing wells) were built with the density of well pattern of 18wells/km2 in an area of 14.13 km2 of Bei-Ⅱ-Xi region of Sabei Oil Field. Besides a polymer compound station of 12 5× 103t/a (compounding the dry powder of polyacrylamide), four polymer injection stations, one dehydration station of 40×103t/d and one sewage treatment station in the same scale were built. Up to now. this engineering of polymer flooding has been the largest in the world.

  1. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

  2. The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks

  3. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  4. Produced water from off-shore oil and gas production, a new challenge in marine pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Produced water consists of water naturally present in the oil and gas reservoir (formation water), flood water previously injected into the formation, and/or, in the case of some gas production, condensed water. Produced water is part of the well stream together with oil and/or gas

  5. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... communication with the reservoir of interest); (ii) Same environment of deposition; (iii) Similar geological... development of a single reservoir or field, an incremental development in a producing field, or the integrated... marketing oil and gas; (B) Processing of produced oil, gas or natural resources that can be upgraded...

  6. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. → Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. → The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. → Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. → The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  7. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  8. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  9. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  10. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-05-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's Board made a strategic decision to relocate the Headquarters (HQ) office from Washington, DC to Houston, Texas. Driving force behind relocation was to better connect with independent producers, but cost savings could also be realized. Relocation was accomplished in late December 2000, with the HQ office being fully operational by January 2001. Early indications are that the HQ relocation is, in fact, enabling better networking with senior executives of independents in the Houston oil community. New Board leadership, elected in March 2001, will continue to effectively guide PTTC.

  11. Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oil field base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching recovery factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oil field's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (ODR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of software, which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project

  12. The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.; Ferreira, G. C.;

    Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers in deve...

  13. Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

  14. NEW LIPASE-PRODUCERS MICROORGANISMS FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA WHICH HYDROLYZE PALM OIL AND DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Trujillo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two yeasts: Cryptococcus uchicensis TMY9 and Pichia uchicensis TMY10 and one fungus Verticillium tingalensis TMFMB are described for the first time as lipase producer microorganisms. The strains have been isolated after an ecological screening in a palm oil industry. The yeasts- C. uchicensis and Pichia uchicensis - mainly produce extracellular lipases as active as those produced by traditional lipase producing microorganisms. The extracellular lipases are active in the hydrolysis of crude palm oil and its industrial derivatives. Contrarily in the isolated fungus, the lipase mainly remains bonded to biomass. In all cases, greater hydrolytic activities are observed in the hydrolysis of palm olein and super-olein than with saturated substrates as stearine. P. uchicensis lipase shows moderated selectivity versus saturated acid triglycerides compared to substrates with high proportion of oleic acid (olein or superolein. The opposite behavior is observed with C. uchicensis and fungal lipases. P. uchicensis produces a more active crude lipase than C. uchicensis with lower biomass production. The kinetic runs performed with crude yeast lipases suggest a three steps mechanism where the high penetration of lipase in the fat gouts favors the hydrolysis.

  15. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment The case of oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Waisman, H.; Rozenberg, Julie; Hourcade, Jean Charles

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation r...

  16. Partitioning of semi-soluble organic compounds between the water phase and oil droplets in produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Grini, Per Gerhard; Daling, Per S

    2004-04-01

    When selecting produced water treatment technologies, one should focus on reducing the major contributors to the total environmental impact. These are dispersed oil and semi-soluble hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, and added chemicals. Experiments with produced water have been performed offshore on the Statoil operated platforms Gullfaks C and Statfjord B. These experiments were designed to find how much of the environmentally relevant compounds were dissolved in the water phase and not associated to the dispersed oil in the produced water. Results show that the distribution between the dispersed oil and the water phase varies highly for the different components groups. For example the concentration of PAHs and the C6-C9 alkylated phenols is strongly correlated to the content of dispersed oil. Therefore, the technologies enhancing the removal of dispersed oil have a higher potential for reducing the environmental impact of the produced water than previously considered. PMID:15041429

  17. Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

    2009-04-15

    The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

  18. WERE OIL PRICE MARKETS THE SOURCE OF CREDIT CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES? EVIDENCE USING A VAR-MGARCH-DCC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Selmi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of oil prices, credit, financial and commercial linkages in the propagation of industrial market crises during the period 2004-2012. Using VAR-MGARCH-DCC model regressions on seven markets finds that credit linkage played a significant role in the subprime, financial and global crises. Our results also show that the European debt crisis has already spread like a crisis from oil prices to Ireland and Portugal, and other countries are now at risk: Spain is a probable candidate for financial crisis.

  19. The effect of the downturn in oil prices on the relative efficiency of government expenditure in the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tests a control model to discover the effect of the decline in oil prices on the relative efficiency of government expenditure in the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council. The econometric analysis shows that as a consequence of the decline in oil prices, the GCC countries need a relatively higher proportional rate of growth in their government expenditure to maintain a given percentage of income growth in the long run. This may, however, prove difficult, which necessitates greater reliance on other means of control. (author)

  20. Treatment of produced water:targeting dissolved compounds to meet a zero harmful discharge in oil and gas production

    OpenAIRE

    Scurtu, Ciprian Teodor

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of dissolved compounds are discharged into the sea with the producedwater generated from the offshore oil and gas platforms. Some of these compounds are toxic to the environment, having important contributions to the environmental impact factors (EIF) calculated for produced water discharges. No performance standards currently exist for the removal of dissolved compounds from produced water. However, the overall goals for oil, natural components and chemicals in produced water re...

  1. A review on risk assessment techniques for hydraulic fracturing water and produced water management implemented in onshore unconventional oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review different risk assessment techniques applicable to onshore unconventional oil and gas production to determine the risks to water quantity and quality associated with hydraulic fracturing and produced water management. Water resources could be at risk without proper management of water, chemicals, and produced water. Previous risk assessments in the oil and gas industry were performed from an engineering perspective leaving aside important social factors. Different risk assessment methods and techniques are reviewed and summarized to select the most appropriate one to perform a holistic and integrated analysis of risks at every stage of the water life cycle. Constraints to performing risk assessment are identified including gaps in databases, which require more advanced techniques such as modeling. Discussions on each risk associated with water and produced water management, mitigation strategies, and future research direction are presented. Further research on risks in onshore unconventional oil and gas will benefit not only the U.S. but also other countries with shale oil and gas resources. PMID:26386446

  2. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

  3. Predicting temperature profiles in producing oil wells using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshad, F.F.; Garber, J.D.; Lorde, J.N. [Louisiana Univ., Lafayette, LA (United States)

    2000-10-19

    A novel approach using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for predicting temperature profiles evaluated 27 wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Two artificial neural network models were developed that predict the temperature of the flowing fluid at any depth in flowing oil wells. Back propagation was used in training the networks. The networks were tested using measured temperature profiles from the 27 oil wells. Both neural network models successfully mapped the general temperature-profile trends of naturally flowing oil wells. The highest accuracy was achieved with a mean absolute relative percentage error of 6.0 per cent. The accuracy of the proposed neural network models to predict the temperature profile is compared to that of existing correlations. Many correlations to predict temperature profiles of the wellbore fluid, for single-phase or multiphase flow, in producing oil wells have been developed using theoretical principles such as energy, mass and momentum balances coupled with regression analysis. The Neural Network 2 model exhibited significantly lower mean absolute relative percentage error than other correlations. Furthermore, in order to test the accuracy of the neural network models to that of Kirkpatrick's correlation, a mathematical model was developed for Kirkpatrick's flowing temperature gradient chart. (Author)

  4. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  5. Toxicity associated with produced waters from inland and offshore oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPDES permits require that discharges from oil and gas operations meet standards for aquatic life. When these aquatic life standards are violated, it is necessary to determine the causes of toxicity and to implement treatment methodologies that will eliminate significant mortalities and/or chronic growth and reproduction effects to the test organisms. Over the last several years, monitoring has been conducted on produced waters from oil and gas operations at inland and offshore locations. This work has been done in the U.S. as well as in South America. The toxicity in these discharges has been shown to be variable and due to a broad range of causes. The objective of this paper is to review the chemistry and biology with regards to the causes of toxicity in these waters. Samples collected from the Rocky Mountain west have generally demonstrated toxicity due to high total dissolved solids, hydrogen sulfides, and non-polar organics. Toxicity has ranged from extremely toxic to non-toxic. The levels of sensitivity for fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia differ between the various produced water samples. Three samples are currently being investigated which show different sources of toxicity in spite of close proximity to one another. Preliminary studies indicate toxicity may be due to trace metals and polar organics associated with treatment products. Produced waters from offshore Gulf of Mexico platforms have been shown to produce high levels of toxicity in chronic and acute tests

  6. Trade linkages and macroeconomic effects of the price of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we assess the impact of oil price shocks on oil-producer and oil-consuming economies. VAR models for different countries are linked together via a trade matrix, as in Abeysinghe (2001). As expected, we find that oil producers (here, Russia and Canada) benefit from oil price shocks. For example, a large oil shock leading to a price increase of 50% boosts Russian GDP by about 6%. However, oil producers are hurt by indirect effects of positive oil price shocks, as economic activity in their exporter countries suffers. For oil consumers, the effects are more diverse. In some countries, output falls in response to an oil price shock, while other countries seem to be relatively immune to oil price changes. Finally, indirect effects are also detected for oil-consumer countries. Those countries, which trade more with oil producers, gain indirect benefits via higher demand from oil-producing countries. In general, the largest negative total effects from positive oil price shocks are found for Japan, China, the USA, Finland and Switzerland, while other countries in our sample seem to have fared quite well during recent positive oil price shocks. The indirect effects are negative for Russia, Finland, Germany and Netherlands. (author)

  7. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  8. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage...

  9. Relationships between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model of relationships between food producers and retailers. The model is built on the constructivist paradigm, conceptual frameworks and an analysis of a number of companies. In this paper two conceptual frameworks are developed; one concerns...

  10. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  11. Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamsiriroj, T.; Murphy, J.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)]|[Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2009-05-15

    The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

  12. Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

  13. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  14. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006

  15. 77 FR 76341 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... spearmint oil for the 2012- 2013 marketing year was published in the Federal Register on June 5, 2012 (77 FR... percent increase was not high enough to adequately respond to the current marketing environment. Thus... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in...

  16. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2003-12-15

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback

  17. Radioactivity in produced water from oil and gas installations - doses to biota and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial amounts of produced water containing elevated levels of 226Ra and 228Ra are discharged into the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf. The average concentration in the discharges is 3.3 and 2.8 Bq/L of 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. The main objective of the project described in the paper is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium in produced water produced by oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. One of the objectives of the study is to provide information to enable risk assessment based on doses from ionizing radiation to marine biota and man. Reference organisms for the North Sea area have been chosen for calculation of absorbed dose to biota. The dose calculations rely on specific knowledge of activity concentration in the reference organism, activity concentration in seawater and sediments, dose conversion factors and time spent at different locations relative to the point of discharge. Based on the calculated doses to marine biota, 'potential no effect concentrations' are recommended. (author)

  18. The strategic interaction between the government and international oil companies in the UK: An example of a country with dwindling hydrocarbon reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 UK tax rise on hydrocarbon exploitation activities obviously increases short term tax revenues however the longer term effects are less clear. The strategic interaction between the UK government, a producer and a shipper has been analyzed in a game theoretical model. A complex interaction between players is expected given (1) dwindling resources and large decommissioning liabilities and (2) the fact that much of the hydrocarbons produced in the North Sea are exported through an infrastructure with shared ownership. The 2011 UK tax adjustment will most likely result in value destruction for the government, producers and shippers. Our analysis suggests that governments are unlikely to ultimately benefit from reducing their decommission liabilities at the expense of International Oil Companies. In countries with unstable tax regimes, such as the UK, International Oil Companies will adopt their strategies in anticipation of future tax changes. Their adopted strategy is a function of decommissioning liabilities and remaining reserves as well as whether they are producers, shippers or producers and shippers. The ultimate payoff of a government is a function of the remaining reserves and total decommissioning liabilities, but also depends on the distribution of these value metrics between producers and shippers. - Highlights: ► The 2011 UK hydrocarbon tax increase is likely to cause overall value destruction. ► Governments are unlikely to benefit from reducing their decommission liabilities. ► Differences in payoff functions of producers and shippers control the game. ► The distribution of reserves and decommissioning cost is a key factor in the game

  19. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now

  20. Global oil palm suitability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pirker, J.; Mosnier, A

    2015-01-01

    The palm oil boom of recent years has brought about both positive - economic development - and negative impacts - deforestation, habitat losses and increased GHG emissions - in the main producer countries in South-East Asia. As global demand for palm oil is still increasing, governments of developing and emerging countries increasingly promote oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to economic development, but there are concerns about the potential negative impacts of oil palm expansion ...

  1. Study of Plasma Treatment of Produced Water from Oil and Gas Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kamau

    mg/L of bicarbonate ions. Water with bicarbonate ion concentration approaching zero resulted in prevention of scale. To enhance this new plasma induced fouling mitigation method, a plasma arc-in-water reactor was re-engineered, using a ground electrode, and two high-voltage electrodes, to stretch the arc discharge in water and increase contact between plasma and water. Results of simultaneous effects were also collected, showing within 5 min, a 4-log reduction in both Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Acid Producing Bacteria (APB), bacteria that are characteristic of oil-field produced waters; as well as oxidation of organics, with degradation of visually observable organics within 3 minutes, and decrease of oil and grease from 40 mg/L to under 10 mg/L within one min. With an arc-in-water system utilizing a stretched arc, simultaneous effects were exhibited on fouling ability of produced water, inactivation of bacteria, and degradation of organics. Plasma discharges in water represent a unique option in the treatment of produced waters from oil and gas production. While the water softening capabilities of arc-in-water systems present a new method for fouling mitigation and remediation of scale in heat exchangers, the simultaneous effects, including oxidation of organics and inactivation of bacteria, may allow application of plasma to water, to satisfy treatment targets that allow for the reuse of such waters in oil and gas operations.

  2. Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-09-01

    This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

  3. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  4. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  5. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  6. 78 FR 4125 - Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... of this case, and Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``WSP''), a producer of subject merchandise from... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 25679... Revocation in Part, 77 FR 40565 (July 10, 2012). Rescission of Administrative Review Pursuant to 19 CFR...

  7. Non-Invasive Rapid Harvest Time Determination of Oil-Producing Microalgae Cultivations for Biodiesel Production by Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Yaqin; Rong, Junfeng; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    For the large-scale cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, one of the key problems is the determination of the optimum time for algal harvest when algae cells are saturated with neutral lipids. In this study, a method to determine the optimum harvest time in oil-producing microalgal cultivations by measuring the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, also called Fv/Fm, was established. When oil-producing Chlorella strains were cultivated and then treated with nitroge...

  8. Oil Price Shocks and Macroeconomic Activities in Asean-5 Countries: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhriz Izraf Azman AZIZ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks on real economic activities in ASEAN-5 from 1991 to 2014 using an unrestricted panel Vector Auto Regressive (VAR method. Results from the impulse response function (IRFs show evidence of an asymmetric relationship between oil prices and economic activities. Specifically, positive oil price shock measures negatively affect output growth both in the short term and in the long term. For oil price decrease specifications, real output responds negatively in the short term before recovering to its pre-shock level in the long term. The variance decomposition analysis (VDCs also exhibit differences between the effects of positive and negative oil price shocks on economic activities, supporting the evidence of asymmetric relationship obtain in the IRFs simulations.

  9. Comprehensive utilization of the mixture of oil sediments and soapstocks for producing FAME and phosphatides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, B.; Zhu, M.; Fan, P.; Yu, L.-J. [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2008-01-15

    Comprehensive utilization of the mixture of oil sediments (OS) and soapstock (SS) for producing FAME and phosphatides was investigated. A process consisting of three steps was employed for obtaining high conversion and by-product. In the first step, the OS-SS mixture was extracted with ethyl ether and the mixture was divided into three phases. The organic top phase contained triglycerides and phosphatides was extracted with cooled acetone and the acetone insoluble (phosphatides) was obtained. At the same time, triglycerides were separated also. In the second step, soap phase was then acidified with sulfuric acid to yield fatty acid. This ''high-acid'' acid oil was efficiently converted to methyl esters by acid-catalyzed esterification. The esterification reaction has been carried out with 5:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) in the presence 3% H{sub 2}S0{sub 4} (wt.%) as an acid catalyst at 85 C for 5 h. FAME recovery under these conditions was 92.1% of theoretical. In the third step, alkaline catalyzed transesterification process converts the triglycerides to its mono-esters and glycerol. The optimized variables, 6:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1% NaOH (wt.%) reacted at 65 C for 1 h, giving a maximum ester yield of 94%. Five important fuel properties of FAME from the OS-SS mixture were found to be comparable to those of No. 2 diesel fuel and conforming to both the American and German standards for biodiesel. (author)

  10. Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity. PMID:19290520

  11. Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

  12. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC

  13. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    1999-12-01

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  14. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-05-01

    During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  15. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-31

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  16. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    2001-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization

  17. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  18. Micro Fine Sized Palm Oil Fuel Ash Produced Using a Wind Tunnel Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro fine sized palm oil fuel ash (POFA is a new supplementary cementitious material that can increase the strength, durability, and workability of concrete. However, production of this material incurs high cost and is not practical for the construction industry. This paper investigates a simple methodology of producing micro fine sized POFA by means of a laboratory scale wind tunnel system. The raw POFA obtained from an oil palm factory is first calcined to remove carbon residue and then grinded in Los Angeles abrasion machine. The grinded POFA is then blown in the fabricated wind tunnel system for separation into different ranges of particle sizes. The physical, morphological, and chemical properties of the micro fine sized POFA were then investigated using Laser Particle Size Analyser (PSA, nitrogen sorption, and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX. A total of 32.1% micro fine sized POFA were collected from each sample blown, with the size range of 1–10 micrometers. The devised laboratory scale of wind tunnel production system is successful in producing micro fine sized POFA and, with modifications, this system is envisaged applicable to be used to commercialize micro fine sized POFA production for the construction industry.

