WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil natural gas

  1. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The two major political events of 1991 produced a much less dramatic reaction in the global oil industry than might have been expected. The economic dislocation in the former USSR caused oil production to fall sharply but this was largely offset by a concurrent fall in demand. Within twelve months of the invasion of Kuwait, crude oil prices had returned to their pre-invasion level; there was no shortage of supply due to the ability of some producers to boost their output rapidly. Details are given of world oil production and developments in oil demand. Demand stagnated in 1991 due to mainly to the economic chaos in the former USSR and a slowdown in sales in the USA; this has produced problems for the future of the refining industry. By contrast, the outlook for the natural gas industry is much more buoyant. Most clean air or carbon emissions legislation is designed to promote the use of gas rather than other hydrocarbons. World gas production rose by 1.5% in 1991; details by production on a country by country basis are given. (UK)

  2. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  3. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  4. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  5. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  7. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  8. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  9. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided

  10. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it's decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. The impact of high oil prices on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The principle of gas-to-oil (oil prices determine the price of natural gas) in the Netherlands and several other developments elsewhere (war in Iraq and a cold winter in the USA) has caused high natural gas prices. The question is whether the liberalization of the energy market can change this principle [nl

  14. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA works with states and other key stakeholders, through sound scientific research and regulation; to help ensure that natural gas extraction from shale formations, also called fracking or hydrofracking, does not harm public health and the environment.

  16. The voice of Canada's oil and natural gas industry : oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 150 members of the oil and gas industry, which together are responsible for approximately 95 per cent of the oil and natural gas produced in Canada. The upstream sector comprises companies that explore for, develop and produce petroleum resources, while the downstream sector involves companies that refine and market the resources. CAPP works closely with governments of 11 of Canada's 13 provinces and territories and with public groups to represent upstream producers active across the country. The enhancement of the economic well-being and sustainability of the upstream petroleum industry is the mission of the CAPP. The main priorities of the CAPP are: Environment, Health and Safety Stewardship, reasonable and timely access to resources, competitiveness of the Canadian industry on a global basis, the secure and efficient access to markets, and open and constructive public, government and media affairs. Some of the issues dealt with by the CAPP are sour gas, flaring, venting and industry-landowner relations, improved safety performance, federal issues such as corporate taxes and environmental issues, Aboriginal and First Nations issues, transportation costs for natural gas on major pipelines, and oil and sands bitumen issues, to name a few. The board of the CAPP is made up of 32 members. The work is carried out by hundreds of volunteers from member companies who provide their time and expertise for various committees and working groups, as well as a staff of approximately 40 people to assist them. The members provide the entire funding for CAPP, which is located in Calgary, Alberta. The document concluded with a few facts concerning the petroleum industry in general. 12 figs

  17. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs

  18. The ties between natural gas and oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2006-01-01

    On the European continent, the price of natural gas is still tied directly and to a great extent to the price of competing energies, especially heavy fuel oil and home heating oil. In other words, the gas market is linked to the oil market. Under the effect of deregulation, this model is likely to change in the future, making a shift like that which took place on the American market in the past. (author)

  19. Oil and Natural Gas Wells, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Well geospatial dataset contains point features representing permitted locations, most of which have been drilled and completed, or drilled...

  20. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  1. The dynamic linkages between crude oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Ciner, Cetin; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The time varying price spillovers between natural gas and crude oil markets for the period 1994 to 2014 are investigated. Contrary to earlier research, we show that in a large part of our sample the natural gas price leads the price of crude oil with price spillover effects lasting up to two weeks. This result is robust to a battery of tests including out-of-sample forecasting exercises. However, after 2006, we detect little price dependencies between these two energy commodities. These findings arise due to a conjunction of both demand and supply-side shocks arising from both natural and economic events, including Hurricane Katrina, the Tohoku earthquake and the Global Financial Crisis, as well as infrastructure and technological improvements. The increased use of new technologies such as hydraulic fracking for the extraction of gas and oil in particular affected supply in the latter part of the study. We conclude that the long term relation present in the early part of the sample has decoupled, such that price determination of these two energy sources is now independent. - Highlights: • Contrary to earlier research we find natural gas may lead crude oil prices over a long sample. • This finding holds in forecasting out of sample. • There may be a break in the relationship between oil and gas in 2006. • We suggest that new technologies and financial conditions have led to a decoupling of these markets. • Oil and natural gas prices may now be determined independently.

  2. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  3. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for Denmark. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  4. Oil and natural gas technology review-lubrication and lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, J

    1966-01-01

    A summary is presented of the advances made during 1967 in the following areas: production and transmission of natural gas; geosciences; drilling and production technology; secondary recovery; transportation by tanker, pipelines, and tank cars; storage; planning of refineries; control and automation; cracking and gasification of crude oil; separation and hydrogenation processes; petrochemicals; combustion technology; fuels and additives; air and water pollution control; production of lubricants; lubrication with mist, gas, and vapors; hydraulic fluids; lubricant additives; oxidation and aging of oils; greases; solid lubricants; bearings; machining; friction and wear; and changes in materials of construction. (220 refs.)

  5. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algalhoud, K. A.; AL-Fawaris, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226 Ra, 228 Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  6. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingraber, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth's crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine open-quotes concentrationsclose quotes, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn't be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930's, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980's. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed

  7. Separated influence of crude oil prices on regional natural gas import prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qiang; Geng, Jiang-Bo; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of global economic activity and international crude oil prices on natural gas import prices in three major natural gas markets using the panel cointegration model. It also investigates the shock impacts of the volatility and the increase and decrease of oil prices on regional natural gas import prices. The results show that both global economic activity and international crude oil prices have significant long-term positive effects on regional natural gas import prices. The volatility of international crude oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas import prices. The shock impact is weak in North America, lags in Europe and is most significant in Asia, which is mainly determined by different regional policies for price formation. In addition, the response of natural gas import prices to increases and decreases in international crude oil prices shows an asymmetrical mechanism, of which the decrease impact is relatively stronger. - Highlights: • Impacts of world economy and oil prices on regional natural gas prices are analysed • North American natural gas prices are mainly affected by world economy • Asian and European natural gas prices are mainly affected by oil prices • The volatility of oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas prices • The response of natural gas import prices to oil prices up and down shows asymmetry

  8. Sustitución de fuel oil por gas natural en ANDERCOL Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Puerto, José Miguel; Ayala Mendoza, Miguel Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. This article shows the evaluation of the demand and the tendencies of fuel in the plant of ANDERCOL-Medellín, the current and future trends of the prices for the fuels available (fuel oil and natural gas) and also the operation costs, the investments required for their substitution and the limitations and benefits of substituting fuel oil with natural gas. Objective. To evaluate the impact of substituting fuel oil with natural gas in the ANDERCOL´s plant in Medell...

  9. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Lysebo, I.; Kristensen, D.; Birovljev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs

  10. Decoupling the Oil and Gas Prices. Natural Gas Pricing in the Post-Financial Crisis Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Miharu

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks into natural gas pricing in the post-financial crisis market and, in particular, examines the question whether the oil-linked gas pricing system has outlived its utility as global gas markets mature and converge more rapidly than expected and as large new resources of unconventional gas shift the gas terms-of-trade. Two opposing natural gas pricing systems have coexisted for the last two decades. On the one hand, there is traditional oil-linked pricing, used in pipeline gas imports by Continental European countries and in LNG imports by the countries in Far East. The other is the system led by futures exchanges in deregulated, competitive markets largely in the UK and the US. World gas markets are changing and the basis and mechanisms of price formation are changing with them. There is no reason to expect a revolution in gas pricing, but formulas designed to address the challenges of the 1970's will need to adjust to the realities of the present and expectations for the 21. century. Because such changes will imply a redistribution of costs and benefits, vested shareholders will defend the status quo. But hopefully and ultimately, appropriately regulated markets will assert themselves and shareholders along the entire value chain will have their interests served

  11. Methane’s Role in Promoting Sustainable Development in the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document summarizes a number of established methods to identify, measure and reduce methane emissions from a variety of equipment and processes in oil and gas production and natural gas processing and transmission facilities.

  12. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  13. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  14. Biotransformation of natural gas and oil compounds associated with marine oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Almås, Inger K; Krause, Daniel Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Field data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) suggested that oxidation of gas compounds stimulated biodegradation of oil compounds in the deep sea plume. We performed experiments with local seawater from a Norwegian fjord to examine if the presence of dissolved gas compounds (methane, ethane and propane) affected biodegradation of volatile oil compounds, and if oil compounds likewise affected gas compound oxidation. The results from the experiment showed comparable oil compound biotransformation rates in seawater at 5 °C between seawater with and without soluble gases. Gas oxidation was not affected by the presence of volatile oil compounds. Contrary to DWH deep sea plume data, propane oxidation was not faster than methane oxidation. These data may reflect variations between biodegradation of oil and gas in seawater environments with different history of oil and gas exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oil and natural gas prospects: Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    The MENA region is endowed with enormous resources of oil and gas, rendering it the world′s richest region in this regard. Endowment differs from one country to another with few countries are almost dry; however the economic benefits proliferated to almost every country in the region. In spite of some doubts being cast about the amount of proven oil reserves, these with improved technology and new discoveries are increasing year after another. With no long term feasible alternatives to oil for transport and the increasing trade in LNG, the region′s importance as a world′s leading supplier of fossil fuels will continue for decades to come. However, these favourable prospects hide many challenges facing the MENA region, among them is the difficulty in mobilizing investment funds for sustaining and increasing output to feed growing global demand. Growing local demand, due to the proliferation of subsides, is another worrying aspect that already caused few countries with modest resources to become oil importers instead of exporters, with larger exporters decreasing their surplus output. The region is also still mainly dependant on foreign technologies and skilled manpower. Regional cooperation in oil and gas networks and electricity interconnections is still modest. The region has a long history of conflict; correspondingly it is a major importer of armaments which is increasingly eating a lot of its surplus income. With the political and social changes presently taking place in many MENA countries, due to the Arab spring and continuation of local conflicts, the sustainability of supplies from the region are increasingly a source of worry to MENA exporters and its many importers. It is also causing increasing involvement of the super powers in regional affairs. - Highlights: • Global oil and gas reserves and prices. • Energy sustainability and the Middle East. • Energy economics and investments in the Middle East

  16. Status of Oil and Natural Gas in the World and Turkey, and Studies conducted at ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onur, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Energy and its appropriate deployment are the most critical of all wealth generating activities, and they are the most important modern indicators of the wealth and poverty of nations. Humankind and energy will merge in an unbreakable bond for the entire future of humankind. Without dispute, the petroleum and natural gas industry is the world's largest energy sector and the second largest of the world's industries. Today, oil and gas account for 61 percent (39% oil and 24% natural gas) of the world's energy consumption. Including coal's 30 percent share, the hydrocarbon mix comprises more than 90 percent of the world's needs. Since the 19th century, the petroleum industry, including exploration, production, transportation (marine+pipeline), refinery, and marketing, have caused world changes, determined destiny of humankind, and generated immense wealth for both producers and users. It is also an accepted fact that the oil and natural gas will continue to be dominating energy sources, particularly as transportation fuels, for the world's energy needs, and will continue to cause world changes during the 21st century, at least for the next 25 years. Regarding Turkey's role in petroleum and natural gas, the figures are as follows: At the end of 2005, the proved oil and natural gas reserves of Turkey are reported as 1.2 million barrels (∼165.4 million tonnes) and 14.3 billion m 3 , respectively. When these figures are compared with the corresponding world's proved oil and natural gas reserves, which are 1.2 trillion barrels and 179.5 trillion m 3 , respectively, it is clear that Turkey's oil and natural gas reserves comprises only a very small portion of the world's corresponding reserves. Approximately only 8% and 3% of Turkey's oil and natural gas consumption are produced from domestic sources. At the end of 2005, Turkey's oil and natural gas productions from its domestic sources are 17 million barrels When considering the current high oil and natural gas prices (

  17. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2016, a field study was conducted in the Uinta Basin Utah to improve information on oil and natural gas well pad pneumatic controllers (PCs) and emission measurement methods. A total of 80 PC systems at five oil sites (supporting six wells) and three gas sites (sup...

  18. Natural gas: Governments and oil companies in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Hurst, C.; Mabro, R.

    1988-01-01

    It is asserted that oil companies claim to be generally receptive to gas development proposals; however, the lack of potential markets for gas, problems of foreign exchange convertibility, and lack of a legal framework often hinders their engagement. Governments, on the other hand, need to secure domestic energy supply and, if possible, gain some export earnings or royalties. An extensive discussion on the principles of pricing and fiscal regimes, potential points of disagreement is provided. A course of action is outlined from the managerial point of view to circumvent the most common pitfalls in planning and financing a gas project. Eight very detailed case studies are presented for Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Thailand

  19. Effect of Temperature Shock and Inventory Surprises on Natural Gas and Heating Oil Futures Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, John Wei-Shan; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of temperature shock on both near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns by extending the weather and storage models of the previous study. Several notable findings from the empirical studies are presented. First, the expected temperature shock significantly and positively affects both the near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns. Next, significant temperature shock has effect on both the conditional mean and volatility of natural gas and heating oil prices. The results indicate that expected inventory surprises significantly and negatively affects the far-month natural gas futures returns. Moreover, volatility of natural gas futures returns is higher on Thursdays and that of near-month heating oil futures returns is higher on Wednesdays than other days. Finally, it is found that storage announcement for natural gas significantly affects near-month and far-month natural gas futures returns. Furthermore, both natural gas and heating oil futures returns are affected more by the weighted average temperature reported by multiple weather reporting stations than that reported by a single weather reporting station. PMID:25133233

  20. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  1. Rethink potential risks of toxic emissions from natural gas and oil mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2018-09-01

    Studies have showed the increasing environmental and public health risks of toxic emissions from natural gas and oil mining, which have become even worse as fracking is becoming a dominant approach in current natural gas extraction. However, governments and communities often overlook the serious air pollutants from oil and gas mining, which are often quantified lower than the significant levels of adverse health effects. Therefore, we are facing a challenging dilemma: how could we clearly understand the potential risks of air toxics from natural gas and oil mining. This short study aims at the design and application of simple and robust methods to enhance and improve current understanding of the becoming worse toxic air emissions from natural gas and oil mining as fracking is becoming the major approach. Two simple ratios, the min-to-national-average and the max-to-national-average, are designed and applied to each type of air pollutants in a natural gas and oil mining region. The two ratios directly indicate how significantly high a type of air pollutant could be due to natural gas and oil mining by comparing it to the national average records, although it may not reach the significant risks of adverse health effects according to current risk screening methods. The min-to-national-average and the max-to-national-average ratios can be used as a direct and powerful method to describe the significance of air pollution by comparing it to the national average. The two ratios are easy to use for governments, stakeholders, and the public to pay enough attention on the air pollutants from natural gas and oil mining. The two ratios can also be thematically mapped at sampled sites for spatial monitoring, but spatial mitigation and analysis of environmental and health risks need other measurements of environmental and demographic characteristics across a natural gas and oil mining area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Golden age: marketers extract the most from oil and natural gas trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-04-01

    The complexity of the oil and natural gas markets, the complex factors which interact to produce the price of oil or natural gas on any given day, and the role of marketers in this high stakes game are discussed. While oil and natural gas prices are very good today compared to the low prices through much of the 1990s, marketers are now concerned about the ability of Canadian fields to produce enough to fill the expanded pipelines and meet the rising demand. As the oil and natural gas industry in Canada is moving from a pipeline-constrained environment to a resource-constrained environment, the question of declining reserves in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and the resulting surplus in pipeline capacity is one of the most serious issues facing industry in the immediate future. This is especially true of natural gas where the cost of transportation, which can be as high as 30 per cent, is one of major importance to gas marketers. Locking in prices or allowing prices to float can make the difference between huge losses or gains depending on the interplay of the various factor that influence price fluctuations. Examples of how decisions about oil and gas prices are made, and the various outcomes that may result from marketer decisions are described to illustrate the vagaries of the natural gas market.

  3. Golden age: marketers extract the most from oil and natural gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-01-01

    The complexity of the oil and natural gas markets, the complex factors which interact to produce the price of oil or natural gas on any given day, and the role of marketers in this high stakes game are discussed. While oil and natural gas prices are very good today compared to the low prices through much of the 1990s, marketers are now concerned about the ability of Canadian fields to produce enough to fill the expanded pipelines and meet the rising demand. As the oil and natural gas industry in Canada is moving from a pipeline-constrained environment to a resource-constrained environment, the question of declining reserves in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and the resulting surplus in pipeline capacity is one of the most serious issues facing industry in the immediate future. This is especially true of natural gas where the cost of transportation, which can be as high as 30 per cent, is one of major importance to gas marketers. Locking in prices or allowing prices to float can make the difference between huge losses or gains depending on the interplay of the various factor that influence price fluctuations. Examples of how decisions about oil and gas prices are made, and the various outcomes that may result from marketer decisions are described to illustrate the vagaries of the natural gas market

  4. Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atil, Ahmed; Lahiani, Amine; Nguyen, Duc Khuong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we use the recently developed nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) model to examine the pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas prices. Our approach allows us to simultaneously test the short- and long-run nonlinearities through positive and negative partial sum decompositions of the predetermined explanatory variables. It also offers the possibility to quantify the respective responses of gasoline and natural gas prices to positive and negative oil price shocks from the asymmetric dynamic multipliers. The obtained results indicate that oil prices affect gasoline prices and natural gas prices in an asymmetric and nonlinear manner, but the price transmission mechanism is not the same. Important policy implications can be learned from the empirical findings. - Highlights: • The pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas prices is examined. • We use a NARDL model to test for the long-run and short-run asymmetric reactions. • Both gasoline and natural gas prices significantly adjust to changes in the price of oil. • Negative oil shocks have greater effects than positive oil shocks. • Policy implications are discussed

  5. Utilizing natural gas huff and puff to enhance production in heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenlong, G.; Shuhong, W.; Jian, Z.; Xialin, Z. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China); Jinzhong, L.; Xiao, M. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2008-10-15

    The L Block in the north structural belt of China's Tuha Basin is a super deep heavy oil reservoir. The gas to oil ratio (GOR) is 12 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} and the initial bubble point pressure is only 4 MPa. The low production can be attributed to high oil viscosity and low flowability. Although steam injection is the most widely method for heavy oil production in China, it is not suitable for the L Block because of its depth. This paper reviewed pilot tests in which the natural gas huff and puff process was used to enhance production in the L Block. Laboratory experiments that included both conventional and unconventional PVT were conducted to determine the physical property of heavy oil saturated by natural gas. The experiments revealed that the heavy oil can entrap the gas for more than several hours because of its high viscosity. A pseudo bubble point pressure exists much lower than the bubble point pressure in manmade foamy oils, which is relative to the depressurization rate. Elastic energy could be maintained in a wider pressure scope than natural depletion without gas injection. A special experimental apparatus that can stimulate the process of gas huff and puff in the reservoir was also introduced. The foamy oil could be seen during the huff and puff experiment. Most of the oil flowed to the producer in a pseudo single phase, which is among the most important mechanisms for enhancing production. A pilot test of a single well demonstrated that the oil production increased from 1 to 2 cubic metres per day to 5 to 6 cubic metres per day via the natural gas huff and puff process. The stable production period which was 5 to 10 days prior to huff and puff, was prolonged to 91 days in the first cycle and 245 days in the second cycle. 10 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  6. Transatlantic natural gas price and oil price relationships - an empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez Josse, C.I.; Neumann, A.

    2006-09-01

    Markets for natural gas in industrialized countries have witnessed profound changes in the past two decades. Trade of natural gas at spot markets in North America and Europe expanded and intensified significantly as a direct result of liberalization efforts. We test the relationships of weekly prices for crude oil and natural gas on either side of the Atlantic Basin between 1999 and 2005. Applying co-integration methodology we identify a move toward integration of historically and geographically separated markets for the homogeneous commodity natural gas. (authors)

  7. Oil and natural gas in Russia's eastern energy strategy: Dream or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mareš, Miroslav; Laryš, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses Russia's Eastern energy strategy in the sectors of oil and natural gas, presenting its main aspects and examining it from the security perspective against the backdrop of official Russian documents. The goals set by the strategy are compared with the steps presently taken and planned by the Russian administration, as well as with short- and medium-term Russian energy policies in the sectors of oil and natural gas. The authors conclude that implementation of the Energy Strategy to 2030 in the sectors of oil and natural gas will be highly complicated in the Eastern vector of Russian politics and achievable only if new deposits are found. - Highlights: ► We compare goals of the Russia's Eastern energy strategy in the sectors of oil and natural gas with real policy.► In the Eastern vector are included China, both Korean states and Japan. ► For Russia's energy strategy to 2030 the Eastern market in the sector of oil and natural gas is advantageous and desirable. ► The present conditions can bring economic as well as political risks.

  8. Economic growth to raise U.S. oil products, natural gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    An accelerating economy will raise consumption of oil products and natural gas in the US this year. Contributing to demand growth will be the slump that began late last year in prices for crude oil and petroleum products. Some price recovery is likely in 1994, but there's little reason to expect a major increase. With oil production falling and demand rising, imports will have to climb again this year. OGJ projects a 2.6% increase this year following a 6.6% increase last year. Imports are expected to fill a record high 49.3% of US oil demand this year. The paper discusses energy and the economy, overall energy use, energy by source, the electrification trend, energy supplies, imports, refining operations, the growth of margins, and the energy demand of motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuels, residual fuel oils, other petroleum products, and natural gas

  9. Assessment of radiation exposures from naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlat, M.S.; Djeffal, S.; Kadi, H.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive deposits, often referred to as naturally occurring radioactive material scale, can, because of incompatibility of formation and injection waters, be formed inside production equipment of the oil and gas industry. These scales contain mainly 226 Ra and its daughter products, which can cause an exposure risk. The gamma ray dose rates, with the associated occupational doses in the oil and gas industry, and 226 Ra concentration in production water, crude oil and hard/soft scale samples were determined. Results obtained are discussed and compared to those from other studies

  10. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  11. Natural gas in 1927: Petroleum in 1927: The oil and gas fields of Ontario. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1930-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  12. Methane emissions due to oil and natural gas operations in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonk, J.; Vosbeek, M.E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Netherlands is the 4th largest natural gas producer, with about 4% of the total world natural gas production. Also, significant amounts of oil are extracted. For this reason it can be expected that methane emissions from oil and natural gas operations contribute significantly to total methane emissions. Estimates so far, made by both the Dutch government and the industry vary widely. A renewed estimate is made of methane emissions from oil and natural gas production, based on a detailed engineering study of sources of methane in the system and quantification of source strengths. The estimate is validated by interpretation of atmospheric measurements. 1990 methane emissions from natural gas production were estimated to be 62 to 108 kton. The main cause of methane emissions is the venting of off-gases from processes and passing-valve emissions in the off-shore. Emissions from oil production were estimated to be 14 kton, mainly caused by venting of off-gases from processes. Best feasible options for emission reduction are: identification and replacement of leaking valves, and reuse or re-compression of off-gases from processes. Both options are existing policy in the Netherlands. 23 figs., 38 tabs., 2 appendices, 53 refs

  13. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands up to the year AD 2010 for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for France. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  15. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  16. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  17. A first: U.S. natural gas wellhead value tops oil's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The value of natural gas production in the US in 1993 exceeded that of crude oil output for the first time in history. The reversal owes as much to trends in price as in production and, most recently, record frigid weather in much of the US. Another key factor is a newly revitalized, restructured gas industry operating in the most unfettered regulatory environment in recent memory. The industry's sterling performance in accommodating the surge in demand caused by the arctic cold that steamrolled across North America early in the 1993--94 winter strengthens the natural gas case for reliability. And that can only enhance the industry's prospects for adding more long term supply contracts. Looming on the immediate horizon is the prospect of an extended slump in oil prices, which could mean that natural gas dominance in US petroleum industry revenues will be short lived if low cost oil recaptures market share from gas. While that may temporarily dethrone natural gas from its new top slot, the reversal in 1993 represents what is likely to be a long term trend for the US petroleum industry

  18. Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in Germany in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2012. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. Due to the granting of new licences in the last years, a significant increase of geophysical prospecting of the subsurface for oil and gas deposits was observed. Six 3D seismic surveys were conducted. Five surveys were located in the Upper Rhine Valley and one in the lowlands of Northwest Germany. 2D seismic data were acquired in Lusatia (Brandenburg) and at the coast of the Baltic Sea. The number of exploration wells decreased once again. In 2012 nine exploration wells were drilled, compared to ten in the previous year. In addition to that number, another seven exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. None of the ten new field wildcats were completed by result. Three exploration wells (appraisal wells) were completed successfully. Two of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one the presence of oil. The number of development wells decreased significantly. In 2012 31 wells were drilled, compared to 46 in the prominent year 2011. Another 13 wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. 31 wells were completed successfully. 30 of these wells encountered oil or gas pay zones. In 2011 drilling meterage has reached its highest value since 1998. In contrast the total drilling meterage decreased slightly by less than 2000 m to 71,424 min 2012. The natural gas production continued its downward trend. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 9.1% compared to the previous year and amounted to 11.7 billion m 3 (field quality). After the increase in 2011, the annual crude oil production decreased by 2.1% to 2.6 million t

  19. NORM emissions from heavy oil and natural gas fired power plants in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Haddad, Kh.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from four major Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas. 210 Pb and 210 Po were the main NORM radionuclides detected in the fly and bottom ash. 210 Pb activity concentrations have reached 3393 ± 10 Bq kg −1 and 4023 ± 7 Bq kg −1 in fly ash and bottom ash, respectively; lower values of 210 Po were observed due to its high volatility. In addition, 210 Po and 210 Pb annual emissions in bottom ash from mixed (heavy oil and natural gas) fired power plants varied between 2.7 × 10 9 –7.95 × 10 9 Bq and 3.5 × 10 9 –10 10 Bq, respectively; higher emissions of 210 Po and 210 Pb from gas power plants being observed. However, the present study showed that 210 Po and 210 Pb emissions from thermal power plants fired by natural gas are much higher than the coal power plants operated in the World. - Highlights: ► NORM have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas. ► 210 Pb and 210 Po were the main NORM radionuclides detected in the fly and bottom ash. ► 210 Po and 210 Pb annual emissions from these power plants were estimated.

  20. Oil and natural gas market: a transitional year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Year 2006 represented a transitional year for the oil market: a moderate demand growth and a slowdown of price rise, that will possibly be more significant in 2007. As to the long term, the feeling is anyway pointing at important model tensions and high prices prevailing. As a consequence, governments have to develop a more active energy policy, also when deciding on the actions to be undertaken to manage worldwide climatic change [it

  1. Comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the coal, oil and natural gas chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, Peter; Eckle, Petrissa; Hirschberg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This study compared severe accident risks of fossil energy chains (coal, oil and natural gas), based on the historical experience contained in the comprehensive database ENSAD. Considered risk indicators focused on human health impacts, i.e., fatality rates and maximum consequences were calculated for a broad range of country groups. Generally, expected fatality rates were lowest for natural gas, intermediate for oil and highest for coal. Concerning maximum consequences of a single accident, natural gas also performed best, followed by coal, whereas accidents in the oil chain can claim significantly more fatalities. In general, OECD and EU 27 ranked top, while non-OECD countries and China in the case of coal were worst. The consideration of numerous additional country groups enabled a more detailed differentiation within the main bounding groups. Furthermore, differences among country groups are distinctly decreasing from coal to oil and natural gas, both for fatality rates and maximum consequences. The use of import adjusted-fatality rates indicates that fatality risks in supply countries are an essential aspect to understand how specific risk reduction strategies may affect other components of energy security, and thus tradeoffs and compromises are necessary. Finally, the proposed fatality risk score for fossil chains (FRS F ) allows a comparison of the combined accident risk for the considered fossil energy chains across individual countries, which can be visualized using risk mapping.

  2. World crude oil and natural gas. A demand and supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichene, Noureddine

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines world markets for crude oil and natural gas over the period 1918-1999; it analyzes the time-series properties of output and prices and estimates demand and supply elasticities during 1918-1973 and 1973-1999. Oil and gas prices were stable during the first period; they became volatile afterwards, reflecting deep changes in the market structure following the oil shock in 1973. Demand price elasticities were too low; however, demand income elasticities were high. Supply price elasticities were also too low. The elasticity estimates help to explain the market power of the oil producers and price volatility in response to shocks, and corroborate elasticity estimates in energy studies

  3. World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichene, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines world markets for crude oil and natural gas over the period 1918-1999; it analyzes the time-series properties of output and prices and estimates demand and supply elasticities during 1918-1973 and 1973-1999. Oil and gas prices were stable during the first period; they became volatile afterwards, reflecting deep changes in the market structure following the oil shock in 1973. Demand price elasticities were too low; however, demand income elasticities were high. Supply price elasticities were also too low. The elasticity estimates help to explain the market power of the oil producers and price volatility in response to shocks, and corroborate elasticity estimates in energy studies. (author)

  4. Natural gas in 1936: Petroleum in 1936: The gas and oil fields in the Guelph and Medina (Grimsby) formations: Appendix, the Brownsville Gas Field: Gas and oil in eastern Ontario. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B; Evans, C S

    1938-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of four separate reports: Natural gas, petroleum, gas and oil fields in the Guelph and Medina (Grimsby) formations, and gas and oil in eastern Ontario. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  5. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians

  6. North or East. Germany's crude oil and natural gas supply from Norway and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, M.

    2004-01-01

    This work examines the crude oil and natural gas trade from Norway and Russia to Germany. There is a considerable need for energy import in Germany because only a small part of the national consumption can be met with domestic productions. This applies especially to crude oil and natural gas. Norway and Russia are among the leading crude oil and natural gas producers and exporters in the world. The geographical vicinity of these significant demand and supply potentials leads to extensive energy based relations between Germany and Norway respectively Russia. The focus of this work is on the perception of and attitudes towards Norway and Russia as crude oil and natural gas suppliers for the domestic markets in Germany. Reporting from two leading German newspapers, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Sueddeutsche Zeitung, are regarded to be a valid source for detecting these attitudes and perceptions. Relevant articles are analysed with content analysis and further multi- methodological approaches. For this reasons the work provides at the beginning full description of the Norwegian and Russian crude oil and natural gas sector as well as detailed information on the German energy markets and policy. It can be shown that differences in dealing with Norway and Russia in the articles exit. Accordingly, different perceptions and attitudes are detectable as well. This work shows where these differences can be found and examines their quality. It is argued that the reporting and the attitudes are not only based on economical facts but also on 'imagined space'. The need for impartial relations with both supplying countries is stressed. (orig.)

  7. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  8. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas; Radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T; Lysebo, I; Kristensen, D; Birovljev, A

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs.

  9. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  10. Downstream natural gas in Europe - high hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, P.O.

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors. [Author

  11. Downstream natural gas in Europe-High hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors

  12. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  13. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  14. Digital representation of oil and natural gas well pad scars in southwest Wyoming: 2012 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The recent proliferation of oil and natural gas energy development in the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming has accentuated the need to understand wildlife responses to this development. The location and extent of surface disturbance that is created by oil and natural gas well pad scars are key pieces of information used to assess the effects of energy infrastructure on wildlife populations and habitat. A digital database of oil and natural gas pad scars had previously been generated from 1-meter (m) National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery (NAIP) acquired in 2009 for a 7.7-million hectare (ha) (19,026,700 acres) region of southwest Wyoming. Scars included the pad area where wellheads, pumps, and storage facilities reside and the surrounding area that was scraped and denuded of vegetation during the establishment of the pad. Scars containing tanks, compressors, the storage of oil and gas related equipment, and produced-water ponds were also collected on occasion. This report updates the digital database for the five counties of southwest Wyoming (Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta) within the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area and for a limited portion of Fremont, Natrona, and Albany Counties using 2012 1-m NAIP imagery and 2012 oil and natural gas well permit information. This report adds pad scars created since 2009, and updates attributes of all pad scars using the 2012 well permit information. These attributes include the origination year of the pad scar, the number of active and inactive wells on or near each pad scar in 2012, and the overall status of the pad scar (active or inactive). The new 2012 database contains 17,404 pad scars of which 15,532 are attributed as oil and natural gas well pads. Digital data are stored as shapefiles projected to the Universal Transverse Mercator (zones 12 and 13) coordinate system. These data are available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://dx.doi.org/10

  15. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  16. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas processing and production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najera F, J.

