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Sample records for oil intake compared

  1. Fish oil intake compared with olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in the offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Østerdal, Marie Louise; Salvig, Jannie Dalby

    2008-01-01

    in pregnancy may affect offspring risk of asthma. DESIGN: In 1990, a population-based sample of 533 women with normal pregnancies were randomly assigned 2:1:1 to receive four 1-g gelatin capsules/d with fish oil providing 2.7 g n-3 PUFAs (n = 266); four 1-g, similar-looking capsules/d with olive oil (n = 136...... were extracted from a mandatory registry that recorded diagnoses reported from hospital contacts. RESULTS: During the 16 y that passed since childbirth, 19 children from the fish oil and olive oil groups had received an asthma-related diagnosis; 10 had received the diagnosis allergic asthma. The hazard...... rate of asthma was reduced by 63% (95% CI: 8%, 85%; P = 0.03), whereas the hazard rate of allergic asthma was reduced by 87% (95% CI: 40%, 97%; P = 0.01) in the fish oil compared with the olive oil group. CONCLUSION: Under the assumption that intake of olive oil in the dose provided here was inert, our...

  2. Fish oil intake compared with olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in the offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Østerdal, Marie Louise; Salvig, Jannie Dalby

    2008-01-01

    in pregnancy may affect offspring risk of asthma. DESIGN: In 1990, a population-based sample of 533 women with normal pregnancies were randomly assigned 2:1:1 to receive four 1-g gelatin capsules/d with fish oil providing 2.7 g n-3 PUFAs (n = 266); four 1-g, similar-looking capsules/d with olive oil (n = 136...... were extracted from a mandatory registry that recorded diagnoses reported from hospital contacts. RESULTS: During the 16 y that passed since childbirth, 19 children from the fish oil and olive oil groups had received an asthma-related diagnosis; 10 had received the diagnosis allergic asthma. The hazard...... rate of asthma was reduced by 63% (95% CI: 8%, 85%; P = 0.03), whereas the hazard rate of allergic asthma was reduced by 87% (95% CI: 40%, 97%; P = 0.01) in the fish oil compared with the olive oil group. CONCLUSION: Under the assumption that intake of olive oil in the dose provided here was inert, our...

  3. Comparative study of two techniques for assessing fat intake in a Mediterranean diet. The influence of culinary oils changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, B; Cuesta, I; Varela-Moreiras, G; Carmena, R; Pérez-Olleros, L

    2000-07-01

    The diet usually consumed by a community of 18 normolipemic monks was studied. It included olive oil as cooking fat (basal period BP). This diet was modified by substituting olive oil for sunflower oil during a 21-day period (experimental period EP). The precise individual weighing technique was utilised for the determination of intake, and by means of the food composition tables (FCTs) the energy and nutrient of the diet were calculated. By chemical analysis of the duplicate sample (CA) of the cooked dishes the lipid intake was also determined. Total serum cholesterol HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, AI and B-100 apolipoproteins and Lp(a) were also analysed. Similarly the absolute and relative values for SFA, MUFA and PUFA obtained by both techniques were also different and these were maintained when the (PUFA + MUFA)/SFA ratio was calculated by both techniques and in the two periods. The correction of the lipid intake by means of the CA technique did not improve either the correlation between the intake or the plasma lipid concentration or the cholesterolemia prediction (r = 0.83 for FCT and CA).

  4. Comparative toxicokinetics of low-viscosity mineral oil in Fischer 344 rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and humans--implications for an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Goyak, Katy O; Biles, Robert W; van Stee, Leo L P; Miller, Matthew S; Miller, Mary Jo