  19. Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomarat, Pattamapan; Phanthong, Phanida; Wongsariya, Karn; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

    2013-05-01

    The outbreak of histamine fish poisoning has been being an issue in food safety and international trade. The growth of contaminated bacterial species including Morganella morganii which produce histidine decarboxylase causes histamine formation in fish during storage. Histamine, the main toxin, causes mild to severe allergic reaction. At present, there is no well-established solution for histamine fish poisoning. This study was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria. Among the essential oils tested, clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils were found to possess the antibacterial activity. Clove oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Morganella morganii, followed by lemongrass and sweet basil oils. The results indicated that clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils could be useful for the control of histamine-producing bacteria. The attempt to identify the active components using preparative TLC and GC/MS found eugenol, citral and methyl chavicol as the active components of clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils, respectively. The information from this study would be useful in the research and development for the control of histamine-producing bacteria in fish or seafood products to reduce the incidence of histamine fish poisoning. PMID:23625419

  20. Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author)

  1. Fuel subsidies, the oil market and the world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan S. Balke; Plante, Michael D.; Mine K. Yucel

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the e ffects of oil producing countries' fuel subsidies on the oil market and the world economy. We identify 24 oil producing countries with fuel subsidies where retail fuel prices are about 34 percent of the world price. We construct a two-country model where one country represents the oil-exporting subsidizers and the second the oil-importing bloc, and calibrate the model to match recent data. We find that the removal of subsidies would reduce the world price of oil by si...

  2. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  3. Spillover effects of oil price shocks across stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zhan Jian; Sek, Siok Kun

    2014-12-01

    Oil price shock can impose detrimental effects to an economy. In this study, we empirically study the spillover effects of oil price shock on determining volatilities of stock markets across the main oil importing and oil producing countries. In particular, we are interested to compare the relative impact of oil price shock on the volatilities of stock markets and how each stock market reacts to oil price shock for oil importing and oil producing countries. We focus the study in four main oil importer and four oil producers respectively using the daily data starting from January 2009 to December 2013. The multivariate GARCH(1,1) model is applied for the purpose of this study. The results of the study suggest that there exist spillover effect between crude oil price and stock returns for all the countries. The short run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is lower than oil-importing countries but the long run persistency of spillover effect in oil-exporting countries is higher than oil-importing countries. In general the short run persistency is smaller and the long run persistency is very high. The results hold for volatility of oil price and stock returns and also spillover volatility in all countries.

  4. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

  5. Arbitration as a Conflict Resolution Approach to Oil Spill Compensation Payment in Oil Producing Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Jack-Osimiri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From time to time, the oil and gas prospecting firm seeks and obtains oil deposits in commercial quantity either offshore or onshore which belongs to the oil bearing community which she uses for exploration, exploitation and transportation of crude oil. But unfortunately; such crude oil and gas escape causing oil spill, consequent upon facility/equipment failure or any other cause(s, which subsequently destroys all economic assets used in fishing or cash crops and economic trees if it occurs on land. This unfortunate incident makes the oil bearing and host community to demand compensation, which in most times breeds in conflict such that the two parties engage in tirade of accusations and counteraccusations. The conflict is such that it has defiled all known antidotes, real or imaginary. Until arbitration was resurrected, studied and applied, before it became the messiah or saviour of the two warring groups. Hitherto, the conflict had led to the destruction of equipment/tools, loss of income, loss of company/man hours, peace, and abduction/kidnapping of expatriates/indigenous staffers. In the light of the grave consequences, the author recommended both direct and indirect approaches to deal with the incessant conflicts between the oil and gas firms and oil bearing and host community. Having known that conflict is an ill-wind that blows nobody any good.

  6. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis TT42 Having Potential for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Harish; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus licheniformis TT42 produced a low-molecular weight anionic biosurfactant that reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and the interfacial tension from 12 to 0.05 mN/m against crude oil. We have earlier reported significant enhancement in oil recovery in laboratory sand pack columns and core flood studies, by biosurfactant-TT42 compared to standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2. In the context of this application of the biosurfactant-TT42, its characterization was deemed important. In the preliminary studies, the biosurfactant-TT42 was found to be functionally stable at under conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity generally prevalent in oil reservoirs. Furthermore, the purified biosurfactant-TT42 was found to have a CMC of 22 mg/l. A newly developed activity staining TLC method was used for the purification of biosurfactant-TT42. Structural characterization of biosurfactant-TT42 using TLC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), GC-MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF suggested that it was a mixture of lipopeptide species, all having a common hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptide head with the sequence, Gln-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu-Val-Asp-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu linked to hydrophobic tails of different lengths of 3β-OH-fatty acids bearing 1043, 1057 and 1071 Da molecular weight, where 3β-OH-C19 fatty acid was predominant. This is the longest chain length of fatty acids reported in a lipopeptide.

  7. Biosurfactant producing microorganisms and its application to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, J. A.; J.A. Teixeira; Soares, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process where microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of biosurfactant production by indigenous microorganisms can reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. The studied reservoir is characterized by alternated oil and water sand layers, with an average porosity of 25% and a permeability of 50 mD. It’s a flat structure at 450 m dept...

  8. Essential oils reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on iceberg and romaine lettuce without affecting produce quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased. In an effort to identify natural antimicrobial agents as fresh produce wash; the effect of essential oils in reducing enteric pathogens on iceberg and romaine lettuce was investigated. Cut lettuce pieces (3 x 2 cm) ...

  9. Lipid characterization of an arachidonic acid-rich oil producing fungus Mortierella alpina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjia Wu; Jiacheng Yan; Xiaojun Ji; Xin Zhang; Jingsheng Shang; Lina Sun; Lujing Ren; He Huang

    2015-01-01

    Mortierel a alpina has been considered as the most effective producer of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil. It was found that several methods could improve the percentage of ARA in total lipids successful y, as they activated the desaturation system on the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, in M. alpina the ARA exists in several forms, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), and diacylglycerol (DAG). These forms are caused by different acyltransferases and they determine the nutrient value of the microbial oil. However, few works revealed de-tailed fatty acid distribution among lipid classes, which to some extent impeded the accurate regulation in ARA accumulation. Herein, this paper gives information on the accumulation process of main lipid classes and the changes of fatty acid composition in these lipids during ARA accumulation period in M. alpina. The result dem-onstrates that TAG was the dominant component of the total lipids, and it is the main form for ARA storage. The ARA enrichment stage occurred during 168–192 h when the amount of total lipids maintained steady. Further analysis indicated that the newly formed ARA-TAG might come from the incorporation and modification of sat-urated and monounsaturated fatty acids in other lipid classes. This work could be helpful for further optimization of ARA-rich TAG production.

  10. Environmental life cycle optimization of essential terpene oils produced by the macroalga Ochtodes secundiramea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Paula; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Rorrer, Gregory; Moreira, María Teresa

    2016-01-15

    The macroalga Ochtodes secundiramea is a well-known producer of essential terpene oils with promising biological activities and similar applications to those of microalgal biocompounds in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetics sectors. This study assesses the environmental impacts associated with the production of five essential terpene oils (myrcene, 10Z-bromomyrcene, 10E-bromo-3-chloromyrcene, apakaochtodene B and acyclic C10H14Br2) by O. secundiramea cultivated in a closed airlift photobioreactor with artificial illumination. The results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) allowed analyzing the effect of implementing a semi-continuous operation on several stages of the life cycle of the products, which may lead to impact reductions from 1% up to 25%. Regarding the most problematic aspects of the process, the cultivation in the photobioreactor (S4) was identified as the main stage responsible for the environmental burdens, with contributions ranging between 60% and 80% of the total impacts for a semi-continuous production maintained during one year of operation. The electricity supply is the key activity affecting eight of the ten assessed categories and involves between 50% and 60% of the impact of the process. S4 is the main cause of the high energy requirements, with 86% of the total electricity consumption. Additionally, several scenarios aiming at improving the environmental profile of the system were evaluated. The application of LCA finally led to the proposal of two optimized scenarios with improvements between 8% and 40% with respect to the baseline case study. PMID:26519589

  11. Antimicrobial activities of laboratory produced essential oil solutions against five selected fungal strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Emilija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that essential oils possess significant antimicrobial activity. This study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity of various types of Biokill, a laboratory produced solution composed of several essential oils (Biokill dissolved in 96% ethanol; Biokill 96% further dissolved in DMSO; Biokill dissolved in 70% ethanol and Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five selected fungal strains, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763, Aspergillus niger I.N. 1110, Aspergillus sojae CCF and Penicillium spp. FNS FCC 266. A variation of the microtiter plate-based antimicrobial assay was used in order to assess the antimicrobial activity of the solutions. By applying this assay minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the Biokill solutions were determined for each strain of the selected test microorganisms. The results demonstrated that all variations of Biokill showed antimicrobial activity at concentrations lower than 2.5μg/mL. Biokill 70% further dissolved in DMSO showed the best antimicrobial properties against all the selected strains with MICs less than 1.25μg/mL. These results indicated that Biokill could find application in the pharmaceutical industry, in food preservation and conservation, in the prevention and treat­ment of plants infected by certain phytopathogens, etc.

  12. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  13. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality. PMID:25577329

  14. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  15. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin, Cedomila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

  16. Analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the export revenues of OPEC member states and on the oil import requirements of non-Annex I countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden NH van der; Linde C van der; Lako P; Rooijen SNM van; Netherlands Energy Research; Netherlands Institute of International Relations; NOP

    2000-01-01

    The members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) continue to voice their concerns about the adverse impact of the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction policies on the oil exporting countries. Referring to Article 4.8 of the UNFCCC, the OPEC is of the opinion tha

  17. Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Scollard, Johann

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a ...

  18. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, N.; Conkur, E.S.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M. [Pamukkale University (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Ozturk, E.; Can, O. [Pamukkale University (Turkey). Automotive Dept.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H. [Pamakulle University (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.

    2005-03-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two-stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (author)

  19. Characterisation of crude palm oil O/W emulsion produced with Tween 80 and potential in residual oil recovery of palm pressed mesocarp fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, N. H.; Zakaria, R.; Naim, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Surfactant-assisted aqueous extraction has been proposed as a “green” alternative to hexane extraction for the recovery of oil from plant matters. An efficient aqueous surfactant extraction system usually use an extended type of ionic surfactant with the ability to produce Winsor type III microemulsion, reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) between plant oil and surfactant solution to an ultralow level (10-3 mN/m). However, the safe used of this surfactant in food processing is uncertain leading to non-food application of the recovered oil. In the present study, the potential of Tween 80, a commercial food-grade non-ionic surfactant, was evaluated in the recovery of residual oil from palm-pressed mesocarp. The emulsion produced between Tween 80 and crude palm oil (CPO) was characterised in terms of IFT, droplet size, viscosity and phase inversion temperature (PIT). The effect of surfactant concentration, electrolyte (NaCl) and temperature were studied to determine whether a Winsor Type III microemulsion can be produced. Results shows that although these parameters were able to reduce the IFT to very low values, Winsor type III microemulsion was not produced with this single surfactant. Emulsion of CPO and Tween 80 solution did not produce a PIT even after heating to 100°C indicating that middle phase emulsion was not able to be formed with increasing temperature. The highest percentage of oil extraction (38.84%) was obtained at the concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 and CPO, which was at 0.5 wt% Tween 80 with 6% NaCl, and temperature of 60°C. At this concentration, the IFT value is 0.253 mN/m with a droplet size of 4183.8 nm, and a viscosity of 7.38 cp.

  20. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  1. Optimization and characterization of bio-oil produced by microwave assisted pyrolysis of oil palm shell waste biomass with microwave absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Mat, Ramli; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2015-08-01

    In this study, solid oil palm shell (OPS) waste biomass was subjected to microwave pyrolysis conditions with uniformly distributed coconut activated carbon (CAC) microwave absorber. The effects of CAC loading (wt%), microwave power (W) and N2 flow rate (LPM) were investigated on heating profile, bio-oil yield and its composition. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to study the significance of process parameters on bio-oil yield. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the bio-oil yield is 0.89017 indicating 89.017% of data variability is accounted to the model. The largest effect on bio-oil yield is from linear and quadratic terms of N2 flow rate. The phenol content in bio-oil is 32.24-58.09% GC-MS area. The bio-oil also contain 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine of 10.54-21.20% GC-MS area. The presence of phenol and 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine implies that the microwave pyrolysis of OPS with carbon absorber has the potential to produce valuable fuel products.

  2. Win-win strategies between countries in the oil and gas industry; Win-Win Laenderstrategien in der Oel- und Gasindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dier, M. [Accenture GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Corporate Strategy fuer Europa, Naher Osten, Afrika und Lateinamerika; Haese, C. [Accenture GmbH, Kronberg (Germany). Bereich Corporate Strategy

    2008-08-15

    The stake of large international oil and gas companies in the world's raw material resources is declining, while the demand for fossil fuels is rising. At the same time these globally active companies are experiencing greater competition from state-owned oil and gas companies of developing and threshold countries, which often enjoy strong political support. Gaining access to the raw material resources of these countries will in future require new strategies which give greater consideration to the needs of these raw material countries than in the past.

  3. Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic development after the resource is depleted. The analysis is concerned with the consequences of these policies. The neoclassical models used in the literature to analyze the effects of a resource boom predict the following consequences among others: (1) increase in the prices of nontraded goods, which include construction and services; (2) appreciation of the real exchange rate, which is defined as the ratio of the price of nontraded goods to the price of traded goods, and (3) fall in the output and employment of the traditional traded goods sector, not including the resource or booming sector. The consequences are known as the Dutch Disease in reference to a decline in Dutch manufacturing in the 1960s brought about by natural gas discoveries. To test the hypotheses of the trade and development models, national accounts data are used in order to measure the changes in the composition of production and trade in the 1970s and early 1980s.

  4. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  5. Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avin E. Pillay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in produced waste water and oily sludge and found abnormal levels of radioactivity. A total of 90 ground wastewater samples were collected from different sites for a period of one year. The presence of these radionuclides was identified by their characteristic gamma rays. The detection system consisted of a high-purity germanium detector. Our results show that about 20% of the samples exhibited 20–60 Bq/L radioactivity and ~6% of the samples exceeded 60 Bq/L. Roughly 70% of the experimental samples fell in the range of 2–20 Bq/L, which still exceeded the maximum admissible drinking-water limit 0.2 Bq/L.

  6. Interactions between oil substrates and glucose on pure cultures of ruminal lipase-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H D; Anderson, R C; Taylor, T M; Miller, R K; Hardin, M D; Nisbet, D J; Krueger, N A; Smith, S B

    2013-07-01

    The hydrolysis of free fatty acids from lipids is a prerequisite for biohydrogenation, a process that effectively saturates free fatty acids. Anaerovibrio lipolyticus 5s and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens have long been thought to be the major contributors to ruminal lipolysis; however, Propionibacterium avidum and acnes recently have been identified as contributing lipase activity in the rumen. In order to further characterize the lipase activity of these bacterial populations, each was grown with three different lipid substrates, olive oil, corn oil, and flaxseed oil (3 %). Because different finishing rations contain varying levels of glycogen (a source of free glucose) this study also documented the effects of glucose on lipolysis. P. avidum and A. lipolyticus 5s demonstrated the most rapid rates (P < 0.05) of lipolysis for cultures grown with olive oil and flaxseed oil, respectively. A. lipolyticus, B. fibrisolvens, and P. avidum more effectively hydrolyzed flaxseed oil than olive oil or corn oil, especially in the presence of 0.02 % glucose. Conversely, P. acnes hydrolyzed corn oil more readily than olive oil or flaxseed oil and glucose had no effect on lipolytic rate. Thus, these bacterial species demonstrated different specificities for oil substrates and different sensitivities to glucose. PMID:23609414

  7. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  8. Dynamic assessment of the ecological risk of the discharge of produced water from oil and gas producing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, C.C.; Reerink, H.G.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1991 the North Sea countries (UK, Netherlands, Norway and Denmark) have put a lot of effort in the development of a decision support system for the legislation of the use and discharge of offshore exploration, drilling and production chemicals. The heart of this so-called 'harmonised mandatory

  9. Government Response to Oil Price Volatility : Experience of 49 Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masami

    2009-01-01

    Oil prices rose from 2004 to historic highs in mid-2008, only to fall precipitously in the last four months of 2008 and lose all the gains of the preceding four and a half years. The steep price increase from January 2007 to July 2008 was challenging for all economies. While the sharp drop in prices since August 2008 has been welcome news for consumers, the cause of it, the global financial ...

  10. Feasibility and comparative studies of thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake in different supercritical organic solvents for producing bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for producing bio-oil. • Type of solvent affected the yield and composition of bio-oil considerably. • Liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C was preferred for producing bio-oil. - Abstract: Thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake (COC) for producing bio-oil was conducted in supercritical methanol (SCML), ethanol (SCEL) and acetone (SCAL), respectively. GC–MS, elemental analysis and ICP-OES were used to characterize properties of bio-oil. Results showed that thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for generating bio-oil. Increase of temperature was beneficial to the increase of bio-oil yield, and yield of bio-oil followed the sequence of SCAL > SCEL > SCML. In spite of the highest bio-oil yield, the lowest calorific value and highest contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr were found in bio-oil from SCAL. Though SCML has very similar bio-oil composition and calorific value with SCEL, higher bio-oil yield and lower contents of heavy metals could be obtained with SCEL, especially in bio-oil from SCEL at 300 °C. Moreover, the origin of ethanol could make the bio-oil product totally renewable. Therefore, liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C could have great potential in generating bio-oil

  11. A way to increase heavy vacuum gas oil conversion and produce near zero sulphur gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratiev, Dicho [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria). Research and Development Dept.