    1994-01-01

    NORM contamination is produced by concentration in petroleum facilities of naturally occurring radioactive materials. The presence of NORM in petroleum reservoirs and in the oil and gas industry has been widely recognized. It's not a critical technical problem if you proceed timely to solve it. NORM is a great but controllable hazard to the human health and the environment, and represents a severe waste management problem. We suggest to the latino american oil companies to conduct studies to detect NORM contamination in their facilities an use to them to plan the appropriate actions to control the situation. (author). 15 refs

  17. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-04-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

  18. Measuring energy security: Trends in the diversification of oil and natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Gail; Joutz, Frederick; Loungani, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence on one facet of energy security in OECD economies-the extent of diversification in sources of oil and natural gas supplies. Viewed from the perspective of the energy-importing countries as a whole, there has not been much change in diversification in oil supplies over the last decade, but diversification in sources of natural gas supplies has increased steadily. We document the considerable cross-country heterogeneity in the extent of diversification. We also show how the extent of diversification changes if account is taken of the political risk attached to suppliers; the size of the importing country; and transportation risk. - Highlights: → Global diversification is constant but large differences exist among countries. → Political risk and distance have large impacts on diversity measures. → Size has little impact on diversity measures. → France, US, and UK show low vulnerability for both fuels. → Smaller European countries show high vulnerability for both fuels.

  19. 75 FR 75995 - Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... manufacture neutron detectors used by the well logging industry or wireline or Logging-While-Drilling tools... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging... of Helium-3 by the oil and gas well logging industry. DATES: Written comments and information are...

  20. Natural gas massification plan in Colombia with the National Oil Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Colombian natural gas industry is described. The Colombian natural gas plan is discussed under the following topics: background of natural gas in Colombia, natural gas reserves, gas plan objectives, methodology, marketing studies, transportation and investment strategy, and economic evaluation. The present natural gas institutional framework is described. The production system structure, transportation, and distribution are also discussed

  1. SOHIO (Standard Oil Co. , Ohio) to sell Prudhoe gas to Northern Natural Gas Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-20

    Sohio has agreed to sell Vertical Bar3: 2 trillion cu ft of its Prudhoe Bay gas to Northern Natural Gas Co. for delivery at a rate of 170 million cu ft/day when the proposed Alaska Highway gas pipeline is completed. With the exception of approx. 4 trillion cu ft of Sohio's reserves committed to Columbia Gas System Inc., the agreement accounts for the sale of all the 26.5-27 trillion cu ft of Prudhoe Bay reserves. The contract, which is subject to approval of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, allows Alaska to take its one-eighth royalty share of the gas in kind or cash. Columbia Gas is the only firm planning to purchase Prudhoe Bay gas that is not participating as an equity owner in the pipeline project. According to a Columbia spokesman, it is still uncertain whether the proposed gas pipeline will be built; and the fact that Columbia has not yet signed a final agreement with Sohio does not indicate any decreasing interest in Prudhoe Bay gas.

  2. Panorama 2011: Iraq: making its return to the oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.; Sabathier, J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling some of the world's largest reserves of oil and natural gas, Iraq boasts major assets in attracting foreign investment. While there is limited risk involved in exploration, the political environment and security needs for personnel and facilities pose omnipresent risks for investors. As a result, the country is facing immense human, political, financial and technological hurdles in its hopes of capturing a leading role in the international hydrocarbons market. (author)

  3. Russian Oil and Natural Gas: Strategic Culture and Security Implications of European Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William M

    2007-01-01

    .... The third section investigates the importance of revenues that Russia receives from consumption of oil and natural gas exports to Europe on their Gross National Product and economic growth for the future. By understanding Russia's strategic culture and the interdependence of European demand and Russian supply, conclusions are made that determine the threat, risk, and circumstances that Russia will deny energy resources to European countries.

  4. Sustainable Solution for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Separation using Concentrated Solar Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Piyush; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Nath Mahendra, Som; Motahhir, Saad

    2017-08-01

    In today’s scenario to combat with climate change effects, there are a lot of reasons why we all should use renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels. Solar energy is one of the best options based on features like good for the environment, independent of electricity prices, underutilized land, grid security, sustainable growth, etc. This concept paper is oriented primarily focused on the use of Solar Energy for the crude oil heating purpose besides other many prospective industrial applications to reduce cost, carbon footprint and moving towards a sustainable and ecologically friendly Oil & Gas Industry. Concentrated Solar Power technology based prototype system is proposed to substitute the presently used system based on natural gas burning method. The hybrid system which utilizes the solar energy in the oil and gas industry would strengthen the overall field working conditions, safety measures and environmental ecology. 40% reduction on natural gas with this hybrid system is estimated. A positive implication for an environment, working conditions and safety precautions is the additive advantage. There could also decrease air venting of CO2, CH4 and N2O by an average of 30-35%.

  5. Forward curves, scarcity and price volatility in oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geman, Helyette; Ohana, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The role of inventory in explaining the shape of the forward curve and spot price volatility in commodity markets is central in the theory of storage developed by Kaldor [Kaldor, N. (1939) ''Speculation and Economic Stability'', The Review of Economic Studies 7, 1-27] and Working [Working, H. (1949) ''The theory of the price of storage'', American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262] and has since been documented in a vast body of financial literature, including the reference paper by Fama and French [Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1987) ''Commodity futures prices: some evidence on forecast power, premiums and the theory of storage'', Journal of Business 60, 55-73] on metals. The goal of this paper is twofold: 1. validate in the case of oil and natural gas the use of the slope of the forward curve as a proxy for inventory (the slope being defined in a way that filters out seasonality); 2. analyze directly for these two major commodities the relationship between inventory and price volatility. In agreement with the theory of storage, we find that: 1. the negative correlation between price volatility and inventory is globally significant for crude oil; 2. this negative correlation prevails only during those periods of scarcity when the inventory is below the historical average and increases importantly during the winter periods for natural gas. Our results are illustrated by the analysis of a 15 year-database of US oil and natural gas prices and inventory. (author)

  6. Reburning and burnout simulations of natural gas for heavy oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celso A. Bertran; Carla S.T. Marques; Renato V. Filho [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2004-01-01

    Reburning and burnout simulations were carried out through PLUG code of CHEMKIN-III using a reduced mechanism, in order to determine preliminary experimental parameters for achieving maximum NOx reduction to implement the reburning technology for heavy oil combustion in pilot scale equipments in Brazil. Gas compositions at the entrance of the reburning zone were estimated by the AComb program. Simulations were performed for eight conditions in the usual range of operational parameters for natural gas reburning. The maximum NO reduction (ca. 50%) was reached with 10 and 17.5% of power via natural gas and 1.5 and 3.0% O{sub 2} excess, respectively, at 1273 K. The model predicts 250 ppm of NO, 50 ppm of CO and air mass flows in the range of about 50 130 kg/h for burnout. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Structural problems of the heating oil economy pose a challenge to natural gas marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, U.

    1995-01-01

    The Swiss heating market is characterised by hard crowding-out competition. New energy carriers are entering the market while at the same time the demand declines. Natural gas is conquering one field of application after another and since years has steadily been increasing its share of the market. The corresponding loss of territory on the part of heating oil dealers has until now not been so tangible because it was compensated by a phase of growing demand during the past few years. If the current trend continues, then overcapacities in heat distribution and energy supply are to be expected for the future. The market will become especially difficult for heating oil dealers, as their decreasing overall share in the market will no longer be compensated by a growth in market volume, their former crutch for keeping up scales. The fight for market shares is therefore expected to become a great deal harder and have a direct impact on the natural gas economy. Commissioned by the Swiss gas industry, the Research Institute for Trade and Sales of St. Gallen University has made a study of the Swiss heating oil market. (orig.) [de

  8. Offer restrictions on bidding of oil and natural gas exploration areas; Limitacoes de ofertas nas licitacoes de blocos exploratorios de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marcelo Lauar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (PRH-36-ANP)

    2008-07-01

    Created by Law 9.478/97 (Law of Oil), the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) has, among others, the purpose of laborating edicts and promoting public tenders to give concession to exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas, celebrating the future contracts and monitoring its execution. This procedure, however, has strong differences in comparison to the classical law 8.666/93 - the general law of public tenders of Brazil -, given the specificities of petroleum and gas natural industry. Based on the mitigation of the concept of free competition, ANP made, recently, use of clauses that restrict the offers to the winning bidders that participate in ANP's public tenders. The restrictive measure taken by the Regulatory Agency is constitutional, in order that it, indeed, develops the market and prevents the concentration of a single agent in a particular economic exploratory block, accomplishing the real free competition. (author)

  9. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  10. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils number-sign 2 and number-sign 6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort

  11. Forward curves, scarcity and price volatility in oil and natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geman, Helyette [Birkbeck, University of London (United Kingdom); ESCP-EAP (France); Ohana, Steve [ESCP-EAP (France)

    2009-07-15

    The role of inventory in explaining the shape of the forward curve and spot price volatility in commodity markets is central in the theory of storage developed by Kaldor [Kaldor, N. (1939) ''Speculation and Economic Stability'', The Review of Economic Studies 7, 1-27] and Working [Working, H. (1949) ''The theory of the price of storage'', American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262] and has since been documented in a vast body of financial literature, including the reference paper by Fama and French [Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1987) ''Commodity futures prices: some evidence on forecast power, premiums and the theory of storage'', Journal of Business 60, 55-73] on metals. The goal of this paper is twofold: 1. validate in the case of oil and natural gas the use of the slope of the forward curve as a proxy for inventory (the slope being defined in a way that filters out seasonality); 2. analyze directly for these two major commodities the relationship between inventory and price volatility. In agreement with the theory of storage, we find that: 1. the negative correlation between price volatility and inventory is globally significant for crude oil; 2. this negative correlation prevails only during those periods of scarcity when the inventory is below the historical average and increases importantly during the winter periods for natural gas. Our results are illustrated by the analysis of a 15 year-database of US oil and natural gas prices and inventory. (author)

  12. Safety protection suggestion of naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaojian; Zhou Qifu; Wang Xiaotao; Xu Zhongyang; Song Peifeng

    2014-01-01

    It's not enough concern about the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) of oil and gas industry in China. NORM with radium and radon mainly exist in the scale, sludge and production water, and they tend to deposit on the pipe wall, wellhead equipment and so on. These materials are a threat to the health of workers, so it is very important to have the safe disposal of them. This paper introduces the radioactive hazards and puts for-ward the safe disposal measures so as to provide the reference for the safe disposal of radioactive materials. Some management and technical advices are presented too. (authors)

  13. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS IN CROATIA FROM 2000 TO 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Velić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the characteristics of the production and processing of oil, condensates and natural gas in the Republic of Croatia starting from 2000, until the end of 2014. Amounts of balance sheet (exploitable reserves of oil and condensates ranges from 9330,92 × 103 m3 in 2005, to 13 471,08 × 103 m3 in 2013, while extracted amounts are gradually declining from 1332,61 × 103 m3 to 639,96 × 103 m3. The ratio of extracted amounts and reserves is gradually declining, meaning that a slight increase in reserves does not affect the extracted amounts. Exploitable reserves of natural gas during the observed period fluctuate greatly. Being peaked in 2007, at 40,919.70 × 106 m3, they reached a low in 2014, at 17,932.98 × 106 m3. Unlike liquid hydrocarbons, the ratio of extracted and exploitable amounts is growing and peaked in 2014. Overall energy demands for oil in Croatia (shown as total consumption of crude oil amounted to 3032,8 × 103 m3 in 2013, while demands for natural gas amounted to 2809,90 × 106 m3. It is interesting to note that the consumption of oil is rapidly declining, which is a favorable trend from the standpoint of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. While needs are partly covered by domestic exploitation, the dependence on imports of oil and natural gas is still evident and ranges from 75% to 84% for oil and 28% to 46% for natural gas, without major changes to the trend. The amounts of processed hydrocarbons are declining gradually, especially motor gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel fuel amounts remain mostly the same. Further research as well as development of the exploitation of oil and natural gas is of paramount importance, especially by investing in cadre education and new technologies.

  14. A supply model for crude oil and natural gas in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.; Kobrosly, M.; Ghajar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Crude oil (CO) and natural gas (NG) play an important role in the world economy. The Arab countries (ACs) share 64% of the total oil reserves and 40% of the NG reserves [OPEC, 2003. The Annual Statistical Bulletin]. On the production side, ACs contribute to 30% and 9% of the world production of CO and NG, respectively. Accurate forecast models are needed to do better planning and create less risky business environment. In this paper, an econometric model is built to capture the behavior of CO and NG production in the ESCWA countries. The model is used to forecast future production trends of CO and NG, and thus provide a powerful tool for researchers, planners and investors working in the energy field

  15. Conditions of prospecting, development, production, and supply of oil and natural gas in Cameroun, Congo, and Ivory Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakami, Yoshimasa; Norisugi, Yoichi; Miyake, Keiji

    1988-08-01

    This paper reports the conditions of national affairs, oil industry, and prospecting, development, production of oil and natural gas in Ivory Coast in western Africa. All of oil and natural gas are produced in Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary basins on the continental margin off the coast of Ivory Coast and Ghana. In 1970 the first oil field (Belier) was discovered by the test boring drilled under the sea, and in 1980 Espoir Oil Field was discovered. No further new oil field, however, has been discovered since then. The total production until 1987, amounts to 45.55 million bbl and the minable reserve is estimated about 84 million bbl. The production reached the maximum 1984, and thereafter has gone down. Few plans of prospecting are carried out recently. (10 figs, 2 tabs)

  16. Environmental guidance documents for exploration, development, Production, and transportation of crude oil and natural gas in texas: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997-March 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, L.

    1997-01-01

    The following technical report provides a detailed status report of the DOE grant project entitled ''Environmental Guidance Documents for Exploration, Development, Production, and Transportation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Texas.'' The grant funding allocated is for the purpose of provided the Railroad Commission of Texas (Commission) with resources and capabilities to draft, publish and distribute documents that provide guidance to oil and gas operators on issues concerning oil and gas naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) waste, oil and gas hazardous waste, remediation of crude oil spills, management of non-hazardous oil and gas wastes, and mechanical integrity testing of Class II injection and disposal wells

  17. Global resources and energy trade. An overview for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remme, U.; Blesl, M.; Fahl, U.

    2007-07-15

    Despite efforts to improve energy effi-ciency and increase the usage of renewable energy carriers, fossil fuels and nuclear energy will continue to be important sources of global energy supply for the coming decades. Present global oil and gas supply is characterized by a concentration of production in a few world areas, mainly the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union, and a transport from these regions to the industrialized countries. Depletion of conventional reserves, especially oil, in combination with a surge for energy in emerging economies, as China and India, how-ever, is expected to change this picture in the future: unconventional resources in other world regions may be exploited to cover the surge energy demand, infrastructure for energy transport along new routes may have to be established. To provide a data base for such ques-tions, this report gives an overview of the current global resource situation for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. In the first part, an assessment of the con-ventional and unconventional reserves and resources as well as their supply costs is given for the different regions of the world. The second part describes the current energy trade infrastructure between world regions and estimates the costs for existing and new trade links between these regions. (orig.)

  18. The relevance of asymmetry issues for residential oil and natural gas demand: evidence from selected OECD countries, 1970-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Zoechling, J.

    1998-01-01

    In times of low oil prices, oil demand in OECD countries has not rebounded as textbook economic theory would suggest. On the other hand, natural gas demand has increased, despite prices being at almost the same level as in 1985. In this paper, the impact of volatile prices on oil demand is investigated. Different econometric approaches are applied. The major conclusions of these investigations are: (i) with respect to the the choice of fuels, strong patterns of asymmetry exist; (ii) the maximum historical oil price is the dominating parameter on residual oil demand; and (iii) volatile prices have a greater influence on energy demand than high but rather constant prices

  19. Handling of natural occurring radioactive deposits in the oil and gas industry in Norway, United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Tufto, P.

    1999-03-01

    Deposits containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in oil and gas production. Laws and regulations in this area is under preparation, and it is a wish for harmonization with the other oil and gas producing countries in the North Sea. The report gives an overview of amounts of waste and activity levels, decontamination methods and waste handling in Norway, Great Britain and the Netherlands

  20. Future role of oil and natural gas in OPEC and non-OPEC regions up to and beyond the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.H.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and Natural Gas are very much interrelated. They are both discovered in sedimentary basins and exist in nature in equilibrium under reservoir conditions deep inside the earth. In many cases, they are found associated with each other in the same reservoir rocks, and hence the name 'petroleum' is used to indicate both oil and natural gas. Their ultimate resources in nature are always comparable. It is, therefore, not surprising to find a close link between the price of natural gas and that of crude oil. It must be stated, however, that this parallel between oil and natural gas has its limits, since natural gas, unlike crude oil, is far from being an international commodity that could benefit from international trade on a global scale. In order to project the future role of oil and natural gas, it is essential to consider their past and present performances in the primary energy mix. (author)

  1. Natural gas storage in microporous carbon obtained from waste of the olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Solar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (AC were prepared from waste of the olive oil production in the Cuyo Region, Argentine by two standard methods: a physical activation by steam and b chemical activation with ZnCl2. The AC samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K and evaluated for natural gas storage purposes through the adsorption of methane at high pressures. The activated carbons showed micropore volumes up to 0.50 cm³.g-1 and total pore volumes as high as 0.9 cm³.g-1. The BET surface areas reached, in some cases, more than 1000 m².g-1. The methane adsorption -measured in the range of 1-35 bar- attained values up to 59 V CH4/V AC and total uptakes of more than 120 cm³.g-1 (STP. These preliminary results suggest that Cuyo's olive oil waste is appropriate for obtaining activated carbons for the storage of natural gas.

  2. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-05-31

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

  3. 75 FR 38093 - ConocoPhillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... natural gas reserves support the conclusion that there are sufficient supplies to satisfy local demand and... and/ or one or more other countries globally with which trading is not prohibited by U.S. law for a.... Department of Energy (FE-34), Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy...

  4. Characteristics of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas industries: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohd Noor Mohd Yunus; Sopian, K.; Amran Abd Majid

    1999-01-01

    Activities and work practices in which radiation exposure of workers and members of the public is increased due to the presence of NORM are receiving increased attention from regulatory agencies and, to lesser extent, from the general public. In Malaysia the main sources of NORM are from the technological activities of tin mining, ore and heavy mineral processing, combustion of coal to generate power, and oil and gas extraction. The crude oil sludge that contains NORM arising from the oil and gas extraction activities lately has received special attention by the Malaysian regulatory authorities. These crude oil sludge are considered as Scheduled Waste (contains heavy metals) by Department of Environmental (DOE) and very low level radioactive waste which contains NORM by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), and its cannot be disposed without permission and proper control. This paper reviewed the radiological behaviour and characteristic o NORM in the crude oil sludge from the oil and gas production activities in Malaysia. (Author)

  5. 40 CFR 60.4325 - What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil (or some other combination of fuels)? 60... both natural gas and distillate oil (or some other combination of fuels)? You must meet the emission... burning that fuel. Similarly, when your total heat input is greater than 50 percent distillate oil and...

  6. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  7. Peat and the greenhouse effect - Comparison of peat with coal, oil, natural gas and wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, K.

    1993-01-01

    The earth's climate is effected both by natural factors and human activities. So called greenhouse gas emissions increase the increment of the temperature of the air nearby the earth's surface, due to which the social changes can be large. The increment of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere is due to increasing energy consumption. About 50 % of the climatic changes are caused by increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. Other gases, formed in the energy production, intensifying the greenhouse effect are methane and nitrous oxide. The effect of greenhouse gases is based on their ability to absorb infrared radiation coming from the earth. This presentation discusses some of the greenhouse effect caused by some peat production and utilization chains in comparison with corresponding effects of coal, oil, natural gas and wood. The instantaneous greenhouse effects and the cumulative effects of the emissions of the gases (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) during a time period has been reviewed. The greenhouse effect has been calculated as CO 2 - equivalents. (5 figs.)

  8. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC

  9. Remote and Onsite Direct Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally responsible oil and gas production requires accurate knowledge of emissions from long-term production operations1, which can include methane, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants. Well pad emissions vary based on the geologically-determined com...

  10. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-permeability sandstones of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation cover about 45,000 mi2 (117,000 km2) of the Appalachian basin and may contain as much as 30 tcf of recoverable gas resources. Major reservoirs consist of the "Clinton" sandstone and Medina Group sandstones. The stratigraphically equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone increases the area of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation (LSRA) by another 30,000 mi2 (78,000 km2). Approximately 8.7 tcf of gas and 400 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Clinton/Medina reservoirs since 1880. The eastern predominantly gas-bearing part of the LSRA is a basin-center gas accumulation, whereas the western part is a conventional oil and gas accumulation with hybrid features of a basin-center accumulation. The basin-center accumulations have pervasive gas saturation, water near irreducible saturation, and generally low fluid pressures. In contrast, the hybrid-conventional accumulations have less-pervasive oil and gas saturation, higher mobile-water saturation, and both normal and abnormally low fluid pressures. High mobile-water saturation in the hybrid-conventional reservoirs form the updip trap for the basin-center gas creating a broad transition zone, tens of miles wide, that has characteristics of both end-member accumulation types. Although the Tuscarora Sandstone part of the basin-center gas accumulation is pervasively saturated with gas, most of its constituent sandstone beds have low porosity and permeability. Commercial gas fields in the Tuscarora Sandstone are trapped in naturally fractured, faulted anticlines. The origin of the LSRA includes (1) generation of oil and gas from Ordovician black shales, (2) vertical migration through an overlying 1000-ft (305-m)-thick Ordovician shale; (3) abnormally high fluid pressure created by oil-to-gas transformation; (4) updip displacement of mobile pore water by overpressured gas; (5) entrapment of pervasive gas in the basin center; (6) postorogenic

  11. Vital signs: oil supplies improving but natural gas tight enough to keep prices high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Canada's 1999 year-end oil reserves were boosted by 2.1 million barrels by the launch of new oil sands mining projects near Fort McMurray and revisions in two existing operations, offsetting a decline of 3.7 per cent in remaining conventional reserves. Total oil reserves at year end stood at some 11.9 billion barrels, up from 9.8 billion barrels a year earlier. Conventional crude reserves dropped to 4.37 billion barrels. Despite the decline, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) were encouraged by a 70 per cent replacement rate, on production of 441 million barrels of oil, despite low activity resulting from soft prices in early part of 1999. Production from offshore Newfoundland sites amounted to 38.6 million barrels; remaining reserves in the Hibernia and Terra Nova field are estimated at 868 million barrels. Meanwhile, natural gas reserves slipped by about a trillion cubic feet to about 61 trillion cubic feet, reflecting an 83 per cent replacement rate which, however, represented an improvement from 76 per cent in 1998. Reserves replacement in 2000 is expected to improve over 1999 due to improved prices resulting in increased activity in 2000 which is expected to continue into 2001. Despite improvements in replacement, consumers have much to worry about as far as further consumer price increases are concerned. The situation can be traced back to the summer 2000 storage injection period when supplies normally stored for use in the winter were sold instead, to take advantage of high prices. The injection for storage was reduced due largely to continued strong demand from the US electric power generating sector. This situation will continue, barring a dramatic softening of the US economy

  12. The Saskatchewan Environmental Assessment Act Guide to Proposal Development : oil and natural gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The manner in which requests for review of oil and natural gas projects are to be provided under the Environmental Assessment Act in Saskatchewan is described. The provisions of the Guide apply to all seismic projects on private or Crown lands, all drilling projects, flowline projects, access routes and production facilities on any land, except where the project is on cultivated land where it does not interfere with water bodies or endangered species. It also applies to any project that has the potential to meet the definition of 'development' under the Environmental Assessment Act. Basically, the following information is required for all proposals: (1) project description, (2) project evaluation, (3) description of proposed waste management practices, and (4) description of the proposed environmental monitoring. 4 refs

  13. Source signature of volatile organic compounds from oil and natural gas operations in northeastern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J B; Lerner, B M; Kuster, W C; de Gouw, J A

    2013-02-05

    An extensive set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in winter 2011 in order to investigate the composition and influence of VOC emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations in northeastern Colorado. BAO is 30 km north of Denver and is in the southwestern section of Wattenberg Field, one of Colorado's most productive O&NG fields. We compare VOC concentrations at BAO to those of other U.S. cities and summertime measurements at two additional sites in northeastern Colorado, as well as the composition of raw natural gas from Wattenberg Field. These comparisons show that (i) the VOC source signature associated with O&NG operations can be clearly differentiated from urban sources dominated by vehicular exhaust, and (ii) VOCs emitted from O&NG operations are evident at all three measurement sites in northeastern Colorado. At BAO, the reactivity of VOCs with the hydroxyl radical (OH) was dominated by C(2)-C(6) alkanes due to their remarkably large abundances (e.g., mean propane = 27.2 ppbv). Through statistical regression analysis, we estimate that on average 55 ± 18% of the VOC-OH reactivity was attributable to emissions from O&NG operations indicating that these emissions are a significant source of ozone precursors.

  14. Oil and gas in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The oil and gas industry in Bolivia is discussed. Typically, the hydrocarbon production of the Bolivian fields is made up of very light oil and natural gas, both of very good quality with no deleterious contaminants. About 80% of the production comes from gas condensate fields. At present, the proven gas reserves are more than 6 trillion cubic feet that have been available for the last 10 years, notwithstanding the fact that 200 million cubic feet per day are exported

  15. New oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.

    2004-01-01

    During the period 1999-2003, new oil and gas fields generated additional reserves of nearly 11 000 bcm of natural gas and 62 Gbbl of oil and condensates, volumes very much superior to those discovered in the five previous years. Two-thirds of these discoveries were located offshore, half in deep water. (author)

  16. Pricing the (European) option to switch between two energy sources: An application to crude oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatfaoui, Hayette

    2015-01-01

    We consider a firm, which can choose between crude oil and natural gas to run its business. The firm selects the energy source, which minimizes its energy or production costs at a given time horizon. Assuming the energy strategy to be established over a fixed time window, the energy choice decision will be made at a given future date T. In this light, the firm's energy cost can be considered as a long position in a risk-free bond by an amount of the terminal oil price, and a short position in a European put option to switch from oil to gas by an amount of the terminal oil price too. As a result, the option to switch from crude oil to natural gas allows for establishing a hedging strategy with respect to energy costs. Modeling stochastically the underlying asset of the European put, we propose a valuation formula of the option to switch and calibrate the pricing formula to empirical data on a daily basis. Hence, our innovative framework handles widely the hedge against the price increase of any given energy source versus the price of another competing energy source (i.e. minimizing energy costs). Moreover, we provide a price for the cost-reducing effect of the capability to switch from one energy source to another one (i.e. hedging energy price risk). - Highlights: • We consider a firm, which chooses either crude oil or natural gas as an energy source. • The capability to switch offers the firm a hedge against energy commodity price risk. • A European put option prices the ability to switch from crude oil to natural gas. • The capability to switch between two energy sources reduces the firm's energy costs. • The discount illustrates the efficiency of the energy management policy (e.g. timing).

  17. U. S. EPA voluntary programs and the oil and gas industry : Natural Gas STAR and Energy STAR Buildings Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnung, P.

    2000-01-01

    The structure of two EPA programs directed towards wasted energy in buildings, reducing emissions, increasing energy efficiency and maximizing profits are described. The programs are based on a partnership approach between EPA and participants, and involve elements of plans and performance benchmarks, an integrated approach and communications and demonstration of successful initiatives. EPA provides planning and technical support in the form of a website, software tools, manuals, electronic sources and a purchasing tool kit. The Energy STAR Building Partnership has over 3,000 participants, and can boast of a cumulative saving of over $ 1.4 billion in energy bills and carbon dioxide emission reduction of 44.1 billion pounds, resulting from efficiency upgrades. The Natural Gas Partnership between the EPA and the oil and natural gas industry to cost effectively reduce methane emissions from the production, transmission, and distribution of natural gas also has had a number of successful initiatives such as replacement or retrofit of high bleed pneumatic devices, installation of flash tank separators on glycol dehydrators and other partner-reported projects such as replacement of wet seals with dry seals on compressors and connecting glycol pump to vapour recovery unit. As a results of these and other initiatives, annual methane emission was reduced by 22.2 bcf in 1998 as opposed to 3.4 bcf prior to the beginning of the program in 1993. Approximately 67 per cent of all reductions can be attributed to partner innovation. Overall assessment is that the program is innovative, achieves both economic and environmental goals, facilitates government and industry cooperation and is living proof that non-regulatory, cooperative programs work

  18. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  19. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2003-12-15

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers to make timely, informed technology decisions. Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 3 Satellite Offices that encompass all of the oil- and natural gas-producing regions in the U.S. Active volunteer leadership from the Board and regional Producer Advisory Groups keeps activities focused on producer's needs. Technical expertise and personal networks of national and regional staff enable PTTC to deliver focused, technology-related information in a manner that is cost and time effective for independents. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with matching state and industry funding, forming a unique partnership. This final report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments. In this final fiscal year of the contract, activities exceeded prior annual activity levels by significant percentages. Strategic planning implemented during the year is focusing PTTC's attention on changes that will bear fruit in the future. Networking and connections are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the service sector. PTTC's reputation for unbiased bottom-line information stimulates cooperative ventures. In FY03 PTTC's regions held 169 workshops, drawing 8,616 attendees. There were nearly 25,000 reported contacts. This represents a 38% increase in attendance and 34% increase in contacts as compared to FY02 activity. Repeat attendance at regional workshops, a measure of customer satisfaction and value received, remained strong at 50%. 39% of participants in regional workshops respond ''Yes'' on feedback forms when asked if they are applying technologies based on knowledge gained through PTTC. This feedback

  20. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized

  1. Natural Resources Investment of Oil and Gas and Regional Development Impact on Community Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Nyak Baik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in Bekasi district, at West Java, Indonesia, with the aims to analyze the management of upstream activities (exploration and production of oil and gas industry and its impact on improving the quality of infrastructure, the equal benefits proportion for the corporation, local government and society, and CSR programs that would affect the community empowerment. The analysis would be calculated based on the per capita income, the number of medical personals, and the number of teachers. Based on that calculation, this study analyzed the impact of oil and gas activities to the regional development of the area under this study. Analysis of regional development was calculated through number of industry in the area, the economic growth, and local government revenue that affects community empowerment in Bekasi.Analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM, the results showed that: (1 management of upstream oil and gas activities in this area have a positive influence, but no significant effect on community empowerment; (2 management of upstream oil and gas activities have a significant positive impact on regional development; (3 regional development has a significant positive impact on community empowerment; (4 management of upstream oil and gas activities have a greater positive influence towards community empowerment through regional development, because of the multiplier effect of the development of the region.