    2012-06-01

    Oral repeated-dose studies with low-viscosity mineral oils showed distinct species and strain differences, which are hypothesized to be due to differences in bioavailability, with Fischer 344 rats being more susceptible than Sprague-Dawley rats or dogs. Sensitive analytical methodology was developed for accurate measurement of low levels of mineral hydrocarbons and applied in single-dose toxicokinetics studies in rats and humans. Fischer 344 rats showed a 4-fold higher AUC(0-∞) and consistently higher blood and liver concentrations were found than Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatic mineral hydrocarbon concentration tracked the blood concentration in both strains, indicating that blood concentrations can serve as functional surrogate measure for hepatic concentrations. In human volunteers receiving 1mg/kg body weight of low-viscosity white oil, all blood concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons were below the detection limit. Comparison with threshold blood concentrations associated with NOAELs in both rat strains, indicate that the margin-of-exposure is at least 37-fold. Using an internal dose metric rather than applied dose reduces the uncertainty around the temporary ADI considerably since it intrinsically accounts for intra- and inter-species differences. The current data support replacement of the temporary ADI of 0.01 mg/kg/day by a (permanent) ADI of at least 1.0mg/kg/day for low- and medium-viscosity mineral oils.

  5. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    .54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...

  6. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  7. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  8. Differential effects of dietary canola and soybean oil intake on oxidative stress in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexis Louise

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canola oil shortens the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP rats compared with rats fed soybean oil when given as the sole dietary lipid source. One possible mechanism leading to the damage and deterioration of organs due to canola oil ingestion is oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of canola oil intake on oxidative stress in this animal model. Method Male SHRSP rats, were fed a defatted control diet containing 10% wt/wt soybean oil or a defatted treatment diet containing 10% wt/wt canola oil, and given water containing 1% NaCl. Blood pressure was measured weekly. Blood was collected prior to beginning the diets and at the end of completion of the study for analysis of red blood cell (RBC antioxidant enzymes, RBC and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, plasma 8-isoprostane and plasma lipids. Results Canola oil ingestion significantly decreased the life span of SHRSP rats compared with soybean oil, 85.8 ± 1.1 and 98.3 ± 3.4 days, respectively. Systolic blood pressure increased over time with a significant difference between the diets at the 6th week of feeding. Canola oil ingestion significantly reduced RBC superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with soybean oil. There were no significant differences in RBC MDA concentration between canola oil fed and soybean oil fed rats. In contrast, plasma MDA and 8-isoprostane concentration was significantly lower in the canola oil group compared to the soybean oil group. Conclusion In conclusion, canola oil ingestion shortens the life span of SHRSP rats and leads to changes in oxidative status, despite an improvement in the plasma lipids.

  9. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  10. Olive oil intake in relation to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafatos, Anthony G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the principal contributor to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD. Epidemiological, clinical and metabolic studies have reported protective associations between (extra virgin olive oil consumption and CAD. As a key component of the Mediterranean diet, olive oil is a rich source of oleic acid, making up about 29 % of the daily dietary caloric intake, and antioxidants (vitamin E and phenolic compounds. Olive oil has beneficial effects by reducing LDL plasma concentration, the LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio, and protecting LDL against oxidation. The progress of atherosclerosis and the risk of thrombo-embolic episodes could also be decreased through the reduction in plasma clotting factors levels, including FVIIc, PAI-1, XIIc and XIIa. The findings reaffirm low-moderate fat policies for optimum health, within which olive oil appears to be an important component of the diet.La aterosclerosis es el componente principal en la patogénesis de la enfermedad arterial coronaria (CAD. Diversos estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y metabólicos indican la existencia de una asociación entre la ingesta de aceite de oliva (virgen extra y una menor manifestación de CAD. El aceite de oliva es uno de los componentes esenciales de la dieta Mediterránea, es rico en ácido oleico (representa el 29 % de la ingesta calórica diaria y en antioxidantes (vitamina E y polifenoles. Tiene efectos beneficiosos al reducir el riesgo cardiovascular relacionado con la concentración plasmática de LDL, la relación LDL:HDL, y la oxidación de las LDL. Además, el aceite de oliva contribuye a la regulación de los sistemas de coagulación y fibrinolisis (FVII, PAI-1, XIIc y XIIa. Estas observaciones reafirman la importancia de las grasas de la dieta para las funciones vitales en el organismo y la prevención de CAD, donde el aceite de oliva ha de considerarse como un elemento nutricional determinante.