    2009-12-15

    The present work investigates the hydrotreating process of heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO), feed for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), in order to yield diesel and FCC cracking gasoline with 50 and 10 ppm sulphur. The study was performed in the Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas FCC feed hydrotreating unit at following conditions: LHSV between 0.81 and 1.19 hr{sup -1}; Total reactor pressure of 50 bar; WABT in the range 346-399 C, Hydrogen-containing gas rate of 340 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3} oil. The HVGO was hydrotreated over the Topsoe TK-558 Brim catalyst. Two charges of that catalyst were investigated: a fresh charge and an ex-situ regenerated charge. It was found that 10 ppm sulphur FCC gasoline can be produced if the FCC feed sulphur is not higher than 200 ppm. Diesel sulphur was found to be three times lower than the hydrotreated HVGO, which means that 10 ppm sulphur in that diesel could be achieved if the sulphur in the FCC feed is 30 ppm. The hydrodesulphurization (HDS) was found to be described by 1.6 order kinetics. Activation energy of the HDS was found to be 32.6 kcal/mol. Cracking that occurs along with the HDS reaction was described by first order kinetics with activation energy of 24.7 kcal/mol. The hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) was found to be described by first order kinetics with activation energy of 15.7 kcal/mol. The operating conditions were established for production of FCC gasoline with 10 ppm sulphur. (orig.)

  12. "How to" of fiscal sustainability in oil-rich countries: the case of Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bandiera; N. Budina; S. van Wijnbergen

    2008-01-01

    Assessing fiscal sustainability - i.e. considering whether or not a country can maintain its current fiscal policies without running into solvency problems and possible default - requires projections on a government’s future revenue stream, expenditures and contingent liabilities within a macroecono

  13. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde m

  14. Isolation, screening, and characterization of surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria of Mumbai Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Rajamani; Jagtap, Chandrakant; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-04-15

    Diverse marine bacterial species predominantly found in oil-polluted seawater produce diverse surface-active agents. Surface-active agents produced by bacteria are classified into two groups based on their molecular weights, namely biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers. In this study, surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria were isolated using a modified Bushnell-Haas medium with high-speed diesel as a carbon source from three oil-polluted sites of Mumbai Harbor. Surface-active agent-producing bacterial strains were screened using nine widely used methods. The nineteen bacterial strains showed positive results for more than four surface-active agent screening methods; further, these strains were characterized using biochemical and nucleic acid sequencing methods. Based on the results, the organisms belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Comamonas, Chryseomicrobium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Nesterenkonia, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. The present study confirmed the prevalence of surface-active agent-producing bacteria in the oil-polluted waters of Mumbai Harbor. PMID:26912197

  15. Greenhouse gas intensity of palm oil produced in Colombia addressing alternative land use change and fertilization scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A comprehensive evaluation of alternative LUC and fertilization schemes. • The GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. • Colombian palm area expansion resulted in negative or low palm oil GHG intensity. • GHG emissions from plantation vary significantly with N2O emission parameters. - Abstract: The main goal of this article is to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of palm oil produced in a specific plantation and mill in Colombia. A comprehensive evaluation of the implications of alternative land use change (LUC) scenarios (forest, shrubland, savanna and cropland conversion) and fertilization schemes (four synthetic and one organic nitrogen-fertilizer) was performed. A sensitivity analysis to field nitrous oxide emission calculation, biogas management options at mill, time horizon considered for global warming and multifunctionality approach were also performed. The results showed that the GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. Significant differences were observed between the LUC scenarios (−3.0 to 5.3 kg CO2eq kg−1 palm oil). The highest result is obtained if tropical rainforest is converted and the lowest if palm is planted on previous cropland, savanna and shrubland, in which almost all LUC from Colombian oil palm area expansion occurred between 1990 and 2009. Concerning plantation and oil extraction, it was shown that field nitrous oxide emissions and biogas management options have a high influence on GHG emissions

  16. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted.

  17. Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

  18. Oil and gas development in the United States in the early 1990`s: An expanded role for independent producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Since 1991, the major petroleum companies` foreign exploration and development expenditures have exceeded their US exploration and development expenditures. The increasing dependence of US oil and gas development on the typically much smaller nonmajor companies raises a number of issues. Did those companies gain increased prominence largely through the reduced commitments of the majors or have they been significantly adding to the US reserve base? What are the characteristics of surviving and growing producers compared with companies exiting the US oil and gas business? Differences between majors` development strategies and those of other US oil and gas producers appear considerable. As the mix of exploration and development strategies in US oil and gas increasingly reflects the decisions of smaller, typically more specialized producers, what consequences can be seen regarding the costs of adding to US reserves? How are capital markets accessed? Are US oil and gas investments by the nonmajors likely to be undertaken only with higher costs of capital? This report analyzes these issues. 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.; Emuh, F. N.; Ezeonu, O.

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%), noise pollution (98.3%), bush burning (93.3%), land degradation/pollution (87.5%), water pollution (80.3%), air pollution (62.5%), massive deforestation (62.5%) and acid rain (52.5%) were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the stu...

  20. Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In densely populated countries, the public need a synergic approach to produce low-carbon energy. ► The paper is mapping coexistent and different underground technologies to produce low-GHG energy. ► The paper calculate Energy Density Potential in Land – EDPL in terms of [GW h/ha/year]. ► Draw-plate technologies platforms (EU-ZEP, etc.) should merge using underground together. ► Synergies among the different uses of deep underground (up to 5000 m) jointing the energy lobbies. -- Abstract: In densely populated countries there is a growing and compelling need to use underground for different and possibly coexisting technologies to produce “low carbon” energy. These technologies include (i) clean coal combustion merged with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS); (ii) last-generation nuclear power or, in any case, safe nuclear wastes disposal, both “temporary” and “geological” somewhere in Europe (at least in one site): Nuclear wastes are not necessarily associated to nuclear power plants; (iii) safe natural gas (CH4) reserves to allow consumption also when the foreign pipelines are less available or not available for geopolitical reasons and (iv) “low-space-consuming” renewables in terms of Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL measured in [GW h/ha/year]) as geothermics. When geothermics is exploited as low enthalpy technology, the heat/cool production could be associated, where possible, to increased measures of “building efficiency”, low seismic risks building reworking and low-enthalpy heat managing. This is undispensable to build up “smart cities”. In any case the underground geological knowledge is prerequisite. All these technologies have been already proposed and defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Road Map 2009 as priorities for worldwide security: all need to use underground in a rational and safe manner. The underground is not renewable in most of case histories [10,11]. IEA recently matched and

  1. SAGD report card : Alberta believes it can rival Saudi Arabia as an oil producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2008-10-15

    This article reviewed 9 oil sands companies that currently own commercial-scale steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects producing more than 5000 bbls a day in northern Alberta. The article reviewed production costs and outputs, and examined schedule and cost over-runs during project construction phases and how they are impacting on overall business trends for the companies. Technologies adopted by the project operators were outlined, and details of demonstration programs currently being conducted to test new technologies were presented. Issues concerning regulatory approvals for individual projects were discussed. Production statistics and forecasts were provided, and planned expansions were outlined. Projects reviewed in the article included Suncor's Firebag project; Husky's Tucker project; Nexen/OPTI's Long Lake project; EnCana's Foster Creek/Christina Lake project; ConocoPhillips' Surmont project Petro-Canada's Mackay River project; Devon's Jackfish project; JACOS' Hangingstone project; and Connacher's Great Divide project. Results of the review demonstrated that SAGD production is occurring at a slower rate than any of the companies originally predicted. However, output is continuing to rise. It was concluded that since SAGD is a relatively new technology, methods of improving the technology and reducing its environmental impacts are still being explored. 12 figs.

  2. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  3. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  4. Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450°C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250°C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200°C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250°C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

  5. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Amirante

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non

  6. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Tamborrino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Smithella spp. Obtained from a Methanogenic Alkane-Degrading Culture and Oil Field Produced Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, BoonFei; de Araújo e Silva, Renata; Rozycki, Trent; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Two draft genomes affiliated with Smithella spp. were obtained from a methanogenic alkane-degrading enrichment culture by single-cell sorting and metagenome contig binning, and a third was obtained by single-cell sorting of oil field produced water. Two genomes contained putative assABC genes encoding alkylsuccinate synthase, indicating genetic potential for fumarate activation of alkanes.

  8. Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred thank

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuan-Galindo, Rene; Soto, Enrique; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    In this video, the mechanism followed to disperse an oil phase in water using a Scaba impeller in a cylindrical tank is presented. Castor oil (viscosity = 500 mPas) is used and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. The process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Initially, the oil is at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is dragged into the liquid bulk and rotates around the impeller shaft, then is pushed radially into the flow ejected by the impeller. In...

  9. Trade linkages and macroeconomic effects of the price of oil

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Iikka; Ledyaeva, Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we assess the impact of oil price shocks on oil-producer and oil-consumer economies. VAR models for different countries are linked together via a trade matrix, as in Abeysinghe (2001). As expected, we find that oil producers (Russia and Canada here) benefit from oil price shocks. For example, a large oil shock, leading to a price increase of 50%, boosts Russian GDP by some 12%. However, oil producers are hurt by indirect effects of oil shocks, as economic activity in their expor...

  10. OIL EFFECT ON WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SARPE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the macroeconomic effects of the oil trade on the world economy, taking into account a number of factors that characterise it: evolution of oil price, as well as dynamics of oil exports, economic increase based on oil of the producing and consuming countries, attempts to diversify their economies inorder to get rid of the oil dependence, tendencies and length of these processes, co-operation and role of the countries that are involved in the exchange affairs that deal with this fundamental product called: “the blood of economy”.

  11. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Reservoirs of South Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

    1995-07-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Play of South Texas is one example of a mature play where reservoirs are being abandoned at high rates, potentially leaving behind significant unrecovered resources in untapped and incompletely drained reservoirs. Nearly 1 billion barrels of oil have been produced from Frio reservoirs since the 1940`s, yet more than 1.6 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil is estimated to remain in the play. Frio reservoirs of the South Texas Gulf Coast are being studied to better characterize interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic depositional systems and determine controls on locations and volumes of unrecovered oil. Engineering data from fields throughout the play trend were evaluated to characterize variability exhibited by these heterogeneous reservoirs and were used as the basis for resource calculations to demonstrate a large additional oil potential remaining within the play. Study areas within two separate fields have been selected in which to apply advanced reservoir characterization techniques. Stratigraphic log correlations, reservoir mapping, core analyses, and evaluation of production data from each field study area have been used to characterize reservoir variability present within a single field. Differences in sandstone depositional styles and production behavior were assessed to identify zones with significant stratigraphic heterogeneity and a high potential for containing unproduced oil. Detailed studies of selected reservoir zones within these two fields are currently in progress.

  12. Mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Tai-An; Ko, Ying-Chin [Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu, Pei-Fen [Department of Industrial Safety and Hygiene, Tajen Junior College of Pharmacy, Ping-Tung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang, Li-Fang [School of Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lee, Huei [Department of Biochemistry, Chung San Medical and Dental College, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lee, Chien-Hung [School of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-11-28

    According to epidemiologic studies, exposure of women to fumes from cooking oils appears to be an important risk factor for lung cancer. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and analyzed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes were found to be mutagenic in the presence of S9 mix. All samples contained dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DB(a,h)A) and benz(a)anthracene (B(a)A). Concentration of DB(a,h)A and B(a)A were 1.9 and 2.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in fumes from lard oil, 2.1 and 2.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in soybean oil, 1.8 and 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in peanut oil, respectively. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was identified in fume samples of soybean and peanut oil, in concentrations of 19.6 and 18.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, in this order. These results provide experimental evidence and support the findings of epidemiologic observations, in which women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at increased risk of contracting lung cancer

  13. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-VI is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-VI exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt. %) at room temperature and viscous fluid ...

  14. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg/kg) or lactof......The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg....../kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could...... not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect...

  15. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods. PMID:20658661

  16. The US Tight Oil Revolution and Its Impact on the Gulf Cooperation Countries – Beyond the Supply Shock: OIES paper: WPM 54

    OpenAIRE

    Fattouh, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    While the impact of the increase in US production on prices and on oil market dynamics is yet to be fully felt, as some of the underlying forces still need time to unfold and need to be fully understood, it is important to provide a general framework to help us analyse the US shale revolution and its potential impacts on oil markets and key Middle East producers. In this paper, we propose a broad framework based on three main aspects: the US tight oil revolution as a positive oil supply shock...

  17. Spice oils for the control of co-occurring mycotoxin-producing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juglal, S; Govinden, R; Odhav, B

    2002-04-01

    The effect of nine different oils was evaluated on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme. The experimental design to examine the inhibition of mycotoxins involved the incorporation of each of seven oils into broth and patty cultures. The fungal mycotoxin was identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Clove oil (eugenol) was the most inhibitory to the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, followed by cinnamon (cinnamic aldehyde), oregano (thymol and carvacol) and mace oils (myristin). Neem and eucalyptus oil (cineole) did not affect fungal growth. The feasibility of implementing the results of this study to control mycotoxin toxicity was examined by costoring whole and ground cloves with mycotoxin-infected grain. Addition of both whole and ground cloves markedly reduced the aflatoxin contamination of the grain. These results clearly suggest that commonly occurring mycotoxigenic fungi can be controlled with clove oil (eugenol), thus spice oil successfully inhibited the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, regulated the production of fumonisins. and prevented the formation of aflatoxins. The social implication of this finding is that rural communities can prevent the formation of fungal toxins in contaminated grain by simple measures. PMID:11952220

  18. The feasibility of producing oil palm with altered lignin content to control Ganoderma disease

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Moen, Sariah; Lima, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Oil palm is a major crop which is grown for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and biodiesel. The palm is of major economic importance in southeast Asia where it is grown extensively in Malaysia and Indonesia. There is concern about Ganoderma rots of oil palm which need to be controlled to prevent major infection. However, the basic mechanism of white-rot infection has been ignored. White rot implies that fungi attack the lignin component of woody tissue leaving the whit...

  19. Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ukita; Monticha Pechsuth; Poonsuk Prasertsan

    2001-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively), total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively), oil & grease (25,600 mg/l), and has a low pH (4.5). Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the o...

  20. The effects of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) essential oil components against ochratoxin-producing Aspergilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolić-Mihalak, Darja; Frece, Jadranka; Slavica, Anita; Delaš, Frane; Pavlović, Hrvoje; Markov, Ksenija

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the essential oil of Thymus serpyllum L. and of its components thymol and total phenols (total phenolic content, TPC) extracted from the plant on the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus ochraceus, A. carbonarius, and A. niger. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined for the essential oil and thymol, and selected concentration of the TPC extract inhibited fungal growth and ochratoxin A biosynthesis by more than 60 %, depending on the conditions and duration of incubation with the fungi. Essential oil showed the strongest inhibitory effect which may have been related to the synergistic or cumulative effects of its components. PMID:23334040

  1. An energy-saving opportunity in producing lubricating oil using mixed-solventin simulated Rotary Disc Contacting (RDC) extraction tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamipour, M.S.; Fakhr Hoseini, S.M.; Tavakkoli, T.; Mehrkesh, A.H. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2010-05-15

    Industrial processes are the most energy consuming processes in the world. Modification of these processes helps us with controlling the consumption of energy and minimizing energy loss. Changing raw materials is one of the ways through which we can optimize industrial processes. In this paper, a new solvent mixture (furfural + a co-solvent) was used for the extraction of lubricating base oil from lube-oil cut. It was found that the energy consumption of the new solvent mixture for obtaining a product with the same quality was much lower than the original solvent. By using this new solvent mixture, the operating temperature of the top of tower was reduced by 30 K. This leads to a high reduction in energy consumption in extraction of aromatics from lube oil. At our new extraction process by means of using new solvent mixture, the maximum energy saving was 38% per cubic meter of produced raffinate. (author)

  2. Variation in the volatile oil composition of Eucalyptus citriodora produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tavleen S; Babu, G D Kiran; Guleria, Shailja; Singh, Bikram

    2013-04-01

    This work reports variations in the yields and quality of volatiles produced from Eucalyptus citriodora leaves by different hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) techniques. HD techniques (1.5%) produced higher yields compared to SCE (0.7%). Citronellal, the major component, was maximum in the extract produced by SCE (79%) followed by oil produced by water-steam distillation (WSD) (72.6%) and water distillation (WD) (62.4%) techniques. Chemical composition of glycoside-bound volatiles produced by acid hydrolysis during HD was found to be very different from free volatiles, although in a minor quantity. The extent of artefact formation and release of aglycones was more profound in the bound volatile oil produced by WD than WSD. Highest oxygenated monoterpenes were found in SCE and WSD (93% each) followed by WD (91.4%). Although the SCE produced lower yields than the HD techniques, its extract is superior in quality in terms of higher concentration of citronellal. PMID:22559719

  3. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenario

  4. Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

  5. An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Saepudin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on

  7. Evaluation of Slime-Producing Bacteria in Oil Field Core Flood Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Geesey, G. G.; Mittelman, M W; Lieu, V. T.

    1987-01-01

    Epifluorescence microscopy and carbohydrate determinations indicated that the decrease in permeability of oil reservoir sand to reclaimed sewage water was partially the result of biological plugging. Filtration and biocide addition studies demonstrated that the increase in bacterial densities and slime concentrations in flooded oil field cores appeared to be due to both deposition from the reclaimed water and in situ microbial growth and slime production. Although these biological components ...

  8. Applied Aspects of Material Costs Accounting and Their Impact on Volatile Oil Produce Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Sorokina

    2014-01-01

    Rational use of material resources is one of the main ways to reduce production cost since the share of material costs in various industries production cost ranges from 50 to 90 %.The article covers the research into the applied aspects of accounting material costs for volatile oil products manufacture. The purpose of the study is the development of recommendations for improvement of material cost accounting and calculation of volatile oil products cost. The author has offered a list of volat...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR PALM OIL DETERMINATION IN MICROCAPSULES PRODUCED BY COMPLEX COACERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. M. Marfil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microencapsulation of palm oil may be a mechanism for protecting and promoting the controlled release of its bioactive compounds. To optimize the microencapsulation process, it is necessary to accurately quantify the palm oil present both external and internal to the microcapsules. In this study, we developed and validated a spectrophotometric method to determine the microencapsulation efficiency of palm oil by complex coacervation. We used gelatin and gum arabic (1:1 as wall material in a 5% concentration (w/v and palm oil in the same concentration. The coacervates were obtained at pH 4.0 ± 0.01, decanted for 24 h, frozen (−40 ºC, and lyophilized for 72 h. Morphological analyzes were then performed. We standardized the extraction of the external palm oil through five successive washes with an organic solvent. We then explored the best method for rupturing the microcapsules. After successive extractions with hexane, we determined the amount of palm oil contained in the microcapsules using a spectrophotometer. The proposed method was shown to be of low cost, fast, and easy to implement. In addition, in the validation step, we confirmed the method to be safe and reliable, as it proved to be specific, accurate, precise, and robust.