  2. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  3. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  4. Strong increase of profits from oil and natural gas exploitation; Sterke stijging van opbrengsten uit olie- en gaswinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graveland, C.; Veldhuizen, E.; Schenau, S.; Van den Bergen, D. [Centraal Breau voor de Statistiek, Voorburg/Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    The amount of oil and natural gas reserves in the Netherlands decreases, although the value of the reserves has increased considerably. The profits are used by the Dutch government in the form of so-called natural gas benefits. [Dutch] De omvang van de Nederlandse olie- en gasreserves daalt gestaag. Desondanks is de waarde van de resterende aardolie- en aardgasreserves flink toegenomen. Dit wordt grotendeels verklaard doordat de winning van olie en gas steeds meer opbrengt. De hogere opbrengsten komen vooral ten goede aan de overheid in de vorm van aardgasbaten, maar ook de winningsbedrijven profiteren er van.

  5. 78 FR 17835 - Approval and Promulgation of Federal Implementation Plan for Oil and Natural Gas Well Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...: One commenter stated that the EPA needs to control air quality because hydraulic fracturing (``fracking'') is under-regulated. Response: The majority of oil and natural gas wells drilled today are hydraulically fractured. Hydraulic fracturing occurs when wells are being completed and recompleted. NSPS OOOO...

  6. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  7. Carbon Nanomaterials for Detection, Assessment and Purification of Oil and Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau

    This thesis studies several carbon nanomaterials. Their synthesis and characterization are studied as well as their potential applications to the oil industry. The carbon nanomaterials studied here include mesoporous carbon (CMK-3), sulfur- or nitrogen-doped porous carbon (SPC or NPC), and commercial carbon black (CB). Through appropriate functionalization, these carbon nanomaterials exhibit unique properties and their performances in detection, assessment as well as purification of oil and natural gas are studied and demonstrated. First, it was shown that amine-modified CMK-3 composites, polyethylenimine-CMK-3 (PEI-CMK-3) and polyvinylamine-CMK-3 (PVA-CMK-3) can be synthesized through in situ polymerization of amine species within the channels of the CMK-3. The synthesis process results in the entrapped amine polymers interpenetrating the composite frameworks of the CMK-3, improving the CO2 capture performance and recycle stability. CO2 uptake by the synthesized composites was determined using a gravimetric method at 30°C and 1 atm; the 39% PEI-CMK-3 composite had ˜12 wt% (3.1 mmol/g) CO2 uptake capacity and the 37% PVA-CMK-3 composite had ˜13 wt% (3.5 mmol/g) CO 2 uptake capacity. A desorption temperature of 75°C was sufficient for regeneration. The CO2 uptake was the same when using 10% CO 2 in a 90% CH4, C2H6 and C3H 8 mixture, underscoring this composite's efficacy for CO 2 sequestration from natural gas. Secondly, nucleophilic porous carbons (SPC and NPC) were synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulfur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. A strong sorbate-sorbent interaction between CO2 and nucleophilic centers in the porous carbon was established using spectroscopic and heat of sorption data. Raman spectroscopy supports the assertion that the nucleophilic centers react with the CO2 to produce carbonate anions that further cause polymerization in the porous carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressure than previously reported for such

  8. The local content approach in activities of exploration and production of oil and gas; Conteudo local nas atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederice, Jose Carlos [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Conteudo Local; Macedo, Marcelo Mafra Borges de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regulacao de Petroleo e Derivados

    2008-07-01

    Breaking the monopoly of PETROBRAS for the activities of exploration and production of oil and natural gas has occurred in Brazil in 1995 by the Constitutional Amendment No 9 followed by the promulgation of the Law 9.478 of 1997, the 'Law of Oil' and the creation of the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo - ANP, with powers to regulate, recruit and monitor the oil and natural gas industry. The new regulatory framework has established the award granted by the State, through bids organized by the ANP, of the oil and gas exploration and production activities. This new model has established that the offers to purchase blocks must be composed by the Signature Bonus, Minimum Exploration Program and percentages of Local Content for the stages of exploration and development of production. As a result of market opening and the completion of bids over these 10 years, there has been a significant expansion of investment in the industry, revealing that the demands of Local Content rightly acted as a strong mechanism inducing the participation of local industry supplier of goods and services. In practical terms, in 1997 the participation of the sector of oil and gas in the Brazilian GDP was approximately 2.5% and now comes to 10.5%, or each R$ 100.00 generated in the country, R$ 10.50 come from the sector of oil and gas. (author)

  9. OPEC and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, A.M.; Shahbudaghlou, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of OPEC Member Countries in the natural gas industry in the past, present and future. It notes a tenfold increase in marketed production and a fourfold rise in re-injection since 1970. Collectively, Members now hold 41 per cent of the world's proven gas reserves and account for 20 per cent of exports. Individually, four of these countries hold position 2-5 in the world gas reserve rankings. Within OPEC, however, there remains an emphasis of oil over gas, not least because of oil's favourable position with regard to revenue-generation and profitability. As global demand continues on its upward growth curve in a more environmentally aware world, OPEC's gas horizons will widen. OPEC's strong reserve base will give its Members an undeniable role to play on the future global gas stage. However, these countries will give priority to domestic usage, particularly re-injection schemes

  10. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  11. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Caspian Sea region historically has been an oil and natural gas producer, but many believe that the region contains large reserves of oil and gas capable of much greater production than at present...

  12. Assessment of Satellite Capabilities to Detect Impacts of Oil and Natural Gas Activity by Analysis of SONGNEX 2015 Aircraft Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, M. P.; Keutsch, F. N.; Wolfe, G.; St Clair, J. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Aikin, K. C.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W.; Eilerman, S. J.; Gilman, J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Thompson, C. R.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Wild, R. J.; Womack, C.; Yuan, B.; Zarzana, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, the rate of domestic energy production from oil and natural gas has grown dramatically, resulting in increased concurrent emissions of methane and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as tropospheric ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA), have detrimental impacts on human health and climate. The ability to monitor these emissions and their impact on atmospheric composition from remote-sensing platforms will benefit public health by improving air quality forecasts and identifying localized drivers of tropospheric pollution. New satellite-based instruments, such as TROPOMI (October 2017 launch) and TEMPO (2019-2021 projected launch), will be capable of measuring chemical species related to energy drilling and production on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales, however there is need for improved assessments of their capabilities with respect to specific applications. We use chemical and physical parameters measured via aircraft in the boundary layer and free troposphere during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX 2015) field campaign to view chemical enhancements over tight oil and shale gas basins from a satellite perspective. Our in-situ data are used to calculate the planetary boundary layer contributions to the column densities for formaldehyde, glyoxal, O3, and NO2. We assess the spatial resolution and chemical precisions necessary to resolve various chemical features, and compare these limits to TEMPO and TROPOMI capabilities to show the degree to which their retrievals will be able to discern the signatures of oil and natural gas activity.

  13. Natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many electric utilities and industrial boiler fuel users have invested in dual fuel use capability which has allowed them to choose between natural gas, residual fuel oil, and in some instances, coal as boiler fuels. The immediate reason for this investment was the need for security of supply. Wellhead regulation of natural gas prices had resulted in shortages during the 1970s. Because many industrial users were given lowest priority in pipeline curtailments, these shortages affected most severely boiler fuel consumption of natural gas. In addition, foreign supply disruptions during the 1970s called into question the ready availability of oil. Many boiler fuel users of oil responded by increasing their ability to diversify to other sources of energy. Even though widespread investment in dual fuel use capability by boiler fuel users was initially motivated by a need for security of supply, perhaps the most important consequence of this investment was greater substitutability between natural gas and resid and a more competitive boiler fuel market. By the early 1980s, most boiler fuel users were able to switch from one fuel to another and often did for savings measured in pennies per MMBtu. Boiler fuel consumption became the marginal use of both natural gas and resid, with coal a looming threat on the horizon to both fuels

  14. Oil and gas -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A.

    1994-06-01

    This report deals with the use of oil-, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) during 1993. Information about markets and technical environmental questions are also given. Data have been collected from earlier reports, information given by different persons and statistics from SCB and SPI. The import of crude oil increased from 16,8 million tons in 1992 to 17,8 million tons in 1993. The import of oil products decreased by 0,9 million tons down to 6,7 million tons in the same period. During this period, the import of natural gas increased by 9%, a total of 817 million cubic meters. The import of LPG was 748000 tons in 1993, which is 61000 tons less compared to the import of 1992. The production in Sweden for 1993 was 290000 tons, the same level as the level reached in 1992. The export of LPG increased from 107000 tons to 138000 tons during this period. In January 1993, legislative changes were made concerning energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes. The rate of the latter was increased from 25 to 32 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere. For industry and greenhouse production, the penalty rate is only 25% or 8 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide. From 1995 to 1998, yearly increases in the rate of energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes will be based on the consumer price index. Taxes will be increased by 4% in 1994. Due to changes in energy taxes, the consumption of LPG decreased in 1993. Earlier, many industries had changed from oil to LPG but now have changed back to oil. 8 figs, 17 tabs

  15. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  16. Oil and natural gas strategies for North American energy markets: a submission by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This proposal by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) focuses on improving North American energy markets and addressing the challenges involved in meeting continental energy requirements by urging a renewed policy effort to enhance the current market-based policies of free trade and competition that have already proven to respond to market changes better than command-control government policies. The proposal urges new strategies to support development of the oil and natural gas resources of North America, and the development of additional infrastructure to bring oil and natural gas supplies to market. The new strategy should be based on the success of free trade to increase non-discriminatory treatment of energy investment and trade in energy commodities, recognize resource development in North America as a policy priority, and reform regulatory practices to facilitate responsible, market-driven resource activity. The new strategy should also ensure competitive tax and royalty regimes as well as consistent and compatible environmental policies that eliminate layering and duplication and are competitive among the various jurisdictions. It should also recognize the continental and global nature of energy supply and the increasing interdependence of the partner nations' economies, encourage research and development, and ensure co-ordinated action on frontier natural gas development within a framework of inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Overall, the document is a thorough, credible presentation of the first principles of the oil and gas markets and an important first step towards influencing energy policy on a continental scale. 2 maps, 5 figs

  17. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  18. Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in real-time on oil and natural gas production sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupardus, R.; Franklin, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Oil and Natural Gas (O&NG) development, production, infrastructure, and associated processing activities can be a substantial source of air pollution, yet relevant data and real-time quantification methods are lacking. In the current study, O&NG fugitive emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were quantified in real-time and used to determine the spatial and temporal windows of exposure for proximate flora and fauna. Eleven O&NG sites on the Pawnee National Grassland in Northeastern Colorado were randomly selected and grouped according to production along with 13 control sites from three geographical locations. At each site, samples were collected 25 m from the wellhead in NE, SE, and W directions. In each direction, two samples were collected with a Gasmet DX4040 gas analyzer every hour from 8:00 am to 2:00 pm (6 hours total), July to October, 2016 (N=864). VOC concentrations generally increased during the 6 hr. day with the exception of N2O and were predominately the result of O&NG production and not vehicle exhaust. Thirteen of 24 VOCs had significantly different levels between production groups, frequently above reference standards and at biologically relevant levels for flora and fauna. The most biologically relevant VOCs, found at concentrations exceeding time weighted average permissible exposure limits (TWA PELs), were benzene and acrolein. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) measured the relative quality of statistical models predicting benzene concentrations on sites. The data not only confirms that O&NG emissions are impacting the region, but also that this influence is present at all sites, including controls. Increased real-time VOC monitoring on O&NG sites is required to identify and contain fugitive emissions and to protect human and environmental health.

  19. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  20. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  1. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  2. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a directory of enterprises under the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the former USSR and is published for winter 1991 through spring 1992. It contains names and addresses for associations, institutes, design and engineering offices, oil and gas drilling administrations, and gas processing plants

  3. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  4. Development of a multi-fuel burner for operation with light oil, natural gas and low calorific value gas; Entwicklung eines Mehrstoffbrenners fuer Heizoel-, Erdgas- und Schwachgasbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, Anne; Tali, Eren [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    In the course of the AiF research project 'Development of a multi-fuel burner for operation with natural gas, light oil and low calorific value gas (MSB)' (IGF Grant No. 16202 N), various burner concepts based on the principle of continuously staged air were developed, analysed by means of computational fluid dynamics, built, investigated experimentally and finally tested at a real biomass gasifier (plant). This article describes the results of this research project. (orig.)

  5. Water quality in the vicinity of Mosquito Creek Lake, Trumbull County, Ohio, in relation of the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, G.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Ryder, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe current water quality and the chemistry of oil, natural gas, and brine in the Mosquito Creek Lake area. Additionally, these data are used to characterize water quality in the Mosquito Creek Lake area in relation to past oil and natural gas well drilling and production. To meet the overall objective, several goals for this investigation were established. These include (1) collect water-quality and subsurface-gas data from shallow sediments and rock that can be used for future evaluation of possible effects of oil and natural gas well drilling and production on water supplies, (2) characterize current surface-water and ground-water quality as it relates to the natural occurrence and (or) release of oil, gas, and brine (3) sample and chemically characterize the oil in the shallow Mecca Oil Pool, gas from the Berea and Cussewago Sandstone aquifers, and the oil, gas, and brine from the Clinton sandstone, and (4) identify areas where aquifers are vulnerable to contamination from surface spills at oil and natural gas drilling and production sites

  6. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Economic analysis of energy system considering the uncertainties of crude oil, natural gas and nuclear utilization employing stochastic dynamic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Keita; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an economic rationality analysis of power generation mix by stochastic dynamic programming considering fuel price uncertainties and supply disruption risks such as import disruption and nuclear power plant shutdown risk. The situation revolving around Japan's energy security adopted the past statistics, it cannot be applied to a quantitative analysis of future uncertainties. Further objective and quantitative evaluation methods are required in order to analyze Japan's energy system and make it more resilient in sight of long time scale. In this paper, the authors firstly develop the cost minimization model considering oil and natural gas price respectively by stochastic dynamic programming. Then, the authors show several premises of model and an example of result with related to crude oil stockpile, liquefied natural gas stockpile and nuclear power plant capacity. (author)

  8. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  9. The U.S. natural gas and oil resource base is abundant; but can we produce what the country needs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies agree that the United States has abundant resources of gas and oil left to find and produce over the next 50--75 years -- if its exploration and production companies are given the resources to do the job. The NPC's estimate of 1,295 TCF of natural gas (advanced technology case) represents a resource/present production ration of 68 years. A similar estimate for oil gives 62 years. Furthermore, these resource estimates have been increasing through the 1980s, as the effects of new geological, geophysical, and engineering technologies has become more apparent. However, only 30% of this tremendous resource will be available under today's business-as-usual economic regime. The rest of the resource will be accessed if: (1) tax policies (and financial and trade policies) are adopted to stabilize prices and stimulate exploration and production (estimated 27% of the resource base); (2) technology is developed, transferred, and used (17%); (3) environmental regulation is held to a balanced level, considers economic costs as well as environmental benefits, and is applied consistently (13%); (4) access to Federal lands is eased for environmentally responsible drilling and development (13%). To convert America's gas and oil resources into delivered products in a timely manner, assuring the nation's gas users of a reliable supply -- and contribute up to $8.7 trillion to the nation's economy -- a doubling of industry effort is required, even at today's high levels of finding and producing efficiency. Coordinated action by industry, government, and the investment community is required to secure the future development of energy supplies. Government in particular must develop policies that encourage the needed investment in America's natural gas and oil

  10. A decade of changes in nitrogen oxides over regions of oil and natural gas activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Majid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO2 + NO are a highly regulated species that play a major role in the formation of photochemical smog. While NOx emissions are generally decreasing over the U.S. as a result of more stringent environmental policies and improved emissions control technologies, the shale oil and natural gas industry is reversing this rate of changes in certain regions. We present here a quantitative analysis of NOx levels over the seven main U.S. shale plays (Bakken, Eagle Ford, Permian, Niobrara-Codell, Marcellus-Utica, Haynesville, and Barnett between 2005 and 2015 using measurements of tropospheric NO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI aboard the NASA EOS-Aura aircraft. We develop and apply a methodology that seeks to maximise pollutant signals from oil and gas activities. For reference, we also examine the national trend averaged over the lower 48 states. Consistent with previous studies, we find NOx across the U.S. is generally declining. During the low-production phase of oil and natural gas production (2005–2009, we find declining trends in tropospheric NOx that are similar to the national trend (–4.6% yr–1 in 6 of the 7 study regions (–8 to –2% yr–1. In the high-production phase (2010–15, we find an increasing NOx trend in 5 of the 7 study basins (0.4 to 4.5% yr–1 while the national trend continued to decline (–0.3% yr–1. Over the most intensive oil-producing shale plays (Bakken, Eagle Ford, Permian and Niobrara-Codell, we observe a rapid growth (1–4.5% yr–1, which correlates well (r2 = 0.6–0.9 with their annual oil production rates and/or drilling rigs. In contrast, trends across the mainly gas-producing regions (Haynesville, Barnett, and Marcellus-Utica show decreases (–0.4 to –1.7% yr–1 similar to the national trend, with the exception of the Marcellus-Utica where a slight increase (0.4 ± 0.2% yr–1 may be an indication of a small regional increase. Our study shows the important decadal

  11. Legal analysis of assignments of law in the industry of oil and natural gas; Analise juridica das cessoes de direito nos contratos de concessao da industria do petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Rayssa Cunha; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This study has the objective to examine, even briefly, some issues related to the Assignments carried out by the Industry of Oil and Natural Gas (IONG). To that end, it was made a brief explanation about the oil market after its flexibility and entry of new private agents in the market, as well as about the main tasks of the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP in the conclusion of the concession contracts for the IONG, making a parallel between the species, as well as discussions about the legal nature of the latter, presenting some doctrinal positions that reflects these differences. Then, shows the institute of Assignment of rights of the concession contracts for the IONG, bringing its concept and characteristics, its legal and constitutional forecast, their legal treatment and established procedure in the contracts, highlighting its importance for the market dynamics of oil and natural gas. (author)

  12. The Nature of Temporally Variable Methane Emissions at Oil and Natural Gas Operations in the Eagle Ford Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, T. N.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Stirm, B. H.; Conley, S. A.; Mehrotra, S.; Faloona, I. C.; Mayfield, M.; Lyon, D. R.; Alvarez, R.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the current state of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from oil and gas operations, policy makers refer to national inventories and reporting programs, and therefore, it is imperative that these reports are accurate and representative. Many studies exist that investigate the reliability of current monitoring methods, however, to our knowledge the temporal variability of the magnitude and source of methane (CH4) emissions from oil and gas facilities has not been reported in the literature. We present results from a field campaign conducted in June 2014 in the Eagle Ford basin, Texas to assess the temporal variability of emissions from a variety of facilities using data obtained through four different methods. The variability of total CH4 emission rate from individual facilities was investigated by repeated measurement of emissions from five gathering facilities using two aircraft-based mass balance approaches. Basin-wide emissions variation was examined by conducting a series of eight four hour afternoon aerial surveys of two 35 x 35 km areas, with transects oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. The emission source-type and magnitude were further investigated using helicopter-based FLIR camera observations conducted repeatedly at eight oil wells, one gas well, and four gathering facilities. Results indicate a high degree of variability in day-to-day and sometimes hour-to-hour CH4 emissions magnitude. FLIR camera observations suggest that the component-level source of facility emissions is also highly variable over time, with both storage tank vent stacks and tank hatches representing important components of the observed day-to-day variability. While some emissions were due to scheduled maintenance, others appeared to occur due to faulty and/or aging equipment. Here we discuss what was learned in terms of factors that explain the observed emission rate variability.

  13. Cyber-Spatial Academic Networking for Energy (Oil, Natural Gas, Electricity Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers of society/sociology recently espoused the concept of a new society and its new paradigm distinguished from the old that was based on industry and the energy forms that drove them since the industrial revolution. The new society which is driven by information and communications technologies (ICTs has created the network society whereby cyber-spatial (internet-based platforms operate in leveraging previous and conventional interaction among researchers concerned with single subjects and/or multi-disciplinary research projects, exchanges of ideas, opinions, concerns/worries, viewpoints, project management, among other issues in the nexus of developing and applying academic knowledge. While most of those that are popularly used are of the universal (non-specific nationality or global character, fairly country-specific (i.e. restricted membership or nation-focused cyber-spatial platforms present opportunities for enhancing or optimizing the profit of academic interaction and exchanges that concentrate on challenges that are limited to one country but promote greater understanding among those academics involved compared to the rather universal cyber-spatial platforms. Here, we conceive and hypothetically theorize a cyber-spatial platform for enhancing interaction among Nigerian scholars and academics concerned with energy which has been driving industry. Examined in this article are: contexts of scholarship in Nigeria (tertiary educational institutions, research and knowledge needs for sustainable development; the network society as a suitable framework for theoretically framing the cyber-spatial platform; an exemplary multi-disciplinary approach for multi-disciplinary petroleum oil, natural gas and energy concentrating on (or drawing from the social sciences; management of the program; discussion and conclusion. The implications of this article for policy is that while the National Universities’ Commission and the Federal Ministry of

  14. The importance of Norway in the oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    2006-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the global energy markets with emphasis on the Northern areas and the importance of Norway. The energy supplies and prices, the OPEC role, the role of Norway and Russia in the natural gas markets and energy policies are discussed. Various risk aspects particularly for Norway are mentioned. (tk)

  15. Potential for natural gas to displace oil in response to the Middle East crisis and the implications for the GRI R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Webb, D.O.

    1990-11-01

    Although the significance of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait is indeterminate, a move toward more efficient use of energy in end use applications and increased reliance on domestic energy sources is anticipated. The short and long term potential for natural gas to displace oil in end use applications is analyzed and R and D initiatives are proposed that would accelerate the development of technology by GRI and the gas industry necessary to maximize the substitution of gas for oil

  16. Source Signature of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas operations in Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Warneke, C.; Holloway, J. S.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Young, C. J.; Edwards, P.; Brown, S. S.; Wolfe, D. E.; Williams, E. J.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration has reported a sharp increase in domestic oil and natural gas production from "unconventional" reserves (e.g., shale and tight sands) between 2005 and 2012. The recent growth in drilling and fossil fuel production has led to environmental concerns regarding local air quality. Severe wintertime ozone events (greater than 100 ppb ozone) have been observed in Utah's Uintah Basin and Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin, both of which contain large natural gas fields. Raw natural gas is a mixture of approximately 60-95 mole percent methane while the remaining fraction is composed of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other non-hydrocarbon gases. We measured an extensive set of VOCs and other trace gases near two highly active areas of oil and natural gas production in Utah's Uintah Basin and Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin in order to characterize primary emissions of VOCs associated with these industrial operations and identify the key VOCs that are precursors for potential ozone formation. UBWOS (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study) was conducted in Uintah County located in northeastern Utah in January-February 2012. Two Colorado studies were conducted at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Weld County in northeastern Colorado in February-March 2011 and July-August 2012 as part of the NACHTT (Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower) and SONNE (Summer Ozone Near Natural gas Emissions) field experiments, respectively. The C2-C6 hydrocarbons were greatly enhanced for all of these studies. For example, the average propane mixing ratio observed during the Utah study was 58 ppb (median = 35 ppb, minimum = 0.8, maximum = 520 ppb propane) compared to urban averages which range between 0.3 and 6.0 ppb propane. We compare the ambient air composition from these studies to urban measurements in order to show that the VOC source signature from oil and natural gas operations is distinct and can be clearly

  17. Have oil and gas prices got separated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdős, Péter

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies vector error correction models that show that oil and natural gas prices decoupled around 2009. Before 2009, US and UK gas prices had a long-term equilibrium with crude prices to which gas prices always reverted after exogenous shocks. Both US and UK gas prices adjusted to the crude oil price individually, and departure from the equilibrium gas price on one continent resulted in a similar departure on the other. After an exogenous shock, the adjustment between US and UK gas prices took approximately 20 weeks on average, and the convergence was mediated mainly by crude oil with a necessary condition that arbitrage across the Atlantic was possible. After 2009, however, the UK gas price has remained integrated with oil price, but the US gas price decoupled from crude oil price and the European gas price, as the Atlantic arbitrage has halted. The oversupply from shale gas production has not been mitigated by North American export, as there has been no liquefying and export capacity. - Highlights: ► VEC models are applied to investigate the relationship between oil and natural gas prices. ► While natural gas prices in Europe and Asia react to oil price, US gas price decoupled from oil in 2009. ► Since 2009, the US gas price has decoupled from the European and Asian gas prices.

  18. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  19. Greenhouse effects of the peat production and use as compared to coal, oil, natural gas and wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, K.; Wihersaari, M.

    1993-01-01

    This report examines the greenhouse effects of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) arising from certain production and utilization chains of peat and compares them with the corresponding effects associated with the production and utilization chains of coal, oil, natural gas and wood. In order to estimate the greenhouse effects of the peat production and utilization chains, the initial state of the peat bog together with the instantaneous and cumulative greenhouse effects associated with the production and burning of peat as well as subsequent use of the production area were taken into account. The initial state of the peat bog was taken to be either a bog in its natural sale, a forest-drained bog or a cultivated peatland. As regards alternatives for subsequent use of the peat production area, afforestation, paludification and lake formation were all examined

  20. International oil and gas finance review 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This first edition covers financing projects in the developing world, mergers and acquisitions; mitigating cross-border risk; basic risk in energy markets; real-time oil and gas pricing issues; oil and gas equity; risk management; project finance. The yearbook also features more regional specific topics such as: gas transportation in the Mercosur; 25 years of growth in the UAE; natural gas in Mexico; LNG in the Far East; legal issues surrounding the Russian oil and gas industry; LNG projects in the Middle East; the North Sea; and financing the oil and gas industry of Southern and South Africa. (UK)

  1. North Africa oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade, Algeria, Egypt and Libya have improved their fiscal terms for oil and gas development to attract more investment in this area. As a group, the three countries are implementing plans to increase crude oil production capacity 16 % from 3.15 million barrels per day (Mb/d) in 1995 to 3.65 Mb/d in the year 2000. Natural gas liquid are also being developed and their production capacity is planned to increase 30 % to 0.82 Mb/d in 2000. Concurrently, natural gas production capacity is being expanded about 50 % by 200 and natural gas exporting capacity should see a 92 % increase in 2000 over 1995 levels in short, the North Africa hydrocarbon producers are rapidly expanding their production and export capacity of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. This is the first IEA study to focus on North Africa. It shows how changing hydrocarbon legislation or production sharing agreements can result in changes in crude oil and natural gas production capacity. Much of the expansion outlined in this study is being guided by international oil companies attracted by the improved fiscal terms

  2. Rentierism in the Algerian economy based on oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machin Alvarez, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    This essay analyzes Algeria's degree of adaptation toward possessing the constituent features of an oil and gas rentier economy, and whether its current status could be threatened by changes to its energy policy. With this aim, the article first uses empirical evidence to analyze different rentier features of the Algerian economy (the importance of the hydrocarbon sector, Algerian NOC Sonatrach's role in energy policy and revenue distribution). Second, the circuit that perpetuates rentier logic is described, the main conclusion being that the Algerian economy does indeed offer the very conditions that guarantee the self-perpetuation of rentierism. However, this conclusion is jeopardized by uncertainties stemming from two potential changes in the national status of the hydrocarbons sector: a greater presence of foreign hydrocarbon companies in Algeria, and growing internationalization by Sonatrach.

  3. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-05-01

    During FY00, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTTC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  4. Rentierism in the Algerian economy based on oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machin Alvarez, Alejandra [Grupo de Investigacion sobre Economia Politica de la Mundializacion, Departamento de Economia Aplicada I, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This essay analyzes Algeria's degree of adaptation toward possessing the constituent features of an oil and gas rentier economy, and whether its current status could be threatened by changes to its energy policy. With this aim, the article first uses empirical evidence to analyze different rentier features of the Algerian economy (the importance of the hydrocarbon sector, Algerian NOC Sonatrach's role in energy policy and revenue distribution). Second, the circuit that perpetuates rentier logic is described, the main conclusion being that the Algerian economy does indeed offer the very conditions that guarantee the self-perpetuation of rentierism. However, this conclusion is jeopardized by uncertainties stemming from two potential changes in the national status of the hydrocarbons sector: a greater presence of foreign hydrocarbon companies in Algeria, and growing internationalization by Sonatrach. (author)

  5. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    1999-12-01

    During FY99, the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. PTfC's national organization has active grassroots programs that connect with independents through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). These activities--including technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, and other outreach efforts--are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs). The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY99, which lay the groundwork for further growth in the future.

  6. Radiation risk from natural radioactivity in oil and gas production industry. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, M A [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This paper throws light on the natural radioactive materials as well as the radiation background level in Egypt and other global areas. It also describes the deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity as well as the gamma-ray exposure rate primarily due to {sub 226} Ra and daughters which concentrate as scale or sludge in oil field piping and equipment. The potential hazards arising during normal operation, maintenance, and cleaning are considered. Occupational annual personnel doses are estimated and examined relative to work function. The measures to reduce occupational radiation exposure and radioactive contamination were investigated. The data indicated that relatively higher exposure rates are associated with areas around water discharge system, separator and descaling operations where the dose rates varying between 0.02-6 m R/h. The annual collective effective dose equivalent was estimated about 4.58 man-Rem, and the mean annual dose equivalent of about 120 mrem were measured. 3 tabs.

  7. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  8. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Duttlinger

    2001-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2001 (FY01). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs). They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact to R&D efforts. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY01, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and wide market movements, the organization itself is adapting to change. PTTC has built a reputation and expectation among producers and other industry participants to quickly distribute information addressing technical needs. The organization

  9. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2000 (FY00). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) who bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors connect with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the Regional Lead Organizations. The role of the national headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation-wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal, state, and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during FY00, which lays the groundwork for further growth in the future. At a time of many industry changes and market movements, the organization has built a reputation and expectation to address industry needs of getting information distributed quickly which can impact the bottom line immediately.

  10. Mexico: 'oil mentality' at last accepts a role for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, R.

    1992-01-01

    The history of Mexico's policy of concentrating on oil and treating natural gas as a nuisance is traced. The current redefinition of natural gas policies by PEMEX, Mexico's giant oil and gas state monopoly, and the expanding petrochemical industry are discussed. Proven reserves of natural gas, imports of gas from the US, and the growing demand for gas products are considered. (UK)

  11. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  12. Treatment and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the oil and gas industry. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Ruediger B.; Schmuelling, Marcus; Hosemann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Concerning naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from the oil/ and gas industry most of the industrial countries were lacking clear regulatory frameworks in waste legislation for many years. In the meanwhile on several places in Europe, but also in some of the GCC states in the Middle East such as in the United Arab Emirates and in Oman specialized treatment facilities are either in the stage of construction or already in operation. In particular, pilot plants for the decontamination of NORM-contaminated equipment have been tested recently. The paper reflects on the generation and the technical characterization of NORM but also the legislation compared on international level. Particularly an overview was provided by comparing the common practice on disposal in the North American Countries in comparison to Germany, the UK but also Australia. In addition the successful treatment of produced water from crude oil separation in a ''Constructed Wetland'' in the Sultanate Oman is briefly highlighted.

  13. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  14. The impact of oil and natural gas facilities on rural residential property values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxall, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation examined challenges in the economic valuation of environmental changes within the context of formal real estate markets. It was proposed that some values that are expressed in markets can be affected by environmental changes and should be used in resource development land assessments. Details of indirect market valuation and revealed preference methods were reviewed. An outline of hedonic pricing was presented. It was noted that hedonic pricing can be used with other market values and prices such as tourism, art prices and hotel prices, where multivariate regression techniques are used and regression coefficients reveal information on the implicit prices of certain characteristics. Property value examples in the environmental economics literature were reviewed. A case study using data from eco-terrorism costs was presented. Issues concerning sour gas facilities were discussed with reference to public anxiety over hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) toxicity and flares. Concerns over health risks and negative amenity impacts were discussed. The impacts of sour gas facilities on property values of residential acreages in and around Calgary were considered, and a map of the study area was presented. An outline of emergency plan response zones was provided. Price effects of industry facilities were presented, including marginal and cumulative impacts on price. It was concluded that oil and gas activities have significant impacts on rural residential property prices, but that industry members currently report that there is little to no effect. It was suggested that the research presented in this paper could be used to assess levels of compensation. tabs., figs

  15. Oil & Natural Gas Technology A new approach to understanding the occurrence and volume of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico using petroleum industry well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Ann [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Majumdar, Urmi [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The northern Gulf of Mexico has been the target for the petroleum industry for exploration of conventional energy resource for decades. We have used the rich existing petroleum industry well logs to find the occurrences of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We have identified 798 wells with well log data within the gas hydrate stability zone. Out of those 798 wells, we have found evidence of gas hydrate in well logs in 124 wells (15% of wells). We have built a dataset of gas hydrate providing information such as location, interval of hydrate occurrence (if any) and the overall quality of probable gas hydrate. Our dataset provides a wide, new perspective on the overall distribution of gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico and will be the key to future gas hydrate research and prospecting in the area.