  11. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  12. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD

    2007-01-01

    )) from around week 20 (groups 1 and 2) or 6.3 g n-3 PUFA from week 33 (group 3). The control regimen was capsules with olive oil. Effect on timing of spontaneous delivery was examined by Cox regression, assuming elective delivery (occurring in 40%) as a censoring event. Analyses of effect of fish oil......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  13. Fish oil and argan oil intake differently modulate insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a rat model of dietary-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samane, Samira; Christon, Raymond; Dombrowski, Luce; Turcotte, Stéphane; Charrouf, Zoubida; Lavigne, Charles; Levy, Emile; Bachelard, Hélène; Amarouch, Hamid; Marette, André; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the potential metabolic benefits of fish oil (FO) or vegetable argan oil (AO) intake in a dietary model of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Rats were fed a standard chow diet (controls), a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, or an HFHS diet in which 6% of the fat was replaced by either FO or AO feeding, respectively. The HFHS diet increased adipose tissue weight and insulin resistance as revealed by increased fasting glucose and exaggerated glycemic and insulin responses to a glucose tolerance test (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test). Fish oil feeding prevented fat accretion, reduced fasting glycemia, and normalized glycemic or insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test as compared with HFHS diet. Unlike FO consumption, AO intake failed to prevent obesity, yet restored fasting glycemia back to chow-fed control values. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in adipose tissues, skeletal muscles, and liver was greatly attenuated in HFHS rats as compared with chow-fed controls. High-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance was also confirmed in isolated hepatocytes. Fish oil intake prevented insulin resistance by improving or fully restoring insulin signaling responses in all tissues and isolated hepatocytes. Argan oil intake also improved insulin-dependent phosphorylations of Akt and Erk; and in adipose tissue, these responses were increased even beyond values observed in chow-fed controls. Taken together, these results strongly support the beneficial action of FO on diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, an effect likely explained by the ability of FO to prevent HFHS-induced adiposity. Our data also show for the first time that AO can improve some of the metabolic and insulin signaling abnormalities associated with HFHS feeding.

  14. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD;

    2007-01-01

    at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  15. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  16. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

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    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  17. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P VCO than other groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  18. Olive oil intake and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Genevieve; Travier, Noemie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Sánchez, María-José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Huerta, José María; Navarro, Carmen; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A

    2012-12-14

    Olive oil is well known for its cardioprotective properties; however, epidemiological data showing that olive oil consumption reduces incident CHD events are still limited. Therefore, we studied the association between olive oil and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort study. The analysis included 40 142 participants (38 % male), free of CHD events at baseline, recruited from five EPIC-Spain centres from 1992 to 1996 and followed up until 2004. Baseline dietary and lifestyle information was collected using interview-administered questionnaires. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the relationship between validated incident CHD events and olive oil intake (energy-adjusted quartiles and each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) increment), while adjusting for potential confounders. During a 10·4-year follow-up, 587 (79 % male) CHD events were recorded. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with CHD risk after excluding dietary mis-reporters (hazard ratio (HR) 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·00 for each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) and HR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·59, 1·03 for upper v. lower quartile). The inverse association between olive oil intake (per 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)) and CHD was more pronounced in never smokers (11 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·048)), in never/low alcohol drinkers (25 % reduced CHD risk (P olive oil consumers (14 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·072)). In conclusion, olive oil consumption was related to a reduced risk of incident CHD events. This emphasises the need to conserve the traditional culinary use of olive oil within the Mediterranean diet to reduce the CHD burden.

  19. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and lipid profiles in ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... and triglycerides as well as accumulation of saturated fatty acids in the liver of the experimental rats.

  20. Residual frying oil in the diets of sheep: intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters

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    Eduardo Lucas Terra Peixoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen in lambs of diets containing different levels of residual frying oil. Methods Levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg dry matter (DM base of residual frying oil in the diets of lambs were evaluated. Five castrated lambs with initial body weights of 36.8±3.3 kg, distributed in a Latin square (5×5 design, were used. Results There was a decreasing linear effect on the intake of DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TCH, and nonfibrous carbohydrates (NFC. There was an increased linear intake of ether extract (EE. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, TCH, and NFC, as well as urine nitrogen excretion, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters, were not influenced by different levels of residual frying oil in the diet. EE digestibility presented a crescent linear effect. Conclusion It can be concluded that the addition of residual frying oil to the diets of sheep can affect nutrient intake without affecting the digestibility of most nutrients (with the exception of EE, nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration.