  10. Oil filaments produced by an impeller in a water stirred thank

    CERN Document Server

    Sanjuan-Galindo, Rene; Ascanio, Gabriel; Zenit, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    In this video, the mechanism followed to disperse an oil phase in water using a Scaba impeller in a cylindrical tank is presented. Castor oil (viscosity = 500 mPas) is used and the Reynolds number was fixed to 24,000. The process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Initially, the oil is at the air water interface. At the beginning of the stirring, the oil is dragged into the liquid bulk and rotates around the impeller shaft, then is pushed radially into the flow ejected by the impeller. In this region, the flow is turbulent and exhibits velocity gradients that contribute to elongate the oil phase. Viscous thin filaments are generated and expelled from the impeller. Thereafter, the filaments are elongated and break to form drops. This process is repeated in all the oil phase and drops are incorporated into the dispersion. Two main zones can be identified in the tank: the impeller discharge characterized by high turbulence and the rest of the flow where low velocity gradients appear. In this region surface f...

  11. Evaluation of produced water toxicity from an oil maritime terminal through Skeletonema costatum toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aidar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid effluent from an oil maritime terminal, with produced water as the main component, had its toxicity evaluated through toxicity tests with the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Two previously treated effluent samples (effluents A and B, were provided by PETROBRAS for the experiments. Both samples presented high salinity (67‰ for effluent A and 62‰ for effluent B and low pH values (6.2, whereas total sulphide, phenol and nutrient content, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbon concentration, BOD and COD values were quite different from each other. During the toxicity experiment, three replicate flasks with samples for each treatment were exposed to a light radiation of 266µE m² S-1 and maintained under a 10 h/14 h lightldark cycle, at a temperature of 24 :t 2ºC. The EC50 values could not be accurately estimated for effluent A: 60 h and 132 h after starting the experiment they were below 3% and between 3-6% effluent concentration, respectively. Synergistic effects between effluent toxicity and salinity on the growth of S. costatum were detected. The effluent B showed higher toxicity: the EC5O values were 0.17% and 0.40% of effluent concentrations, after 48 h and 96 h, respectively. These results evidenced the deleterious effects of residual organic compounds contained in the aqueous effluents from the oil terminal under the present pretreatment on S. costatum. In the light of the present data, the direct disposal ofthese effluents into São Sebastião Channel waters might be very hazardous to its indigenous biota.A toxicidade do efluente líquido do "Dutos e Terminais Centro-Oeste São Paulo" (DTCS terminal marítimo de petróleo da PETROBRAS, em São Sebastião (SP, Brasil, cujo principal componente é a água de produção, foi avaliada através de testes de toxicidade com a diatomácea Skeletonema costatum. Amostras de dois efluentes (A e B, previamente tratados pela PETROBRAS, foram utilizadas nos experimentos. As duas amostras

  12. Plants producing biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    Biofuels are currently produced primarily from five plants, namely corn, canola, sugar cane, palm oil, jatropha. However, research and development efforts are underway around the world produce biofuels from other sources, particularly from algae. This paper described the characteristics of the top 5 plants and their role in the production of biofuels. Countries where these plants are cultivated were also summarized. The article indicated that producing ethanol from corn, is not very efficient since growing corn requires more fertilizer and pesticides than most other crops, plus the corn kernels have to undergo energy-intensive distillation and chemical extraction processes. China is the world's largest producer of rapeseed oil, with an annual production of 12 million tons. The countries of the European Union collectively produce another 16 million tons, of which nearly 4 million tons were used in 2006 to produce biodiesel. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane, and accounts for about 45 per cent of global ethanol production. Malaysia and Indonesia are the key players in the palm oil market, accounting for 85 per cent of global production. India has identified more than 11 million hectares that would be suitable for growing jatropha, whose seeds contain up to 40 per cent oil that can be burned in a conventional diesel engine after extraction. 1 tab.

  13. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  14. Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotouh, K.H.

    1996-10-01

    To establish a Technology Transfer Resource Center (TRC) at Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU) to assist the Independent Oil Producers, in the state of Texas, (TIP) obtain and apply oil recovery technology to their operation. The University will conduct a field pilot project in cooperation with an Independent Producer to demonstrate how technology application improves the economic performance of a project. Experience gained from the project will be disseminated to other Independents. These activities will be coordinated with neighboring state Universities and private research entities active in technology transfer programs. The University`s goal is to stimulate Petroleum Engineering education and research at the university as a result of participating in these activities. The long term goal is to establish the first Petroleum Engineering Department at a Historically Black University.

  15. Dynamics of Producing Renewable Energy in Poland and EU-28 Countries within the Period of 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuła Karol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the estimation of trends describing the level of renewable energy resources in Poland and in EU-28 countries within the years 2004–2012. The process of the increase of the percentage of renewable energy in total production of energy was also presented. Comparative statistical analysis was carried out within the dynamics of the phenomena discussed in the paper with respect both to Poland and EU countries. It follows from the investigation that both in Poland and in the EU countries the increase in renewable energy resources has been observed. However, the rate of the increase of the level of renewable energy in Poland is not enough to catch up with the leading EU countries in near future.

  16. Characterization and Clinical Impact of Bloodstream Infection Caused by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Seven Latin American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Pallares, Christian J.; Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Correa, Adriana; Álvarez, Carlos; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Luna, Carlos; Zurita, Jeannete; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos; Cortesía, Manuel; Guzmán-Suárez, Alfonso; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health problem associated with higher mortality rates, longer hospitalization and increased healthcare costs. We carried out a study to describe the characteristics of patients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and non-CPE bloodstream infection (BSI) from Latin American hospitals and to determine the clinical impact in terms of mortality and antibiotic therapy. Methods Between July 2013 and November 2014, we conducted a multicenter observational study in 11 hospitals from 7 Latin American countries (Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela). Patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae were included and classified either as CPE or non-CPE based on detection of blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 by polymerase chain reaction. Enrolled subjects were followed until discharge or death. Demographic, microbiological and clinical characteristics were collected from medical records. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the information. Results A total of 255 patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSI were included; CPE were identified in 53 of them. In vitro non-susceptibility to all screened antibiotics was higher in the patients with CPE BSI, remaining colistin, tigecycline and amikacin as the most active drugs. Combination therapy was significantly more frequent in the CPE BSI group (p < 0.001). The most common regimen was carbapenem + colistin or polymyxin B. The overall mortality was 37% (94/255). Overall and attributable mortality were significantly higher in patients with CPE BSI (p < 0.001); however, we found that patients with CPE BSI who received combination therapy and those who received monotherapy had similar mortality. After multivariate adjustment, CPE BSI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–9.5; p = 0.002) and critical illness (aOR 6.5; 95% CI 3.1–13.7; p < 0

  17. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic

  18. Spray combustion properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research presented here is focused primarily on spray combustion of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil from rice husk. A combustion systems is developed to attain a possibility of firing of the bio-oil in a routine way. The start-up and shut down combustion procedures is established. The bio-oil is properly pretreated and spray combustion properties of pure fast pyrolysis bio-oil are studied. After 40 min combustion become steady and the temperature in the center of the combustion chamber is above 1400 deg. C. The CO concentration decreases with ER, and below a certain ER, the CO level exponentially increases. The measured NOx concentrations slightly increase at higher ER. Low values of SOx emissions are measured, and as expected these values are very low (2 concentration increases with ER. Bio-oil has the potential to replace diesel and gas for on-site power generation and heating, to be a fuel source for large-scale combustion systems such as furnaces, boilers and gas turbines.

  19. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TSBSO 3.8, a biosurfactant-producing strain with biotechnological potential for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Souza, Pamella Macedo; de Araújo, Livia Vieira; Barros, Thalita Gonçalves; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    A screening for biosurfactant-producing bacteria was conducted with 217 strains that were isolated from environmental samples contaminated with crude oil and/or petroleum derivatives. Although 19 promising biosurfactant producers were detected, strain TSBSO 3.8, which was identified by molecular methods as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, drew attention for its production of a high-activity compound that presented an emulsification activity of 63% and considerably decreased surface (28.5 mN/m) and interfacial (11.4 mN/m) tensions in Trypticase Soy Broth culture medium. TSBSO 3.8 growth and biosurfactant production were tested under different physical and chemical conditions to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Biosurfactant production occurred between 0.5% and 7% NaCl, at pH values varying from 6 to 9 and temperatures ranging from 28 to 50 °C. Moreover, biosurfactant properties remained the same after autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 min. The biosurfactant was also successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the surface active compound was a surfactin, known as a powerful biosurfactant that is commonly produced by Bacillus species. The production of a high-efficiency biosurfactant, under some physical and chemical conditions that resemble those experienced in an oil production reservoir, such as high salinities and temperatures, makes TSBSO 3.8 an excellent candidate and creates good expectations for its application in MEOR. PMID:26350801

  20. Characterization and Performance Test of Palm Oil Based Bio-Fuel Produced Via Ni/Zeolite-Catalyzed Cracking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kadarwati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking process of palm oil into bio-fuel using Ni/zeolite catalysts (2-10% wt. Ni at various reaction temperatures (400-500oC in a flow-fixed bed reactor system has been carried out. Palm oil was pre-treated to produce methyl ester of palm oil as feedstock in the catalytic cracking reactions. The Ni/zeolite catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation method using Ni(NO32.6H2O as the precursor. The products were collected and analysed using GC, GC-MS, and calorimeter. The effects of process temperatures and Ni content in Ni/zeolite have been studied. The results showed that Ni-2/zeolite could give a yield of 99.0% at 500oC but only produced gasoline fraction of 18.35%. The physical properties of bio-fuel produced in this condition in terms of density, viscosity, flash point, and specific gravity were less than but similar to commercial fuel. The results of performance test in a 4-strike engine showed that the mixture of commercial gasoline (petrol and bio-fuel with a ratio of 9:1 gave similar performance to fossil-based gasoline with much lower CO and O2 emissions and more efficient combustion

  1. Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2015-02-01

    Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants.

  2. Effects of Chemical–Biological pretreatment of corn stalks on the bio-oils produced by hydrothermal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fresh corn stalks were treated by Chemical–Biological pretreatment before liquefaction. • The compositions of corn stalks were changed markedly. • The majority of hemicellulose was converted to reducing sugars and ethanol. • Chemical–Biological pretreatment reduced the kinds of chemical compounds of the bio-oils. • The major compounds of the bio-oils was 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol that can be used as antioxidant in fuels. - Abstract: The production of bio-oils by hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulose is an attractive prospect. However, bio-oils produced using traditional methods have multiple components and are low grade, which limit their application. In this study, a new method was proposed to improve the quality of bio-oils. Chemical–Biological pretreatment (CB-pretreatment) was performed on fresh corn stalks to separate a partial lignin and to convert hemicellulose, generating ethanol for hydrothermal liquefaction and improving the quality of the resulting bio-oils. Furthermore, the influence of CB-pretreatment on the components of lignocellulose in corn stalks and the pretreated samples was analyzed. And the materials and bio-oils were analyzed with TGA and GC–MS. The results showed that the relative content of lignin reduced from 13.25 ± 0.87% to 8.97 ± 0.77% in the alkaline treatment. And the relative content of hemicellulose in the alkaline-acid pretreated substrates decreased from 21.65 ± 0.74% to 10.06 ± 0.48%. After the whole pretreatment, the concentrations of ethanol and remaining reducing sugar in the fermented liquor were 2.88 ± 0.09 mg/mL and 3.59 ± 0.30 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the pretreated substrates had a lower degradation temperature and less ash content than the corn stalks. The heating value of the bio-oil was 32.21 MJ/kg. Moreover, the number of bio-oils components was obviously reduced. Toluene and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, which are respectively used as high octane additive

  3. Assessment of the discharge of NORM to the North Sea from produced water by the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The discharge of naturally occurring radioactivity from non nuclear industries, such as the oil and gas industry, has recently become a subject of much discussion. In connection with oil and gas exploitation in the North Sea, large volumes of produced water are co-produced with the oil and gas of which most is discharged into the marine environment. Due to the solubility of the radium isotopes, of which 226Ra and 228Ra are the most long-lived, the produced water normally contains enhanced levels of these naturally occurring radionuclides. Previously observed levels in produced waters from Norwegian production platforms, shows activity levels of about three orders of magnitude larger than normally encountered in sea water. A study recently published by the EU (MARINA II) have concluded that liquid discharges to the marine environment from NORM industries (mainly phosphoric acid production and oil and gas exploitation) gives a larger contribution to the collective dose to the EU population than liquid discharges from the nuclear industry. Due to lack of published data on the radionuclide concentration in the produced water, it has however been large uncertainties on the discharge of 226Ra and 228Ra from the Norwegian oil and gas industry into the North Sea. In order to improve the estimated discharge of NORM, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority have asked the oil and gas producers on the Norwegian continental shelf to sample and analyse produced water from each production platform with respect to 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb monthly, for a period of six months during 2003 and early 2004. The purpose of this investigation has been to obtain more precise and reliable estimates of the NORM discharge in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The study is also considered important for work in the OSPAR radioactivity group, where relevant NORM industries will be identified, and discharge data collected the next few years. The paper includes a review of

  4. Diversity and similarity of microbial communities in petroleum crude oils produced in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kunio; Maki, Hideaki; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2008-11-01

    To understand microbial communities in petroleum crude oils, we precipitated DNA using high concentrations of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) and purified. Samples of DNA from five crude oils, (Middle East, 3; China, 1; and Japan, 1) were characterized based upon their 16S rRNA gene sequences after PCR amplification and the construction of clone libraries. We detected 48 eubacterial species, one cyanobacterium, and one archaeon in total. The microbial constituents were diverse in the DNA samples. Most of the bacteria affiliated with the sequences of the three oils from the Middle East comprised similar mesophilic species. Acinetobacter, Propionibacterium, Sphingobium and a Bacillales were common. In contrast, the bacterial communities in Japanese and Chinese samples were unique. Thermophilic Petrotoga-like bacteria (11%) and several anaerobic-thermophilic Clostridia- and Synergistetes-like bacteria (20%) were detected in the Chinese sample. Different thermophiles (12%) and Clostridia (2%) were detected in the Japanese sample. PMID:18997416

  5. Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized by high contents of linoleic and oleic acids. Of the triacyl glycerols determined, those containing linoleyl and oleyl acyles are the major ones. The whole sterol profiles include β-sitosterol (as major component followed by 7-stigmasterol, campesterol and 5-stigmasterol, which were found in all the lettuce seed oil samples but with slight differences. Furthermore, sterol patterns of the free and acylated sterols, free and acylated sterylglycosides were determined. It was found that LS30 oil has the highest tocopherol content and α-tocopherol is the only constituent in all the lettuce seed oil samples. On the other hand, the 2-position in the lettuce seed oil samples is mainly acylated by unsaturated fatty acids (98.6% namely, oleic and linoleic acids. According to these results, it can be concluded that irrigation conditions do not affect the lipid constituents of the oil and the oil lettuce plant resists draught and its lipid profiles are in agreement with those of conventional vegetable oils.

    Tres muestras de semillas de lechuga (Lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 se cultivaron bajo tres condiciones de riego (bien regado, normal y con deficiencia de agua, después de 10, 20 y 30 días, respectivamente para evaluar sus aceites y ver hasta qué punto el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste las condiciones de riego. Los aceites extraídos de las tres muestras de semillas se evaluó mediante la determinación de ocho perfiles de lípidos usando cromatograf

  6. Modeling OPEC behavior: theories of risk aversion for oil producer decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theories of OPEC such as price leadership, cartel, or game theoretic models suggest an incentive for OPEC members to expand their production capacity well above current levels in order to maximize revenues. Yet individual OPEC members consistently explore for and develop oil fields at a level well below their potential. The cause of low oil exploration and development efforts among OPEC members, and even some non-OPEC members, may have to do with risk aversion. This paper describes an alternative theory for OPEC behavior based on risk aversion using a two piece non-Neumann-Morgenstern utility function similar to Fishburn and Koehenberger (1979, Decision Science 10, 503-518), and Friedman and Savage (1948, Journal of political Economy 56). The model shows possible low oil production behavior. (author)

  7. Changes produced in oils during vacuum and traditional frying of potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosa, María José; Skerl, Verónica; Cadenazzi, Mónica; Olazábal, Laura; Silva, Roberto; Suburú, Gabriela; Torres, Marina

    2014-03-01

    In this study the effect of vacuum frying (VF) and traditional frying (TF) on oil degradation, fatty acid composition and alpha-tocopherol content was investigated. Two different refined sunflower oils were used: sunflower oil with high oleic acid content (HOSO) and sunflower oil with synthetic antioxidant (tertiary-butylhydroquinone) (TBHQ-SO). Oil degradation was monitored by measuring the free acidity (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (p-AV),) total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability (OE). Oils samples were taken every 4h of frying during 10 consecutive days. Values of FFA, p-AV, TPC using TBHQ-SO with traditional frying were (0.201, 207.0, 25.0) significantly higher than the obtained values with vacuum frying (0.073, 25.8, 11.2). The same parameters by using HOSO were (0.327, 82.0, 21.9) with traditional frying and (0.099, 33.3, 6.4) with vacuum frying. The EO was 2.44 and 7.95 with TBHQ-SO traditional and vacuum frying respectively, and with for HOSO 0.65 and 2.67, respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids percentage decreased in all treatments except in TBHQ-SOv. The alpha-tocopherol content decreased in all treatments at different rates. At the end of the frying processes the percentages of alpha-tocopherol reduction were TBHQ-SOv (4.90%), TBHQ-SOt (53.62%), HOSOv (96.87%), HOSOt (99.76%). PMID:24176387

  8. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  9. Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l tha...