  16. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  17. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    OpenAIRE

    C. Warneke; F. Geiger; P. M. Edwards; W. Dube; G. Pétron; J. Kofler; A. Zahn; S. S. Brown; M. Graus; J. Gilman; B. Lerner; J. Peischl; T. B. Ryerson; J. A. de Gouw; J. M. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aroma...

  18. The price of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, A.M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas used to be a relatively cheap primary energy source, always at a discount to crude oil (on a comparative British thermal unit basis). It gradually evolved into a major resource during the 20th century - reaching a 24 per cent share of global primary energy in 1999. In the year 2000, natural gas prices in the USA rose to unheard-of highs of 10/million US dollars Btu, ushering in a new era, with natural gas at a 120 per cent premium to crude oil. This clearly was a watershed for gas, somehow similar to the 1973-74 watershed for oil prices. And similarly, any return to the status quo-ante looks rather improbable, although a number of experts (alongside the International Energy Agency) still believe the 2000 price 'spike' to have been ''only transitory''. The consequences of higher gas prices (at a level equal to crude oil prices on a Btu basis) will be multifaceted and momentous, altering habits and uses in downstream industries and economic sectors, as well as providing added income for major gas-exporters, such as Russia, Canada and Algeria. Another potential consequence of the 2000 watershed might be to propel US standard prices (such as the 'Henry Hub' spot) to international status and gas price-setter, as the 'WTI spot' became an 'international benchmark' for crude oils in the post-1993 era. For the time being, the equality of gas and oil prices has become the new norm; but, in the longer term, a discount of crude oil relative to natural gas might be envisaged, as the latter is a cleaner fuel and emits less carbon dioxide when used. (author)

  19. Natural gas : nirvana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2001-01-01

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  20. Natural gas diffusion model and diffusion computation in well Cai25 Bashan Group oil and gas reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas diffusion through the cap rock is mainly by means ofdissolving in water, so its concentration can be replaced by solubility, which varies with temperature, pressure and salinity in strata. Under certain geological conditions the maximal solubility is definite, so the diffusion com-putation can be handled approximately by stable state equation. Furthermore, on the basis of the restoration of the paleo-buried history, the diffusion is calculated with the dynamic method, and the result is very close to the real diffusion value in the geological history.

  1. Emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs and comparison of hydroelectricity, natural gas and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, L.; Chamberland, A.

    1993-01-01

    When reservoirs are created, a small fraction of the flooded organic matter decomposes into humic acids, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements. The major greenhouse gases produced are CO 2 and CH 4 . For northern projects, Canadian studies on emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs have reached similar conclusions: Emissions, including methane, are less than 35 kg CO 2 equivalent per MWh. Using a typical project in northern Quebec as the basis for analysis, none of the studies dispute the considerable advantages of hydroelectricity regarding greenhouse gas emissions. Taking into account all components of energy systems, emissions of greenhouse gases from natural-gas power plants are 24 to 26 times greater than emissions from hydroelectric plants. The Freshwater Institute, in an article published in Ambio suggests that emissions from hydroelectric plants could be a significant source of greenhouse gases. This conclusion does not apply to most hydroelectric projects for two reasons: First, the Freshwater Institute's studies concerned flooded peatlands and shallow reservoirs that are not typical of most hydro projects; and second, the Institute analyzed a hydro project with a ratio of flooded area to energy production that is 6 to 10 times higher than typical projects in Canada. 7 refs, 4 tabs

  2. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Bolivian Oil and Natural Gas under State and Private Control, 1910-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert S. Klein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1920 discovery of oil in Bolivia, the country has experimented with varying systems of private control, monopoly state ownership and even mixed state and private ownership/rental of petroleum and gas fields. The aim of our analysis is to explain why these varying patterns of ownership occurred over time and to describe how they affected production in this industry. The analysis suggests that nationalizations have been successful insofar as they took advantage of previous private investment which, meanwhile, underscores the success of the legislation for opening up access to attract private investment. This relative success of the different legal frameworks permits us to understand why the state has been changing from one scheme to another over time. Some partial explanations are offered in order to understand why these schemes could succeed with such regularity.Desde el descubrimiento del petróleo en Bolivia en el año 1920, el país ha experimentado con una variedad de sistemas de control privado, de propiedad monopólica estatal e incluso con la propiedad o el alquiler de campos petroleros y de gas en manos privadas. El propósito de nuestro análisis es explicar por qué se han dado estos variados modelos de propiedad y describir cómo han afectado en la producción de esta industria. El análisis sugiere que las nacionalizaciones han sido exitosas en la medida en que tomaron ventaja de una inversión privada anterior, lo cual mientras tanto resalta el éxito de la legislación de “apertura” para atraer la inversión privada. El éxito relativo de los diferentes marcos legales nos permite comprender por qué el estado ha ido cambiando de un esquema a otro con el paso del tiempo. Se ofrecen algunas explicaciones parciales para entender por qué este esquema pudo dar resultado con tanta regularidad.

  4. How geographic distance and political ideology interact to influence public perception of unconventional oil/natural gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Christopher E.; Bugden, Dylan; Hart, P. Sol; Stedman, Richard C.; Jacquet, Jeffrey B.; Evensen, Darrick T.N.; Boudet, Hilary S.

    2016-01-01

    A growing area of research has addressed public perception of unconventional oil and natural gas development via hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”). We extend this research by examining how geographic proximity to such extraction interacts with political ideology to influence issue support. Regression analysis of data from a fall 2013 national telephone survey of United States residents reveals that as respondents’ geographic distance from areas experiencing significant development increases, political ideology becomes more strongly associated with issue support, with the liberal-partisan divide widening. Our findings support construal level theory's central premise: that people use more abstract considerations (like political ideology) the more geographically removed they are from an issue. We discuss implications for studying public opinion of energy development as well as for risk communication. - Highlights: • Conservatives support unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) more than liberals. • This divide widened as geographic distance from UOGD areas increased • Construal Level Theory may help explain this finding • We discuss implications for energy policy and risk communication

  5. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  6. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors-a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand-appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service-to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  7. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  8. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uinta Basin, Utah: point sources compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas wells using dry-gas collection, which means dehydration happens at the well, were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. Another large source was the flowback pond near a recently hydraulically re-fractured gas well. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas wells showed that wet gas collection wells compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool and that oil wells compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil wells on average emit heavier compounds than gas wells. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  9. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Business co-operation with various foreign partners has begun to develop intensively as a result of the restructuring that is now progressing in the Soviet Union. This is particularly the case with the enterprises and organisations dealing with oil and gas production, all of them component parts of the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the USSR. Owing to the enormous territorial expanse of this country, and also to the rather considerable volume of oil produced, the scheme of organisation of this Ministry is complicated and versatile. This Directory lists all the enterprises and organisations that are component parts of the Ministry, their postal addresses, their telephone numbers and the names of their departmental heads. (author)

  10. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  12. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  13. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  14. Inventory of orphan oil and natural gas wells in the Dover and Gautreau Village areas of Westmorland County, New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of New Brunswick conducted an inventory of orphan wells in the vicinity of Dover and Gautreau Village in Westmorland County. The term orphan wells refers to those oil and natural gas wells which have been abandoned and have no owner. An abandoned well refers to those wells that are no longer active and have been properly plugged. A total of 19 orphan wells were discovered with the help of landowners and historical maps. These wells are believed to have dated from 1860 to 1906. The locations of the wells were determined digitally using the Global Positioning System. The environmental conditions around the orphan wells were evaluated and classified according to a proposed system used by the State of Michigan. The wells were separated into three categories based on the amount of petroleum contamination of soil and water. Water contamination was further divided into contamination of groundwater and surface water. 7 refs., 34 figs

  15. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  16. Imported resources - gas/oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to provide information on issues of crude oil and natural gas supply at a conference addressing the problems of energy in Eastern and Central Europe. Although this can inevitably be performed through the {open_quotes}binoculars{close_quotes} of the petroleum sector of my country, I will try to present the issues and challenges that are thought to be characteristic in general for the region.

  17. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  18. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  19. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  20. Immiscible and Miscible Gas-Oil Gravity Drainage in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ameri, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the phase of declining oilfields and at a time when recovering hydrocarbons has becoming more difficult, effective techniques are the key to extract more oil from mature fields. The difficulty of developing effective techniques is often the real obstacle when dealing with heterogeneous formations

  1. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  2. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  3. Benzene observations and source appointment in a region of oil and natural gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Hannah Selene

    were identified in the PMF analysis: a primarily CO source, an aged vehicle emissions source, a diesel/compressed natural gas emissions source, a fugitive emissions source, and two sources that have the characteristics of a mix of fresh vehicle emissions and condensate fugitive emissions. 70% of the benzene measured at PAO on the PTR-QMS is attributed to fugitive emissions, primarily located to the SW of PAO. Comparing the PMF source attribution to source calculations done with a source array configured from the literature returns a contradictory result, with the expected sources indicting that aged vehicle emissions are the primary benzene source. However, analysis of the contradictory result indicates that the toluene to benzene ratio measured for PAO is much lower than the literature values, suggesting that the O&NG source emissions have a lower ratio of toluene to benzene than anticipated based on studies of other regions. Finally, we propose and investigate an alternative form of the source receptor model using a constrained optimization. Poor results of the proposed method are described with tests on a synthetic testing dataset, and further testing with the observation data from PAO indicate that the proposed method is not able to converge the best global solution to the system.

  4. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R ampersand D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining

  5. European gas oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1991-04-01

    The developments over the past five years of the bulk markets for gas oil in Europe are examined using advanced econometric techniques to study the related issues of pricing efficiency and hedge efficiency. The study attempts to preserve the fluctuations of the actual data as these provide insights into the process of price discovery. The markets studied include the spot, forward and futures markets and looks for evidence of differentiated markets. (UK)

  6. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  7. Acute ecotoxicology of natural oil and gas condensate to coral reef larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew P; Brinkman, Diane L; Flores, Florita; Botté, Emmanuelle S; Jones, Ross J; Webster, Nicole S

    2016-02-19

    Risks posed by oil spills to coral reefs are difficult to evaluate, partially due to the absence of studies that adequately assess toxicity to relevant coral reef species. Here we experimentally tested the acute toxicity of condensate, representing a fraction of light crude oil, to coral (Acropora tenuis) and sponge (Rhopaloeides odorabile) larvae. The metamorphosis of coral larvae was inhibited at total petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAF) as low as 103 μg l(-1), similar to concentrations detected in seawater following large spills. The sensitivity of coral larvae increased by 40% when co-exposed to UV light that they might encounter in shallow reefal systems. Condensate WAF was more toxic to coral larvae than predicted by summing the toxicity of its main components (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and napthalene). In contrast, the sensitivity of sponge larvae to condensate WAF (>10,000 μg l(-1) TPAH) was far less than coral in the presence and absence of UV, but similar to that of other marine invertebrates. While these results highlight the relative sensitivity of coral larvae to oil, further research is needed to better understand and predict the impacts and risks posed by hydrocarbons to tropical reef systems.

  8. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... consumers within the State or municipality. (ii) Where natural gas not subject to state regulatory or... Act of 1920, except such crude oil which is either exchanged in similar quantity for convenience or... is temporarily exported for convenience or increased efficiency of transportation across parts of an...

  9. Natural gas, the new deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encel, Frederic; Boroumand, Raphael H.; Charlez, Philippe; Goutte, Stephane; Lafargue, Francois; Lombardi, Roland; Porcher, Thomas; Rebiere, Noemie; Schalck, Christophe; Sebban, Anne-Sophie; Sylvestre, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    As natural gas is about to become the first energy source in the world, is abundant and easy to transport, this collective publication addresses issues related to shale gas and to natural gas. The first part addresses shale gas. Four articles propose a global overview, comment the situation in the USA which, in eight years of time, reduced their oil dependency by half and became almost self-sufficient as far as gas is concerned, discuss technical and legal issues related to shale gas exploitation, discuss the perspective of evolution of the world gas markets, and notice that shale gas will not be a game changer in Europe. The second part addresses the natural gas. The articles discuss the possible influence of natural gas exploitation by Israel on the Middle-East geopolitical situation, the influence of the emergence of new producers in Africa (Tanzania and Mozambique), the contribution of gas-fuelled power station to the coverage of market risks, and the issue of European energy safety with a focus on the role of Turkey

  10. Green future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallardi, P.

    1991-01-01

    A sectoral analysis of current trends in the use of natural gas in Italy shows that this energy source, now estimated to be covering 23.7% of total Italian national energy requirements, is fulfilling its role as an environmentally compatible, low cost and readily available energy alternative well suited to alleviate Italy's worrisome over-dependence on foreign supplied oil and reduce the severity of the urban air pollution problem (it being a low nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide emitting, non-sulfur containing fuel). This paper expands this theme by giving a complete panorama of the natural gas market in Italy, sector by sector, and by coupling projections on the expected increased use of this energy source (as mandated by the National Energy Plan) with estimates of consequent reductions in air pollution based on a comparative analysis of fuel oil versus natural gas combustion

  11. Insight conference proceedings : natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The state of Quebec's energy industry was discussed at this conference. Quebec's energy market is distinct by the diversity of its clients, the resource exploitation sector and its types of industries. As such, the energy needs are specific and the strategies for developing natural gas should be adapted to meet these needs. This conference focused on recent energy policy developments at Quebec's Office of Energy and other regulatory bodies. Topics of discussion included the risks and opportunities of the natural gas export market; volatile gas prices; public consultation processes; perspectives of large energy consumers; hydrocarbon potential and exploration in Quebec; natural gas exploration and development in Quebec; energy security and strategies to address carbon dioxide emissions. Other topics of discussion included the investment climate in Quebec; the profitability of Canada's oil and gas sector and refining capacity in Quebec. The conference featured 17 presentations, of which 6 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. PROMINP (Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas): synergy in the national industry; PROMINP (Programa de Mobilizacao da Industria Nacional de Petroleo e Gas Natural): sinergia na industria nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jose Renato Ferreira de; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Lopesm Ronaldo Rangel; Lisboa, Vitor Manuel dos Santos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Federal Government identified, from the forecast of massive investments in the sector of oil and natural gas in the next years, that it was establishing a favorable environment to foment the participation of the national industry of goods and services, in competitive and sustainable bases, in the implantation of projects of oil and gas in Brazil. Thus, in 2003, it was born the Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas - PROMINP. From an ample diagnosis of the necessary critical resources, throughout the time, for the implementation of the planned projects, the PROMINP identifies the gaps related to the professional qualification, industrial infrastructure and supply of materials and equipment, and, to surpass these challenges, it has lead, in these five years of existence, an expressive set of action for each one of the cited sources, of form to assure the competitiveness of the Industry of Supply of Goods and services and the support of this process. Such actions are elaborated and developed of joint form it enters all the participants of the chain. Since the creation of the PROMINP, the participation of the national industry (Local Content) in the investments of the sector increased of 57% in 2003 for 75% in 2007, what it means a US$ addition 8,3 billion orders of goods and services in the national market and generated more than 390 thousand new jobs. (author)

  13. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels

  14. Oil and gas market developments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Turkey's strategic location makes it a natural 'energy bridge' between major oil and gas producing areas in the Middle East and Caspian Sea regions on one hand and consumer markets in Europe on the other. Oil consumption has increased in recent years in Turkey, and this trend is expected to continue, with growth of 2-3% annually in coming years. The annual oil consumption of the country is around 31.3 million tons, while 83% of total consumption is supplied from imports and only 17% is supplied from indigenous production. Oil provides around 43% of Turkey's total energy requirements, but its share is declining (as the share of natural gas rises). On the other hand, due to diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas was newly introduced into the Turkish economy in 1987 and has been growing rapidly. Turkey's natural gas reserves seem limited and current gas production in the country meets 2.8% of domestic consumption requirements. The annual natural gas consumption of Turkey is around 14.7 billion m 3 and is assumed to increase by 12% per annum. Turkish natural gas use is projected to increase dramatically in coming years, with the prime consumers expected to be industry and power plants. Turkey has chosen natural gas as the preferred fuel for the massive amount of new power plant capacity to be added in coming years. (Author)

  15. Africa’s Booming Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Production: National Security Implications for the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    natural gas have also increased, on net, the environmental component of energy security. While hydraulic fracking , for example, car- ries risks of...tion, or “ fracking .” South Africa had awarded Shell a technical cooperation permit in 2009 to determine the Karoo’s natural gas potential, and the

  16. The Impact of Levant Basin Oil and Natural Gas Discoveries on Lebanese-Israeli Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    leak, could pollute Israeli beaches (which are vital to its tourist industry) and even endanger its marine natural life. The Israeli government ...has twelve member countries: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Qatar, Libya, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador , and...

  17. Natural attenuation of aged tar-oil in soils: A case study from a former gas production site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Pavel; Eickhorst, Thilo; Wehrer, Markus; Georgiadis, Anna; Rennert, Thilo; Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of soils with tar oil occurred on many industrial sites in Europe. The main source of such contamination has been former manufactured gas plants (MGP). As many of them were destroyed during the World War II or abandoned in the second half of the XXth century, the contamination is depleted in volatile and degradable hydrocarbons (HC) but enriched in the heavy oil fractions due to aging processes. We studied a small tar-oil spill in a former MGP reservoir basin. The tar-oil had a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 245 mg/g. At the margin of the spill, vegetation has started to overgrow and intensively root the tar-oil layer. This zone comprised the uppermost 5-7 cm of our profile and contained 28 mg/g of TPH (A-layer)- The layer below the root zone (7-15 cm) was the most contaminated, with 90 mg/g TPH (B-layer). The layer underneath (15-22 cm) had smaller concentrations of 16 mg/g TPH (C-layer). Further down in the profile (D-layer) we found only slightly higher TPH content than in the control samples (1,4 mg/g vs 0,6 mg/g). The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysis showed the same distribution throughout all layers with highest contents of the PAHs with 4-6 condensed aromatic rings. Direct cell count and extraction of microbial biomass showed that the highly contaminated soil layers A and B had 2-3 times more bacteria than the control soils. CARD-FISH analysis revealed that in samples from layers A and B Archaea were more abundant (12% opposing to 6-7% in control soil). Analysis of bacteria (tested for Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria and Actinobacteria) showed the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria in the layer A and C both beneath and above the most contaminated layer B. The primers covered the whole microbial consortia in these two layers, leaving almost no unidentified cells. In the most contaminated layer B Alphaproteobacteria amounted only to 20% of the microbial consortium, and almost 40% of the cells remained

  18. Turkey and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardim, G.

    1992-01-01

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. New oil and gas incentives in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2003-01-01

    Saskatchewan is Canada's second largest producer of crude oil and the third largest producer of natural gas with nearly 400 oil and gas companies operating in the province. The oil ranges from heavy sour to light sweet crude oil. Nearly half of the production is heavy oil, 30 per cent is medium oil and 20 per cent is light oil. In 2002, the Province announced changes to the oil and gas Royalty and Tax Regime in an effort to encourage new oil and gas exploration and development activities in Saskatchewan and to help the industry compete with other jurisdictions around the world. This paper examined the pre-October 2002 Saskatchewan Crown Royalty and freehold production tax structure and compared them to the new structure. The paper also briefly outlined the corporation capital tax, resource surcharge, and flow-through share tax credit initiatives announced in 2001 and 2002. With reductions in the Crown Royalty, freehold production tax and corporation capital taxes, the Province expects that more than 9000 oil and gas wells will be drilled in the next decade, representing new investment of about $4.3 billion and 40,000 new jobs. The flow-through share credit may not attract significant investment because it only benefits those who pay taxes in Saskatchewan. 40 refs

  1. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  2. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  3. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  4. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  5. Formation of the oil and gas lease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, E.M.; Piercy, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The legal nature of an oil and gas lease was described and the challenges associated with working with the freehold oil and gas lease were discussed. This paper also reviewed the formalities of execution under seal, issues relating to capacity of the executing party, ability of an executor of an estate to grant the lease, and homestead rights. Precautions that should be taken to ensure that oil and gas lease documents are properly executed so as not to void a lease are also discussed. 46 refs

  6. A comparison of ground-based and aircraft-based methane emission flux estimates in a western oil and natural gas production basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snare, Dustin A.

    Recent increases in oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs has brought with it an increase of methane emissions. Estimating methane emissions from oil and gas production is complex due to differences in equipment designs, maintenance, and variable product composition. Site access to oil and gas production equipment can be difficult and time consuming, making remote assessment of emissions vital to understanding local point source emissions. This work presents measurements of methane leakage made from a new ground-based mobile laboratory and a research aircraft around oil and gas fields in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Wyoming in 2014. It was recently shown that the application of the Point Source Gaussian (PSG) method, utilizing atmospheric dispersion tables developed by US EPA (Appendix B), is an effective way to accurately measure methane flux from a ground-based location downwind of a source without the use of a tracer (Brantley et al., 2014). Aircraft measurements of methane enhancement regions downwind of oil and natural gas production and Planetary Boundary Layer observations are utilized to obtain a flux for the entire UGRB. Methane emissions are compared to volumes of natural gas produced to derive a leakage rate from production operations for individual production sites and basin-wide production. Ground-based flux estimates derive a leakage rate of 0.14 - 0.78 % (95 % confidence interval) per site with a mass-weighted average (MWA) of 0.20 % for all sites. Aircraft-based flux estimates derive a MWA leakage rate of 0.54 - 0.91 % for the UGRB.

  7. The economics of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, D.; Mashayekhi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Natural gas resembles oil in fulfilling a wide variety of uses as both a source of energy and a feedstock, but the proportion of world production that is traded internationally is very much lower, and insufficient for a world price of gas to be established. Written specifically for economists interested in energy, development and industrial economics; oil and gas industry personnel; officials of developing countries; and intergovernmental organizations concerned with development. This book addresses the issues of how the economic price of gas is determined within individual countries with different characteristics and which factors should be taken into account by governments in the formulation of pricing policies that are appropriate for gas. These are illustrated with estimates of the costs of exploration and production of gas, and of the benefits to be derived from its use in various economic sectors for a number of Third World countries. The book also presents a detailed case study of the development of gas pricing in Bangladesh, and an analytical framework for the development of a formal gas planning model that could be applied to the cases of actual countries contemplating the development of gas use in the future

  8. Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Quarterly statistics. Second Quarter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    This publication provides up-to-date and detailed quarterly statistics on oil, coal, natural gas and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected oil product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas, hard coal and brown coal show supply and trade. Import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis.

  9. Evaluating ethane and methane emissions associated with the development of oil and natural gas extraction in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, B.; Mahieu, E.; Emmons, L. K.; Tzompa-Sosa, Z. A.; Fischer, E. V.; Sudo, K.; Bovy, B.; Conway, S.; Griffin, D.; Hannigan, J. W.; Strong, K.; Walker, K. A.

    2016-04-01

    Sharp rises in the atmospheric abundance of ethane (C2H6) have been detected from 2009 onwards in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the unprecedented growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs in North America. Using time series of C2H6 total columns derived from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations made at five selected Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change sites, we characterize the recent C2H6 evolution and determine growth rates of ˜5% yr-1 at mid-latitudes and of ˜3% yr-1 at remote sites. Results from CAM-chem simulations with the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants, Phase II bottom-up inventory for anthropogenic emissions are found to greatly underestimate the current C2H6 abundances. Doubling global emissions is required to reconcile the simulations and the observations prior to 2009. We further estimate that North American anthropogenic C2H6 emissions have increased from 1.6 Tg yr-1 in 2008 to 2.8 Tg yr-1 in 2014, i.e. by 75% over these six years. We also completed a second simulation with new top-down emissions of C2H6 from North American oil and gas activities, biofuel consumption and biomass burning, inferred from space-borne observations of methane (CH4) from Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite. In this simulation, GEOS-Chem is able to reproduce FTIR measurements at the mid-latitudinal sites, underscoring the impact of the North American oil and gas development on the current C2H6 abundance. Finally we estimate that the North American oil and gas emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas, grew from 20 to 35 Tg yr-1 over the period 2008-2014, in association with the recent C2H6 rise.

  10. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  11. Advancing Understanding of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production Operations to Support EPA’s Air Quality Modeling of Ozone Non-Attainment Areas; Final Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Summary Environmentally responsible development of oil and gas assets requires well-developed emissions inventories and measurement techniques to verify emissions and the effectiveness of control strategies. To accurately model the oil and gas sector impacts on air qual...

  12. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  13. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country's four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs

  14. Oil and gas competition in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrie, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in Western Europe, the competition between oil and gas began on a large scale during the 1960s. Indeed, natural gas accounted for only 2 percent of Western Europe's energy consumption in 1960 and for already 7 percent in 1970. It now accounts for about 17 percent. Almost all of this increase took place at the detriment of oil products. The competition between those two energy sources has resulted in the development of natural gas supply on one hand, and in several political and economic factors on the other

  15. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and natural gas activities: compositional comparison of 13 major shale basins via NOAA airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Aikin, K. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Graus, M.; Tokarek, T. W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The recent and unprecedented increase in natural gas production from shale formations is associated with a rise in the production of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including natural gas plant liquids (e.g., ethane, propane, and butanes) and liquid lease condensate (e.g., pentanes, hexanes, aromatics and cycloalkanes). Since 2010, the production of natural gas liquids and the amount of natural gas vented/flared has increased by factors of ~1.28 and 1.57, respectively (U.S. Energy and Information Administration), indicating an increasingly large potential source of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Emission of VOCs may affect local and regional air quality due to the potential to form tropospheric ozone and organic particles as well as from the release of toxic species such as benzene and toluene. The 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNex) campaign studied emissions from oil and natural gas activities across the central United States in order to better understand their potential air quality and climate impacts. Here we present VOC measurements from 19 research flights aboard the NOAA WP-3D over 11 shale basins across 8 states. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured using an improved whole air sampler (iWAS) with post-flight analysis via a custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The whole air samples are complimented by higher-time resolution measurements of methane (Picarro spectrometer), ethane (Aerodyne spectrometer), and VOCs (H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Preliminary analysis show that the Permian Basin on the New Mexico/Texas border had the highest observed VOC mixing ratios for all basins studied. We will utilize VOC enhancement ratios to compare the composition of methane and VOC emissions for each basin and the associated reactivities of these gases with the hydroxyl radical, OH, as a proxy for potential ozone formation.

  16. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  17. Oil, gas and other energies, a primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legault, A.

    2007-09-01

    At a time when the topic of energy is front and centre, this book examines the basic concepts that are essential to grasping the energy issues of the 21 st century. Ail the main questions that people have about energy, especially oil and gas, are addressed, providing students, academics, journalists, representatives of government and other institutions and interested readers in general with the information they need to understand the complex, multifaceted energy sector. Abundantly illustrated, this book represents five years of exhaustive research on a fascinating and highly controversial topic. If discusses all the processes related to fossil forms of energy, from the formation of hydrocarbons (crude oil and natural gas) to the delivery of oil and gas to consumers. It also examines renewable energy options and climate change issues in addressing the major geopolitical challenges facing the energy sector. Content: 1 - The Extraordinary History of the Earth; 2 - The Formation of Oil and Gas; 3 - Energy, Past and Present; 4 - Renewable Energies; 5 - The Essence of Oil and Gas; 6 - Geography of Oil and Gas; 7 - The Outlook for Petroleum Prices and Demand Until 2030; 8 - Global Warming; 9 - Liquefied Natural Gas;10 - The Big Three: Russia, China and the United States

  18. The fate of oil and gas in a constrained natural system - implications from the Bakken petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscio, G P.A.

    1995-07-01

    When petroleum is produced from its reservoir at present day, it has already been submitted to a complex array of natural processes, which have left their imprint on its chemical and physical properties. These processes involve the generation of petroleum in its source rock as a function of thermal evolution, and its migration to the reservoir. In order to achieve a better understanding of the effects that these processes have on the nature and occurrence of petroleum, it is crucial to investigate a study area that represents an integrated system encompassing all processes from the beginning of crude oil formation to entrapment. The Bakken Shale petroleum system of the Williston Basin (U.S.A./Canada) appears to fulfil these requirements as it covers a broad range of maturity incorporating all stages of catagenesis, and source and reservoir are closely associated, i.e. Bakken petroleum has not been submitted to long secondary migration routes. Combined with a basinwide uniformity in kerogen type, the latter feature constrains the broad scope of potential influences, and therefore the Bakken petroleum system is an ideal candidate to study petroleum generation, its expulsion and migration under natural conditions. By using a selected set of wells/core samples which were considered to be representative for the entire Bakken petroleum system based on comprehensive screening analyses on both kerogen and bitumen, the present study focussed on the following principal aspects: (1) Evolution of petroleum generation as a function of maturation; (2) Primary migration and distribution of crude oil in a constrained natural system; (3) Occurrence of gas in the immature zone; (4) Evaluation of the natural maturity series with simulation experiments. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Die Prozesse und Phaenomene der natuerlichen Bildung und Migration von Erdoel und Erdgas laufen waehrend der Katagenese sowohl zeitlich als auch raeumlich zu grossen Teilen parallel zueinander ab und praegen die

  19. The legal discipline of government participation in recent oil and natural gas industry in Brazil; A disciplina juridica das participacoes governamentais na hodierna industria brasileira de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafim, Fabrizia Pessoa

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the legal discipline of government participation in today's oil and natural gas industry in Brazil, taking as an object of study financial compensation under Law 9.478/97 and those under discussion in Congress as part of the new regulatory framework for areas the pre-salt and other strategic areas. The primary goal of the work is to disseminate knowledge about the government take as a way to facilitate popular control (public governance) in an extremely central to the modern world. (author)

  20. Business cycles and natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolos, S.; Asghar, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the basic stylised facts of natural gas price movements using data for the period that natural gas has been traded on an organised exchange and the methodology suggested by Kydland and Prescott (1990). Our results indicate that natural gas prices are procyclical and lag the cycle of industrial production. Moreover, natural gas prices are positively contemporaneously correlated with United States consumer prices and lead the cycle of consumer prices, raising the possibility that natural gas prices might be a useful guide for US monetary policy, like crude oil prices are, possibly serving as an important indicator variable. (author)

  1. Proposal of an integrated methodology for environmental assessment of risks and impacts to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies for the oil and natural gas sector in offshore areas; Proposta de metodologia de avaliacao integrada de riscos e impactos ambientais para estudos de avaliacao ambiental estrategica do setor de petroleo e gas natural em areas offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza

    2007-03-15

    This thesis aims to purpose an integrated methodology of environmental risk and impact assessment of the exploration and production oil and natural gas activities, to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies. It also analyzes the environmental issues associated with the upstream segment of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry after the market opening, occurred in 1997. In this context, and under the international experience of countries that also have an open market, the strategic environmental assessment demonstrates to be the more suitable tool of public environmental management to consider the environment already during the planning phase of the oil and natural gas sector. (author)

  2. Modeling global and local dependence in a pair of commodity forward curves with an application to the US natural gas and heating oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohana, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model for the joint evolution of correlated commodity forward curves. Each forward curve is directed by two state variables, namely slope and level, and the model is meant to capture both the local and global dependence structures between slopes and levels. Our framework can be interpreted as an extension of the concept of cointegration to forward curves. The model is applied to a US database of heating oil and natural gas futures prices over the period February 2000-February 2009. We find the long-run slope and level relationships between natural gas and heating oil markets, analyze the lead and lag properties between the two energy commodities, the volatilities and correlations between their daily co-movements and evaluate the robustness of these observations to the turmoil experienced by energy markets since 2003. (author)

  3. Alberta oil and gas industry : annual statistics for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Alberta's 1996 annual and historical statistics for the supply and disposition of the following oil and gas products was presented: (1) crude oil and equivalent, (2) natural gas, (3) ethane, (4) propane, (5) butanes, (6) natural gas liquids, and (7) sulphur. Statistics regarding the deliveries and average price of the products and statistical data on drilling activity during 1996 were also included. Tables

  4. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  6. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  7. Future of oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatermann, R.; Ten Hoedt, R.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles in the section 'Future of oil and gas': one ('Baltic strained by oil traffic') on the growing risks of accidents in maritime traffic in the Baltic region, and one ('Angola wants bigger piece of the pie') on the importance of the oil production in Angola to energy supplies in Europe and the USA. It appears that national oil company Sonango wants to have a greater part of the profits

  8. Conventional oil and natural gas infrastructure increases brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) relative abundance and parasitism in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath-Plaisted, Jacy; Nenninger, Heather; Koper, Nicola

    2017-07-01

    The rapid expansion of oil and natural gas development across the Northern Great Plains has contributed to habitat fragmentation, which may facilitate brood parasitism of ground-nesting grassland songbird nests by brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater ), an obligate brood parasite, through the introduction of perches and anthropogenic edges. We tested this hypothesis by measuring brown-headed cowbird relative abundance and brood parasitism rates of Savannah sparrow ( Passerculus sandwichensis ) nests in relation to the presence of infrastructure features and proximity to potential perches and edge habitat. The presence of oil and natural gas infrastructure increased brown-headed cowbird relative abundance by a magnitude of four times, which resulted in four times greater brood parasitism rates at infrastructure sites. While the presence of infrastructure and the proximity to roads were influential in predicting brood parasitism rates, the proximity of perch sites was not. This suggests that brood parasitism associated with oil and natural gas infrastructure may result in additional pressures that reduce productivity of this declining grassland songbird.