  1. The usage, occurrence and dietary intakes of white mineral oils and waxes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, D R

    2004-03-01

    Dietary exposures to mineral hydrocarbons were estimated from information about patterns of usage, concentrations in foods and quantities of foods consumed. An industry survey showed that the largest usage of food-grade white mineral oils was in plastics manufacture although the majority are used in non-food applications. The largest volumes of wax usage were in packaging. Conservative estimates indicated that daily intakes of white mineral oils ranged from 0.39 to 0.91 mg/kg bw/day for adults and from 0.75 to 1.77 mg/kg bw/day for children (mean and 97.5th percentiles). Total wax intakes ranged from 0.08 to 0.19 mg/kg bw/day for adults and 0.23 to 0.64 mg/kg bw/day for pre-school children. When usage factors were applied, estimates of chronic intakes of white oils were reduced to 0.09-0.20 mg/kg bw/day for adults and to 0.17-0.39 mg/kg bw/day for children. Total wax intakes were reduced to 0.01-0.02 mg/kg bw/day for adults and to 0.02-0.06 mg/kg bw/day for children. For white mineral oils the principal source of exposure for most consumers was imported de-dusted grain. The principal source of potential wax exposure was from glazing agents on confectionery. There was no evidence of intakes exceeding SCF ADIs for microcrystalline waxes or certain white mineral oils and levels of exposure were similar to those of naturally-occurring mineral hydrocarbons in foods.

  2. Oil flow in deep waters: comparative study between light oils and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Ultra deeper waters fields are being exploited due to technological development. Under this scenario, the flow design is accomplished through pipelines subjected to low temperature and high pressure. Moreover, these flow lines are usually long causing a fast fluid cooling, which may affect flow assurance in some cases. Problems during topsides production plant's restart might occur if the oil is viscous and even in steady state a significant different behavior can be noticed, if compared to a less viscous oil. A comparison between light and heavy oil through a case study with the objective to show some heavy oil flow particularities is the purpose of this paper. Permanent and transient analyses for a specific geometry are presented. The results showed that thermal and proper viscosity modeling are required for heavy oil flow, differently from that of light oil flow, due to the exponential viscosity dependence to temperature and because the predominant laminar regime. In addition, on heavier and heavier oil flow systems, it is essential to consider exportation system's restart. (author)

  3. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

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    Lisa Kolden Midtbø

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainable aquaculture, fish derived raw materials are replaced by vegetable ingredients. Fatty acid composition and contaminant status of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. are affected by the use of plant ingredients and a spillover effect on consumers is thus expected. Here we aimed to compare the effects of intake of Atlantic salmon fed fish oil (FO with intake of Atlantic salmon fed a high proportion of vegetable oils (VOs on development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Atlantic salmon were fed diets where FO was partly (80% replaced with three different VOs; rapeseed oil (RO, olive oil (OO or soy bean oil (SO. Fillets from Atlantic salmon were subsequently used to prepare Western diets (WD for a mouse feeding trial. Partial replacement of FO with VOs reduced the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and dichloro-diphenyl-tricloroethanes (DDT with more than 50% in salmon fillets, in WDs containing the fillets, and in white adipose tissue from mice consuming the WDs. Replacement with VOs, SO in particular, lowered the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content and increased n-6 PUFA levels in the salmon fillets, in the prepared WDs, and in red blood cells collected from mice consuming the WDs. Replacing FO with VO did not influence obesity development in the mice, but replacement of FO with RO improved glucose tolerance. Compared with WD-FO fed mice, feeding mice WD-SO containing lower PCB and DDT levels but high levels of linoleic acid (LA, exaggerated insulin resistance and increased accumulation of fat in the liver. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Replacement of FO with VOs in aqua feed for farmed salmon had markedly different spillover effects on metabolism in mice. Our results suggest that the content of LA in VOs may be a matter of concern that warrants further investigation.