  10. Evaluation of the potential end use of oils produced by the ROPE copyright process from California tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1989-12-01

    The oil products produced by the rope process from Process Development Unit (PDU) run SPR-111 were evaluated for potential end use. This run was a five-day test using Arroyo Grande tar sand from California as the feed to the PDU. The distillate from knockout {number sign}2 was hydrotreated to produce a series of process intermediates. One of the intermediates was evaluated as a feedstock for the production of transportation fuels. The heavy product oil was distilled to produce a residue that was evaluated as an asphalt. Analysis of a selected process intermediate shows that it is not suitable for the production of gasoline or for use as a gasoline-blending feedstock. The process intermediate was not suitable for the production of aviation turbine fuels because of a high concentration of alkanes. However, the presence of alkanes does make the oil valuable as a feedstock for the production of diesel fuel. The heavy oil product as received from the PDU is not suitable for the production of an asphaltic material because it contains a large amount of very fine solid material. However, after filtration and distillation, the application of ASTM D-3381 specification tests to the +410{degree}C residue shows that all of the requirements are met except for the trichloroethylene solubility requirement. This value is below specification because a small amount of mineral matter was not removed during the filtrations process. Also, the residue had a very high aging index. Results from successive freeze-thaw cycling also show that the residue is comparable to petroleum asphalts when it is coated on the same appropriate aggregate. 14 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    ) process is a second generation process for the production of bio-oil from different biomass-based waste materials. The process is carried out at subcritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar) and in the presence of homogeneous (KOH) and heterogeneous (ZrO2) catalysts. The great advantage with the Cat......Liq® process compared with combustion is that also wet material can be processed. In the process, the waste is transformed to bio-oil, combustible gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The raw material used in this study was DDGS (Dried Distilled Grain with Solubles), a residual product in 1st generation...... ethanol production, available in huge quantities. DDGS is today used as animal feed but in a future with increasing production of DDGS, converting it into bio-oil may be an attractive alternative. The bio-oil can be used for green electricity production or it can be upgraded to bio-diesel. In the current...

  12. The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyad Rafa'a Zair

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator. The materials were compounded by two roll-mills under the same conditions. The following parameters are involved: 1- Studying the use of a high density polyethylene as a binder to film components with (15-30 wt.%. 2- Studying the use of finely divided silica sand with (25-45 wt.% as a medium to oil adsorption.- Studying the use of two type plasticizers (Paraffin or DOP with (35-55 wt. %. as a creative medium to films porosity.The best results of the feed materials in the mixture were selected so as to give the highest porosity using 15 wt. % PE, 30 wt. % filler, and 55 wt. % oil. It has been found that the films with DOP oil give higher porosity.

  13. Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F cytochromes P450 produce santalols and bergamotol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Diaz-Chavez

    Full Text Available Sandalwood oil is one of the world's most highly prized essential oils, appearing in many high-end perfumes and fragrances. Extracted from the mature heartwood of several Santalum species, sandalwood oil is comprised mainly of sesquiterpene olefins and alcohols. Four sesquiterpenols, α-, β-, and epi-β-santalol and α-exo-bergamotol, make up approximately 90% of the oil of Santalum album. These compounds are the hydroxylated analogues of α-, β-, and epi-β-santalene and α-exo-bergamotene. By mining a transcriptome database of S. album for candidate cytochrome P450 genes, we cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding a small family of ten cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases annotated as SaCYP76F37v1, SaCYP76F37v2, SaCYP76F38v1, SaCYP76F38v2, SaCYP76F39v1, SaCYP76F39v2, SaCYP76F40, SaCYP76F41, SaCYP76F42, and SaCYP76F43. Nine of these genes were functionally characterized using in vitro assays and yeast in vivo assays to encode santalene/bergamotene oxidases and bergamotene oxidases. These results provide a foundation for production of sandalwood oil for the fragrance industry by means of metabolic engineering, as demonstrated with proof-of-concept formation of santalols and bergamotol in engineered yeast cells, simultaneously addressing conservation challenges by reducing pressure on supply of sandalwood from native forests.

  14. Development of a mobile water maker, a sustainable way to produce safe drinking water in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groendijk, L.; Vries, de H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Moreover, there is a growing demand for a simple, low capacity drinking water treatment used by local people in developing countries to reduce mortality caused by water born diseases. To solve this problem a small portable water treatment unit with a production capacity of approximately 500 L/day wa

  15. Efficacy of Cuminum cyminum essential oil on FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khosravi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum essential oil on the growth and FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides (F. verticillioides strains isolated from maize. Materials and Methods: All fungal strains were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA slopes at 30°C for 7 days. The antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. One set of primers was F. verticillioides species specific, which selectively amplified the intergenic space region of rDNA. The other set of primers was specific to FUM1 gene region of fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides. FUM1 transcript levels were quantified using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR protocol. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of C. cyminum oil against F. verticillioides strains varied from 0.195 to 0.781 µl.ml-1 (mean MIC value: 0.461 µl.ml-1 indicating 54.5% of the fungal strains inhibited at 0.390 µl.ml-1. PCR analysis of FUM1 gene expression revealed that DNA fragment of 183 bp was amplified in all the isolates of F. verticillioides before treatment with C. cyminum essential oil. Based on RT-PCR analyses, reduction in the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes was significant only for FUM1 gene (p

  16. Impact of biochar produced from post-harvest residue on the adsorption behavior of diesel oil on loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu Feng; Sun, Hang; Yves, Uwamungu J; Li, Hong; Hu, Xue Fei

    2016-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar, produced from wheat residue at different temperatures, on the adsorption of diesel oil by loess soil. Kinetic and equilibrium data were processed to understand the adsorption mechanism of diesel by biochar-affected loess soil; dynamic and thermodynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to characterize this adsorption. The surface features and chemical structure of biochar, modified at varying pyrolytic temperatures, were investigated using surface scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The kinetic data showed that the adsorption of diesel oil onto loess soil could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with the rate-controlling step being intraparticle diffusion. However, in the presence of biochar, boundary layer control and intraparticle diffusion were both involved in the adsorption. Besides, the adsorption equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich isothermal model. The saturated adsorption capacity weakened as temperature increased, suggesting a spontaneous exothermic process. Thermodynamic parameter analysis showed that adsorption was mainly a physical process and was enhanced by chemical adsorption. The adsorption capacity of loess soil for diesel oil was weakened with increasing pH. The biochar produced by pyrolytic wheat residue increased the adsorption behavior of petroleum pollutants in loess soil.

  17. Enrichment and identification of biosurfactant-producing oil field microbiota utilizing electron acceptors other than oxygen and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryachko, Yuriy; Semler, Diana; Vogrinetz, John; Lemke, Markus; Links, Matthew G; McCarthy, E Luke; Haug, Brenda; Hemmingsen, Sean M

    2016-08-10

    Microorganisms indigenous to an oil reservoir were grown in media containing either sucrose or proteins in four steel vessels under anoxic conditions at 30°C and 8.3MPa for 30days, to enrich biosurfactant producers. Fermentation of substrate was possible in the protein-containing medium and either fermentation or respiration through reduction of sulfate occurred in the sucrose-containing medium. Growth of microorganisms led to 3.4-5.4-fold surface tension reduction indicating production of biosurfactants in amounts sufficient for enhancement of gas-driven oil recovery. Analysis of sequenced cpn60 amplicons showed that Pseudomonas sp. highly similar to biosurfactant producing P. fluorescens and to Pseudomonas sp. strain TKP predominated, and a bacterium highly similar to biosurfactant producing Bacillus mojavensis was present in vessels. Analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allowed only genus-level identification of these bacteria. Thus, cpn60-amplicon analysis was a more relevant tool for identification of putative biosurfactant producers than 16S rDNA-amplicon analysis.

  18. Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations, bioavailability and doses to marine biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, R.; Eriksen, D. Oe.; Straalberg, E.; Iden, K. I.; Rye, H.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Roeyset, O.; Berntssen, M. H. G.

    2006-03-15

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. Preliminary results indicate that presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in the produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bio-availability of radium (and barium) may be larger than anticipated. Also, the bio-availability of radium may be increased due to presence of such chemicals, and this is presently being studied. (author) (tk)

  19. Enrichment and identification of biosurfactant-producing oil field microbiota utilizing electron acceptors other than oxygen and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryachko, Yuriy; Semler, Diana; Vogrinetz, John; Lemke, Markus; Links, Matthew G; McCarthy, E Luke; Haug, Brenda; Hemmingsen, Sean M

    2016-08-10

    Microorganisms indigenous to an oil reservoir were grown in media containing either sucrose or proteins in four steel vessels under anoxic conditions at 30°C and 8.3MPa for 30days, to enrich biosurfactant producers. Fermentation of substrate was possible in the protein-containing medium and either fermentation or respiration through reduction of sulfate occurred in the sucrose-containing medium. Growth of microorganisms led to 3.4-5.4-fold surface tension reduction indicating production of biosurfactants in amounts sufficient for enhancement of gas-driven oil recovery. Analysis of sequenced cpn60 amplicons showed that Pseudomonas sp. highly similar to biosurfactant producing P. fluorescens and to Pseudomonas sp. strain TKP predominated, and a bacterium highly similar to biosurfactant producing Bacillus mojavensis was present in vessels. Analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allowed only genus-level identification of these bacteria. Thus, cpn60-amplicon analysis was a more relevant tool for identification of putative biosurfactant producers than 16S rDNA-amplicon analysis. PMID:27212608

  20. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  1. Investigation on the quality of bio-oil produced through fast pyrolysis of biomass-polymer waste mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourabchi, S. A.; Ng, H. K.; Gan, S.; Yap, Z. Y.

    2016-06-01

    A high-impact poly-styrene (HIPS) was mixed with dried and ground coconut shell (CS) at equal weight percentage. Fast pyrolysis was carried out on the mixture in a fixed bed reactor over a temperature range of 573 K to 1073 K, and a nitrogen (N2) linear velocity range of 7.8x10-5 m/s to 6.7x10-2 m/s to produce bio-oil. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics of the pyrolysis process inside the reactor was visualised by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The CFD modelling was validated by experimental results and they both indicated that at temperature of 923 K and N2 linear velocity of 7.8x10-5 m/s, the maximum bio-oil yield of 52.02 wt% is achieved.

  2. Considerable hazards produced by heavy fuel oil in operating thermal power plant in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasab, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-09-01

    Heavy fuel oil and ash samples were collected from the Assiut thermal power plant in Egypt and subjected to gamma spectrometry analysis for natural radioactivity contents. Considerable results were observed where the ash contains nearly 1,000 times natural radionuclides more than raw oil. The results were confirmed by measuring the samples via using different devices in different institutions. All ash samples had radium equivalent activities and external hazard index values more than 370 Bq/kg and unity respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was10,650 nGy/h which is nearly 190 times higher than the global average value of 55 nGy/h. The corresponding annual external effective dose is estimated to be 13 mSv/year, which is nearly 30 times higher than that in areas of natural background radiation (0.46 mSv/year).

  3. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Synthetically Produced Oil Field Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The life of offshore steel structure in the oil production units is decided by the huge corrosive degradation due to SO42-, S2−, and Cl−, which normally present in the oil field seawater. Variation in pH and temperature further adds to the rate of degradation on steel. Corrosion behavior of mild steel is investigated through polarization, EIS, XRD, and optical and SEM microscopy. The effect of all 3 species is huge material degradation with FeSx and FeCl3 and their complex as corrosion products. EIS data match the model of Randle circuit with Warburg resistance. Addition of more corrosion species decreases impedance and increases capacitance values of the Randle circuit at the interface. The attack is found to be at the grain boundary as well as grain body with very prominent sulphide corrosion crack.

  4. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability

  5. Applications of Crude Bio surfactant Produced by Egyptian Local Bacteria in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio surfactant production capacities of Stenotorphomonas maltophilia and Suez Gulf consortium were detected in sea water containing irradiated 5 % rice straw or cane baggase as carbon sources. On adding irradiated rice straw (10 KGy), the optimum time for bio surfactant production were 60 hrs and 72 hrs for S. maltophilia and the consortium, respectively, where the optimum time by adding irradiated cane baggase (10 KGy) was 72 hrs in both cases. In general the production of bio surfactant using rice straw as supplement was higher than cane bagasse. The percentage of both emulsification activity and oil recovery capacity of S. maltophilia and the consortium gradually increased by increasing irradiation dose for the supplement wastes .The consortium oil recovery capacity percentage was higher than S. maltophilia

  6. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone reservoirs of South Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, P.R.; Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E. [and others

    1996-09-01

    Domestic fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs contain more than 30 Billion barrels (Bbbl) of remaining oil, more than any other type of reservoir, approximately one-third of which is in danger of permanent loss through premature field abandonments. The U.S. Department of Energy has placed its highest priority on increasing near-term recovery from FDD reservoirs in order to prevent abandonment of this important strategic resource. To aid in this effort, the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, began a 46-month project in October, 1992, to develop and demonstrate advanced methods of reservoir characterization that would more accurately locate remaining volumes of mobile oil that could then be recovered by recompleting existing wells or drilling geologically targeted infill. wells. Reservoirs in two fields within the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas, a mature play which still contains 1.6 Bbbl of mobile oil after producing 1 Bbbl over four decades, were selected as laboratories for developing and testing reservoir characterization techniques. Advanced methods in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, and engineering were integrated to (1) identify probable reservoir architecture and heterogeneity, (2) determine past fluid-flow history, (3) integrate fluid-flow history with reservoir architecture to identify untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool compartments, and (4) identify specific opportunities for near-term reserve growth. To facilitate the success of operators in applying these methods in the Frio play, geologic and reservoir engineering characteristics of all major reservoirs in the play were documented and statistically analyzed. A quantitative quick-look methodology was developed to prioritize reservoirs in terms of reserve-growth potential.

  7. Renewable gasoline produced by co-cracking of methanol and ketones in bio-oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most research on the upgrading of bio-oil by cracking has been done under atmospheric pressure, which results in a catalyst coke yield as high as 20 wt%. In this paper, pressurized cracking, as well as co-cracking with methanol proved to be an effective solution for relieving catalyst deactivation. HZSM-5 catalyst was found to deactivate rapidly in the cracking process of pure ketones. However, when methanol was used as the co-cracking substance for ketones under 2 MPa, ketones reached a full conversion of 100 % without obvious catalyst deactivation. The highest selectivity of bio-gasoline phase from co-cracking of ketones and methanol reached a value of 31.6%, in which liquid hydrocarbons had a relative content of 97.2%. The co-cracking of hydroxypropanone and methanol had lower bio-gasoline phase selectivity but better oil phase quality (liquid hydrocarbons selectivity up to 99% than those of cyclopentanone and methanol. Based on the experimental results, the promotion mechanism of methanol on cracking of ketones in bio-oil was illustrated by a co-cracking mechanism model.

  8. Matrix structure selection in the microparticles of essential oil oregano produced by spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Joyce Maria Gomes; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Hijo, Ariel Antonio Campos Toledo; Silva, Eric Keven; Marques, Gerson Reginaldo; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; de Azevedo, Viviane Machado

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to select the best combination of encapsulants for the microencapsulation of oregano essential oil by spray dryer with the addition of Arabic gum (AG), modified starch (MS) and maltodextrin (MA). The simplex-centroid method was used to obtain an optimal objective function with three variables. Analytical methods for carvacrol quantification, water activity, moisture content, wettability, solubility, encapsulation efficiency (ME) and oil retention (RT) were used to evaluate the best combination of encapsulants. The use of AG as a single wall material increased ME up to 93%. Carvacrol is the major phenolic compound existent in the oregano essential oil. Carvacrol exhibits a maximum concentration of 57.8% in the microparticle with the use of 62.5% AG and 37.5% MA. A greater RT (77.39%) was obtained when 74.5% AG; MS 12.7% and 12.7% MA were applied, and ME (93%) was improved with 100% of gum. PMID:23534491

  9. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from Iranian medicinal plants on extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Roointan, A; Shahri, F; Ayatollahi, S A M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Molaee, N; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-01-01

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli strains can lead to various infections particularly urinary tract infections. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) from different Iranian medicinal plants against TEM gene positive ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections. EOs were extracted using hydrodistillation method. E. coli strains were isolated by different specific Medias. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections in Shiraz hospital, Iran. Then, ESBL- producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test, phenotypic disc confirmatory test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TEM gene detection. The antibacterial activity of the EOs from different plants (Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Echinophora platyloba DC., Lallemantia royleana, Nepeta persica Boiss., Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn., Salvia nemorosa, and Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey) and antibiotics against ESBL-producing strains was studied using the microdilution method for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The 103 out of 295 E. coli strains with 97 (90.65%) TEM gene distributions were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All of the EOs derived from different plants displayed high inhibitory effects against ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The results of our investigations may propose a good treatment option against resistant infectious bacteria. PMID:27650980

  10. Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanshan; Luo, Yijing; Cao, Siyuan; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Jiang, Lingxi; Dong, Hanping; Yu, Li; Wu, Wei-Min

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests. PMID:23856587

  11. The challenges of producing popular sports contests: a comparative study of biathlon and cross-country skiing

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Harry Arne; Hanstad, Dag Vidar; Steen-Johnsen, Kari

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses how different configurations of stakeholders create opportunities for the production of popular TV sports contests. Based on qualitative methodologies, biathlon and cross-country skiing are used as contrasting cases. The paper concludes that the relative success of the International Biathlon Union is due to a favourable network position in relation to stakeholders. By comparison, the International Ski Federation suffers from a weak position within a dense stakeholder net...