  9. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  10. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  11. Legal regulation of the reuse of water resources in the oil, natural gas and biofuels industry; A regulamentacao juridica do reuso dos recursos hidricos na Industria do petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Flaviana Marques de; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Constitution of 1988 is a guide for protect natural resources in the country, it was from her that the right to an ecologically balanced environment was elevated to the category of fundamental human right of all was changed understanding regarding the use water resources, irrigation water is characterized as a resource with economic value. In this scenario emerging legal standards for protecting the environment and water resources, which must necessarily be committed to the development of economic activities that use natural resources, and still worry about their conservation and preservation for the use of present and future generations, in line with the desires dictated by sustainable development. Therefore, this work has the scope to verify the legal regulation of reuse of water resources in the context of activities developed by the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, to promote optimum use of water resources in the country, and this can lead to benefits social, economic and environmental. The importance of the study emerges precisely in the industrial sector, and specifically in the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, in order that through these activities is increased the negative potential of natural resources, consequently increasing the ability to cause negative externalities either by adopting systematic contrary to sustainable development, as the high standards of environmental degradation caused by the activities of this kind. The methodology for conducting this study is theoretical and descriptive, developing through the analysis and interpretation of data obtained from the verification of magazines, books and monographs, concerning the subject of water resources and, by examining done about the current environmentalist doctrine and appreciation of constitutional and legislative documents infra constitutional above existing on the subject. (author)

  12. Oil and gas leasing/production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimberger, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1991, this program was the third largest producer of non-tax revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3 billion. This report presents Federal offshore leasing, sales, production, and exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities

  13. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  14. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  15. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  16. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas...

  17. Natural gas industry regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  18. Pricing of natural gas in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapargaliev, I.K.

    1996-01-01

    Two state companies are in charge of natural gas supply in Kazakhstan. They buy, transport and sell natural gas and have monopolized the industry and provoked increase of gas prices. Ministry of Oil and gas Industry proposed demonopolization. The restructuring that took place caused new distribution of tasks in the gas industry. A more competitive environment was created leading to normalization of the natural gas prices. All economic subjects were granted the right to acquire gas regardless the type of ownership. Measures implemented for reorganization of gas companies contributed to the reduction of gas transport costs and prices by 50% and to decrease of gas prices in the southern regions by 50%. Despite these measures gas prices for household sector are still unchanged and are below the import prices, the main reason being the low average household income

  19. International oil and natural gas demand projections: an econometric model for 2008-2030; Projecao das demandas mundiais de petroleo e de gas natural: aplicacao de um modelo agregado para o periodo 2008-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Giovani; Aragao, Amanda; Valle, Ricardo Nascimento e Silva do [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This study forecasts the world oil and gas demands for 2008-2030 by applying econometric formulations. The basic variables are world GDP and Brent price. The forecast assumptions are: sound world economic growth remains, despite falling rates during the period; Brent prices continue high, but in a lower level, in 2006 constant prices, in harmony with Energy Information Administration reference scenario. Findings show that, should assumptions prove to be correct, world oil and gas demands will reach 118 million bbl/d and 5 trillion cubic meters in 2030, respectively. In other words, world oil demand will grow at 1.4% per year, while world gas demand will increase at 2.5% per year. Although such figures are similar to those from other institutions (EIA, IEA and OPEC), structural changes in oil and gas markets, catalyzed by high oil prices and energy and environmental policies, may reduce forecast strength of the specifications proposed. (author)

  20. The unitization process in the oil and gas Brazilian sector: regulations analysis; A regulacao no processo de unitizacao na exploracao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Felipe A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Silva, Moises E. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Bone, Rosemarie B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEI/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the withdraw of 41 blocks of the 9th Round of Auctions by ANP rose questions about the possible unitization of oil fields, particularly on the pre-salt areas and the likelihood of future litigation from licensees against the Brazilian Government on the issue. Based on the international experience from Nigeria and East Timor/Australia, we propose improvements to the Brazilian law on the issue (Law 9478/97, article 27). We conclude that a clear and specific regulation on the unitization issue should be passed, so to protect investors and the non-renewable resources at stake (oil and gas). (author)

  1. Crude oil and natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany 1997; Erdoel und Erdgas in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, M.; Kosinowski, M.; Loesch, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Porth, H.; Sedlacek, R.

    1998-12-31

    In 1997, exploration for oil and gas in onshore Germany further slowed down compared to the previous years. Both the number of exploration wells and the geophysical activity (seismic and gravimetric field surveys) decreased. In contrast, extensive seismic measurements were conducted in the German sector of the North Sea. Oil production amounted to 2.82x10{sup 6} t which is approximately the same level as in 1996. Due to the mild winter, gas production slightly decreased to 22.5x10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (raw gas). Underground gas storage in depleted oil or gas fields, in aquifer structures and salt caverns continued to play a very important role in Germany. The total working gas capacity of the 38 existing storage plants increased by 1.3x10{sup 9} m{sup 3} to 15.4x10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. An additional capacity of 7.1x10{sup 9} m{sup 3} is under construction or in the planning stage. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1997 ist die Aufsuchungstaetigkeit nach Erdgas und Erdoel auf dem deutschen Festland gemessen an der Anzahl der Explorationsbohrungen und dem Umfang der geophysikalischen Feldmessungen (Seismik, Gravimetrie) dem Trend des Vorjahres folgend zurueckgegangen. Demgegenueber standen umfangreiche seismische Untersuchungen in der Nordsee. Die Erdoelfoerderung hat sich mit 2,82 Mio. t ungefaehr auf dem Niveau des Vorjahres gehalten. Die Erdgasfoerderung hat gegenueber 1996 witterungsbedingt geringfuegig abgenommen und betrug 22,5 Mrd. m{sup 3}(V{sub n})/a (natuerlicher Brennwert). Auf dem Sektor der Untertage-Erdgasspeicher (ehem. Lagerstaetten, Aquifere und Salzkavernen) setzte sich auch im Jahre 1997 der Wachstumstrend fort. Gegenueber dem Vorjahr stieg das Arbeitsgasvolumen in 23 Porenspeicher- und 15 Kavernenspeicher-Betrieben um etwa 1,3 Mrd. m{sup 3}(V{sub n}) auf 15,4 Mrd. m{sup 3}(V{sub n}) an. Weitere ca. 7,1 Mrd. m{sup 3}(V{sub n}) Arbeitsgas sind in neuen Projekten oder durch Erweiterung bestehender Projekte in Planung und Bau. (orig./MSK)

  2. Oil and Gas Industry In Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In less than two decades, numerous impressive developments have taken place. These include: the realization of full ownership and complete control by the State over oil and gas operations and related industries, the establishment of Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC), the development of exploration and production activities, the full utilization of natural gas in industry and domestic sectors and the construction of down stream industries in the industrial area (Umm Said) including the refinery, the natural gas liquids plants and the fertilizer and petrochemical complexes. Such important achievements have been crowned with the development of the North Field massive reserves of non associated gas. 4 figs

  3. Papers of a Canadian Institute conference : Tapping into new opportunities in oil sands supply and infrastructure : natural gas, diluent, pipelines, cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Participants at this conference were provided the opportunity to hear various views of several industry leaders on topics related to oil sands supply and infrastructure. Some of the issues addressed were: the latest project developments and pipeline infrastructure expansion initiatives in the oil sands industry; the growing natural gas supply requirements for oil sands production; how to effectively manage stakeholder issues in the context of rapid growth; an update on the supply and demand balance for diluent; demand for cogeneration and the implications of transmission system congestion; and, market development prospects for heavy crude and the need for additional refinery capacity. The Minister of Alberta Economic Development also made a special presentation. There were fifteen presentations made at the conference, of which nine were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  4. The oil and gas industry in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs and tables, this report presents and comments many data and figures on many aspects of the oil and gas industry in the world and in France: worldwide oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, worldwide gas exploration and production and stakes for European supply, exploration and production in France, oil and oil-based industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, domestic transport of oil products, gas infrastructures, oil product storage, oil and gas product consumption, hydrocarbon taxing, oil product prices, and oil product distribution

  5. Natural gas: redistributing the economic surplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Pinto Junior, H.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The natural gas has a limited role in the Brazilian energy balance. This role in industrial countries and some developing countries is much more important. Historically this contrasting situation can be explained by the limited natural gas reserves Brazil used to have. Since the oil crisis however the Brazilian natural gas reserves increased substantially without a similar increase in the role of natural gas in the energy balance. The existing institutional arrangement generates a struggle for the economic rent generated by natural gas production and consumption that seems to be at the core of this question. Our paper estimates the economic rent generated by natural gas in Brazil and its distribution among producers and consumers: it points toward a new institutional arrangement that could arguably, generate a new role for the natural gas in the Brazilian energy balance. (author)

  6. Effects of variation of oil and zinc oxide type on the gas barrier and mechanical properties of chlorobutyl rubber/epoxidised natural rubber blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Jin; Jo, Jae Ok; Datta, Sanjoy; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A (90:10) blend of CIIR and ENR by weight was used as the base. ► Different process oil and ZnO were used to optimize the gas barrier property. ► The minimum oxygen permeability is obtained using sheet ZnO. - Abstract: In many polymer applications such as inner tire liners and fuel hoses, imparting excellent gas barrier property is of prime importance. Researches in this direction had been done based on a judicious choice of polymer type or a blend thereof and the compounding ingredients. Though butyl rubber has been the polymer of choice because of its excellent gas barrier property, yet researches were targeted to improve the same with further modification in the polymer type and variation in compounding ingredients. In this study, a (90:10) blend of chlorobutyl rubber (CIIR) and Epoxdised Natural Rubber (ENR) by weight was used as the base. Four different types of process oil and three different types of zinc oxide (ZnO) at fixed predetermined concentrations were used to optimize the gas barrier and mechanical properties. In this blend, recycled aromatic oil (RAE) and sheet zinc oxide were effective in imparting the best overall combination of properties. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) studies of ZnO were done to understand the structure property relationship

  7. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  8. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  9. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  10. Investigation of gas-oil gravity drainage in naturally fractured reservoirs using discrete fracture and matrix numerical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazr-Afkan, S.

    2012-01-01

    To simulate fluid flow in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (NFRs), a new Descrete Fracture and Matrix (DFM) simulation technique is developed as a physically more realistic alternative to the dual continuum approach. This Finite-Element Centered Finite-Volume method (FECFVM) has the advantage over earlier FECFVM approaches that it honors saturation dicontinuities that can arise at material interfaces from the interplay of viscous, capillary and gravitational forces. By contrast with an earlier embedded-discontinuity DFEFVM method, the FECFVM achieves this without introducing additional degrees of freedom. It also allows to simulate capillary- and other fracture-matrix exchange processes using a lower dimensional representation of fractures, simplifying model construction and unstructured meshing as well as speeding up computations. A further step-up is obtained by solving the two-phase fluid-flow and saturation transport equations only on 'active elements'. This also diminishes round-off and truncation errors, reducing numerical diffusion during the solution of the transport equation. The FECFVM is verified by comparing IMPES operator-splitting sequential solutions with analytical ones, as well as benchmarking it against commercial reservoir simulators on simple geometries that these can represent. This testing confirms that my 2D FECFVM implementation simulates gravitational segregation, capillary redistribution, capillary barriers, and combinations thereof physically realistically, achieving (at least) first-order solution accuracy. Following this verification, the FECFVM is applied to study Gas-Oil Gravity Drainage (GOGD) process in cross-sectional models of layered NFRs. Here comparisons with dual continua simulations show that these do not capture a range of block-to-block effects, yielding over-optimistic drainage rates. Observations made on individual matrix blocks in the DFM simulations further reveal that their saturation evolution is at odds with the

  11. Some economic aspects of the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golombek, R.

    1990-01-01

    The thesis consists of five papers with following titles: Optimal utilization of natural gas. Computation of the resource rent for Norwegian natural gas; The relationship between the price of natural gas and crude oil - some aspects of efficient contracts; Bargaining and international trade - the case of Norwegian natural gas; On bilateral monopoly - a Nash-Wicksell Approach; Bertrand games and duopoly

  12. The Geopolitics of Shale Gas : The Implications of the US' Shale Gas Revolution on Intrastate Stability within Traditional Oil- and Natural Gas-Exporting Countries in the EU Neighborhood

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, S. de; Auping, W.; Govers, J.; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Widdershoven, C.J.C.G.; Weterings, R.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The US’ shale gas revolution could in the long term destabilize traditional oil- and gas exporters in the European Union (EU) neighborhood: A combination of substitution effects and greater energy efficiency, could put pressure on the price of oil, leading to fiscal difficulties in traditional hydrocarbon exporting countries.

  13. The Geopolitics of Shale Gas : The Implications of the US' Shale Gas Revolution on Intrastate Stability within Traditional Oil- and Natural Gas-Exporting Countries in the EU Neighborhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, S. de; Auping, W.; Govers, J.; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Widdershoven, C.J.C.G.; Weterings, R.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The US’ shale gas revolution could in the long term destabilize traditional oil- and gas exporters in the European Union (EU) neighborhood: A combination of substitution effects and greater energy efficiency, could put pressure on the price of oil, leading to fiscal difficulties in traditional

  14. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  15. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  16. Oil and gas information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This reference book on current developments in oil and gas supply and demand contains country-specific statistics for OECD countries on production, trade, demand and prices. This book is divided in four parts. Part 1 gives the statistics sources for oil, gas and by products (lubricants, bitumen, paraffin waxes etc..) supply, demand, consumption, origin, feedstocks, import and export prices, spot and end-user prices and taxes, and gives also the definitions of products, supply and consumption items reported in this book. Part 2 provides summary tables of world oil and gas market developments with time series back to the early 1970's. Parts 3 and 4 provide, in tables form, a more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil and gas supply and demand for the OECD by region and individual countries. (J.S.)

  17. Arab oil and gas directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This reference book is the only oil and gas encyclopedia in the world providing detailed country surveys on the oil and gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. It provides thorough country reports and detailed statistics on oil and gas exploration, production, transport, refining and petrochemicals, as well as on development projects in all countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Separate chapters cover OPEC and OAPEC, as well as world oil and gas statistics. It includes 53 maps and 268 tables and graphs, and 2420 addresses and contact names

  18. Oil and natural gas energy plan for Canada, 1977--1985: Appendix D to Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    Governments in Canada have made a number of changes in oil and gas policies and fiscal treatments recently. There remains a considerable question, however, whether Canada will have sufficient volumes of these two energy fuels available securely and economically in the years ahead. This report examines the position that oil and gas will occupy in Canada's energy future, and assesses the contribution that domestic supplies could provide. It was concluded that, under current and proposed royalty, taxation, and regulatory systems, the flow of investments into exploration and development will be insufficient to increase the domestic supply base to provide an acceptable level of future self-reliance. Additionally, because of jurisdictional factors, reinvestments from current production are not being directed to the areas of greatest resource potential in Canada. In order to illustrate the types and degrees of further policy and fiscal changes that are required, an investment program that could lead to a minimum acceptable level of production from Canadian sources was formulated. Recommendations for changes in fiscal regimes lead to a ''formula'' that directs 35 percent of net production revenue from current production to the exploration and development of new supplies; mobilizes new investment; and directs a greater portion of both these sources of funds to the development of potential supplies from remote and technologically difficult, high-risk areas. The implementation of this formula will require concessions by both the producing provinces and the Federal government together with commitments from producers.

  19. Oil and gas operational and policy issues in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1992-01-01

    The method of arriving at monthly values under Schedule 3 OTA 1975 applies to all oil which can include LPG and condensate as well as crude oil and gas. The majority of crude oil is now sold spot and in 1987 the method of arriving at monthly values was amended better to reflect this aspect of the crude oil market. The UK gas market was such that the proceeds of sale of large amounts of natural gas were exempt from PRT under Section 10 OTA 1975 and very little gas was disposed of other than at arms length to British Gas. British Gas no longer buys virtually all gas produced from the UK Continental Shelf and neither does it sell all the gas used by UK customers. The use of natural gas to generate electricity has opened up a new market for UK landed gas. How do these changes affect gas valuation.?. (Author)

  20. Natural gas deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of establishing realistic options for deregulation in the natural gas industry, this paper first considers the structural evolution of this industry and evidences how it differs from the petroleum industry with which it exhibits some essential characteristics in common. This comparison is made in order to stress that, contrary to popular belief, that which is without doubt good for the petroleum industry is not necessarily so also for the natural gas industry. The paper concludes with separate analyses of the natural gas markets in the principal industrialized countries. Arguments are provided to show that the 'soft' deregulation option for the natural gas industry is not feasible, and that 'total' deregulation instead, backed by the passing of a suitable package of anti-trust laws 'unbundling' the industry's four major activities, i.e., production, storage, primary and secondary distribution, is the preferable option. The old concept of guaranteed supplies for minor users of natural gas should give way to the laws of supply and demand governing inter-fuel competition ensured through the strict supervision of vigilance committees

  1. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  2. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for... OIL COMMERCIAL GP 12-164-NG XPRESS NATURAL GAS LLC 12-168-CNG MERRILL LYNCH COMMODITIES CANADA, ULC 12...

  3. Natural gas and electricity convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calger, C.

    1998-01-01

    Convergence between the gas and electricity industries was described as a means for creating an increasingly more efficient energy market where prices and fundamental relationships exist between gas and electricity. Convergence creates new opportunities for producers and consumers. Convergence will likely lead to the disaggregation of the electricity and gas industry into segments such as: (1) power generation and production, (2) transmission wires and pipelines, (3) wholesale merchants, (4) distribution wires and pipelines, and (5) retail marketing, services and administration. The de-integration of integrated utilities has already begun in the U.S. energy markets and retail open access is accelerating. This retail competition will create very demanding customers and the changing risk profile will create new issues for stakeholders. The pace of reform for the telecommunications, airlines, natural gas and electricity industries was graphically illustrated to serve as an example of what to expect. The different paths that the industry might take to deregulation (aggressively embrace reform, or defensively blocking it), and the likely consequences of each reaction were also described. A map indicating where U.S. electric and natural gas utility merger and acquisition activities have taken place between 1994-1997, was included. Another map showing the physical asset positions of the Enron grid, one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the U.S., with increasing international operations, including an electric power transmission and distribution arm, was also provided as an illustration of a fully integrated energy market company of the future. 9 figs

  4. Natural gas in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Voogd, J G

    1965-08-01

    In 1948, the first natural gas was found in Netherlands. Since 1951 it has been supplied by gas undertakings. Originally reserves were limited (c. 350 milliard ftU3D of dry gas in the NE. and c. 175 milliard ftU3D, mostly wet gas, in the SW). These finds have been completely overshadowed by the huge deposits discovered in 1960 in the province of Groningen near the village of Slochteren, these reserves being estimated now at 38.5 billion ftU3D at least. This gas is not of high cal val (894 Btu/ftU3D), but contains only traces of sulfur. The concession is being developed for a partnership formed by Shell (30%), Standard Oil Company of new Jersey (Esso, 30%), and ''Staatsmijnen,'' the Government owned Netherlands State Mining Industry (40%). The natural gas is destined, first, for domestic use, especially, for space heating, and secondly, for industrial purpose, after which important quantities will be available for export.

  5. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugliotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society. [it

  6. Natural gas is more than gas power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Through the Statpipe gas line at Karmoey, Norway supplies 20% of the natural gas on the European market. The pipeline is 'leaking' a little bit of gas to the local communities at Karmoey and Haugesund. These communities have replaced 65% of their oil consumption with natural gas, which is a fine contribution to a better environment. The supplier of the natural gas, Gasnor ASA in this case, claims an energy efficiency of 90% at the end user because the gas burns directly and the loss in the pipeline is minimal. The efficiency of natural gas utilisation is twice that of the planned gas power stations in West-Norway, subtracting the losses in the electrical network. Gasnor ASA competes with oil suppliers and, if necessary, with electric utilities. The county hospital at Haugesund is quoted as an example. The hospital has two large boilers with dual fuel burners. They have been using natural gas since 1998 because it was worth while both economically and environmentally. The use of natural gas in the transport sector would be very important, but the necessary infrastructure is very little developed. For instance, five diesel-powered ferries on the Boknafjord emit as much NOx as the planned gas power plant at Kaarstoe

  7. Natural Gas Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of Natural Gas. Natural gas Regulation clarifies and consolidates the legal and institutional framework for development of the industry through six principal elements: 1) Establishment of a vision of the industry. 2) Development of regulatory objectives. 3) Determination of relationships among industry participants. 4) Clear specification of the role of PEMEX in the industry. 5) Definition of the functions of the Regulatory authority. 6) Creation of a transition regime. In parallel with the development of the substantive legal framework, the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) was also enacted by Congress in October 1995 to strength the institutional framework and implement the legal changes. This law defines the CRE as an agency of the Energy Ministry with technical, operational, and budgetary autonomy, and responsibility for implementing natural gas industry regulation. (Author)

  8. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  9. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  10. Natural Gas Versus Nuclear New Build Versus Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, B.

    2013-01-01

    Proven natural gas reserves and production in the USA have continued to increase in recent years. This is due to the exploration of shale formations and the expanded use of hydraulic fracking technology. Looking forward, we can expect that high crude oil prices will sustain natural gas production at current levels (approximately 25% of natural gas production in the USA is a by-product of crude oil drilling), and the natural gas liquid cuts are priced with crude oil. Continued drilling in the near term for natural gas is required by lease obligations and by commitments to investors

  11. Natural gas vehicles. An option for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, Hella; Horn, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas vehicles are widespread. Some countries foster natural gas vehicles because they have own gas resources. Many countries must reduce the high air pollution in big cities. Environmental reasons are the main motive for the use of natural gas vehicles in Europe. In last years, high oil prices stimulated the use of natural gas as fuel. European governments have developed incentives (e.g. tax reductions) to foster natural gas vehicles. However, the focus is on hybrid technology and the electric car, which, however, need further technical improvement. In contrast, the use of natural gas in conventional engines is technically mature. Additional gas imports can be avoided by further improvements of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. In sum, the market penetration of natural gas as fuel should be promoted in Europe. (author)

  12. Natural gas industry competitiveness study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    A national study on the competitiveness of the natural gas industry was undertaken by the BC Oil and Gas Commission in cooperation with, and with the encouragement of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). The objective of the study was to compare the cost competitiveness of natural gas exploration , production, gathering and processing in British Columbia to the costs of the same processes in Alberta. The study was carried out by building an 'expected case' for each gas producing area in British Columbia and Alberta by averaging past events in such specific areas as pool sizes, production profiles, loads, drilling success rates, gas compositions, land, drilling, exploration and production/gathering costs, third party production/gathering and processing fees and abandonment costs; by constructing a cash flow model for each case, calculating unit cost, and ranking cases. The report provides the details of the methodology, displays the results of the investigation in graphical form, comments on the results factoring in also labour costs and cost differences due to resource characteristics, identifies some trends such as an increase in the proportion of connections to smaller plants, and provides suggestions for improvements

  13. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  14. Repowering with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter examines the concept of combined-cycle repowering with natural gas as one possible solution to the impending dilemma facing electric utilities - tight capacity margins in the 1990s and the inordinate expense of traditional powerplants. Combined-cycle repowering refers to the production of electricity through the integration of new and used equipment at an existing site, with the final equipment configuration resembling a new gas-fired combined-cycle unit (i.e., gas turbine, waste heat recovery unit and steam turbine/generator). Through the utilization of improved waste heat recovery and gas-fired equipment, repowering provides both additional capacity and increased generating efficiency. Three modes of repowering are considered: (1) peak turbine repowering refers to the addition of a steam turbine and heat recovery unit to an existing gas turbine, with the efficiency improvement allowing the unit to convert from peaking to baseload operation; (2) heat recovery repowering is the replacement of an old coal boiler with a gas turbine and heat recovery unit, leaving the existing steam turbine in place; and (3) boiler repowering, in which the exhaust from a new gas turbine is fed into an existing coal boiler, replacing existing forced-draft fans and air heaters. These three options are compared with the option of adding new coal-fired boilers on the basis of economics, energy efficiency and environmental impacts

  15. Comparison of vibration and noise level on the boiler during operation of fuel heavy oil (mazut) and on natural gas in TO 'Istok' - Toplifikacija - Joint-Stock Co. for district heating Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirovski, Hristo; Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica; Dzhingov, Gjorgji

    1999-01-01

    In the beginning of the heat season 1997/98, we started to use natural gas as a second fuel (the basic fuel is heavy fuel oil). Preparations were made for the use of natural gas in half of the TO 'Istok' Plant capacity (147 MW) in Skopje (Macedonia). During operation on natural gas, we noted that the levels of vibration and noise are higher when operating on heavy fuel oil. This was the reason why an investigation was carried out through a special company working on that issue. The investigation was made by measurement of vibration levels and noise at the boiler furnace in various orientation and levels. This material gives the results and conclusions from that investigation. A comparison has been made of the dynamic conditions and noise levels of the same boilers during operation on heavy fuel oil and on natural gas. We also compared the dynamic conditions and noise levels of different boilers during operations on natural gas, with different equipment for the atomizing of the natural gas. Conclusions on the dynamic conditions of the investigated boilers while operating on heavy fuel oil and on natural gas are given at the end of this material. (Author)

  16. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  17. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T Oe; Einang, P M; Stenersen, D [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  18. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Geologic distributions of US oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents nonproprietary field size distributions that encompass most domestic oil and gas fields at year-end 1989. These data are organized by geologic provinces as defined by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists' Committee on Statistics of Drilling (AAPG/CSD), by regional geographic aggregates of the AAPG/CSD provinces, and Nationally. The report also provides partial volumetric distributions of petroleum liquid and natural gas ultimate recoveries for three macro-geologic variables: principal lithology of the reservoir rock, principal trapping condition and geologic age of the reservoir rock, The former two variables are presented Nationally and by geographic region, in more detail than has heretofore been available. The latter variable is provided Nationally at the same level of detail previously available. Eighteen tables and 66 figures present original data on domestic oil and gas occurrence. Unfortunately, volumetric data inadequacy dictated exclusion of Appalachian region oil and gas fields from the study. All other areas of the United States known to be productive of crude oil or natural gas through year-end 1989, onshore and offshore, were included. It should be noted that none of the results and conclusions would be expected to substantively differ had data for the Appalachian region been available for inclusion in the study

  1. Alberta oil and gas industry annual statistics for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A compilation of statistical data from Alberta's oil and gas industry was presented to provide energy analysts and economists a single source of consistent energy-related data. Alberta is Canada's largest crude oil and natural gas producer. This report provides current monthly and historical annual energy data covering the last decade. Data is organized by energy type including butane, ethane, natural gas, natural gas liquids, oil, propane and sulphur. This CD-Rom also included statistical data on energy supply, energy production, disposition, and prices. tabs

  2. Natural gas supply, demand and price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas consumption in the US grew 15.9 percent between 1986 and 1989. Its share of total primary energy use in the US grew from 22.5 percent to 23.8 percent. Despite unusually warm weather and an economic downturn, natural gas use in the first eight months of 1990 fell only modestly from its 1989 pace - while its market share of US total primary energy use has remained stable. The American Gas Association's Total Energy Resource Analysis energy modeling system (A.G.A.-TERA) projects continued growth in natural gas demand and supply. Natural gas is projected to gain a growing share of total US primary use. Natural gas prices are projected to be sufficient to encourage growth in well completions and reserve additions, yet competitive with electricity, fuel oil and other alternative forms of energy

  3. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  4. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  5. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  6. The design of an optical sensor arrangement for the detection of oil contamination in an adhesively bonded structure of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bu Gi; Lee, Dai Gil

    2009-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been widely used as a substitute fuel for commercial purposes. It is transported mainly by LNG ships which have primary and secondary leakage barriers. The former is composed of welded thin stainless steel or invar plates, while the latter is composed of adhesively bonded glass composite or aluminum foil sheets. The role of the secondary barrier is to maintain fluid tightness when the primary barrier fails during the transport of LNG. The tightness of the secondary barrier is dependent on the wetting characteristics between the adhesive and adherend of the bonded structure during bonding operation, which depends much on the contamination on the adherend surface. Therefore, in this work, an optical measuring device of oil contamination on the aluminum surface for the secondary barrier was developed. A transparent oil was used as the contaminant and its effect on the bonding strength was investigated. From the experiments, it has been found that the developed measuring device for oil contamination can be used to detect oil contamination on a large bonding area of the secondary barrier in ship building yards

  7. Comparative life cycle GHG emissions from local electricity generation using heavy oil, natural gas, and MSW incineration in Macau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    Wh, respectively. The mean value for aggregated GHG emissions of the local power grid (imported electricity excluded) was 0.69kg CO2 per kWh, noticeably lower than many neighboring countries and regions, such as mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. Our scenario analysis indicated that the development of natural gas......, for changing GHG emissions, and should be allocated to the highest priority for GHG reduction. All the obtained results could be useful for decisions makers, with providing a robust support for assessing the environmental performance and drawing up the appropriate improvement planning of power systems....

  8. Handling of natural occurring radioactive deposits in the oil and gas industry in Norway, United Kingdom and the Netherlands; Haandtering av radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon i Norge, Storbritania og Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysebo, I.; Tufto, P

    1999-03-01

    Deposits containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in oil and gas production. Laws and regulations in thisarea is under preparation, and it is a wish for harmonization with the other oil and gas producing countries in the North Sea. The report gives an overview of amounts of waste and activity levels, decontamination methods and waste handling in Norway, Great Britain and the Netherlands.