  4. Fish oil supplementation is beneficial on caloric intake, appetite and mid upper arm muscle circumference in children with leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Zaid, Zalina; Shahar, Suzana; Jamal, A Rahman A; Mohd Yusof, Noor Aini

    2012-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the effect of supplementation of fish oil among 51 children with leukaemia aged 4 to 12 years on appetite level, caloric intake, body weight and lean body mass. They were randomly allocated into the trial group (TG) and the control group (CG). At baseline, 30.8% of TG subjects and 44.0% of CG subjects were malnourished and 7.7% of subject from TG and 28.0% from CG were classified as stunted. The majority of subjects from TG and CG were in the mild malnutrition category for mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC)-for-age. The TG group showed significant increment in MUAMC (0.13 cm vs -0.09 cm) compared with CG at 8 weeks (pappetite level (0.12±0.33) (pappetite level, caloric intake and MUAMC among children with leukaemia.

  5. Eating behavior toward oil and fat consumption versus dietary fat intake

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    Renata Andrade de Medeiros Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze whether the stages of change of the Transtheoretical Model are in accordance with the fat consumption of members of the Academia da Cidade of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a simple random sample of users aged ≥20 years frequenting an Academia da Cidade. Eating behavior toward oil and fat consumption was evaluated by the transtheoretical model and compared with fat intake adequacy, obtained through mean fat intake was investigated by three 24-hour recalls. Anthropometric and sociodemographic data were also collected. Additionally, the stages of change were verified, after reclassification the stages of change agreed with the consumption of fatty foods, fats, and fractions. Results: A total of 131 women with a mean age of 53.9±12.1 had an average fatty acid consumption of 556.0 mL. Some participants consumed high-fat foods, lipids (20.6%, saturated (31.3% and polyunsaturated (38.2% fatty acids, and cholesterol (16.0% in excess. The stages of eating behavior were significantly different after reclassification. The number of women in action and maintenance decreased in a way that in the end, 4.6% were in precontemplation, 19.8% were in contemplation, 26.0% were in preparation, 28.2% were in action, and 21.4% were in maintenance. The consumption of chicken skin; fatty salad dressing; bread, doughnuts or cake with butter/margarine; and fats, saturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids was lower in the final stages of the transtheoretical model. Conclusion: After reclassification the algorithm is in agreement with the ingestion of high-fat foods, which denotes its applicability for the evaluation of eating behavior and for providing data to food and nutrition education actions.

  6. Response to commentary on a trial comparing krill oil versus fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Eyal, Inbal; Zchut, Sigalit; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-01-22

    Nichols et al. (Lipids Health Dis13:2, 2014) raised concern about the higher n-6 concentration in fish oil used in our recent study which is different from typical commercial fish oils (Ramprasath et al. Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013). The aim of our study was to compare the effect of consumption of similar amount of n-3 PUFA from krill and fish oil with placebo on plasma and RBC fatty acids. As the concentration of n-3 PUFA in the fish oil utilised was higher than that in krill oil, we deemed it important to keep consistent the concentration of n-3 PUFA and volumes to be administered to participants between krill versus fish oils. As such, the fish oil used in the study was diluted with corn oil. Although the n-6 PUFA concentration in fish oil was higher compared to traditionally used fish oil, consumption of the fish oil used in our study actually reduced the total n-6 PUFA in plasma and RBC to a similar extent as did krill oil. Overall, our conclusion was that the increases in plasma and RBC concentrations of EPA and DHA along with improvement in the omega-3 index observed with consumption of krill oil compared with fish oil are due to differences in absorption and bioavailability based on the structural difference of the two oils rather than their n-6 PUFA content.

  7. Oil: Lessons from Comparative Perspectives for Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema

    Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.