  12. 世界石油大国-俄罗斯石油能源供需情况及出口战略%Oil Energy Supply-demand Situation and Export Strategy of Russia as World Oil-rich Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    俄罗斯是世界石油大国,拥有丰富的石油储量,在保证世界石油产量和需求方面,俄罗斯起着举足轻重的作用,因此了解俄罗斯石油能源供需情况及出口战略具有重要意义。介绍了俄罗斯的石油生产情况、石油产业的国际地位及能源消费情况,同时介绍了俄罗斯的石油长期战略及出口情况,并提出了一些建议。%Russia is an oil-rich country in the world; it has rich oil reserves and plays an important role in ensuring world’s oil supply and demand. So understanding Russian oil energy supply and demand situation and export strategy has important significance. In this paper, Russian oil production conditions, international status of the oil industry and energy consumption were introduced. The long-term strategy of Russian oil and export situation were also introduced, and some suggestions were put forward.

  13. Geopolitical Tensions, OPEC News, and Oil Price: A Granger Causality Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Medel, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    To what extent geopolitical tensions in major oil-producer countries and unexpected news related to the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) affect oil price? What are the effects of non-market externalities in oil price? Are oil price forecasters aware or affected by such externalities when making their predictions? In this article, I analyse the influence of these events on oil price by means of Granger causality, using a unique measure of geopolitical events accounting ...

  14. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  15. An assessment of whole effluent toxicity testing as a means of regulating waters produced by the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 500 million barrels of produced water are discharged to Wyoming's surface waters by the oil and gas industry. This discharges are of two types: direct and indirect. The direct discharges have been issued NPDES permits requiring whole effluent toxicity testing. Toxicity testing requirements have not been incorporated into permits written for indirect discharges because of the applicability of toxicity testing for regulating these waters has not been determined. Preliminary testing has shown that most produced waters are toxic at the point of discharge because of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, but that the toxicity of an indirect discharge is often lost before it reaches a receiving stream. Thus, whole effluent toxicity testing of an indirect discharge may be overly stringent, resulting in treatment or reinjection of the water or closure of the well. Any of these options would have severe economic consequences for oil producers and the state's agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole effluent toxicity testing actually predicts the in-stream effects of indirect discharges on water quality and benthic invertebrate populations. The authors will report the results of short-term ambient toxicity tests and in-stream bioassessments performed upstream and downstream of six indirect discharges located in four drainages in Wyoming

  16. PRODUCE MORE OIL AND GAS VIA eBUSINESS DATA SHARING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner

    2004-04-30

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  17. Produce More Oil and Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner; Ben Grunewald

    2005-07-22

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  18. ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL CAKE BY KOH ACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay Tay; Murat Erdem; Burak Ceylan,; Selhan Karagöz

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the adsorption behavior of the methylene blue (MB) dye onto the activated carbon produced from soybean oil cake by chemical activation with KOH at 800 °C. The adsorption isotherms, kinetic models, and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption were studied. The Langmuir isotherm showed a better fit than the Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption rate was described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The negative values of ΔG° and the positive values of ΔH° indicate that the adso...

  19. Renewable gasoline produced by co-cracking of methanol and ketones in bio-oil

    OpenAIRE

    Shurong Wang; Qinjie Cai; Zuogang Guo; Yurong Wang; Xiangyu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Most research on the upgrading of bio-oil by cracking has been done under atmospheric pressure, which results in a catalyst coke yield as high as 20 wt%. In this paper, pressurized cracking, as well as co-cracking with methanol proved to be an effective solution for relieving catalyst deactivation. HZSM-5 catalyst was found to deactivate rapidly in the cracking process of pure ketones. However, when methanol was used as the co-cracking substance for ketones under 2 MPa, ketones reached a full...

  20. Chemical properties of bio-oils produced by fast pyrolysis of bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Kohnosu, Taku; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Yoon, Seung-Lak; Kojima, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo powder was analytically pyrolyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), and the effects of fast pyrolysis conditions on the product distribution of bio-oil were evaluated. 4-Vinylphenol (4VP) was identified as a major product of bamboo fast pyrolysis by ^1H-NMR and ^C-NMR spectrometry. The formation pathway of 4VP demonstrated that p-coumarate esters are present in bamboo lignin, and 4VP is likely to be derived from these p-coumarate structures. The evaluation of the effect of fa...

  1. Release of single cells from the colonial oil-producing alga Botryococcus braunii by chemical treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Liyuan; Park, Hyunsun; Okada, Shigeru; Ohama, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We tested for chemical reagents that would be useful in preparing a large number of vital single cells from colonial Botryococcus braunii B-race, variety Showa. Among the 18 reagents assayed, glycerol and erythritol showed the highest potency for releasing single cells. Incubation in medium containing these reagents released 40–50 % single cells in 15 min. Fluorescent staining with Nile red revealed that except for the cap-like structures the released single cells were free of hydrocarbon oil...

  2. Removal of natural uranium from water produced in the oil industry using Algerian bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to remove natural uranium (NORM) from water obtained together with crude oil and natural gas, using Algerian bentonites. The effect of some important factors such as S/L ratio, pH, initial concentration, particle size was evaluated and a kinetic study performed. The value of the distribution coefficient (Kd) at equilibrium for natural uranium varied from 30 to 600 cm3 x g-1 and 50 to 1100 cm3 x g-1 (∼ 10% margin error) using natural bentonite and drilling bentonite, respectively. The isotherms showed that the data are consistent with both Freundlich and Langmuir models. (author)

  3. Oil from Chinese deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesegart, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    From 18–25 March the United Nations’ “International Meeting on Petroleum Geology” will take place in China, a country whose oil reserves up to the mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world’s oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy m...

  4. Un Manifesto economico per i paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio(An Economic Manifesto for the Oil Exporting Countries of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, waste, corruption, military expenditures and wars will be reduced, there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies, and equity across generations may be enhanced. Hope may be slowly restored to a region that has lost hope. I paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio hanno fallito dal punto di vista economico e sociale. È tempo di adottare un approccio radicalmente nuovo alla gestione dei ricavi petroliferi finché vi sono ancora riserve di petrolio e di gas. Noi proponiamo un approccio finalizzato ad azzerare il livello dei ricavi disponibili per i governi, istituendo allo stesso tempo un formale “Fondo petrolifero per tutte le generazioni”. Fondi petroliferi sono stati ipotizzati e realizzati anche da altri, ma nella nostra proposta il governo perderebbe (col tempo qualunque accesso ai ricavi petroliferi; sottraendo denaro facile ai governi e ai sovrani, la probabilità di sprechi, corruzione e guerre risulterebbe ridotta, e vi sarebbe maggiore possibilità di adottare e mettere in pratica politiche economiche razionali finalizzate ad accrescere l’equità tra le generazioni.  JEL Codes: O13, O53, Q48Keywords: Gas; Oil

  5. Oil and natural gas strategies for North American energy markets: a submission by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) focuses on improving North American energy markets and addressing the challenges involved in meeting continental energy requirements by urging a renewed policy effort to enhance the current market-based policies of free trade and competition that have already proven to respond to market changes better than command-control government policies. The proposal urges new strategies to support development of the oil and natural gas resources of North America, and the development of additional infrastructure to bring oil and natural gas supplies to market. The new strategy should be based on the success of free trade to increase non-discriminatory treatment of energy investment and trade in energy commodities, recognize resource development in North America as a policy priority, and reform regulatory practices to facilitate responsible, market-driven resource activity. The new strategy should also ensure competitive tax and royalty regimes as well as consistent and compatible environmental policies that eliminate layering and duplication and are competitive among the various jurisdictions. It should also recognize the continental and global nature of energy supply and the increasing interdependence of the partner nations' economies, encourage research and development, and ensure co-ordinated action on frontier natural gas development within a framework of inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Overall, the document is a thorough, credible presentation of the first principles of the oil and gas markets and an important first step towards influencing energy policy on a continental scale. 2 maps, 5 figs

  6. Isolation and evaluation of oil-producing microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Y Lim

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates is an important prerequisite for their successful cultivation as a bioenergy source, a process that can be compared to the initial selection and domestication of agricultural crops. We developed standard protocols for the isolation and cultivation for a range of marine and brackish microalgae. By comparing growth rates and lipid productivity, we assessed the potential of subtropical coastal and brackish microalgae for the production of biodiesel and other oil-based bioproducts. This study identified Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaniella salina and new isolates of Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis sp. as suitable candidates for a multiple-product algae crop. We conclude that subtropical coastal microalgae display a variety of fatty acid profiles that offer a wide scope for several oil-based bioproducts, including biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. A biorefinery approach for microalgae would make economical production more feasible but challenges remain for efficient harvesting and extraction processes for some species.

  7. Forecasting Oil price and Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Man Tao

    2009-01-01

    Commodities prices play a crucial role in commodity-related investments, strategic planning, and affect the economy. Fluctuations in commodity prices affect the decision making by producers and consumers. Within the commodity products, crude oil is the central source of energy supply. The continuous rise in oil price since 2002 has caused public concerns of higher inflation rate for different countries. In July 2008, crude oil price has rise to a historic price US$147/barrel, and dropped to U...

  8. Non-invasive rapid harvest time determination of oil-producing microalgae cultivations for bio-diesel production by using Chlorophyll fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqin eQiao; Junfeng eRong; Hui eChen; Chenliu eHe; Qiang eWang

    2015-01-01

    For the large-scale cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, one of the key problems is the determination of the optimum time for algal harvest when algae cells are saturated with neutral lipids. In this study, a method to determine the optimum harvest time in oil-producing microalgal cultivations by measuring the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), also called Fv/Fm, was established. When oil-producing Chlorella strains were cultivated and then treated with ...

  9. Generalized Representation of the Oil and Gas Producing Areas from the Miocene in Southern Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — For each of the four Miocene sequences, polygons representing producing areas within fields were created by constructing a grid of ¼ sq. mi. cells and proximal...

  10. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  11. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III

  12. Seasonal and spatial trends in production and stable isotope signatures of primary producers in Alberta oil sands reclamation wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands processing produces large amounts of waste water that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and naphthenic acids (NAs). This study investigated the effects of exposure to PAHs and NA in aquatic organisms. The carbon and nitrogen dynamics in primary producers using stable isotopes in process-affected and reference wetlands were studied. Plankton and periphytic samples from artificial wetland substrates were collected and analyzed. Periphyton was collected in 14 to 20 day intervals for 5 different time periods in 2007 and 2008 in order to analyze seasonal trends in isotopic composition. Results of the study showed d15N enriched values for some consolidated tailings (CT) at sites in 2008. Other sites with mature fine tailings (MFT) as well as non-MFT sites did not have enriched d15N values. The study suggested that there are variations in ammonia levels in the CTs of different oil sands operators. Differences in the quality of the CT resulted in differences in d15N values of the periphyton-dominated by algae as well as in the periphyton dominated by microbes.

  13. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  14. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Escobar-Niño

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale.

  15. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale.

  16. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale. PMID:25099150

  17. Characterization of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate produced from olive oil deodorizer distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Madalena V; Araújo, Diana; Alves, Vítor D; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil deodorizer distillate (OODD) was used for the first time as the sole substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production by the bacterium Pseudomonas resinovorans in bioreactor cultivation. A PHA content in the biomass of 36 ± 0.8 wt% was attained within 19 h of cultivation. A final polymer concentration of 4.7 ± 0.3 gL(-1) was reached, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 5.9 ± 0.2 gL(-1)day(-1). The PHA was composed of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (48.3 ± 7.3 mol%), 3-hydroxydecanoate (31.6 ± 2.6 mol%), 3-hydroxyhexanoate (12.1 ± 1.1 mol%) and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (8.0 ± 0.7 mol%) and it had a glue-like consistency that did not solidify at room temperature. The polymer was highly amorphous, as shown by its low crystallinity of 6 ± 0.2%, with low melting and glass transition temperatures of 36 ± 1.2 and -16 ± 0.8°C, respectively. The polymer exhibited a shear thinning behavior and a mechanical spectrum with a predominant viscous contribution. Its shear bond strength for wood (67 ± 9.4 kPa) and glass (65 ± 7.3 kPa) suggests it may be used for the development of biobased glues.

  18. ENTEROBACTERIACAE, PRODUCING ESBLS AND METALLO-β-LACTAMASE NDM-1, ISOLATED IN HOSPITALS OF BALTIC REGION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We studied the prevalence of K. pneumoniae and E. coli resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, isolated from patients of eight hospitals in St-Petersburg from January to May, 2012. Prevalence of cephalosporin resistant isolates varied in different hospitals: E. coli – from 7,8 to 50%, K. pneumoniae – from 25,4 to 88,4%. Isolates produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases СТХ-М, mainly СТХ-М-1, also СТХ-М-2 and СТХ-М-9. Twenty two carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains (also resistant to other antimicrobials were isolated in three hospitals. MALDI-TOF MS showed that carbapenem resistance was caused by carbapenemase. Carbapenemases of all isolates belonged to metallo-β-lactamases according to results of the ROSCO Diagnostica tests. The gene coding production of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM-1 were detected in all strains. Our data confirmed that the main cephalosporin resistance mechanism of E. coli и K. pneumoniae in Baltic region (including Russia, St-Petersburg is CTX-M-1 production. For the first time in Russia K. pneumoniae strains  producing metallo-β-lactamases NDM-1 were isolated in several hospitals of St-Petersburg.

  19. Ethics and the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many countries public opinions are more and more sensitive to ethical issues linked to the manner in which industries and particularly oil companies behave. Oil companies are frequently unpopular, among the public both in producing and consuming countries. After a brief analysis of the reasons for this unpopularity, the author attempts to show both the ambiguities surrounding the question of ethics, and its complexity. This is especially true when oil companies have to work in countries which are destabilized, and in which disturbances - or even civil wars - may be fuelled by the important revenue streams resulting from the oil production. The various ethical issues are reviewed, from human rights to political interference, without omitting global or local environmental problems. Despite the very deep roots of the various issues the author believe some progress is achievable and advocates that the oil industry lead the way in this difficult domain. (author)

  20. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Almudena Escobar-Niño; Carlos Luna; Diego Luna; Marcos, Ana T.; David Cánovas; Encarnación Mellado

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not e...

  1. 77 FR 4300 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    .... agriculture from using palm oil for biofuel production are small in comparison to the international impacts.\\3... other vegetable oils would increase to back fill the palm oil diverted to the biofuels industry (See Table II-2). Due to market- mediated responses vegetable oil production does not increase enough to...

  2. Characterization of Arbequina virgin olive oils produced in different regions of Brazil and Spain: Physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Thays H; Pereira, José Alberto; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Lara, Luis; Oliveira, Adelson F; Seiquer, Isabel

    2017-01-15

    Production of virgin olive oil is beginning in Brazil. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the EVOO Arbequina from Brazil in comparison with Spanish Arbequina from different regions. Quality parameters, oxidative stability, pigments, colour and fatty acid profile were assessed, and relationships with geographic and climatic conditions were studied. All the samples presented good quality and met EU standards for extra-virgin olive oil, but there were significant differences between regions and countries for many of the parameters evaluated. Major differences between Brazilian and Spanish samples were observed for free acidity and colour of the oils, as well as minor variations in the fatty acid profile. The colour differences were related to rainfall, whereas the fatty acid content was strongly influenced by altitude and temperature. These results highlight the fact that geographic area and environmental factors influence the characteristics of Arbequina oil and play an important role in newly introduced cultivars.

  3. Characterization of Arbequina virgin olive oils produced in different regions of Brazil and Spain: Physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Thays H; Pereira, José Alberto; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Lara, Luis; Oliveira, Adelson F; Seiquer, Isabel

    2017-01-15

    Production of virgin olive oil is beginning in Brazil. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the EVOO Arbequina from Brazil in comparison with Spanish Arbequina from different regions. Quality parameters, oxidative stability, pigments, colour and fatty acid profile were assessed, and relationships with geographic and climatic conditions were studied. All the samples presented good quality and met EU standards for extra-virgin olive oil, but there were significant differences between regions and countries for many of the parameters evaluated. Major differences between Brazilian and Spanish samples were observed for free acidity and colour of the oils, as well as minor variations in the fatty acid profile. The colour differences were related to rainfall, whereas the fatty acid content was strongly influenced by altitude and temperature. These results highlight the fact that geographic area and environmental factors influence the characteristics of Arbequina oil and play an important role in newly introduced cultivars. PMID:27542498

  4. Enterobacter cloacae as biosurfactant producing bacterium: differentiating its effects on interfacial tension and wettability alteration Mechanisms for oil recovery during MEOR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafzadeh, Pegah; Hezave, Ali Zeinolabedini; Ravanbakhsh, Moosa; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process utilizes microorganisms or their metabolites to mobilize the trapped oil in the oil formation after primary and secondary oil recovery stages. MEOR technique is considered as more environmentally friendly and low cost process. There are several identified mechanisms for more oil recovery using MEOR processes however; wettability alteration and interfacial tension (IFT) reduction are the important ones. Enterobacter Cloacae, a facultative bio-surfactant producer bacterium, was selected as a bacterial formulation due to its known performance on IFT reduction and wettability alteration. To quantify the effects of these two mechanisms, different tests including oil spreading, in situ and ex situ core flooding, wettability measurement (Amott), IFT, viscosity and pH measurements were performed. The obtained results revealed that the experimental procedure used in this study was able to quantitatively identify the individual effects of both mechanisms on the ultimate microbial oil recovery. The results demonstrated considerable effects of both mechanisms on the tertiary oil recovery; however after a proper shut in time period, more tertiary oil was recovered because of wettability alteration mechanism. Finally, SEM images taken from the treated cores showed biofilm formation on the rock pore surfaces, which is responsible for rock surface wettability alteration. PMID:23376749

  5. 78 FR 49475 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ..., through December 31, 2011. We find that Wuxi Seamless Oil Pipe Co., Ltd. (``Wuxi'') and Jiangsu Chengde... Countervailing Duty Determination and Countervailing Duty Order, 75 FR 3203 (January 20, 2010) (``OCTG...

  6. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari S. Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99% with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME compost and characterized.