  9. Australia's oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Reasons for underperformance in the Australian oil and gas industry are explored in this paper including lower than expected oil prices following major capital investment, management strategies, taxation changes and access problems. Over the last two decades, the return offered to providers of equity capital has been adequate but lower than the industry expected. Corporate planning techniques need to be reexamined in the light of past performance, and realistic goals set. (UK)

  10. Upstream oil and gas. Subsector no. 7: Oil and gas exploration and development 1995 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    Prepared by the Alberta Human Resources and Employment, this report provides a summary of the lost-time injuries and disease descriptions of workers injured while employed in the upstream oil and gas industries in Alberta during the period 1995 to 1999. The report includes the characteristics of the injured worker and the risk of injury to workers in the industries in Alberta, as well as the cost of injuries and revenue by means of total premiums paid by the employers. The occupational fatalities that were accepted by the Workers Compensation Board and investigated by the Occupational Health and Safety were summarized in the report along with a brief description of the injuries. The aim was to provide information concerning health and safety issues to government, employers, workers, and health and safety officers in the industries in Alberta about health and safety issues. The focus was placed on the oil and gas exploration and development sub-sector. Defined as all upstream oil field activities of employers which generate revenue from the production and sale of crude oil and/or natural gas, the sub-sector comprises major integrated oil and gas companies and small independent producers. In those cases where the owner/producer operates its own upstream production/processing facilities, they form an integral part of this sub-section. In addition, oil and gas marketing firms are included. Oil/gas well, well head equipment; flow lines/gathering systems tied into field processing facilities; battery sites/compressors stations; crude oil separators and natural gas dehydrators/treaters; natural gas/sulfur processing plants; heavy oil projects including steam generation; and other enhanced recovery methods are all included in the sub-sector. The other sub-sectors in the upstream oil and gas industries are: exploration, oilfield maintenance and construction, well servicing with service rigs and power swivels, drilling of oil and gas wells, oilfield downhole and other

  11. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  12. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry : 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistics regarding Canada's crude oil and natural gas industry for 1996 were presented. Data presentation was in tabular form, the topics being exploration and development, synthetic crude oil reserves, crude oil production and movements by source, natural gas production, drilling completions, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, and total sales of natural gas by province. Some of the noteworthy highlights for 1996 were: (1) 14,600 new wells were drilled, the highest number ever recorded, (2) capital investment was over $13 billion, (3) 148 companies were involved in mergers and acquisitions, (4) value of marketable production of oil, natural gas and natural gas by-products topped $30 billion, (5) Empress pipelines began operations of the first new major oil pipeline from Western Canada in 45 years, (6) the Hibernia offshore crude oil facility was completed, (7) Sable Island offshore energy projects applications were filed, and (8) the development of the Terra Nova, Whitehorse and Hebron fields was announced. 8 tabs

  13. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines......Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  14. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  16. Displacement of oil by gas in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, S.; Seng, L.K.; Kow, P.T.A.

    1992-01-01

    After the oil crises, Malaysia unveiled its four fuel diversification policy in the late 1970s towards utilization of gas, oil, coal and hydro. This was to ensure adequate and continuous energy supply for driving economic development and to cushion itself against impact of possible future fluctuations in oil prices. The primary energy supply in 1978 was predominantly oil based, consisting of 75.5% oil. As a result of this diversification policy, the oil component was reduced to about 51.8% in 1988. Due to its inherent ability to adapt and adjust to different fuels, the power sector played a crucial role in this massive shift away from oil. For the corresponding period, the oil component in the electricity generation input mix has decreased from 86.7% oil to 47.4%. Malaysia is endowed with substantial natural gas reserves amounting to 52.5 trillion cubic feet. Gas, therefore constitutes a natural and attractive option for the power sector in diversifying into non-oil indigenous energy resources, as the country's hydro potential has its limitations and the available proven coal reserves are relatively small. The paper addresses the past and current status and issues involved in displacing oil by gas for the power sector. These include the economic, technological and pricing aspects of natural gas development and issues pertaining to power system development. Future gas utilization strategies include the conversion of existing oil-fired plants to gas-fired, and the plant-up of gas turbines and the efficient combined cycle plants to meet the load requirements. These strategies are assessed from the viability and security perspective of increased gas utilization. Oil will continue to be displaced, but the extent to which gas will increase its share in power production is dependent on numerous factors ranging from its economics to supply security

  17. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  19. Sector report: Malaysia. Upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market in oil and natural gas. The report includes Malaysia's oil and gas reserves, production, exploration, major profits upstream, production sharing contracts, pipeline construction, operators in production, service sector, and Petronas. (UK)

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  1. Exploration of natural gas at sea towards a low point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, P.

    1995-01-01

    Continuing low prices on the world market resulted in a decreased willingness of natural gas producers to invest in offshore projects in spite of improved marginal conditions for the oil and gas companies. Attention is paid to the policy of the Gasunie (Dutch natural gas distribution company) to focus on the exploitation of small natural gas fields to take the burden of the large natural gas field Slochteren in Groningen, Netherlands

  2. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  3. Effects of a significant New Madrid Seismic Zone event on oil and natural gas pipelines and their cascading effects to critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Damon E.

    Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) is a construct that relates preparedness and responsiveness to natural or man-made disasters that involve vulnerable assets deemed essential for the functioning of our economy and society. Infrastructure systems (power grids, bridges, airports, etc.) are vulnerable to disastrous types of events--natural or man-made. Failures of these systems can have devastating effects on communities and entire regions. CIP relates our willingness, ability, and capability to defend, mitigate, and re-constitute those assets that succumb to disasters affecting one or more infrastructure sectors. This qualitative research utilized ethnography and employed interviews with subject matter experts (SMEs) from various fields of study regarding CIP with respect to oil and natural gas pipelines in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The study focused on the research question: What can be done to mitigate vulnerabilities in the oil and natural gas infrastructures, along with the potential cascading effects to interdependent systems, associated with a New Madrid fault event? The researcher also analyzed National Level Exercises (NLE) and real world events, and associated After Action Reports (AAR) and Lessons Learned (LL) in order to place a holistic lens across all infrastructures and their dependencies and interdependencies. Three main themes related to the research question emerged: (a) preparedness, (b) mitigation, and (c) impacts. These themes comprised several dimensions: (a) redundancy, (b) node hardening, (c) education, (d) infrastructure damage, (e) cascading effects, (f) interdependencies, (g) exercises, and (h) earthquake readiness. As themes and dimensions are analyzed, they are considered against findings in AARs and LL from previous real world events and large scale exercise events for validation or rejection.

  4. Arab oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This review explains the situation of petroleum products and gas in Arab countries. Several kinds of difficulties are exposed: too many projects, concurrence of other producers like Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway, Russian Federation, will be rude. New exporters (Iran, Venezuela, Nigeria, even Alaska) will appear and will want a part of market and western countries will probably diversify their tradesmen. An other point is that producers overestimate future growth of worldwide demand or underestimate the impact of more expansive gas price on this demand. Inversely if this one is too low, several projects, would not be profitable. The last point is in the concurrence between gas and petroleum products, which needs a consistent policy

  5. Canadian oil and gas survey : 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    An outlook of the Canadian Petroleum Industry, financial and operating statistics of the top 100 Canadian public oil and gas companies and 15 energy income trusts, were summarized for the fiscal year ending in 1996. In general, 1996 was a good year for the industry. Greater industry financing resulted in increased drilling activity and good stock market returns for investors. However, strong commodity prices also resulted in record levels of hedging activity, which meant lost revenues for the industry. The top 100 companies recorded losses of about $800 million in 1996, largely on crude oil hedges. The fact that volumes hedged forward to 1997 are down from 1996 indicate that many companies are rethinking their commitment to risk management. Details of crude oil and natural gas prices and production levels during 1996 were provided. A list of significant corporate mergers and acquisitions during the year under review rounded out the presentation

  6. Gas, oil, and environmental biotechnology IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, C; Markuszewski, R; Smith, J [eds.; Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Contains 32 papers presented at the 4th international IGT symposium on gas, oil and environmental biotechnology. Topics covered were: hydrocarbon bioremediation; groundwater, soil and explosives bioremediation; gas and oil reservoir souring; and biodesulfurization. 2 papers have been abstracted separately.

  7. Natural gas powered bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  8. The tenth CERI [Canadian Energy Research Institute] international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    At a conference on oil and gas markets, papers were presented on oil market instability and its impact on economic development, international energy policy, oil supply and demand, natural gas liquids sales, world gas trade, gas markets in Europe and Asia, petroleum industry activities and their relation to government, oil refining and product market developments, and the North American natural gas market. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 25 papers from this conference

  9. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Afifi, E.M.; Awwad, N.S.; Hilal, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 ± 2.8, 64.8 ± 4.1 and 76.4 ± 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to ∼91 ± 3.5, 87 ± 4.1 and 90 ± 6.2%, respectively

  10. Who's afraid of natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in our electricity systems provoked by natural gas power generation technology are paving the way for large-scale renewables use in the future. Natural gas and gas turbines are now such a cheap and easy option for electricity generation that they appear to cast a pall over renewables. The market share of gas-fired generation continues expanding inexorably. Its cost continues to fall, setting renewables an ever more demanding competitive target. Nevertheless, paradoxical though this may sound, natural gas is actually the natural ally of renewables. Despite the fierce competitive challenge it represents, natural gas may even be the most important single factor shaping a bright future for renewables. (author)

  11. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  12. Liquid Natural Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief introduction on the origins of the Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) industry the production and transportation of LNG are discussed. Special attention is paid to the importance of the safety aspect during every activity or handling of LNG. Next the most important trade flows for LNG are dealt with. Two zones can be distinguished: the western part of the Pacific and the Atlantic basin. Subsequently the main aspects of a LNG-project are mentioned, as well as the success factors. Finally the prospects for the LNG-industry are reviewed. 11 figs

  13. Canadian natural gas and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The Canadian Gas Association (CGA) has expressed concerns regarding how the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be met. It also has concerns regarding the possible economic impacts of required measures to reduce emissions to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The CGA argued that since the initial negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly, meaning that if the agreement were to come into force, Canada would have to reduce emissions by about 29 per cent below the currently-projected 2008-2012 level. The report states that 28 per cent of Canada's energy needs are met by natural gas. Excluding energy use in transportation, natural gas contributes more than 40 per cent to Canada's energy portfolio. More than half of Canadian households rely on pipeline services and distribution companies to deliver natural gas for household use. The manufacturing sector relies on natural gas for more than half of its energy needs. Natural gas is a major energy source for the iron/steel, petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries. Natural gas is a cleaner-burning fuel than coal or crude oil, and its use results in fewer environmental impacts than other fossil fuels. Vehicles powered by natural gas produce 20 - 30 per cent less carbon dioxide emissions than vehicles powered by gasoline. Pipelines are also a more efficient way of transporting and distributing natural gas than marine transport, railways or trucks. The CGA recommends that policy development should emphasize the environmental benefits of natural gas and recognize its role as a bridge fuel to a cleaner energy-based economy. It also recommends that policies should be developed to encourage the use of natural gas in electricity generation to lower greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen that cause smog

  14. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  19. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  20. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1999-06-01

    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  1. Oil and Gas Information Center of Rio de Janeiro Geological Survey; Criacao do Centro de Informacoes sobre Petroleo e Gas Natural do Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Francisco; Serrao, Marcio; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Silva, Jose Otavio da; Chaves, Hernani [Centro de Informacoes sobre Petroleo e Gas Natural do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (CIPEG), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Oil and Gas Information Center (CIPEG) of Rio de Janeiro Geological Survey concentrates data of oil and natural gas (O and G) industry in the State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and meet a specialist staff to work with this data. The CIPEG works in partnership with the Geology School of Rio de Janeiro State University. Its creation was motivated by the government necessity to dominate the techniques to calculate the Government take for the production of O and G front the RJ position in the national oil industry. In 2007, the Rio de Janeiro was responsible for 84% of domestic production of oil and of 91 municipalities, 86 received royalties. These resources represent substantial share in the budget of municipalities and the State, and any variation, could be bring deep impact on the economy of these counties and the State. The products of CIPEG are: a map of O and G industry in Rio de Janeiro, a Database, a GIS and a Timing of Predicting Production of O and G. These products are available through a Internet page with accompanying by graphs of the production of O and G or royalties and Web map for viewing the information in the GIS. (author)

  2. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  3. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkor, H; AI-Alf, A; EI-Behairy, S [EGAS, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems.

  4. Radiological impact of oil/gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact on the environment and population of the oil/gas industry that is non-nuclear industry but uses and can produce materials, with an enhanced content of naturally occurring radionuclides. The natural radioactivity levels in the oil field environmental media, which could represent a risk for the people living in the areas influenced by this non-nuclear industry, do not indicate an increase in the natural radiation background. From a radiological point of view, the situation does not pose any immediate concern. Some places however need further investigations, with special emphasis on the control of 226 Ra releases to prevent from polluting the environment with this radionuclide. The growing concern amongst the population about the quality of their environment increases the significance of impact assessment of radioactive releases into the environment even if natural radionuclides occur. (N.C.)

  5. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia. The physical and monetary balance sheets for crude oil and natural gas for the period 2000- 2007 was constructed. The net present value of expected future incomes to reflect the value of resource change was calculated based on a physical extraction and a resource rent scenario. Resource rent is gross operating surplus less the estimated user cost of produced capital in the crude oil and ...

  6. Natural gas markets in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzmark, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, Asian energy markets expanded at a rapid rate to meet the surge in demand from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. This demand boom coincided with an increase in non-OPEC oil production in the region. As oil production stabilizes, demand appears to be surging again, but this time in the Southeast Asian countries. Natural gas will play a key role in this expansion of energy use and could start to lead rather than follow the oil market. This will be especially true as compressed natural gas and oxygenates start to take significant shares of the transportation fuel markets, while the role of residual fuel oil is increasingly usurped by gas for environmental reasons. Many new gas sources such as Papua New Guinea, Siberia, China, and Canada will fight for market share while domestic demand in Indonesia and Malaysia takes up increasing proportions of those countries' gas production. Extensive regional transportation schemes are likely to direct more of the gas output of Southeast Asia to intra-ASEAN uses. 2 tabs

  7. 77 FR 49489 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ..., centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors, pneumatic controllers and storage vessels. This action... organic compound (VOC) emissions from gas wells, centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors... emissions from wet seal centrifugal compressors located between the wellhead and the point at which the gas...

  8. Revolution in the natural gas industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    1999-01-01

    The demand for cleaner automotive fuels has created an opening for converting natural gas to liquid transport fuels and blending agents using Fischer-Tropsch technology. While the technology is well established, it is not yet clear whether the conversion can compete with crude oil refining or with pipelines and liquefied natural gas. Although all the oil giants are interested in the technology, the only commercial-sized plant in the world was the Shell plant in Malaya which had capacity of 12,000 bpd, but the profitability of the plant came from the wax by-products. The plant has been closed since a fire and explosion in 1997. The process chain is described. The gas-to-liquid activities and achievements of Saol, Exxon and Texaco are reported. It was concluded that although there are still some problems to be ironed-out, there is a promising future for gas-to-liquid conversion. (UK)

  9. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  10. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  11. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  14. Natural gas: reserves keep ahead of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, G V

    1983-08-01

    World production of natural gas in 1982 fell only 1.6% below 1981 levels, while proven recoverable reserves were up by 3.6% for a total of 3.279 quadrillion CF, which is 32.4% higher than had been estimated in 1978. Gas consumption, however, has experienced greater changes, with most of the industrialized countries (except for Japan) reporting declines in gas demand resulting from falling oil prices, reduced energy demand, and a slack world economy. Although gas seems to be holding its own in energy markets, further progress will not be easy to achieve.

  15. Application of natural antimicrobial compounds for reservoir souring and MIC prevention in offshore oil and gas production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Mashietti, Marco

    Offshore oil production facilities are subjectable to internal corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risk and significant economic losses. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and reservoir souring - sulphide production by sulfate reducing microorganisms in the reservo...

  16. OIL AND GAS FUTURES AND OPTIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Nosić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy mineral resources markets are represented by complex supply and demand ratios which are depending on different factors such as technical (transport and geopolitical. The main specific of energy markets is represented by an uneven geographic distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and exploration on one hand and energy consumption on the other. World oil markets, although geographically localized, because of specific market trade, represent unique global market with decreasing price difference. Price differences are result of development of a transport possibilities of oil supply. Development of transport routes of natural gas and increasing number of liquefied natural gas terminals in the world give pressure to natural gas market and its integration into global gas market. Integration of regional gas markets into a common European gas market is main energy policy of EU concerning natural gas. On the other hand, there are still significant price differences on some markets (e.g. United States of America - South East Asia. Development of global energy markets is enabled by development of a futures and options contracts of an energy trade which have replaced bilateral contract deals between producers and consumers. Futures contracts are standardized contracts traded on exchanges. Buyer agrees to buy certain quantity of stock for an agreed upon price and with some future delivery date. Option is a contract which gives a buyer the option of the right to buy (or sell, depending on the option an asset at predetermined price and at a later date. Stocks price risk can be managed with the purchase and selling futures and options contracts. This paper deals with futures and options energy markets and their market strategies.

  17. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems

  18. Prospects for oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2011-01-01

    It was five years ago, in January 2006, that Futuribles devoted a major special issue (no. 315) to energy prospects and the greenhouse effect. That was already a time of great concern about this question and several articles offered analyses of the gloomy prospects for the development of energy resources and the issues around climate change. Among these, an article by Jean Laherrere outlined the prospects for oil resources, showing the extent to which information in this area was disparate, unreliable and even questionable, being often highly political. As one of the more pessimistic writers on the question, Laherrere reminded us of the imminence of 'peak oil' (the prelude to a decline in global oil production) and the need to re-think our styles of consumption to adapt to a new age in which, as energy becomes scarcer, it will be increasingly expensive. Five years later, Jean Laherrere returns to the columns of Futuribles on the occasion of a new special issue on energy and the climate, to update us on the global prospects for oil and gas production. He begins by recalling how politically slanted and unreliable information in this area can be, depending on its source, the units of measurement employed etc. He stresses, too, that in the view of many experts peak oil was reached in 2006 and the situation is currently plateau-ing, just ahead of a decline in oil production (gradual or sudden, depending on whether measures of economic constraint are implemented). For its part, gas production should peak around 2025-2030. Jean Laherrere specifies what reserves remain, how these are currently exploited and marketed, and the prospects that ensue in the longer term (he also shows how wrong gas-price forecasts have been in the past). As he stresses, in conclusion, with both oil and gas we must be aware that the world does not have infinite resources and, since the alternatives do not allow us, at the moment, to make up for future energy-resource shortages, it is for

  19. BC's oil and gas industry : opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P.

    2003-01-01

    An update of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry was presented with reference to activity trends and major issues. The presentation also described opportunities and challenges facing the industry in British Columbia and reviewed the impact of federal policies on BC. In recent years the industry has moved to oil sands and unconventional gas, offshore sites, and coalbed methane development. Other changes are a result of technology which makes it possible to drill deeper and faster while having less environmental impact. Government issues have become increasingly complex, however. Industry capital spending from 2000 to 2003 was presented for Northern Canada, the east coast offshore, Alberta, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, oil sand deposits, and international activities. The presentation included several graphs depicting: the changing natural gas production mix; North American natural gas demand; wells drilled by province; natural gas resources in BC; upstream capital spending in BC; wells drilled by type and depth in BC; top natural gas wells in 2000 and 2002; natural gas production in BC; finding and development costs for Canadian natural gas; and, the widening gap of the federal income tax rate between oil and natural gas and other industries. British Columbia is in the strategic position of having significant untapped gas potential in the northeastern part of the province. For now, there is sufficient pipeline capacity to bring the gas to markets in the United States where there is a strong demand for electric power generation. 16 figs

  20. Overview of Environmental Impact Assessment of Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas projects in Nigeria ... natural, social and health components of the environment; Determination of issues ... of impact quantification through which the Environmental Management Plan ...

  1. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  2. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  3. The new East Coast natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, I.; Cowan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Market demand for natural gas in Canada's Maritime provinces was discussed. The Atlantic market represents the largest potential region, currently without access to natural gas in Canada or the United States. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines and the Sable Offshore Energy partners have made great efforts to introduce and market natural gas as well as to provide pipeline transportation services in the Maritimes and New England markets. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines is a partnership project with Westcoast Energy, Mobil Oil, and Duke Energy. Theirs is the first pipeline project to deliver gas, but it will certainly not be the last gas project in the region. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines now has 180,000 MMBtu/day of phased-in Canadian load committed to firm service agreements for delivery in the first 24 months of operation. In addition to these firm service agreements, an additional 60,000 MMBtu/day is signed for future lateral extensions to service emerging markets. figs

  4. What justifies the lack of alignment between natural gas and crude oil prices in the period 2006-2007; O que justifica o deslocamento entre os precos do gas natural e do petroleo no periodo 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Ana Lucia Vahia de; Pinelli, Marcelo Santos

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the work is to show that the mismatch between Brent and Henry Hub in the period 2006-2007 is mainly due to the local characteristics of natural gas market. After the beginning of 2008, the price of Henry Hub is increasing and returning to the long term relationship (nonlinear) with Brent. Even with local features, the natural gas market tends to be a market of tradable goods. (author.

  5. Modelling emissions from natural gas flaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ezaina Umukoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The world today recognizes the significance of environmental sustainability to the development of nations. Hence, the role oil and gas industry plays in environmental degrading activities such as gas flaring is of global concern. This study presents material balance equations and predicts results for non-hydrocarbon emissions such as CO2, CO, NO, NO2, and SO2 etc. from flaring (combustion of 12 natural gas samples representing composition of natural gas of global origin. Gaseous emission estimates and pattern were modelled by coding material balance equations for six reaction types and combustion conditions with a computer program. On the average, anticipated gaseous emissions from flaring natural gas with an average annual global flaring rate 126 bcm per year (between 2000 and 2011 in million metric tonnes (mmt are 560 mmt, 48 mmt, 91 mmt, 93 mmt and 50 mmt for CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 respectively. This model predicted gaseous emissions based on the possible individual combustion types and conditions anticipated in gas flaring operation. It will assist in the effort by environmental agencies and all concerned to track and measure the extent of environmental pollution caused by gas flaring operations in the oil and gas industry.

  6. Green gas in the natural gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinsma, B.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to map the technical, economic and organizational options and limitations of feeding biogas back into the natural gas grid by means of regional co-digestion. Emphasis is put on feeding back into the natural gas grid, analogous to a comparable situation in a number of landfill gas projects. This report first provides insight into the energetic potential of co-digestion. Next several landfill gas projects are examined that feed back into the natural gas grid. After that the political and policy-related issues and preconditions for feeding back biogas from co-digestion are discussed, including the technical and economic aspects. Finally, a picture is painted of the future potential of green gas. [mk] [nl

  7. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  8. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  9. Weak oil prices seen hindrance to pace of increase in gas use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    World demand for gas is expected to rocket, yet future natural gas and liquefied natural gas projects remain threatened by the link of gas prices to crude oil prices. This is the main message that emerged from the 19th World Gas Conference in Milan last week. A number of reports predicted regional demand for gas. All foresaw a rise. International Gas Union (IGU), organizer of the conference, and said world natural gas production has continued to rise despite a significant downturn in industrial production. The paper discusses gas demand in Europe, the correlation between oil and gas prices, the natural gas industry in Indonesia, Russia, and southern Europe

  10. Alberta oil and gas industry: annual statistics for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Statistical data for 1995 concerning the supply and disposition of crude oil and equivalent, natural gas, ethane, butanes, natural gas liquids, and sulphur in the Province of Alberta, were provided. A list of new wells drilled during 1995, and an annual well count, were also included

  11. Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Hendriks, F.H.J.F.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Neelis, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Road transport produces significant amounts of CO 2 by using crude oil as primary energy source. A reduction of CO 2 emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains. This article studies CO 2 emissions and energy efficiencies by means of a well to wheel analysis of alternative automotive fuel chains, using natural gas (NG) as an alternative primary energy source to replace crude oil. The results indicate that NG-based hydrogen applied in fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) lead to largest CO 2 emission reductions (up to 40% compared to current practice). However, large implementation barriers for this option are foreseen, both technically and in terms of network change. Two different transition strategies are discussed to gradually make the transition to these preferred fuel chains. Important transition technologies that are the backbone of these routes are traditional engine technology fuelled by compressed NG and a FCV fuelled by gasoline. The first is preferred in terms of carbon emissions. The results furthermore indicate that an innovation in the conventional chain, the diesel hybrid vehicle, is more efficient than many NG-based chains. This option scores well in terms of carbon emissions and implementation barriers and is a very strong option for the future

  12. Characterization of Methane-Seep Communities in a Deep-Sea Area Designated for Oil and Natural Gas Exploitation Off Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva J. Amon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the deep ocean (>200 m is taking on added importance as human development encroaches. Despite increasing oil and natural gas exploration and exploitation, the deep ocean of Trinidad and Tobago is almost entirely unknown. The only scientific team to image the deep seafloor within the Trinidad and Tobago Exclusive Economic Zone was from IFREMER in the 1980s. That exploration led to the discovery of the El Pilar methane seeps and associated chemosynthetic communities on the accretionary prism to the east of Trinidad and Tobago. In 2014, the E/V Nautilus, in collaboration with local scientists, visited two previously sampled as well as two unexplored areas of the El Pilar site between 998 and 1,629 m depth using remotely operated vehicles. Eighty-three megafaunal morphospecies from extensive chemosynthetic communities surrounding active methane seepage were observed at four sites. These communities were dominated by megafaunal invertebrates including mussels (Bathymodiolus childressi, shrimp (Alvinocaris cf. muricola, Lamellibrachia sp. 2 tubeworms, and Pachycara caribbaeum. Adjacent to areas of active seepage was an ecotone of suspension feeders including Haplosclerida sponges, stylasterids and Neovermilia serpulids on authigenic carbonates. Beyond this were large Bathymodiolus shell middens. Finally there was either a zone of sparse octocorals and other non-chemosynthetic species likely benefiting from the carbonate substratum and enriched production within the seep habitat, or sedimented inactive areas. This paper highlights these ecologically significant areas and increases the knowledge of the biodiversity of the Trinidad and Tobago deep ocean. Because methane seepage and chemosynthetic communities are related to the presence of extractable oil and gas resources, development of best practices for the conservation of biodiversity in Trinidad and Tobago waters within the context of energy extraction is critical. Potential impacts

  13. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ademola, J.A.; Atare, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th varied from 30.1 ± 3.0 to 59.0 ± 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 ± 2.3 and 7.9 ± 3.7 to 10.9 ± 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 μSv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 μSv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  14. Definitions and guidelines for classification of oil and gas reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSorcy, G.J.; Warne, G.A.; Ashton, B.R.; Campbell, G.R.; Collyer, D.R.; Drury, J.; Lang, R.V.; Robertson, W.D.; Robinson, J.G.; Tutt, D.W

    1993-05-01

    The unpredictability of estimating reserves of oil and gas has made it imperative to develop a universal set of definitions and guidelines for calculating and classifying reserves. A committee of representatives from the oil and gas industry, consulting firms, industry associations, regulatory agencies, government, and financial organizations in Canada has prepared definitions of oil and gas resources and reserves, as well as a recommended classification system for those reserves. The committee believes these definitions and guidelines are suitable for use with respect to all types of oil and gas and related substances, including offshore situations and oil sands. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods are presented, as well as guidelines for specific methods including the volumetric, material balance, decline curve analysis, and reservoir simulation methods. The guidelines also consider reserves from improved recovery projects and reserves of natural gas liquids and sulfur. A glossary of terms is appended. 14 figs.

  15. Oil and gas fiscal regimes of the western Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This report compares the fiscal regimes in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. During 1985-1988, federal and provincial governments have made numerous fiscal changes, many in response to the drop in world oil prices. The new fiscal policies generally have reflected governments' willingness to forego revenues in an effort to aid the oil and gas industry, with certain exemptions. Since 1988, changes have reflected trends of consolidation and less government willingness to forego revenues. A federal large corporations capital tax has been introduced, the natural gas exploration holiday in Alberta expired, new oil royalties were introduced, and changes were made in fiscal regimes to accomodate horizontal drilling in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In this document, the existing corporate tax regime is described. A comparison of fiscal regimes must recognize the differing scale and nature of oil and gas operations among the 4 provinces, with Alberta accounting for 80-90% of Canada's oil and gas productions, while British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are much smaller producers. The document describes Crown royalties and incentives and freehold taxes for each type of fuel (crude oil, natural gas, natural gas byproducts, nonconventional oil). 8 figs

  16. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  17. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  18. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  19. North American natural gas supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goobie, G.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation was given by leading energy analysts Pervin and Gertz, and provided their outlook on the North American natural gas supply and demand as well as transportation and processing options for the Mackenzie Valley project and the Alaska natural gas project. Arctic gas development was discussed in relation to larger North American and world energy markets. The impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure development were compared with the potential impacts of the Alaska and Mackenzie Valley pipelines. A review of North American gas supplies was presented. LNG imports to the United States are expected to exceed 8 BCF/D by 2010. In addition, huge growth in the LNG markets is expected in middle eastern countries as well as in Africa. There is currently strong growth in liquefaction capacity in most regions. However, many proposed LNG terminals will not proceed due to opposition on the west coast of North America. It is also expected that natural gas liquids (NGL) delivered to Alberta from the Mackenzie Valley Gas project are expected to be used by the heavy oil industry. Canadian crude supplies are expected to grow to nearly 4 million barrels per day by 2015. The impacts of Alaska and Mackenzie Valley gas projects on western NGL markets and the petrochemicals industry were reviewed. It was concluded that major investments in supply and infrastructure are need in order to develop Arctic gas, as LNG is likely to be the largest source of incremental supply. tabs., figs

  20. Radiological consequences of gas and oil extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Contamination of the environment by Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) is a well-known side outcome of gas and oil extraction. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) means material containing the radionuclides of nature origin, i.e., K 40, U 238, Th 232 and their decay products. Technologically Enhanced means, that the physical, chemical, radiological properties, and concentrations of natural radionuclides in NORM have been altered such that there exists a potential for:Redistribution and contamination of environmental media (soil, water, and air); Increased environmental mobility in soils and groundwater; Incorporation of elevated levels of radioactivity in products and construction materials; Improper disposal or use of disposal methods that could result in unnecessary and relatively high exposures to individuals and populations via any environmental pathway and medium. NORM and TENORM are the major sources of human exposure in the World. Their contributions to the worldwide human exposure as evaluated by UNSCEAR. The radiological consequences of occupational and public exposures with TENORM are not clearly monitored and examined. The principal reason of such situation is that for a long time neither ecological organizations nor Regulatory Authorities did not consider the handling of material containing natural radionuclides (other than radon and thoron) as object for regulation of radiation safety. For instance, till now Green peace have not demonstrated any opinion about this problem. TENORM released in oil and gas extraction is a major source of environmental contamination of the Caspian Sea and soils, surface and ground waters in Azerbaijan. The origin of TENORM in oil fields of Apsheron peninsula is related to drilling, production, and processing operations. Other sources of contamination are oil well equipment where separation of contaminated water from oil takes place. Contamination of the environment leads

  1. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Essentials of natural gas microturbines

    CERN Document Server

    Boicea, Valentin A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor

  3. Natural gas cooling: Part of the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the efficiencies and performance of a number of gas cooling systems with a comparable electric cooling system. The results show that gas cooling systems compare favorably with the electric equivalents, offering a new dimension to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. The paper goes on to compare the air quality benefits of natural gas to coal or oil-burning fuel systems which are used to generate the electricity for the electric cooling systems. Finally, the paper discusses the regulatory bias that the author feels exists towards the use of natural gas and the need for modification in the existing regulations to provide a 'level-playing field' for the gas cooling industry

  4. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  5. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  6. The U.S. Oil and Gas Boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodman, John

    2012-01-01

    A funny thing happened in the last few years when no one was paying attention. What is going on is nothing short of a revolution in U.S., Lower-48 oil and natural gas production that is quickly transforming the energy sector. This transformation, while important for the oil market, is likely to be spectacularly more evolutionary in natural gas markets, both here and abroad. New production technologies have arrived at a time when the whole world is looking for cleaner-burning fuels, and they may usher in a new golden era for natural gas as a bridge fuel to a cleaner, more-sustainable energy future

  7. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  8. Natural-gas supply-and-demand problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatamian, H.