  8. Comparative Performance of Volatility Models for Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afees A. Salisu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the performance of volatility models for oil price using daily returns of WTI. The innovations of this paper are in two folds: (i we analyse the oil price across three sub samples namely period before, during and after the global financial crisis, (ii we also analyse the comparative performance of both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models for the oil price. We find that oil price was most volatile during the global financial crises compared to other sub samples. Based on the appropriate model selection criteria, the asymmetric GARCH models appear superior to the symmetric ones in dealing with oil price volatility. This finding indicates evidence of leverage effects in the oil market and ignoring these effects in oil price modelling will lead to serious biases and misleading results.

  9. Gene expression changes in mononuclear cells in patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Miranda Jose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that acute intake of high-phenol virgin olive oil reduces pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-thrombotic markers compared with low phenols virgin olive oil, but it still remains unclear whether effects attributed to its phenolic fraction are exerted at transcriptional level in vivo. To achieve this goal, we aimed at identifying expression changes in genes which could be mediated by virgin olive oil phenol compounds in the human. Results Postprandial gene expression microarray analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells during postprandial period. Two virgin olive oil-based breakfasts with high (398 ppm and low (70 ppm content of phenolic compounds were administered to 20 patients suffering from metabolic syndrome following a double-blinded, randomized, crossover design. To eliminate the potential effect that might exist in their usual dietary habits, all subjects followed a similar low-fat, carbohydrate rich diet during the study period. Microarray analysis identified 98 differentially expressed genes (79 underexpressed and 19 overexpressed when comparing the intake of phenol-rich olive oil with low-phenol olive oil. Many of these genes seem linked to obesity, dyslipemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among these, several genes seem involved in inflammatory processes mediated by transcription factor NF-κB, activator protein-1 transcription factor complex AP-1, cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinases MAPKs or arachidonic acid pathways. Conclusion This study shows that intake of virgin olive oil based breakfast, which is rich in phenol compounds is able to repress in vivo expression of several pro-inflammatory genes, thereby switching activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a less deleterious inflammatory profile. These results provide at least a partial molecular basis for reduced risk of cardiovascular disease observed in Mediterranean countries, where virgin olive

  10. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2012-05-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0h and after different times of heating process (180°C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t=0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t=0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0h (339.64; 228.27mg/100g) and at 9h (270.44; 210.30mg/100g) of heating. TBARs was higher in olive oil after 3h, reaching the maximum values in both oils at 6h of heating treatment. Vitamin E was higher in olive oil (35.52 vs. 24.5mg/100g) and it disappeared earlier in avocado oil (at 4 vs. 5h). The stability of avocado oil was similar to that of olive oil.

  11. Comparative study on direct burning of oil shale and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Ahmad; Al Asfar, Jamil

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the direct burning processes of oil shale and coal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was done in this study using ANSYS Fluent software to solve numerically the governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and mass diffusion using finite volume method. The model was built based on an existing experimental combustion burner unit. The model was validated by comparing the theoretical results of oil shale with proved experimental results from the combustion unit. It was found that the temperature contours of the combustion process showed that the adiabatic flame temperature was 1080 K for oil shale compared with 2260 K for coal, while the obtained experimental results of temperatures at various locations of burner during the direct burning of oil shale showed that the maximum temperature reached 962 K for oil shale. These results were used in economic and environmental analysis which show that oil shale may be used as alternative fuel for coal in cement industry in Jordan.

  12. Nutrient intake and digestibility of the lipid residue of biodiesel from palm oil in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Barra Raiol

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of lipid residue of biodiesel originated in the processing of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the diet on the digestibility of feedlot lambs. Twenty-five crossbred male castrated lambs, weighing 20±1.61 kg, were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The experimental period lasted 22 days; 15 for diet adaptation, 2 for the adaptation to the indicator LIPE (lignin from Eucalyptus grandis isolated, purified and enriched, UFMG, Minas Gerais and 5 for fecal sampling. Diets were formulated with 64% concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, 31% Massai grass (Panicum maximum cv. Massai hay and 5% lipid supplementation from increasing levels of substitution of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of palm oil for biodiesel oil from palm residue. The lambs were offered two meals a day, at 7h00 and 16h00. There was linear effect of inclusion of the residue from palm oil biodiesel on dry matter intake. There was no change in digestibility of nutrients except for ether extract. The use of biodiesel from palm oil residue up to 100% replacement for the lipid supplementation of sheep positively influences the consumption without altering the digestibility of nutrients.