  8. THE GEOPOLITICS OF OIL AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BACIU Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the role of oil in today’s world, society, and economy. It is important because anything nowadays is about oil, from economy, and society, to international politics. Since the development of air and road transportation, but especially after World War II, the transfer of wealth from some countries (the consuming countries to another countries (the producing countries is unique in human history; and the influence of the second group of countries in world politics is very high due to this situation.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  9. Odour characteristics of seafood flavour formulations produced with fish by-products incorporating EPA, DHA and fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, I; Miles, W; Koutsidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Thermal degradation of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids was investigated. As a novelty, EPA, DHA or fish oil (FO) were incorporated as ω-fatty acid sources into model systems containing fish powder produced via Maillard reactions. Aroma composition of the resulting products was determined and complemented with sensory evaluation. Heating of the oils led to a fast decrease of both, EPA and DHA, and to the development of characteristic volatile compounds including hexanal, 2,4-heptadienal and 4-heptenal, the most abundant being (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal (132±44-329±122μmol/g). EPA and DHA addition to the model systems increased the concentration of these characteristic volatile compounds. However, it did not have a considerable impact on the development of characteristic Maillard reaction products, such as pyrazines and some aldehydes. Finally, the results of the sensory evaluation illustrated that panellists would chose samples fortified with FO as the ones with a more pleasant aroma. PMID:27374575

  10. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriani Kasim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 at low concentrations (1% using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the observed reducing sugar levels by using a method Luff Schoorl. The results showed that setting temperature and time influence on sugar levels resulting hydrolyzate where the optimum temperature and time to produce the highest sugar content reducing at 130 ° C with a long 60 minutes, with the resulting reducing in sugar content was 3.51%. The results obtained are much higher than previous studies conducted by researchers who carried out the straw fibers under the same conditions by using a solution of 1% H2SO4 and hydrolysis time 1 hour, but no temperature control and heating is only done on a gas stove, which acquired sugar 0.22%. As for the gain of 0.78% sugar, hydrolysis takes 4 hours, with a concentration of 10% sulfuric acid.

  11. Esterification for butyl butyrate formation using Candida cylindracea lipase produced from palm oil mill effluent supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Salihu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Candida cylindracea lipase produced using palm oil mill effluent (POME as a basal medium to catalyze the esterification reaction for butyl butyrate formation was investigated. Butyric acid and n-butanol were used as substrates at different molar ratios. Different conversion yields were observed according to the affinity of the produced lipase toward the substrates. The n-butanol to butyric acid molar ratio of 8 and lipase concentration of 75 U/mg gave the highest butyl butyrate formation of 63.33% based on the statistical optimization using face centered central composite design (FCCCD after 12 h reaction. The esterification potential of the POME based lipase when compared with the commercial lipase from the same strain using the optimum levels was found to show a similar pattern. It can be concluded therefore that the produced lipase possesses appropriate characteristics to be used as a biocatalyst in the esterification reactions for butyl butyrate formation.

  12. Turning Coal Into Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's coal liquefaction industry is developing rapidly, but still needs improvement In its effort to become more self-sufficient in energy, China is turning to other countries, notably South Africa, to establish joint ventures in turning coal into oil. To China's Shenhua Group Corp. Ltd., one of the world's largest coal-producing companies, the government's 11th Five-Year

  13. Implications of crude oil pollution on natural regeneration of plant spe-cies in an oil-producing community in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.D Chima; G. Vure

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the impact of crude oil pollution on natu-ral regeneration of plant species in a major oil-producing community in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three sites-unpolluted site (US), polluted and untreated site (PUS), and polluted and treated site (PTS)-were purposively chosen for the study. The seedling emergence method was used to evaluate soil seed banks in the various sites at two depths, 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm. Woody-plant species richness, abundance, and diversity were higher in the US seed bank than in the PUS and PTS seed banks. The highest number of non-woody plants was observed in the US, followed by the PTS, and then the PUS. Both species richness and diversity of non-woody plants were highest at the US, followed by the PUS, and lowest in the PTS. Woody species in the US seed bank were 87.5% and 80% dissimilar with those of the PUS and PTS at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm respectively. No variation was observed between woody species in the PUS and PTS seed banks. Non-woody species at 0-10 cm US seed bank were 73.08% dissimilar with those of PUS at the two soil depths and 81.48/88.46%dissimilar with those of the 0-10/10-20 cm of the PTS respectively. At 10-20 cm, non-woody species of the US were 69.66% dissimilar with those from each of the two soil depths in PUS;and 73.91/81.82% dissimilar with those of 0-10/10-20 cm of the PTS respectively. Non-woody species variation between the PUS and PTS was higher at 10-20 cm than 0-10 cm. The poor seed bank attributes at the polluted sites demonstrates that crude oil pollution negatively af-fected the natural regeneration potential of the native flora because soil seed banks serve as the building blocks for plant succession. Thorough remediation and enrichment planting are recommended to support the recovery process of vegetation in the polluted areas.

  14. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF ENZYMES PRODUCED BY EUPENICILLIUM JAVANICUM AND ASPERGILLUS NIGER NRRL 337 ON PALM OIL FACTORY WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRESNAWATI PURWADARIA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of palm kernel cake (PKC and palm oil mill effluent (POME, substances from palm oil factory wastes, for monogastric is limited by their high cellulose and mannan contents. Hydrolytic enzymes have been supplemented to increase the nutrient digestibility. The maximal digestibility was obtained in the synergistic action of all enzyme components including B-D-endoglucanase (CMCase, B-D-glucosidase, B-D-mannanase, p-D-mannosidase, and oc-D-galactosidase. Two kinds of enzymes produced by Eupenicillium javanicum and Aspergillus niger NRRL 337 on the submerged culture containing 3% coconut meal were selected to hydrolyze PKC or dry POME. Enzyme from E. javanicum contained higher CMCase, B-D-mannanase, and a-D- galactosidase activities, while that from A. niger NRRL 337 contained more p-D-glucosidase and p-D-mannosidase activities. Saccharification (hydrolytic activities of enzyme mixtures on PKC and POME were determined at pH 5.0, the optimal pH for p-D-mannanase from E. javanicum, and at 5.4 the optimal pH for a-D-galactosidase from E. javanicum and P-D-glucosidase from A. niger NRRL 337. The enzyme proportions of E. javanicum and A. niger NRRL 337 were 100 : 0, 80 : 20, 60 : 40, 40 : 60, and 0 : 100%. The highest Saccharification activity on both substrates was observed on the mixture of 80% A. niger NRRL 337. The pH levels did not significantly affect Saccharification activity. Fiber components in PKC were more digestable than in POME. Further analysis on the reducing sugar components using thin layer chromatography showed that more monomers were produced in the 60 or 80% of A. niger NRRL 337. The glycosidases of A. niger NRRL 337 played more important role in the Saccharification activity.

  15. The Effect of Fe Concentration on the Quality and Quantity of Biogas Produced From Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Matseh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Fe concentration as a trace metal on the quality and quantity of biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Raw POME as feed was obtained from one of the palm oil mills belong to PTPN IV, other materials used were hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and trace metals. Observed variables were volume of biogas, concentration of Fe in raw POME and biodigester, degradation rate of total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS, M-Alkalinity, pH, H2S and CO2 concentration in biogas at hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 days. Before HRT of 6 days reached, initial trace metal compositions were 25.2 mg/L of Fe, 0.42 mg/L of Co, and 0.49 mg/L of Ni. After that, composition of trace metal were consisted only Co and Ni. The results showed that Fe as a trace metal did not affect the production or quantity of biogas. When Fe concentration reached over to 330 mg/L then concentration of CH4, total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS decreased. Moreover, the higher the Fe contents the smaller of H2S production. Fe content in POME from the same mill had different concentration, as the consequence biogas with different H2S concentrations were produced as well. Thus, Fe in the trace metals is no longer required if high concentration of Fe already existed in POME because it can reduce the formation of H2S. In addition, too high concentration of Fe in POME can be toxic for microorganism in the fermentation of biogas.

  16. Hello oil rig: The role of simulacra images in producing future reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdallah

    This project is the first approach to address the problem of the image through a discussion between science, philosophy, art history, art theory, and fine arts based on one body of specific art work designed especially to explain the role of the image in producing future reality models. This study is a continuation of the dialogue between important philosophers and thinkers about the image and its place in the contemporary scene. The technical fossil medium used in painting this project crosses the boundary between scientific research with its data sheets to art theory and fine arts with their aesthetic rhetoric thus bringing many disciplines together. Seven images were created to discuss the problem. The artwork and the academic research are both interacting in this paper in a multidiscipline discussion to uncover the role of the images in creating a new reality and in forging the hyperreal culture.

  17. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Sue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels. These assessments evaluate feedstock production, logistics of transporting the feedstock, and conversion of the feedstock to biofuel. There are two general types of TEAs. A design case is a TEA that outlines a target case for a particular biofuel pathway. It enables identification of data gaps and research and development needs, and provides goals and targets against which technology progress is assessed. On the other hand, a state of technology (SOT) analysis assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases, and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available.

  18. Precipitation Chemistry and Occurrence of Acid Rain over the Oil-Producing Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayo Chukwu Nduka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nitrate, sulfate, total dissolved solid (TDS, electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH, and bicarbonates of rainwater samples collected from Warri and Port Harcourt between April–June, July–August, and September–October of 2005 and 2006 to depict onset of rainy season, mid-rainy season, and end of rainy season for the two major crude oil–producing cities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (although Port Harcourt is also noted for non-oil manufacturing industries. The same was done in Awka, a non-oil producing city in the hinterland of southeastern Nigeria. In each of the cities, rain samples were collected from three points in a triangular equilibrium using a clean plastic basin fastened to a table 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. The parameters were determined after filtering, using their respective standard methods. Averages of 1.50, 1.81, 1.13 and 2.14, 1.50, 1.86 mg/l of nitrate for April–June, July–August, and September–October were recorded for Warri in 2005 and 2006, respectively. While 15.21, 3.23, 22.31 and 20.89, 9.96, and 14.27 mg/l were recorded in Port Harcourt. Sulfate levels for Warri and Port Harcourt for the same periods are follows: 1.38, 1.88, 1.06, 1.50, 1.43, 1.50 and 2.64, 1.15, 5.88, 4.73, 1.90, 1.55 mg/l, respectively. Nitrate levels were higher than sulfate. Other parameters include TDS (5.44, 4.79, 3.30 and 7.63, 3.69, 2.56 mg/l for Warri in 2005 and 2006; 12.57, 2.07, 25.214 and 28.87, 6.73, 7.80 mg/l for Port Harcourt for the same periods. Other parameters also varied in that order for the 2 years in same cities. Crude oil exploration and gas flaring in the Niger Delta, and multiplicity of cottage industries in Awka, impacted on the inorganic ion pollution of the rainwater. This may have public health implications in the region.

  19. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop an optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. For instance, by decarbonizing half of its generation mix, Saudi Arabia can release around 0.5 Mb/d barrels of oil equivalent per day from 2020. Moreover, total power generation cost reduction can reach up to around 28% per year from 2030 if Saudi Arabia manages to attain the most optimal generation mix structure introduced in the model (50% of power from renewables and nuclear power plants and 50% from the fossil power plants). - Highlights: • We model the current and future power generation situation of Saudi Arabia. • We take into account the integration of the other alternative resources. • We consider different scenarios of power generation structure for the country. • Optimal generation mix can release considerable amount of oil for export

  20. Oil production responses to price changes. An empirical application of the competitive model to OPEC and non-OPEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falling oil prices over the last decade, accompanied by over-production by some OPEC members and the growth of non-OPEC supply, warrant further empirical investigation of the competitive model to ascertain production behavior. A supply function, based on a modification of Griffin's model, is estimated using data from 1973-1997. The sample period, unlike Griffin's, however, includes phases of price increase (1970s) and price decrease (1980s-1990s), thus providing a better framework for examining production behavior using the competitive model. The OPEC results do not support the competitive hypothesis; instead, a negative and significant price elasticity of supply is obtained. This result offers partial support for the target revenue theory. For most of the non-OPEC members, the estimates support the competitive model. OPEC's loss of market share and the drop in the share of oil-based energy should signal adjustments in price and quantity based on a competitive world market for crude oil

  1. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author).

  2. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  3. Inhibitory effects of various essential oils and individual components against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and their chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ozcelik, Berrin; Kan, Yüksel; Kartal, Murat

    2011-10-01

    In the current study, in vitro inhibitory activity of several essential oils obtained from the cultivated plants, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, Satureja cuneifolia, and a number of individual essential oil components of terpene and aromatic types were screened against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme, which makes this microorganism quite resistant against the antibiotics: trimetoprime-sulfametoksazol, sulbactam-ampicilin, clavulonate-amoxicilin, ceftriaxon, cefepime, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramicine, gentamisine, ofloxacin, and ciprofloksasin. All of the essential oils and the components exerted a remarkable inhibition ranging between 32 and 64 μg/mL against all of these strains as strong as the references (ampicilin and oflaxocin) inhibiting at 32 μg/mL. Besides, chemical compositions of the essential oils were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils and the pure components widely found in essential oils screened herein have shown remarkable inhibition against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains, which leads to the suggestion that they may be used as food preservatives for this purpose. Practical Application:  The essential oils obtained from Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, O.cimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, and Satureja cuneifolia as well as common essential oil components have shown notable inhibitory effects against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme and they might be used as food preservative or ingredient. PMID:22417594

  4. 76 FR 61933 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... and prices and to help maintain stability in the Far West spearmint oil market. DATES: Effective June... consider pertinent market information on the current supply, demand, and price of spearmint oil. The... the salable quantity, would be insufficient to satisfy the current demand for oil at reasonable...

  5. 77 FR 21391 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... in supplies and prices and to help maintain stability in the Far West spearmint oil market. DATES..., 2012 (77 FR 5385). This rule further revises the quantity of Scotch spearmint oil that handlers may... supply, demand, and price of spearmint oil. In a vote with seven members in favor and one member...

  6. 77 FR 5385 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... expected to moderate extreme fluctuations in the supply and price of spearmint oil and to help maintain... prices and a large volume of oil stored and carried over to future crop years. Periods of undersupply... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 985 Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil...

  7. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  8. OPEC charts course for future oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author says OPEC is an economic organization with a simple mission: to provide a stable and reliable supply of oil to its customers and assure a fair return to its producers. When OPEC was formed in 1960, he recalls multinational oil companies dominated the oil market. Their operations were highly integrated from well to pump, and they kept oil prices low to fuel economic growth in prosperous industrialized countries. Host nations were rarely consulted in operations, and they reaped only minimal return for their black gold. OPEC changed all that. Today, OPEC's 13 member countries control their own oil industries, and some even own sizeable investments in the downstream sectors of consuming countries. To meet its commitment for supplying the petroleum needs of industrialized nations by the turn of the century, the author estimates OPEC will need to increase production capacity by about 40% at a cost well above what member countries can afford alone

  9. Characterization of Oilseed Lipids from “DHA-Producing Camelina sativa”: A New Transformed Land Plant Containing Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Maged P. Mansour; Pushkar Shrestha; Srinivas Belide; Petrie, James R.; Peter D Nichols; Surinder P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C20) omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3) are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG) as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid). Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM) extraction recovered fur...

  10. Estimation of VOC emissions from produced-water treatment ponds in Uintah Basin oil and gas field using modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; O'Neil, T.; Jones, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions from produced-water treatment ponds are poorly characterized sources in oil and gas emission inventories that play a critical role in studying elevated winter ozone events in the Uintah Basin, Utah, U.S. Information gaps include un-quantified amounts and compositions of gases emitted from these facilities. The emitted gases are often known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which, beside nitrogen oxides (NOX), are major precursors for ozone formation in the near-surface layer. Field measurement campaigns using the flux-chamber technique have been performed to measure VOC emissions from a limited number of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah. Although the flux chamber provides accurate measurements at the point of sampling, it covers just a limited area of the ponds and is prone to altering environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure). This fact raises the need to validate flux chamber measurements. In this study, we apply an inverse-dispersion modeling technique with evacuated canister sampling to validate the flux-chamber measurements. This modeling technique applies an initial and arbitrary emission rate to estimate pollutant concentrations at pre-defined receptors, and adjusts the emission rate until the estimated pollutant concentrations approximates measured concentrations at the receptors. The derived emission rates are then compared with flux-chamber measurements and differences are analyzed. Additionally, we investigate the applicability of the WATER9 wastewater emission model for the estimation of VOC emissions from produced-water ponds in the Uintah Basin. WATER9 estimates the emission of each gas based on properties of the gas, its concentration in the waste water, and the characteristics of the influent and treatment units. Results of VOC emission estimations using inverse-dispersion and WATER9 modeling techniques will be reported.

  11. Guatemala: Country of small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the antecedents of the private electrification in Guatemala since approval of the General Law of Electricity in 1996 that promoted hydroelectric power generation. The current situation in generation, transmission, and distribution is described as well the rural electrification covering and the financing of projects in this sector. Incentives to private investment is discussed with the proposal of an energy information center, proposal of fiscal incentives and promotion of renewable energy sources

  12. Olive mill wastewaters treatment by enzymes producing microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Cristiana; Oliveira, Felisbela Maria Araújo; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Alves, M. M.; Belo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Olive mill industry is a traditional agricultural industry in Mediterranean countries. These countries produce almost all the olive oil sold worldwide. Olive oil production results on a large amount of wastewaters (OMW), which represents a major environmental problem. OMW is a dark liquid residue with high organic content composed mainly by sugars, tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, organic acids, proteins, pectins and lipids. Different treatments and disposal alternatives can be found in th...

  13. 78 FR 45505 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... petitioners state that the Department has long treated Vietnam as a non-market economy (NME) country.\\37\\ In... Vietnam, 77 FR 64483 (October 22, 2012). \\45\\ Id. Valuation of Factory Overhead, Selling, General and... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations AGENCY: Import...

  14. Oil Security Issues in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Isaak, David

    2014-01-01

    By 2010, demand for oil in developing Asia substantially exceeded that of North America and Europe combined, but demand for natural gas has been expanding rapidly and countries with large coal resources have used them instead of oil wherever possible. The goal of oil security is to make domestic economies and the international market adaptable to changes in availability and price. Increasing oil production and decreasing demand; producing more alternatives; and increasing stocks, fungibility,...