    1998-01-01

    World natural-gas consumption quadrupled in the 30 years from 1966 to 1996, and natural gas now provides 22% of the total world energy demand. The security of natural-gas supply is paramount and rests with the suppliers and the consumers. This paper gives an overview of world natural-gas supply and demand and examines the main supply problems. The most important nonpredictable variables in natural-gas supply are worldwide gas price and political stability, particularly in regions with high reserves. Other important considerations are the cost of development/processing and the transport of natural gas to market, which can be difficult to maintain if pipelines pass through areas of political instability. Another problem is that many countries lack the infrastructure and capital for effective development of their natural-gas industry. Unlike oil, the cost of transportation of natural gas is very high, and, surprisingly, only approximately 16% of the total world production currently is traded internationally

  9. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  10. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  11. Noble Gas signatures of Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Tyne, R. L.; Hillegonds, D.; Byrne, D. J.; Landon, M. K.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Noble gases are powerful tracers of fluids from various oil and gas production activities in hydrocarbon reservoirs and nearby groundwater. Non-radiogenic noble gases are introduced into undisturbed oil and natural gas reservoirs through exchange with formation waters [1-3]. Reservoirs with extensive hydraulic fracturing, injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and/or waste disposal also show evidence for a component of noble gases introduced from air [4]. Isotopic and elemental ratios of noble gases can be used to 1) assess the migration history of the injected and formation fluids, and 2) determine the extent of exchange between multiphase fluids in different reservoirs. We present noble gas isotope and abundance data from casing, separator and injectate gases of the Lost Hills and Fruitvale oil fields in the San Joaquin basin, California. Samples were collected as part of the California State Water Resource Control Board's Oil and Gas Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. Lost Hills (n=7) and Fruitvale (n=2) gases are geochemically distinct and duplicate samples are highly reproducible. Lost Hills casing gas samples were collected from areas where EOR and hydraulic fracturing has occurred in the past several years, and from areas where EOR is absent. The Fruitvale samples were collected from a re-injection port. All samples are radiogenic in their He isotopes, typical of a crustal environment, and show enrichments in heavy noble gases, resulting from preferential adsorption on sediments. Fruitvale samples reflect air-like surface conditions, with higher air-derived noble gas concentrations. Lost Hills gases show a gradation from pristine crustal signatures - indicative of closed-system exchange with formation fluids - to strongly air-contaminated signatures in the EOR region. Pristine samples can be used to determine the extent of hydrocarbon exchange with fluids, whereas samples with excess air can be used to quantify the extent of EOR. Determining noble

  12. Future considerations: Imperial finds new promise in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1988-01-01

    After decades of having natural gas a minor part of its operations, Imperial Oil has reevaluated the importance of that resource within the company's strategy. A comprehensive business review of the industry was conducted in 1987 and prompted Imperial's subsidiary, Esso Resources Canada, to adopt the goal of becoming an industry leader in natural gas reserves, production, and marketing. Imperial's natural gas business started in 1921, when it assumed control of the company whose Turner Valley gas find sparked an oil rush in 1914. By the early 1940s, when Turner Valley was still Canada's only major oil field, Imperial was considering the manufacture of synthetic oil from natural gas, but then it discovered the first well of the Leduc oil boom in 1947. Imperial built the first gas conservation plant in Canada in 1950, but largely left other companies to develop gas fields. The deregulated gas market of the mid-1980s saw Imperial buying its first major acquisition in over 20 years, Sulpetro Ltd.; this boosted Imperial's annual gas production and its reserves by a third. A further purchase of Ocelot Industries increased overall gas production by another 20%. Imperial also made substantial gas finds in the Mackenzie Delta, and the company's holdings at Obed (Alberta) will add 8% to gas production

  13. The - compromised? - future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Ph.

    2009-01-01

    Will natural gas be the main loser of the January 2009 crisis between Ukraine and Russia? The demonstration is made that the European Union is not free from the risk of a severe supply disruption. This is a bad news considering that the power generation is the growth vector of natural gas. Even if the gas black-out cannot exist, the power black-out still can happen. As soon as the Russian-Ukrainian conflict has occurred, the other energy sources (nuclear and renewable) have been called for help in Europe while coal is in the expectation. Since some time now, gas has to face several trend changes. First, uncertainty is increasing considering its growth prospects. The new version of the gas pluri-annual indicative plan (PIP Gaz) would foresee a stagnation of gas consumption up to 2020 (consequence of the French environmental policy), while the previous plan had foreseen a 2.1% annual growth rate between 2005 and 2015. Second, the direct indexing of gas prices on oil prices can have undesirable effects. Finally, the u-turn of the USA with respect to liquefied natural gas (LNG) may penalize its development. What answers should the European Union give in front of these uncertainties? Have the companies modified their strategy? Is the future of gas still fine? These are the questions debated during a round table organized by the BIP, the French Bulletin of Petroleum Industry. (J.S.)

  14. Assessing the Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Activities on Regional Air Quality in the Colorado Northern Front Range using WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdioskouei, M.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent increases in the Natural Gas (NG) production through hydraulic fracturing have questioned the climate benefit of switching from coal-fired to natural gas-fired power plants. Higher than expected levels of methane, VOCs, and NOx have been observed in areas close to oil and NG (OnG) operation facilities. High uncertainty in the OnG emission inventories and methane budget challenge the assessment of OnG impact on air quality and climate and consequently development of effective mitigation policies and control regulations. In this work, we focus on reducing the uncertainties around the OnG emissions by using high resolution (4x4 km2) WRF-Chem simulations coupled with detailed observation from the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ 2014) field campaign. First, we identified the optimal WRF-Chem configurations in the NFR area. We compared the performance of local and non-local Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes in predicting the PBL height and vertical mixing in the domain. We evaluated the impact of different meteorological and chemical initial and boundary conditions on the model performance. Next, simulations based on optimal configurations were used to assess the performance of the emission inventory (NEI-2011v2). To evaluate the impact of OnG emission on regional air quality and performance of NEI-2011 we tested the sensitivity of the model to the OnG emission. Comparison between simulated values and ground-based and airborne measurements shows a low bias of OnG emission in NEI-2011. Finally, inverse modeling techniques based on emission sensitivity simulations are being used to optimal scaling the OnG emission from the NEI-2011.

  15. Oil and Gas Field Locations, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_fields_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS layer consists of oil and gas field approximate center point locations (approximately 1,800). Oil and gas fields not assigned a center point by the DNR...

  16. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  17. Trading in LNG and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the market for natural gas from a number of viewpoints, starting with the role of natural gas in the global energy market where its 20% share of primary energy demand has been captured in the space of almost as many years. In discussion regional energy markets we cover the disparities between supply and demand which give rise to trade by pipeline, and by sea in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Both have in fact increased steadily in recent years, yet even in 1991, only 12-15% of total gas production was traded across international boundaries, whereas for oil it was closer to 40%. For the moment pipeline trade remains heavily concentrated in Europe and North America, and it is in the LNG sector where the spread of projects, both existing and planned, is more global in nature. We examine the development of LNG trades and the implications for shipping. Finally, we look at transportation costs, which are likely to be an important component in the viability of many of the natural gas export schemes now under review. There is good reason to be ''bullish'' about parts of the natural gas industry but this Report suggests that there are areas of concern which could impinge on the development of the market in the 1990s. (author)

  18. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layfield, R.P.; Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards

  19. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, R.P. (Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  20. Advocating for responsible oil and natural gas extraction policies; FracTracker as a mechanism for overcoming the barriers to scientific advocacy for academics and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, K. J.; Malone, S.; Kelso, M.; Lenker, B.

    2013-12-01

    The inability to translate data to scientific information that can readily be incorporated by citizens into the public arena is an obstacle for science-based advocacy. This issue is particularly poignant for shale oil and natural gas development via hydraulic fracturing, as the issue has become highly politicized. Barriers to engaging in policy debate are different but highly related for community members and scientists. For citizens and interest groups, barriers including accessibility, public awareness and data presentation limit the motivation for community involvement in political interactions. To overcome such barriers, social researchers call for public engagement to move upstream and many call for a broad engagement of scientists in science-based advocacy. Furthermore surveys have shown that citizens, interest groups, and decision-makers share a broad desire for scientists to engage in environmental policy development. Regardless, scientists face a number of perceived barriers, with academics expressing the most resistance to overcoming the tension created by adherence to the scientific method and the need to engage with the broader society, described by Schneider (1990) as the 'double ethical bind'. For the scientific community the appeal of public dissemination of information beyond the scope of academic journals is limited for a number of reasons. Barriers include preservation of credibility, peer attitudes, training, and career trajectory. The result is a lack of translated information available to the public. This systematic analysis of the FracTracker platform provides an evaluation of where the features of the public engagement, GIS platform has been successful at overcoming these barriers to public dissemination, where the platform needs further development or is ill-suited to address these issues, and the development of FracTracker as an outlet for scientific researchers to engage with citizens. The analysis will also provide insight into what

  1. Gas migration from oil and gas fields and associated hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.E.; Endres, B.L.; Robertson Jr, J.O.; Chilingar, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The migration of gas from oil and gas formations to the surface is a problem that greatly affects those surface areas where human activity exists. Underground gas storage facilities and oil fields have demonstrated a long history of gas migration problems. Experience has shown that the migration of gas to the surface creates a serious potential risk of explosion, fires, noxious odors and potential emissions of carcinogenic chemicals. These risks must be seriously examined for all oil and gas operations located in urban areas. This paper presents the mechanics of gas migration, paths of migration and a review of a few of the risks that should be considered when operating a gas facility in an urban area. The gas can migrate in a continuous or discontinuous stream through porous, water-filled media to the surface. The primary force in this migration of gas is the difference between specific weights of gas and water

  2. North American Natural Gas Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    hand sales of natural gas and LPG. 17 Decreto Legal, Diario Oficial , Noviembre 25, 1993. 37 Review Section 38 Figure 2. Mexican Natural Gas...California 500 Mexicali Baja California 29 Naco - Hermosillo Sonora 130 Nacozari de Garcia Sonora 85 Agua Prieta Sonora 173

  3. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  4. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  5. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  6. Bring money and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The budding natural gas markets in East Europe attract a great deal of interest from natural gas industries in the Western countries. Dutch companies, institutions and the government, too, are active in this market. So far the results have not been spectacular. An analysis is made of the present situation and the Dutch approach

  7. Natural gas to buoy Trinidad and Tobago petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum sector remains at a crossroads. While heavily reliant on oil and gas for domestic energy consumption and hard currency export earnings, the small Caribbean island nation faces some tough choices in reviving its hydrocarbon sector in the 1990s. Exploration and production of crude oil have stagnated in recent years, and domestic refinery utilization remains low at 36%. However, substantial natural gas reserves in Trinidad and Tobago offer the promise of a burgeoning natural gas based economy with an eye to liquefied natural gas and gas based petrochemical exports. Any solutions will involve considerable outlays by the government as well as a sizable infusion of capital by foreign companies. Therein lie some of the hard choices. The article describes the roles of oil and gas, foreign investment prospects, refining status, refining problems, gas sector foreign investment, and outlook for the rest of the 1990's

  8. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkin, L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m 3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m 3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks is described comprising: a cylindrical tank; a hollow float member for supporting said tank in a substantially upright position; a skirt assembly secured to said hollow float member and extending in a direction away from said float member opposite said tank; means for removing oil from said tank; and means for removing gas from said tank

  10. Natural gas: a rose by any other name

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorskarski, G.

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas is expected to provide 30% of the European Union's energy demand by 2020 as compared with 20% in 1995. Although price is still used as a selling point for gas, its increasing popularity and market share are assisted by its image. It is perceived as both 'clean' and 'modern' and indeed its environmental credentials are good compared with those of oil and coal. A gigajoule of energy generated using oil or gas produces 53% or 83% more carbon dioxide, respectively, than using natural gas because of the combustion efficiency of the methane molecule. The significance of the adjective 'natural' as an added marketing advantage is discussed. (UK)

  11. Natural gas and production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    2005-01-01

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  12. Electricity/natural gas competition in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of energy market shares (electricity, natural gas and oil products) in Quebec's residential and commercial sectors in the 1980s shows that energy source relative prices have influenced consumer behavior as expected. A set of comparisons from space and water heating markets in these sectors with regard to prices paid by consumers and costs incurred by society in general is presented. For the residential sector, it is seen that consumers pay only a fraction of the cost for electric space and water heating; the same service could be provided at smaller cost by natural gas. For the commercial sector, the electricity and natural gas tariffs convey the appropriate message with respect to the cost incurred in providing the service. 6 refs., 7 tabs

  13. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  14. Detailed analysis and group-type separation of natural fats and oils using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Luigi; Casilli, Alessandro; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni

    2003-11-26

    Comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) is an adequate methodology for the separation and identification of very complex samples. It is based on the coupling of two capillary columns that each give a different but substantial contribution to the unprecedented resolving power of this technique. The 2D space chromatograms that derive from GC x GC analysis have great potential for identification. This is due to the fact that the contour plot positions, pinpointed by two retention time coordinates, give characteristic patterns for specific families of compounds that can be mathematically translated. This investigation concerned the application of this principle to fatty acid methyl esters that were grouped on an equal double bond number basis. The ester samples were derived from various lipids and all underwent bidimensional analysis on two sets of columns. Peak attribution was supported by mass spectra, linear retention indices and information reported in the literature.

  15. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the

  16. Feeling the pressure from natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taffe, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The European directive establishing a competitive internal natural gas market will be the most important, though not the only, factor in advancing the rapid and far reaching changes which Europe's natural gas sector is undergoing. The knock-on effects which these changes will have on the chemical industry are examined. The benefits of opening up the gas market will be more consumer choice and a more efficient and globally competitive EU gas industry. But for the chemical industry it raises strategic issues surrounding gas procurement such as price risks and security of supply. These are especially acute where gas is used not just as a fuel but also as a feedstock. As the electricity market is progressively deregulated, independent power generation using combined heat and power could be an attractive choice in the chemical industry with the possibility of selling surplus electricity on the spot market. Other changes in the gas sector could arise from the environmental targets agreed in Kyoto which are likely to lead to an increase in fuel taxation, and the development of a spot market in gas as the link between oil and gas prices becomes less direct. (UK)

  17. The petroleum challenge. Present day questions about oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.; Locatelli, C.; Pauwels, J.P.; Swartenbroekx, C.

    2006-04-01

    Will the 21. century be the petroleum challenge century? The petroleum problem is no longer the affair of experts and journalists, it challenges also governments and consumers in pressing terms. If there is today a petroleum problem, there is no oil or gas shortage for the moment. The cumulated oil and gas reserves would allow to face the demand of the century, with the condition that investments in exploration, field development, production, and back-end of oil and gas industries will be done in time. This book, written by specialists of energy economics and geopolitics shows up some of the key questions of our energy future. In particular, it invites us to never forget the basic heavy trends of the hydrocarbons sector in order to never be trapped by superficial extrapolations of short term phenomena. Content: heavy trend of oil prices at the 2020 prospects, natural gas take over?; oil and gas geopolitics: enough of hydrocarbons for the 21. century; Russia and Caspian sea oil and gas weight; China: a new strategic actor of the energy scene; influence of 'futures' market, of speculation, and of stocks on hydrocarbon prices; which future for LNG?; natural gas in the USA: towards a new foreign dependence. (J.S.)

  18. Z662-96: oil and gas pipeline systems; 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, S; Burford, G; Martin, A; Adragna, M [eds.

    1997-12-31

    This Standard is part of the pipeline systems and materials segment of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA)`s Transportation program. It covers the design, construction, operation and maintenance of oil and gas industry pipeline systems that carry (1) liquid hydrocarbons, including crude oil, multiphase fluids, condensate, liquid petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and liquefied petroleum gas, (2) oilfield water, (3) oilfield steam, (4) carbon dioxide used in oilfield enhanced recovery schemes, or (5) natural gas, manufactured gas, or synthetic gas. tabs. figs.

  19. Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, N.T.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

  20. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  1. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  2. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  3. Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi Dual Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI compression ignition (CI engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.

  4. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  5. Liquid natural gas. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical know-how and expertise in Japan with respect to the supply, transport, storage and use of LNG. First the overall energy supply in Japan is outlined. Next, the reasons for the use of LNG as an energy source in Japan are discussed. As an example of a typical LNG-installation in Japan the construction of the Himeji Terminal of Osaka Gas Company is described. Finally, attention is paid to the world's largest and modern below-surface LNG-tanks (capacity of 200,000 m 3 ), installed at the Negishi Terminal of Tokyo Gas Company

  6. The European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagland, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An increasing amount of natural gas is flowing into continental Europe, one of the largest gas markets in the world. There are three main sources of gas: Africa, Russia and Norway. Norway is an important supplier of gas, but may be vulnerable to competition. The demand for gas is increasing on a global basis and the largest increase is expected in Asia, followed by America and Europe. It is expected that Norwegian gas deliveries will be a principle source of natural gas for North Europe in the next years and that they will take an increasing part of the British market as the gas deliveries from the British shelf is going down. The European gas market is likely to become liberalized according to the EU's competition- and gas directives. This will not necessarily be a problem, and Norway may be able to increase the export of gas to Great Britain considerably from the year 2010, perhaps up to 40 billion standard m3 per year. Russia is expected to take an increased share of the European gas market, especially in East- and Central Europe, Germany and North Italy. But large investments in existing fields, new developments and new strategic pipelines are necessary

  7. Natural gas and its consumption in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniriah, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this report the worldwide position of natural gas as an important energy of the coming decades and its modest current standing in the Swiss energy balance are highlighted. The relative role and importance of the principal fossil fuels in the energy supply, the average energy prices and taxes, particularly those of gas and fuel oil in the residential sector and the overall statistically related inter-fuel substitution in Switzerland are examined. The role of governments in energy supply in general and with gas utilization in particular is examined. The international trade in gas and its supply infrastructure are reviewed and the advantageous situation of Switzerland in Western Europe and the latter in the World, with respect to present and future gas supplies, are underlined. Considering the current level of gas consumption in Switzerland and its past and projected rates of market penetration, in comparison to other OECD countries, it would appear that Switzerland is not taking full advantage of the situation. The implicit message, even if diffidently conveyed, is intervention by prescription and by proscription. In the absence of such measures, and with the virtual demise of nuclear energy or its expansion, the disproportionate and dominant position of fuel oil in the energy mix, will endure whereas the share of gas grows very slowly remaining at much lower levels than in the neighbouring countries. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  8. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  9. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  10. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-07-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  11. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  12. Understanding the petroleum and natural gas regime in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothian, E.C.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the legal issues relating to exploring for and operating oil and gas properties in Saskatchewan were discussed. An overview of key legislation was provided. The purpose of the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) was explained, i.e., (1) to prevent waste, (2) to regulate all oil and gas operations to maximize ultimate recovery through prudent operations, (3) to allow each owner the opportunity to recover its share of oil or gas from a pool, (4) to develop, protect and conserve Saskatchewan's oil and gas resources, and (5) to protect the environment from the harmful effects of oil and gas operations. Legislation regarding vertical wells, horizontal wells, and horizontal well spacing was reviewed. Similar explanations were provided for the key features of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulations, the Freehold Oil and Gas Production Tax Act, the Mineral Taxation Act, the Land Titles Act, and the Builder's Lien Act. Registration issues for Crown and freehold lands, and non-contractual operator's duties were also reviewed. A brief reference was also made to a recent report entitled the 'Saskatchewan External Cost Review' which indicated that Saskatchewan had certain advantages for producing oil and gas compared to Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia and North Dakota. Unfortunately, the report also indicated that the external costs ( crown royalties, freehold production taxes, income taxes, sales taxes, etc.), were the highest in Saskatchewan of the four jurisdictions reviewed

  13. Regulatory reform in the Indonesian Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutagalung, Aldi; Arentsen, Maarten; Lovett, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the problems and dilemmas Indonesia is facing in the upstream and downstream segments of the gas market and the remedies suggested and practiced in Indonesia to mitigate the problems. Indonesia is a country gifted with natural resources, including natural gas and oil. The

  14. Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan

    This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

  15. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P.

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  16. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  17. Funding oil and gas ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, L.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is addressed to geologists who must raise external funds for prospect acquisition, exploratory and development drilling, or to a limited extent, production acquisition. In the ranks of independent geologists, external funding is what separates a dreamer with a good idea from a successful oil and gas producer who gets ideas evaluated on a regular basis. The quantity of external funding usually dictates the level of drilling activity for independent geologists and small companies. Companies or individuals with high levels of internal cash flow set budgets to determine their drilling activity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an independent geologist with an overview of raising external funding. The scope is purposely general. The real motivation behind this paper is not to provide a cookbook for selling prospects. Instead, the author hopes to stimulate geologists to become students of salesmanship and thereby increase the effectiveness of their fund

  18. China Oil and Gas Market Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yu

    2004-08-01

    China, with one-fifth of the world's population and one of the fastest rates of economic growth, is experiencing a boom in its energy requirements. China has been identified as a high priority market for the oil and gas sector. This priority has resulted in the high level of investment and many large-scale projects related to the oil and gas industry. Oil production from existing fields is expected to increase, new oil and gas fields will be developed, and the country's oil and gas transmission infrastructure will be extended to meet domestic demands. In addition, total domestic investment needs for the next three decades till 2030 are estimated at around $119 billion, and upstream exploration and development will account for about $69 billion. China's oil and gas exploitation business has been the biggest beneficiary of the bearish crude oil prices, national oil stockpile and the need of infrastructure. In the first six-month period of 2005, this industry has gained a profit of USD16.5 billion, up 73.4 per cent year-on-year. The country is becoming increasingly open to international oil companies, contractors and equipment suppliers, who can bring advanced technology, equipment, and management experience. In this context, considerable opportunities in the supply and service sectors are open to Dutch companies. This report analyses the present situation and market prospect of China upstream oil and gas industry, including: Current status of Chinese oil and gas industry analysis and future development forecast; Potential customers analysis, such as three stated-owned oil companies and their foreign partners;Domestic and foreign competitors analysis; Potential opportunities and challenges analysis; Providing contacts and information on main ongoing oil exploration and development projects, and business practices

  19. Why the Nature of Oil Shocks Matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanskaia, Elizaveta; Hubert, Paul; Creel, Jerome

    2009-03-01

    This article studies the impact of oil shocks on the macro-economy in two ways insofar unexploited in the literature. The analysis is conducted at the global level, and it explicitly accounts for the potentially changing nature of oil shocks. Based on an original world GDP series and a grouping of oil shocks according to their nature, we find that oil supply shocks negatively impact world growth, contrary to oil demand shocks, pro-cyclical in their nature. This result is robust at the national level for the US. Furthermore, endogenous monetary policy is shown to have no counter-cyclical effects in the context of an oil demand shock. (authors)

  20. Canadian natural gas : market review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual working paper provides summaries of trends within the North American natural gas industry and also reviews Canadian gas exports. It is designed to promote dialogue between industry and the government and to obtain feedback on natural gas issues. The main section of the report consists of graphs, with limited text comments on the side. It provides a structured look at supply and demand for the year 2000 as well as for the near term (2001) and long-term (2010). The sources of information included private consultants, industry associations and federal agencies in Canada and the United States. It was shown that gas demand had grown steadily in North America since 1997, at about 2.5 per cent annually, and then fell 3.4 per cent in 1998 and remained low in 1999, below 1997 demand. This was due mainly to mild winters. In 2000, the demand for natural gas increased again to 5 per cent as a result of a colder winter and increased gas use for power generation. The report also stated that the combination of various factors including low storage balances due to previously low drilling years and high oil prices, were responsible for natural gas price increases in 2000. The tight supply/demand balance was exacerbated by restraints in pipeline capacity. Producers and pipeline groups are now looking seriously at developing the large gas deposits in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta which were previously considered to be uneconomic. It was noted that in the near term, storage must be rebuilt to normal levels. Storage balances will be a good indicator of the relative strengths of gas production and demand growth. It was forecasted that Canada to U.S. gas exports should continue to increase in 2001 as a large new export pipeline was completed in 2000, but there is considerable uncertainty for the medium to longer-term. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Natural gas for baking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steub, G.

    1983-11-01

    German bakers account for about 11% of the total supply of energy required in the small-shop industry, consuming 13.3 billion kWH. The trade thus represents an attractive group of consumers for the energy supply industry. It is shown at what time of the day the peak requirement for energy occurs in bakeries and what baking ovens and firing systems have been developed for use in bakeries relying on gas as a source of heat.

  2. Natural gas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  3. Adsorptive storage of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Song; Lang, Liu; Licheng, Ling

    2001-01-01

    The Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) storage technology is reviewed. The present status, theoretical limits and operational problems are discussed. Natural gas (NG) has a considerable advantage over conventional fuels both from an environmental point of view and for its natural abundance. However, as well known, it has a two fold disadvantage compared with liquid fuels: it is relatively expensive to transport from the remote areas, and its energy density (heat of combustion/volume) is low. All these will restrict its use. Compressed natural gas (CNG) may be a solution, but high pressures are needed (up to 25 MPa) for use in natural-gas fueled vehicles, and the large cost of the cylinders for storage and the high-pressure facilities necessary limit the practical use of CNG. Alternatively, adsorbed natural gas (ANG) at 3 - 4 MPa offers a very high potential for exploitation in both transport and large-scale applications. At present, research about this technology mainly focuses on: to make adsorbents with high methane adsorption capacity; to make clear the effects of heat of adsorption and the effect of impurities in natural gas on adsorption and desorption capacity. This paper provides an overview of current technology and examines the relations between fundamentals of adsorption and ANG storage. (authors)

  4. Oil and Gas R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This publication describes the major components of the research and development programs of the Department of Energy`s Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Technology. These programs are commonly referred to collectively as the `Oil and Gas Program.` This document provides customers with a single source of information describing the details of the individual technology program components. This document reflects the results of a planning cycle that began in early 1996 with the development of a scenario analysis for the programs, followed by the development of the coordinated strategic plan. The technology program plans, which are the most recent products of the planning cycle, expand on the program descriptions presented in the coordinated strategic plan, and represent an initial effort to coordinate the Oil and Gas Program exploration and production programs and budgets. Each technology program plan includes a `roadmap` that summarizes the progress of the program to the present and indicates its future direction. The roadmaps describe the program drivers, vision, mission, strategies, and measures of success. Both the individual technology program plans and the strategic plan are dynamic and are intended to be updated regularly.

  5. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  6. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM.

  7. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model's basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM

  8. Canadian natural gas price debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, G.

    1998-01-01

    Sunoco Inc. is a subsidiary of Suncor Energy, one of Canada's largest integrated energy companies having total assets of $2.8 billion. As one of the major energy suppliers in the country, Sunoco Inc has a substantial stake in the emerging trends in the natural gas industry, including the Canadian natural gas price debate. Traditionally, natural gas prices have been determined by the number of pipeline expansions, weather, energy supply and demand, and storage levels. In addition to all these traditional factors which still apply today, the present day natural gas industry also has to deal with deregulation, open competition and the global energy situation, all of which also have an impact on prices. How to face up to these challenges is the subject of this discourse. tabs., figs

  9. Methane-bomb natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    About 50% of the so-called 'greenhouse-effect' is not caused by CO 2 , but by more dangerous gases, among them is methane. Natural gas consists to about 98% of methane. In Austria result about 15% of the methane emissions from offtake, storage, transport (pipelines) and distribution from natural gas. A research study of the Research Centre Seibersdorf points out that between 2.5% and 3.6% of the employed natural gas in Austria emits. The impact of this emitted methane is about 29 times worse than the impact of CO 2 (caused for examples by petroleum burning). Nevertheless the Austrian CO 2 -commission states that an increasing use of natural gas would decrease the CO 2 -emissions - but this statement is suspected to be based on wrong assumptions. (blahsl)

  10. Natural gas and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCarufel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of various atmospheric pollutants in environmental changes and the global water cycle, carbon cycle, and energy balance is explained. The role of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in acid deposition is also outlined. The pollutants that contribute to environmental problems include nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, and other greenhouse gases. The potential for natural gas utilization to mitigate some of these pollution problems is explored. Natural gas combustion emits less carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides than combustion of other fossil fuel, and also does not produce sulfur dioxide, particulates, or volatile organics. Other pollution controlling opportunities offered by natural gas include the use of low-polluting burners, natural gas vehicles, and cogeneration systems. 18 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  12. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  13. The Pricing of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2004-11-01

    The report focuses on the pricing of natural gas. The motivation has been the wish of the Norwegian authorities to increase the use of natural gas and that this should follow market conditions. The pricing of gas occurs at present in various ways in the different markets. The report identifies to main factors behind the pricing. 1) The type of market i.e. how far the liberalization of the gas markets has gone in the various countries. 2) The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies. The gas markets are undergoing as the energy markets in general, a liberalization process where the traditional monopoly based market structures are replaced by markets based on competition. There are great differences in the liberalization development of the various countries, which is reflected in the various pricing principles applied for the trade of gas in the countries. The analysis shows that the net-back-pricing is predominant in some countries i.e. that the price is in various ways indexed towards and follow the development of the price of alternative energy carriers so that the gas may be able to compete. The development towards trade places for gas where the pricing is based on offer and demand is already underway. As the liberalization of the European gas markets progresses it is expected that the gas price will be determined increasingly at spot markets instead of through bilateral agreements between monopolistic corporations. The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies and to what extent this may influence the gas prices in the future, are also studied. There seem to be effects that may pull in both directions but it is evident that these political variables will influence the gas pricing in the international market to a large extent and thereby also the future internal natural gas market

  14. Natural gas utilization in Santa Cruz thermal-electric power; A utilizacao de gas natural em Santa Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Mauricio F. de.; Lundeqvist, Carl G; Gomes, Gerson; Almeida, A E

    1994-12-31

    Use of natural gas as an alternative energy source on the thermo electric power plant of Santa Cruz are presented. Economic studies on hydroelectric power plants to use thermal generators during low water supply periods, costs of natural gas as a alternative energy fuel, and the engineer services to the conversion of fuel oil system, are discussed. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. The emergent natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewert, F.; Meeder, J.

    1998-01-01

    A 30% increase of natural gas consumption worldwide is expected to occur since the year 2010. This development will concern countries located outside the traditional markets, in particular in central and eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and south America. This paper summarizes the talks given by the different representatives of these regions who explain the expected evolutions of the natural gas market in these areas: reserves, production, consumption, demand, competition with other energy sources, financial aspects.. (J.S.)