  13. Biomarkers of fish oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Veronica; Barazzoni, Rocco; Singer, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    A biomarker is a measured characteristic that may be used as an indicator of some biological state or condition. In health and disease, biomarkers have been used not only for clinical diagnosis purposes but also as tools to assess effectiveness of a nutrition or drug intervention. When considering nutrition studies, evaluating the appropriate biomarker is a useful tool to assess compliance and incidence of a particular dietary component in the biochemistry of the organism. Fish oil is rich in ω-3 fatty acids that have well-known beneficial effects on human health mainly through its anti-inflammatory properties. It has been widely use to improve health and as a nutrition supplement in different pathological conditions such as cardiovascular, neurological, and critically ill related diseases. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels present in different biological moieties (plasma, cellular membranes, adipose tissue, etc) are the best biomarkers of fish oil intake. Each biological source of fatty acids has its own advantages and disadvantages, thus which biomarker to choose and where to measure it requires a comprehension of the objectives of the investigation. In this article we will review key facts about fish oil intake biomarkers to evaluate how components of a specific diet could be monitored and identified in biological samples. Having an accurate assessment of nutrition patterns could provide effective targets for intervention aimed at modifying eating habits and lifestyle towards the improvement of health.

  14. Vitamin A--fortified vegetable oil exported from Malaysia and Indonesia can significantly contribute to vitamin A intake worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Panagides, Dora; Garrett, Greg S; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 190 million preschool-aged children and 19.1 million pregnant women. Fortification of vegetable oils with vitamin A is an effective, low-cost technology to improve vitamin A intake. To examine the potential contribution of fortification of vegetable oils with vitamin A in Indonesia and Malaysia to increasing vitamin A consumption in these two countries and in countries to which oil is exported. Detailed interviews were administered and a desk review was conducted. We also estimated potential vitamin A intakes from fortified vegetable oil. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the largest producers and exporters of vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil in both countries has the potential to be used as a tool for control of vitamin A deficiency. Both countries have the capacity to export fortified vegetable oil. Vegetable oil fortified at a level of 45 IU/g could provide 18.8% of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for an Ethiopian woman, 30.9% and 46.9% of the EAR for a Bangladeshi child and woman, respectively, and 17.5% of the EAR for a Cambodian woman. Although concerns about obesity are valid, fortification of existing vegetable oil supplies does not promote overconsumption of oil but rather promotes consumption of vegetable oil of higher nutrient quality. Fortifying vegetable oil on a large scale in Malaysia and Indonesia can reach millions of people globally, including children less than 5 years old. The levels of fortification used are far from reaching the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Vegetable oil fortification has the potential to become a global public health intervention strategy.

  15. Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Weiß, Stefanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2016-02-18

    A plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) omega (n)-3 PUFA supply in humans involves dietary supplementation with oils containing α-linolenic acid (ALA) alone or in combination with stearidonic acid (SDA). The study aimed to compare the effects of echium oil (EO) and linseed oil (LO) on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and on clinical markers. In two double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled studies, all volunteers started with 17 g/d run-in oil (2 weeks). Thereafter, subjects received diets enriched in study 1 with EO (5 g ALA + 2 g SDA; n = 59) or in study 2 with LO (5 g ALA; n =  9) daily for 8 weeks. The smaller control groups received fish oil (FO; n = 19) or olive oil (OO; n = 18). Participants were instructed to restrict their dietary n-3 PUFA intake throughout the studies (e.g., no fish). To investigate the influence of age and BMI on the conversion of ALA and SDA as well as clinical markers, the subjects recruited for EO and LO treatment were divided into three subgroups (two age groups 20-35 y; 49-69 y with BMI 18-25 kg/m(2) and one group with older, overweight subjects (age 49-69 y; BMI >25 kg/m(2)). In plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were ~25 % higher following EO compared to LO. Comparing all treatments, the effectiveness of increasing EPA and DPA in plasma, RBC, and PBMC was on average 100:25:10:0 and 100:50:25:0 for FO:EO:LO:OO, respectively. EO led to a lower arachidonic acid/EPA-ratio compared to LO in plasma, RBC, and PBMC. Following EO, final DHA was not greater compared to LO. Higher BMI correlated negatively with increases in plasma EPA and DPA after EO supplementation, but not after LO supplementation. Decreasing effect on plasma LDL-C and serum insulin was greater with EO than with LO. Daily intake of SDA-containing EO is a better supplement than LO for increasing EPA and DPA in blood. However, neither EO nor LO maintained blood DHA status in