  15. studies on the characteristics of the TE-NORM Wastes produced from different oil and natural Gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    industrial as well as technical activities disturb environmental radioactivities, especially naturally occurring radioactive materials (Norm) with subsequent concentration in their radiation hazardous . in oil and natural gas industry in egypt, the sediments, scale and / or sludge as well as waste water produced from drilling activity in many sites, were found to contain increased amounts of uranium, thorium and radium, that represent radiation hazardous to surroundings. these materials are known as: technically enhanced-naturally occurring radioactive materials (Te-Norm). in this study, the Te-Norm wastes were characterized in terms of mineralogical, chemical and radiological analysis. this study indicated that, sediments of Te-Norm wastes are commonly mixtures of sulphate, carbonate and/or silicate of the primordial nuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K and some other elements . the activity levels of 226 Ra,228Ra,224Ra and 40K were found in the ranges 11600-33200, 4200-10400, 3900-11200 and 960-11300 Bq/Kg (dry weight). respectively, for the Te-Norm waste samples produced from gabal el zeit region onshore of suez gulf (eastern desert). in waste water samples, the activity levels were found 1222,770,770 and 520 Bq/I for 226 Ra,228Ra,224Ra and 40 K, respectively. while, in case of the Te-Norm waste samples taken from badr el din region (western desert), the activity levels were found in the ranges 28400-119400, 39000-193000, 28300-166600 and 2800-15600 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra and 40K, respectively. the parent/daughter ratio were also estimated and discussed in the different Te-Norm waste samples

  16. Anti-bacterial effect of essential oil from Xanthium strumarium against shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Soufi, L; Ayatollahi, S A M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Varoni, E M; Shahri, F; Esposito, S; Kuhestani, K; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 is one of the most important human pathogenic microorganisms, which can cause life-threatening infections. Xanthium strumarium L. is a plant with anti-bacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This study aims to demonstrate in vitro efficacy of the essential oil (EO) extracted from Xanthium strumarium L. against E. coli O157:H7. Using the agar test diffusion, the effect of Xanthium strumarium L. EO (5, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/mL) was verified at each of the four different growth phases of E. coli O157:H7. Cell counts of viable cells and colony forming unit (CFU) were determined at regular time points using Breed's method and colony counting method, respectively. No viable cell was detectable after the 1 hour-exposure to X. strumarium EO at 30, 60, and 120 mg/mL concentrations. No bacterial colony was formed after 1 h until the end of the incubation period at 24 h. At lower concentrations, the number of bacteria cells decreased and colonies could be observed only after incubation. At the exponential phase, the EO at 15 mg/mL was only bacteriostatic, while from 30 mg/mL started to be bactericidal. X. strumarium EO antibacterial activity against Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 is dependent on EO concentration and physiological state of the microorganisms tested. The best inhibitory activity was achieved during the late exponential and the stationary phases. PMID:27650979

  17. Characterization of new types of mannosylerythritol lipids as biosurfactants produced from soybean oil by a basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma shanxiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These show not only the excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In course of MEL production from soybean oil by P. shanxiensis, new extracellular glycolipids (more hydrophilic than the previously reported MELs) were found in the culture medium. As a result of the structural characterization, the glycolipids were identified as a mixture of 4-O-[(2', 4'-di-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol and 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol. Interestingly, the new MELs possessed a much shorter chain (C(2) or C(4)) at the C-2' position of the mannose moiety compared to the MELs hitherto reported, which mainly possess a medium-chain acid (C(10)) at the position. They would thus show higher hydrophilicity and/or water-solubility, and expand the development of the environmentally advanced yeast biosurfactants. PMID:17898510

  18. Analysis of the organic liquid produced from catalytic cracking of crude palm oil in the presence of alumina supported catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Anita; Razak, Rozlina Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) was studied in the presence of alumina, 1% Pt/Al2O3 and 1% Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst. The CPO to catalyst weight ratio used was 1:0.05. The experiment was carried out in a simple liquid-phase batch reactor at atmospheric pressure where the sample was heated to 300-350 δC. Products formed were organic liquid products (OLP) and gaseous product with the solid residue remains in the reactor. The total conversion of CPO was only between 25 - 31% where the residue is suggested to be mainly of polimerised CPO. The OLP was analysed using a gas chromatography with FID detector. Analyses show that the selectivity to liquid fuel is influence by the catalyst used whereby Al2O3 gives the highest selectivity to gasoline while 1% Pt/Al2O3 has the highest selectivity to diesel. However, 1% Pd/Al2O3 is not a suitable catalyst for catalytic cracking of CPO to liquid fuel where less than 17.5% of OLP produced could be classified as liquid fuel.

  19. Solvent-tolerant bioconversion: construction and analysis of a phenol producing Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierckx, N.J.P

    2009-01-01

    Organic chemicals play a fundamental role in modern civilization. Today, almost all of these chemicals are produced from oil. This leads to pollution and creates a dependency on often politically unstable oil producing countries. It is possible to make the same chemicals from sugar, using microorgan

  20. The chemistry and beneficial bioactivities of carvacrol (4-isopropyl-2-methylphenol), a component of essential oils produced by aromatic plants and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromatic plants produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of plants against phytopathogenic insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. One of these compounds called carvacrol that is found in high concentrations in essential oils such as oregano has been reported to exhibit numerous...

  1. Non-invasive rapid harvest time determination of oil-producing microalgae cultivations for bio-diesel production by using Chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin eQiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the large-scale cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, one of the key problems is the determination of the optimum time for algal harvest when algae cells are saturated with neutral lipids. In this study, a method to determine the optimum harvest time in oil-producing microalgal cultivations by measuring the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, also called Fv/Fm, was established. When oil-producing Chlorella strains were cultivated and then treated with nitrogen starvation, it not only stimulated neutral lipid accumulation, but also affected the photosynthesis system, with the neutral lipid contents in all four algae strains – Chlorella sorokiniana C1, Chlorella sp. C2, C. sorokiniana C3, C. sorokiniana C7 – correlating negatively with the Fv/Fm values. Thus, for the given oil-producing algae, in which a significant relationship between the neutral lipid content and Fv/Fm value under nutrient stress can be established, the optimum harvest time can be determined by measuring the value of Fv/Fm. It is hoped that this method can provide an efficient way to determine the harvest time rapidly and expediently in large-scale oil-producing microalgae cultivations for biodiesel production.

  2. Co-precipitation/Adsorption of Boron for Treatment of Produced Water at the Arroyo Grande Oil Field, California

    OpenAIRE

    Wörlén, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this Master’s thesis project is to develop a method for boron precipitation inproduced waters from the Arroyo Grande oil field outside San Luis Obispo in centralCalifornia. The current oil recovery is a closed system that pumps up to 1,500 barrelsoil/day. A new system is proposed to increase oil production three times andsimultaneously dewater half of the water in the oil formation during the time span of tenyears, which amounts to 55,000 barrels/day. The water will be treated and...

  3. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, Durali, E-mail: dmendil@gop.edu.tr [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluoezlue, Ozguer Dogan; Tuezen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 {mu}g/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 {mu}g/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  4. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  5. Integrated palm oil processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  6. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN POST-CONFLICT COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF IRAQ’S OIL AND ELECTRICITY SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Faraj Hanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment is new phenomenon to Iraq, a post conflict country with abundance of natural resources. With dominant state-controlled public sector, attracting foreign investment is an added challenge to an economy devastated by years of wars. A qualitative case study was conducted to assess determinants of foreign direct investment in Iraq’s energy sector. Data was collected from interviews with business and government subject matter experts, and a review of publically available documents. Lack of security, political instability, corruption, and inadequate government policies towards foreign direct investment as symptoms found and typically shared by other post-conflict countries. The persistence of violence was not seen as a deterrent; however, foreign direct investment activity in the energy sector was virtually limited to the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Investments were either wholly-owned or joint-venture enterprises. Implications to other post conflict countries, using Kuwait and Nigeria as illustrative examples, are presented and recommendations made.

  7. Core Flood study for enhanced oil recovery through ex-situ bioaugmentation with thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) employing core field model ex-situ bioaugmenting a thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) revealed that the biosurfactant produced was rhamnolipid type. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis showed that the purified rhamnolipids comprised two principal rhamnolipid homologues, i.e., Rha-Rha-C10-C14:1 and Rha-C8-C10. The rhamnolipid was stable under wide range of temperature (4°C, 30-100°C), pH (2.0-10.0) and NaCl concentration (0-18%, w/v). Core Flood model was designed for oil recovery operations using rhamnolipid. The oil recovery enhancement over Residual Oil Saturation was 8.82% through ex-situ bioaugmentation with rhamnolipid. The thermal stability of rhamnolipid shows promising scope for its application at conditions where high temperatures prevail in oil recovery processes, whereas its halo-tolerant nature increases its application in marine environment. PMID:27567478

  8. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop.

  9. In Vivo Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells on Electrospun Poly-L-Lactide Acid Scaffolds Coated with Matricaria chamomilla L. Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Fazili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined the in vivo differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs into insulin producing cells (IPCs on electrospun poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA scaffolds coated with Matricaria chammomila L. (chamomile oil. Materials and Methods: In this interventional, experimental study adipose MSCs (AMSCs were isolated from 12 adult male New Zealand white rabbits and characterized by flow cytometry. AMSCs were subsequently differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lines. Cells were seeded onto either a PLLA scaffold (control or PLLA scaffold coated with chamomile oil (experimental. A total of 24 scaffolds were inserted into the pancreatic area of each rabbit and placement was confirmed by ultrasound. After 21 days, immunohistochemistry analysis of insulin-producing like cells on protein levels confirmed insulin expression of insulin producing cells (IPSCs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR determined the expressions of genes related to pancreatic endocrine development and function. Results: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results confirmed the existence of oil on the surface of the PLLA scaffold. The results showed a new peak at 2854 cm-1 for the aliphatic CH2 bond. Pdx1 expression was 0.051 ± 0.007 in the experimental group and 0.009 ± 0.002 in the control group. There was significantly increased insulin expression in the scaffold coated with chamomile oil (0.09 ± 0.001 compared to control group (0.063 ± 0.009, P≤0.05. Both groups expressed Ngn3 and Pdx1 specific markers and pancreatic tissue was observed at 21 days post transplantation. Conclusion: The pancreatic region is an optimal site for differentiation of AMSCs to IPCs. Chamomile oil (as an antioxidant agent can affect cell adhesion to the scaffold and increase cell differentiation. In addition, the oil may lead to increased blood glucose uptake in pathways in the muscles, liver and fatty tissue of a diabetic animal model by some probable molecular

  10. Concentration measurements of uranium, thorium and their daughter products in water produced from and near oil fields in north of Iraq using SSNTRD's passive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and their daughter products in water samples collected from different oil fields and sources in north of Iraq, were determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 SSNTRDs. It was found that the concentrations of 238U and 232Th vary between 0.20 and 3.50 ppm and from 0.03 to 1.83 ppm, respectively. According to the recommended values and the calculated annual effective dose, most of the produced water from the studied oil fields is not useful for any direct purpose. (author)

  11. Physicochemical characterization and quality of cold-pressed peanut oil obtained from organically produced peanuts from Macedonian “Virginia” variety

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinović Veličkovska, S.; Mitrev, S.; Mihajlov, Lj.

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical characterization and quality of cold pressed peanut edible oil from the “Virginia” variety, organically produced from the region of Macedonia, were examined in this work for the first time. The fatty acid composition of the oil showed almost equal levels of oleic and linoleic acids with an abundance of 34.19±0.01 and 36.13±0.01%, respectively. The most dominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid with a level of 10.06±0.00%. The level of tocopherols and other vitamin-E-...

  12. 某采油区土壤石油污染类型及污染特征分析%analysis on type and Features of oil-contaminated soil in some oil Producing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小二; 张春生; 张贤良; 郭东升; 杨鲁玉; 来亚芳

    2014-01-01

    the oil has been extracted for 40 years in some oil producing region, and the serious pollution of oil-contaminated soil has become the main environmental problems. the author finds out the main 4 pollution types of oil-contaminated soil through the investigation in oil producing region. and the pollution feature is analyzed in horizontal direction, vertical direction and time through tests on the sampling from typical sites of various pollution types.%某采油区已开采石油40余年,土壤石油污染严重,已成为当地的主要环境问题。通过对采油区的实地调查,本文摸清了该采油区土壤石油污染主要为4种类型,并对各种污染类型的典型场地进行取样测试,在水平方向上、垂直方向上、时间上进行了污染特征分析。

  13. Directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapor produced by prairie cordgrass pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 using a two stage reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking is one of the most promising processes for thermochemical conversion of biomass to advanced biofuels in recent years. However, current effectiveness of catalysts and conversion efficiency still remain challenges. An investigation of directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapors produced in prairie cordgrass (PCG pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5 in a two stage packed-bed reactor was carried out. The Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst was synthesized using an impregnation method. Fresh and used catalysts were characterized by BET and XRD. The effects of catalysts on pyrolysis products yields and quality were examined. Both catalysts improved bio-oil product distribution compared to non-catalytic treatment. When PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with absence of catalyst, the produced bio-oils contained higher alcohols (10.97% and furans (10.14%. In contrast, the bio-oils contained the second highest hydrocarbons (34.97%)and the highest phenols (46.97% when PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with Ni/HZSM-5. Bio-oils containing less ketones and aldehydes were produced by both Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5, but no ketones were found in Ni/HZSM-5 treatment compared to HZSM-5 (2.94%. The pyrolysis gas compositions were also affected by the presenting of HZSM-5 or Ni/HZSM-5 during the catalytic upgrading process. However, higher heating values and elemental compositions (C, H and N of bio-chars produced in all treatments had no significant difference.

  14. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Afifi, E.M. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Awwad, N.S. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: nsawwad20@yahoo.com; Hilal, M.A. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 {+-} 2.8, 64.8 {+-} 4.1 and 76.4 {+-} 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to {approx}91 {+-} 3.5, 87 {+-} 4.1 and 90 {+-} 6.2%, respectively.

  15. Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates copolymers produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammed Gumel

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis and characterization of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. The biosynthesis of mcl-PHA in this newly isolated microorganism follows a growth-associated trend. Mcl-PHA accumulation ranging from 49.7 to 68.9% on cell dry weight (CDW basis were observed when fatty acids ranging from octanoic acid (C(8:0 to oleic acid (C(18:1 were used as sole carbon and energy source. Molecular weight of the polymer was found to be ranging from 55.7 to 77.7 kDa. Depending on the type of fatty acid used, the (1H NMR and GCMSMS analyses of the chiral polymer showed a composition of even and odd carbon atom chain with monomer length of C4 to C14 with C8 and C10 as the principal monomers. No unsaturated monomer was detected. Thermo-chemical analyses showed the accumulated PHA to be semi-crystalline polymer with good thermal stability, having a thermal degradation temperature (T(d of 264.6 to 318.8 (± 0.2 (oC, melting temperature (T(m of 43. (± 0.2 (oC, glass transition temperature (T(g of -1.0 (± 0.2 (oC and apparent melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔH(f of 100.9 (± 0.1 J g(-1.

  16. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Afifi, E M; Awwad, N S; Hilal, M A

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78+/-2.8, 64.8+/-4.1 and 76.4+/-5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to approximately 91+/-3.5, 87+/-4.1 and 90+/-6.2%, respectively.

  17. Metabolism of cytokinins by tissue culture lines of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) producing normal and abnormal flowering palms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of cytokinins in tissue cultures of two oil palm clones previously known to regenerate palms ultimately manifesting normal and abnormal flowering was studied using radiolabeled benzyladenine and isopentenyladenosine, with particular regard to the kinetics of formation of the cytokinin 9-glucoside. Labeled products were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and identified by comparison of retention times with authentic cytokinin standards run immediately before or after the experimental sample. Using benzyladenine, which is insensitive to cytokinin oxidase, ribotide appeared rapidly and then declined. 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA) 9-glucoside quickly became the major soluble product with some formation of riboside. No other ethanol-soluble products were found. Over an incubation period of 24 h up to 30% of label appeared in the ethanol-insoluble fraction. The uptake of label was consistently faster in the normal than the abnormal clone. Dose-rate and time course experiments produced an in vivo asymptotic dose-response curve for the accumulation of BA 9-glucoside analogous to a Michaelis-Menten first-order reaction with a 'V(max)' of 3.5 nmol.g-1.h-1 (on a fresh weight basis) and a 'K(m)' of 0.12 mM. There were no differences between clones in the rate of synthesis. Using isopentenyladenosine, which is susceptible to cytokinin oxidase and cannot be glucosylated without prior deribosylation, a complex pattern of metabolism was seen, with much slower production of 9-glucoside. A number of transient unidentified compounds were seen, together with adenosine and adenine. Comparison of normal and abnormal flowering clones showed striking differences in the kinetics of production of a compound thought to be [9R]Z and in a transient compound eluting at 22 min which accounted for 42% of the radioactivity after a 7-h incubation in the abnormal line. By 17 h there was no difference between normal and abnormal lines in the

  18. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop a optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. (authors)

  19. Kepler-Chevreux: 100 billions invested in solar photovoltaic and wind energy produce more energy than with oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the calculation of a new index created by Kepler-Chevreux experts: the energy return on invested capital, EROCI. This index reveals the benefit of solar-energy and wind-energy based electro-mobility compared to the oil-based thermo-mobility. This index only takes economic issues into account, but not the benefits in terms of public health, environment, climate or geopolitics. It also outlines that whenever oil prices increase or decrease, the oil sector has reached a dead end, and that photovoltaic and wind energy present a growing interest among not only ecologists but also finance experts

  20. China Expands Oil Refining Capacity to Meet Rising Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yin

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the booming of China's auto market, the oil refining industry is falling over itself to boost capacity in the coastal regions. Sinochem Corporation is the latest out of the starting blocks. Its new oil refining project in southeastern Fujian Province will see it move into territory already occupied by the nation's big-three oil companies - China National Petrochemical Corporation(Sinopec), China's largest oil refiner,China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),the largest crude producer in the country, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation(CNOOC), the giant offshore oil player.