  16. Oil and gas supply : hurdles and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusti, L.

    2006-01-01

    The socioeconomic development in Latin America was discussed with reference to its abundant and diverse resources. Despite its large population, Latin America represents only 6 per cent of the world gross domestic product (GDP) and a less than 6 per cent of the total world trading. This presentation described the problems of large deficits, poor economic policies, large debt and corruption that provoked inflation, economic slowdown, and foreign debt in Latin America. Policy makers agreed that reforms were needed if Latin American economies were to grow more than 6 per cent a year, and to lower the number of people living in poverty in the region. The second-generation reform for Latin America was meant to promote economic development without inflation. It is based on quality public sector governance; fiscal strengthening; an enhanced legal and regulatory framework; efficient financial markets; and, labour and market reform. This presentation also discussed the oil and gas industry's contention with the perceptions that the economic crisis in Latin America was caused by globalization, international trade and acquisitive industrialized countries. An initiative was launched in 1994 to build an integrated energy data bank, evaluate existing interconnections among Latin American countries, and identify barriers for a larger integration to facilitate and improve commercial activities. It was emphasized that while the United States has a large deficit of oil, Canada and Latin America have large surpluses of energy resources, which if developed efficiently and effectively, can be a leading engine of regional development and an important contributor to global competitiveness. Canada is the largest supplier of energy, including oil, natural gas and electricity to the United States, the world's largest energy consumer and largest oil and gas market. Mexico and Brazil were identified as the other 2 large economies in the region's energy chain, but Mexico is self sufficient and

  17. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on

  19. Oil and gas in the Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, S.R.; Kurdy, S. [Alconsult International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asfaw, S.H.; Gessesse, A.A. [Petroleum Operations Dept., Ministry of Mines and Energy, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    1997-09-01

    To date, many of the 47 exploration and development wells drilled in the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia have exhibited natural oil seeps and oil and gas shows. The Calub gas field and the Hilala oil field occurs in the central part of the 350,000 sq. km. basin. The various units within the basin consist of continental sediments, a regional organic-rich interval close to the Permo-Triassic boundary, organic-rich marine sediments and carbonates. The Ogaden Basin is dissected by several faults that are related to the Ethiopian Rift and may form a component of traps in the Calub-Hilala area.

  20. Norwegian Natural Gas. Liberalization of the European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    regulatory regimes. It is shown how multipart tariffs may give the best ''second best'' results, but that first best result may never be achieved. The liberalization of the European gas market is not an isolated phenomenon. In the OECD countries, a large number of sectors have been liberalized over the last couple of decades. Chapter 9 discusses the changes in the North American gas markets (USA and Canada) and in Great Britain, and the relevance these experiences may have for the understanding of the European market. Chapter 10 discusses the role of natural gas in international affairs. Particular focus is put on the US embargo of Soviet gas in 1982. Chapter 11 discusses consuming countries supply security for natural gas, natural gas as the environment's best friend and the use of Strategic Gas Reserves (SGRs) to mitigate a crisis, in the same way as the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPRs) is assumed to do in the oil market. Based on these deliberations, Chapter 12 focuses on consequences of a more liberal European gas market for important variables for Norway as an exporter. In particular the effects on prices and taxes, contractual forms and modulation, existing and new long-term contracts, security of supply and environmental concerns are discussed. The impact on the formulation of a Norwegian gas strategy is discussed in Chapter 13. This applies to the organization of production, transportation and sale of natural gas. It also applies to energy related policies of the EU and of EU countries and strategies of other natural gas exporters, like Russia. Some implications of foreign and security policy character are discussed

  1. C.I.S. natural gas-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.; Stram, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that in the countries that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.), with their vast resources and a considerable existing production base, prospects are good for further growth of the region's exportable gas surplus. Investment fundamentals are stronger for gas than for any other energy resources in the area. But the pipeline infrastructure to move large amounts of gas will need extensive refurbishment to ensure export reliability and growth. Given the potential in terms of production and markets, significant amounts of outside investment in oil, natural gas, and NGL infrastructure will likely increase dramatically in these countries in the near future. These are some of the major conclusions of Enron Corp.'s recent investigations in the C.I.S. and other former Soviet republics

  2. Natural gas seepage from a dug well in Gemerska Panica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milicka, J.; Pereszlenyi, M.; Masaryk, P.

    1997-01-01

    On July 20 1993, a seepage of inflammable natural gas was reported by workers of the Slovak Gas Industry enterprise (SPP) to the Oil and Gas Research and Prospecting (VVNP). Therefore, the locality was visited with the aim to evaluate the current situation, to take rock and water samples for for chemical analysis, to survey the vicinity of Gemerska Panica and to prepare a preliminary oil-geological evaluation of the area, with a suggestion of further prospecting. At the same time, the seepage of inflammable natural gas was reported to the District Mining Office in Spisska Nova Ves. (authors)

  3. Characteristics of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in the oil and gas industries and their behaviour under thermal treatment: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Ali; Shamsuddin A H; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1999-01-01

    Activities and work practices in which radiation exposure of workers and members of the public is increased due to the presence of NORM are receiving increased attention from regulatory agencies and, to lesser extent, from the general public. In Malaysia the main sources of NORM are from the technological activities of tin mining, ore and heavy mineral processing, combustion of coal to generate power, and oil and gas extraction. Sludge that contains NORM arising from the oil and gas extraction activities lately has received special attention by the Malaysian regulatory authorities. These sludge are considered as scheduled waste (contains heavy metals) by Department of Environmental (DOE) and low level radioactive waste (contains NORM) by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), and its cannot be disposed freely without proper control. From literature, the present methods of treatment practiced via land farming and storing are not recommended and will have long term impact to the environment. The other possible method can be considered to treat this sludge is by using thermal treatment technology but before this technology can be fully applied, a study has to be carried out to determine the behaviour of the various elements present in the sludge. This paper reviewed the radiological characteristic of NORMs in relation with the oil and gas production activities in Malaysia and also their behaviour when under going thermal treatment at certain temperature and combustion time. (Author)

  4. Marketing activities of a natural gas company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, D [Thyssengas G.m.b.H., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The last 10 years have produced an extra ordinary upswing in the gas industry. Natural gas could, in part, satisfy the demands in fields previously reserved for heating oil. However, after these successes it seems necessary to analyze the new initial situation for future marketing activities and to find a new strategy. This investigation is concerned with those tasks. Crucial points are dealt with that represent interesting of activities for gas-supply initiatures, and the author tries to show by what means these efforts can be crowned with success. All important sectors of the market are discussed, new technological developments are dealt with briefly, and finally the special case of opening up new areas for natural gas-supply is examined. It is regarded as an absolute necessity that marketing information for new activities should be appreciably improved by market surveys. The whole article describes the activites that have arisen from the co-operation between Thyssen gas and the gas supply undertakings supplied by Thyssen gas.

  5. Problems in operation of gas-oil condensate fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheltov, Yu V; Martos, V N

    1966-12-01

    This is a review of various methods used to deplete gas-oil condensate reservoirs. Four depletion techniques are discussed: (1) natural depletion without injection of fluids into the reservoir; (2) depletion accompanied by gas cycling; (3) depletion in which the gas cap is separated from the oil by water injected into the reservoir, a method in which each part of the reservoir is produced essentially independently of the other; and (4) depletion in which reservoir temperature is raised above the cricondentherm point by in-situ combustion, so that gas and oil form a single phase. This method is prospective, and has not been tried in the field. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. It is concluded that a gas condensate reservoir can be depleted most economically only if some secondary energy is added. (13 refs.)

  6. Israel-New natural gas producer in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and 2010, major offshore natural gas reserves were discovered near the State of Israel. This article examines Israel's newly discovered natural gas reserves and the implications of this discovery for Israel, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean region. The article will discuss Israel's energy security approach; the role of natural gas in Israel's energy consumption patterns; the organization of Israel's natural gas sector; regional political and security implications of the natural gas discoveries; the prospects for export, and the outlook for various natural gas markets. These new discoveries significantly improve Israel's energy security. They may also spur Israel to develop technologies related to utilization of natural gas in a variety of sectors, such as transportation. The discoveries may contribute to the emergence of a number of maritime border delimitation conflicts in the Eastern Mediterranean. At current volumes, the Israeli discoveries will not be a game-changer for gas markets in southern Europe or liquefied natural gas (LNG) markets. However, they will lead to expanded natural gas consumption in the region. In addition, offshore exploration efforts in Israel and in neighboring countries are intensifying. Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. - Highlights: → In 2009 and 2010, major natural gas deposits were discovered offshore of Israel's port city of Haifa. → They will satisfy a large portion of Israel's domestic energy consumption needs for a number of decades. → The gas discoveries have created an opportunity to fundamentally change the country's energy policies. → Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. → Israel could become a supplier of natural gas to neighbors in the Middle East region, such as Jordan.

  7. Natural gas potential in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An independent assessment of the undiscovered gas potential in Canada was conducted by a group of volunteer geoscientists. This report is the first of a series of assessments that are planned to be issued every three to four years. Separate assessments were made of conventional gas resources, unconventional gas resources and frontier gas resources. The assessment for conventional gas resources was organized into three categories: (1) gas producing areas where new discoveries can be integrated into existing producing and transportation infrastructure, (2) frontier basins where gas discoveries have been made, but no production is currently underway, and (3) frontier areas where gas-containing sedimentary rocks are known to exist, but where no gas discoveries have been made to date. The committee used year-end 1993 reserves data from discovered pools in each exploration play to predict the undiscovered potential. Information about discovered pools, geological setting, geographic limits and pool sizes of undiscovered pools in each exploration play was provided. Results of the investigation led to the conclusion that the natural gas potential in Canada is in fact larger than hitherto expected. It was estimated that in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin 47 per cent of the total volume of conventional gas is yet to be discovered. 152 figs

  8. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  9. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  10. Future view on Norwegian natural gas distribution, 2015 - 2025; Framtidsbilde for norsk naturgassdistribusjon, 2015 - 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einang, P M; Hennie, E; Jetlund, A S; Bertelsen, T; Skjelvik, J M

    2005-05-15

    The report shows how the available market for natural gas can realised as LNG and CNG. The necessary investments in infrastructure and cost for the different solutions are also included. The expected price development natural gas and the connection prices for natural gas versus crude oil are shown. The report also shows the environmental benefits possible by choosing natural gas

  11. Natural gas and deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2001-01-01

    The gas market is progressively moving towards new organizations under the effect of the deregulation initiated in the United States, the United Kingdom and transposed to other countries, particularly in Europe, at least for the member countries of the European union. Within the framework provided by this overall trend, Cedigaz proposes this study in order to describe the main developments affecting these markets on account of deregulation. This report is structured on the basis of three main topics (market organization, marketing modes, pricing) which appear to be the most cogent in terms of deregulation. This grouping by major topics accordingly offers a relatively synthetic view of the main trends which could be observed on the European market, for example. Our analysis is largely based on the example of the American market and, to a lesser extent, on the British situation. Whenever possible, concrete examples are provided for a closer understanding of this complex subject. On the whole, deregulation is not a frozen process, but has to adapt permanently to developments in a market stage-managed by politics, the regulator and the industrial players. This obviously means a dynamic and constantly evolving process, making it a highly complex process. This report aims to shed some light on the subject. (author)

  12. Financial methodology for Brazilian market of small producers of oil and natural gas, based on Canadian and North American experiences in reserves quantification, evaluation and certification; Metodologia de financeiamento para pequenos produtores do mercado brasileiro de petroleo e gas natural, baseado nas experiencias canadense e americana na quantificacao, valoracao e certificacao de reservas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Enrico Brunno Zipoli de Sousa e [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia; Coelho, Jose Mario [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Minas

    2008-07-01

    ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural gas and Biofuels), through auctions of exploratory blocks in the subsequent years from the break of the monopoly of PETROBRAS with the Law 9.478 of 1997, had important role in the opening of the section and in the attainment of the self-sufficiency of petroleum. However the petroleum production in ripe and marginal fields were left off, since the initial interest in the first rounds was to attract the major companies. - International Oil Companies (IOC) - when ANP granted great blocks offshore. Ripe fields are defined as fields in phase of irreversible declination and marginal fields are also defined as economical concept, certain for business decision and external economical factors (price of the oil, etc.). Canada and USA, worldwide leaders in the market of petroleum and gas, possess politics that benefit and maintain the small companies protected of the competition of INOC's by assuring small companies finance through the guarantee of proved reserves of oil. This paper assemble Canadian and American experiences in regulation for small companies investments and compares it with Brazilian financing types, which is restricted due to the Brazilian finance agent's despite about oil and gas activity. (author)

  13. Physical aspects of the US oil and gas systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Acierno, J.; Hermelee, A.

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the physical operations which take place within the petroleum and natural gas industries of the US. This information was the basis for the overall network design and the detailed data requirements for the Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Since EEMIS represents the entire oil and gas systems this report can be used to obtain a basic understanding of the entire energy system, from production to consumption, that is composed of the US oil and gas industries.

  14. Oil & Ethnocentrism: A study of Global Oil & Gas Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation will examine the concept of ‘ethnocentrism’, or a belief in the superiority of one’s own cultural norms and values, against the backdrop of the Global Oil & Gas Service industry. Using Howard Perlmutter’s framework, ethnocentrism will be tested and analysed across distinct areas of international business; staffing and cultural prevalence, the management of international subsidiaries and corporate and national culture. Data will be collected from experienced Oil & Gas ma...

  15. Oil and gas bidding rounds: judgement criteria in Brazil and abroad; Licitacoes no setor de petroleo e gas natural: criterios de julgamento no Brasil e no exterior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrete, Bernardo do Amaral; Valois, Danielle Gomes de Almeida; Tavares, Henrique Campos Laborne; Gomes, Julia Medina da Costa [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the main rules governing the bidding process for the granting of exploration and production rights of hydrocarbons in Brazil, with emphasis to the criteria for judging competing applications. From a comparative law analysis it is possible to note that, despite the fact that the system adopted in Brazil may be seen as objective and transparent, there is still room for improvement, especially with regard to assessing the performance of bidders in acreage already previously granted. In major European oil-producing countries, such as the UK and Norway, the efficiency and responsibility with which the applicant conducts its ongoing operations in those jurisdictions are also taken into account as a criterion for judging competing applications. Brazil could benefit from this experience and adopt criteria similar to Europe, ensuring another legal tool able to require that companies operating in the country to adopt safer standards and stricter controls, under penalty of entering in disadvantage in the next bidding rounds. (author)

  16. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discuss the recent evolutions of world oil and gas markets in 2009, of the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of the exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of gas infrastructures, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of gas price for the end consumer, of oil product prices, and of the retailing of oil products

  17. The tidal influence on oil and gas emissions from an abandoned oil well: Nearshore Summerland, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Wilson, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Oil and gas emissions were quantified for natural and human sources in nearshore waters off Summerland, California through deployment of custom designed collection tents. Seepage was measured at a repeatedly abandoned well, on the seabed from a caisson located along the historical location of the Treadwell Wharf, where the world's first off-shore oil wells were drilled at the end of the 19th century. Seepage rates at the capped T-10 Well, located in ∼5 m water, showed high correlation to tides. Site emissions were 2.4 and 38.7 L day -1 oil and gas, respectively. Emissions were measured from two areas of seepage at the T-10 Well Site. Oil and gas ratios were inversely correlated between the two seepage areas, demonstrating connectivity. Data were interpreted in terms of an electronic circuit model of seepage with respect to the time lag between local low tide and peak oil emissions

  18. Four Essays on the Economics of Oil and Gas Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Tischler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1960s hydrocarbons like crude oil and natural gas have been the most important energy source to fuel the world economy. Despite high recent growth rates for renewable energies, hydro- carbons are expected to be a dominant source of energy for several decades to come. In the last 20 years not only fundamental trends, but also singular events such as the financial crisis have shaped the development of crude oil and natural gas markets as well as the corresponding academic debate. On a...

  19. Specific radiological monitoring (SRM) in oil and gas production platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairul Nizam Idris, Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa S.M Ghazi and Fadzley Izwan Abd Manaf

    2007-01-01

    Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) are present in components of both oil and natural gas production facilities. TENORM can be associated with the presence of crude oil, produced water and natural gas. The radiation exposure pathways to the workers in oil and gas production are similar to those in the uranium and heavy mineral sand mining and processing industry. This paper work provides a short review on the Specific Radiological Monitoring (SRM) program were carried out at oil and gas platforms in the east cost of Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this paper work is to observe the monitoring parameters levels and to evaluate whether these levels are exceeding the limits set by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). The monitoring results showed that the surface contamination, airborne contamination and concentration of radon and thoron are well below the set limit stipulated in LEM/TEK/30 SEM.2, except for external radiation and radioactivity concentration of sludge and scales. About 2 (2.35%) from the 85 external radiation measurements performed were found above the permissible limit. While about 11 (36.6%) and 7 (23.3%) of the 30 collected sludge and scales samples were found containing higher Ra-226 and Ra-228, respectively, than the mean concentrations in normal soils of Peninsular Malaysia. In general, it can be concluded that a few of oil and gas production platform are producing TENORM. (Author)

  20. Broadening benefits from natural resource extraction: Housing values and taxation of natural gas wells as property

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Jeremy G.; Burnett, J.Wesley; Xiarchos, Irene M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of the property tax base shock caused by natural gas drilling in the Barnett Shale in Texas–a state that taxes oil and gas wells as property. Over the boom and bust in drilling, housing appreciation closely followed the oil and gas property tax base, which expanded the total tax base by 23 percent at its height. The expansion led to a decline in property tax rates while maintaining or increasing revenues to schools. Overall, each $1 per student increase in the oil and gas...

  1. Canadian natural gas winter 2005-06 outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    particular reference to weather, storage levels, high crude oil prices, drilling and production, short-term Canadian natural gas price forecast, and the impact of higher natural gas prices on Canadian consumers. It is estimated that an average-sized residential household in Canada may pay up to $370 more for natural gas in the 2005-2006 winter compared to the previous year due to higher natural gas prices. 2 figs

  2. Oil and gas conservation in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereda, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Saskatchewan's Oil and Gas Conservation Act provides legislative authority for the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations, 1985. The main purposes of the Act are to maximize oil and gas recovery, to allow each owner the opportunity of obtaining his share of oil or gas and to protect the environment and prevent waste. The document under review described how this legislative intent is fulfilled through the spacing of wells, the setting of allowables, and approval of waterflood and enhanced recovery projects, while considering equitable drainage of oil and gas. Specific topics dealt with include: vertical well spacing, infill drilling, off-target drilling, horizontal well spacing, and allowables. The concepts of voluntary and statutory pooling as well as voluntary and statutory unitization were explained. Examples of waterflood and enhanced oil recovery projects were provided. The regulation relating to oil and gas conservation were first implemented in 1952 and evolved to their present form through a series of changes and amendments. The most significant changes to the regulations were made in 1991 when horizontal drilling needed to be accommodated. 1 tab

  3. Oil and gas in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Our society and economy have become dependent on oil and gas. The UK uses oil and gas for more than two-thirds of its energy needs - to run its transport network, heat its homes, in industrial processes, and to produce over a quarter of its electricity. There has been a steady increase in consumption of petrol, diesel and aviation fuel since 1970, mostly for transportation, although consumption of fuel oil has fallen dramatically. This has largely been replaced in the industrial and domestic sectors by gas, the consumption of which has risen sharply since 1990. This report assesses how this dependence on oil and gas is affecting the environment, and looks at the impact of the increasing consumption of oil and gas on the environment. The need to regulate and manage these impacts has been recognised for many years. The report forms the Environment Agency's view on the general state of pollution of the environment in relation to oil and gas. It looks at how well existing regulations and controls are working in practice and what more needs to be done, both by the Agency itself and by others, to reduce pollution. After giving a background to the formation of oil and gas and the history of their exploitation, the report summarises who does what in regulation. It then takes a life-cycle approach to look at the pressures on the environment from the exploration, production, transportation, refining, storage, and the use of oil and gas, and finally the disposal of used oil and oily waste. (UK)

  4. Natural gas - Grows the interest for its search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    The Colombian Government, through ECOPETROL, modified some clauses in the association contracts, like they are incentives in the search and exploitation of deposits of natural gas, in such a way that several oil companies are guiding his exploration toward the gas; these new game rules are applied for discoveries of gas, like in those discoveries of petroleum and gas. The period of exploitation is enlarged and the period of exploration is enlarged in inactive areas, among other changes

  5. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  6. The oil and gas equipment and services market in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The oil and gas market in Nigeria is being expanded by the Nigerian government over the 2003-2010 period through increased exploration and production (E and P) in new areas. Other measures being implemented are the improvements of structural flaws that hamper industry growth, the modernization of the weak downstream sector, and attempts to attract foreign investment and technologies required for petroleum development. In 2001, it was estimated that the market for oil and gas equipment in Nigeria was approximately 1.03 billion dollars, and is expected to reach 1.15 billion dollars in 2002. In deep-sea areas, major offshore E and P projects are being planned by large oil multinationals. The implementation of several gas-related E and P operations and major liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects are being supported by the government of Nigeria to develop the natural gas sector. Onshore and offshore exploration, surveying and geophysical prospecting, drilling equipment, facilities maintenance, deepwater E and P, equipment for LNG/GTL facilities, enhanced recovery equipment and services, gas re-injection technology, pipelines, and the refinery sector are all areas where Canadian equipment and service suppliers could benefit from opportunities in Nigeria. One of the most prominent foreign player in the Nigerian market is Royal Dutch Shell. As far as the offshore deepwater E and P sub-sector, the three major players are Shell, ChevronTexaco, and ExxonMobil. The Nigerian government advocate in upstream and downstream oil industries in the country is Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). The primary domestic end-users of oil and gas equipment and services are member companies of the Nigerian Association of Indigenous Petroleum Exploration Companies (NAIPEC). Canadian companies are encouraged to form joint venture partnerships in oil and gas projects, as foreign majors operating in Nigeria tend to rely on the skills and expertise of foreign

  7. Natural Gas Liberalisation and Deregulation - The German Gas Industry's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernie, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Europe, the process of creating a single energy market is under way. The 1998 Gas Directive established an important date for the European gas industry. On 10 August 1998, ''Directive 98/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas'' came into force. It had to be transposed into national law by the EU member states within two years, i.e. by 10 August 2000. The Directive is a cornerstone in establishing a competitive gas market in the European Union. It is the outcome of several years of negotiations and can be regarded as a compromise between the various interests. On the whole, it leaves EU member states with sufficient scope for adequately taking account of national characteristics in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity. The process of transposing the Gas Directive into the national law of individual EU member states is being closely followed by the European Commission. While acknowledging all the progress made in the single market process, the Commission still detects shortcomings in the implementation of the Gas Directive on the road to an actual single market. This is seen as a justification for new initiatives and intervention, even though the new political framework for the gas industry has not yet been tested in practice and been able to prove itself on a broad scale for any length of time. In the debate on liberalisation, tried-and-tested instruments of secure and market-oriented gas supply on the European continent long-term supply contracts with take-or-pay clauses and competitive oil-indexed gas prices have also come under scrutiny. However, even under the conditions of liberalisation, security of supply has to be achieved mainly by a balanced mix of supply sources and by long-term supply contracts, including competitive pricing as ensured by so-called oil indexing. In the further liberalisation of west European gas industries, it will be essential to ensure

  8. The natural gas ducts and the ICMS; Os dutos de gas natural e o ICMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Gomes, Carlos Roberto de Miranda [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-36

    2005-07-01

    With the advent of the Constitutional Emendation no. 9/95 operated it the open of the industry of the oil and the natural gas for companies others that came to be contracted by the State. Ahead of the insertion of new players, the regulation of the sector was given for the Law (no. 9.478/97), as well for legal acts edited for the National Agency of the Oil - ANP. Meanwhile, the Oil norm little disciplined the industry of the natural gas that, for its peculiarities, imposes specific rules. In this context, the transport of the natural gas by means of ducts become prominent for the lack of debates on the correct form to classify them. The present work has for target to analyze the legal types instituted by the Law and for the ANP acts for the ducts, as form of if having a correct understanding of the matter. Thus, will reveal as each one of the adopted classifications can cause (or not) the incidence of the ICMS, or either, as the legal regimen of the gas-lines is correlated with the tax. (author)

  9. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Liqiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR. Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated neutron log, NMR makes use of the different relaxation mechanisms of light oil and natural gas in large pores, while mud logging makes use of star chart of gas components established based on available charts and mathematical statistics. In terms of the quantitative calculation of GOR, the area ratio of the star chart of gas components was first used in GOR calculation. The study shows that: (1 conventional logging data has a modest performance in distinguishing oil layers from gas layers due to the impacts of formation pressure, hydrogen index (HI, shale content, borehole conditions and invasion of drilling mud; (2 NMR is quite effective in telling oil layers from gas layers, but cannot be widely used due to its high cost; (3 by contrast, the star chart of gas components is the most effective in differentiating oil layers from gas layers; and (4 the GOR calculated by using the area ratio of star chart has been verified by various data such as formation testing data, production data and liquid production profile.

  10. Natural gas for utility generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1992-01-01

    Forecasters predict that natural gas will be the dominant fuel choice for utility capacity additions in the coming decade and that power generation will be by far the largest growth market for gas sales. While gas's low emissions, high efficiency potential, and present low cost argue persuasively for a surge in gas-fired generation, many utilities have been slow to commit to a gas future, citing reasoned concern about long-term price trends and the ability of gas suppliers to deliver the fuel where and when it will be needed. Meanwhile, the relatively low cost of gas-fired units is providing an opportunity for independent power producers to compete strongly with utilities for generation contracts. EPRI studies suggest that a sound, competitive strategy will be based not on how much gas a utility burns, but rather on how this capacity fits into its overall generating mix at various fuel price levels. Gas suppliers will need to pay special attention to the operating needs of power generators if they are to solidify this important market

  11. Western Pacific liquefied natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woronuk, R.

    2004-01-01

    WestPac Terminals Inc. has expertise in natural gas supply and demand, transportation, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and economic optimization. This presentation addressed issues facing their proposed construction of an LNG terminal and associated facilities on the west coast of Canada. It presented pie charts comparing world gas reserves with production. NPC gas price projects and WestPac gas cost estimates were also presented. It was noted that an unprecedented growth in LNG imports to North America is essential and that LNG will be the lowest price major source of natural gas supply. Maps illustrating LNG sources and receiving terminals were also presented along with solutions to the not-in-my-back-yard (NIMBY) syndrome. Solutions include selecting locations where communities are pro-development, where LNG terminals can provide direct financial benefits to the community, and using existing infrastructure to minimize socio-economic impacts. The advantages of developing LNG to Prince Rupert were discussed in terms of serving energy markets, direct provincial benefits, and LNG/power generation synergies. figs

  12. Rosneftegazstroy - Russia's premier oil and gas contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This special Petroleum Economist Sponsored Supplement looks at the present condition and future prospects of the Russian oil and gas industry. Russia's chief oil and gas contractor, Rosneftegazstroy, a joint stock company formed in 1991, took over from the former Soviet Union's Ministry of Oil and Gas Construction and from Neftegazstroy, the State concern. Responsible for the exploration and exploitation of the country's huge oil and gas reserves, Rosneftegazstroy has a mammoth task ahead to modernize and create an adequate infrastructure for its new commercial basis. Its foreign investment projects are described and plans for rebuilding and new developments are discussed. Russia's fuel and energy industries now show clear signs of increasing activity, amid a backdrop of falling production overall. (UK)

  13. New oil and gas contract in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2004-01-01

    The Colombian government has implemented two fundamental changes in the upstream oil and gas industry, Ecopetrol role is now as sole entrepreneur and the national hydrocarbons agency - ANH was created to administer the hydrocarbons resource

  14. (Canada) Oil and gas survey, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This summarizes the financial reporting of a major segment of the oil and gas industry in Canada as shown in annual reports to shareholders for 1986. Annual reports have been surveyed with particular attention to developments in accounting practices in the oil and gas industry during 1986. The survey was not restricted to financial statements and all information presented in the annual reports was considered. Matters of general financial disclosure not unique to the oil and gas industry are not included. Examples quoted from reports covered by this survey are not presented as recommended methods but are illustrations of present practice only. Some illustrations were drawn from oil and gas companies not included in the survey.

  15. Natural gas market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2001-07-01

    The natural gas market is opened to competition since August 2000. The economical impact of this new situation remains moderate in 2001 because the conditions of competition are not fulfilled everywhere. In France, for instance, the European directive on markets deregulation has not been transposed yet and the conditions of access of third parties to the national gas network have not been clearly defined. In this context of uncertainties, several questions remain unanswered. This study draws out a precise status of the situation of the 7 main European gas markets. It comprises also an analysis of the behaviour and strategy of the 18 main actors of this sector. (J.S.)

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: China 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Although coal is the dominant energy source in China, accounting for some 70% of the country's Total Energy Consumption (TEC) in 2009, oil and gas are also essential energy sources. Despite strong growth in consumption of oil, its share of TEC fell from 22% in 2000 to 18% in 2009, as coal use rose even faster to meet burgeoning demand for electricity. A strong policy push boosted natural gas supplies, particularly to residential customers, so that the share of natural gas doubled from 2% in 2000 to 4% in 2009. China is one of the important oil and natural gas producing counties in the world. In 2010, China's crude oil production exceeded 4 million barrels per day (mb/d). However, with strong and sustained economic growth, its demand for oil has also increased, from 4.6 mb/d in 2000 to over 8 mb/d in 2009. In the New Policy Scenario (NPS) of the IEA World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2011, China's primary oil demand rises to 12.2 mb/d in 2020. Although China is now the world's fifth largest oil producer, the country has been a net oil importer since 1993. In 2011, China imported over 5 mb/d of crude oil, accounting for about 54% of its total demand. More than 50% of the total crude oil imports came from counties of the Middle East. To prevent a potential shock to the economy caused by an oil supply disruption, the Chinese government has been steadily pushing building an oil stock reserve system. China has completed four stockpiling facilities with a capacity of around 103 mb in the first phase of its Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) plan, and has begun construction of its second phase, which comprises eight storage sites that will reportedly have a combined capacity of around 207 mb. Among them, two sites were completed in the second half of 2011 and the Tianjin site is reportedly set to be completed in 2012. According to unofficial reports, the remaining four SPR-II sites are expected to become operational by 2013. The third phase is expected to boost

  17. Evolution of the economic importance of the oil and gas industrial sector in Brazil: impacts on macroeconomic indicators; Evolucao da importancia economica da industria de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: contribuicao a variaveis macroeconomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre Luis de Souza

    2007-06-15

    This thesis analyzes the evolution of the macroeconomic importance of the oil and gas sector in Brazil, in the recent years, which is represented by its contribution to the macroeconomic indicators, which are: GDP, Investment, Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Balance, Tax Revenue, Jobs, Wages and Inflation. The results found indicate that the oil and gas sector has a relevant contribution to the values of the Brazilian GDP, total amount of investment, total amount of foreign direct investment, tax revenue, inflation and trade balance, whereas this sector has a less relevant impact for the creation of jobs and wages in Brazil. (author)

  18. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  19. 'Natural Gas lift', a New Tool for Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    Gas lift is the most common means of artificial lift in the Niger Delta and has been widely applied worldwide. The advent of remote monitoring and control devises (RMC) has added a new option in artificiallift, 'natural gas lift'. 'Natural gas lift' is an extension RMC in which a gas zone and one or more oil zones are produced through the same tubing string, using the gas enhance the production of the oil zones. The flow of gas is maintained in the optimal range using down hole chokes that are controlled from the surface. The gas flow rate is monitored using downhole pressure and .temperature gauges. The use of 'natural gas lift' has the advantages of gas lift but without the cost associated with gas lift; gas supply wells, compression etc. This is especially critical in areas that are remote from other facilities or in subsea completions where access to the wells is limited. Stacked reservoirs and frequent inclusion of both oil and gas reservoirs in the same field, as found in the Niger Delta, makes Nigeria a prime candidate for this technology. An example of this production from the North Sea will be presented along with a potential application using data from the Niger Delta. Design elements of the monitoring and control systems will be covered and the advantages and drawbacks of this application will be discussed

  20. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.