  16. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    OpenAIRE

    Teerawat Apichato; Gumpon Prateepchaikul1

    2003-01-01

    Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term perfor...

  17. Fish oil intake induces UCP1 upregulation in brown and white adipose tissue via the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Yu, Rina; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Kano, Yuriko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-12-17

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in regulating energy homeostasis, and may provide novel strategies for the treatment of human obesity. BAT-mediated thermogenesis is regulated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in classical brown and ectopic beige adipocytes, and is controlled by sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Previous work indicated that fish oil intake reduces fat accumulation and induces UCP1 expression in BAT; however, the detailed mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of fish oil on energy expenditure and the SNS. Fish oil intake increased oxygen consumption and rectal temperature, with concomitant upregulation of UCP1 and the β3 adrenergic receptor (β3AR), two markers of beige adipocytes, in the interscapular BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT). Additionally, fish oil intake increased the elimination of urinary catecholamines and the noradrenaline (NA) turnover rate in interscapular BAT and inguinal WAT. Furthermore, the effects of fish oil on SNS-mediated energy expenditure were abolished in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout mice. In conclusion, fish oil intake can induce UCP1 expression in classical brown and beige adipocytes via the SNS, thereby attenuating fat accumulation and ameliorating lipid metabolism.

  18. Effects of a high intake of unsaturated and saturated oils on intestinal transference of calcium and calcium mobilization from bone in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, S; Islam, N; Ghosh, T K; Mitra, C

    1999-06-01

    Intestinal transference of calcium and rate of bone turnover were evaluated in ovariectomized rats fed for 15 days with a high amount (30%) of lipid enriched with monounsaturated (groundnut oil), polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) and saturated (coconut oil) fatty acids. The results were compared with those for sham-operated control and ovariectomized groups fed a normal diet (7% groundnut oil). Irrespective of the saturation and unsaturation characteristics, all lipids (edible oils) used in our study considerably decreased the rate of in situ intestinal transference of calcium. Likewise, the activities of intestinal mucosal enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and calcium ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase) were decreased significantly in all the segments of the small intestine in a descending gradient. Significant changes in bone turnover and bone calcium (Ca) mobilization were confirmed in these animals by marked alterations in plasma AP activity, urinary calcium and phosphate excretion and calcium to creatinine (Ca:creatinine) ratio. Lipid supplementation (30%) in such ovariectomized rats using groundnut oil (monounsaturated), sunflower oil (polyunsaturated) or coconut oil (saturated) for 15 days further enhanced all of the above observed parameters. These results suggest that the intake of high amounts of lipids with different unsaturation and saturation characteristics may be an important factor in determining bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND CHOLESTEROL IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Shakoor, M. A. Javed1, Z. Iqbal2 Z. Nasir and N. Mukhtar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola and soybean oils on egg production and cholesterol in layers. for this purpose. 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments (3 experimental units/treatment containing 2,5% canola oil, 5% canola oil, 2.5% soybean oil, 5% soybean oil and control without any oil (all five rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous for a period of9 weeks. Effect of these treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg mass, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio and egg quality parameters including shell thickness, albumen quality, yolk index, egg cholesterol level and yolk fatty acid composition were studied. The results indicated that the effect of canola and soybean oils on egg production and egg mass was non-significant. Significantly (P<0.05 less yolk cholesterol was found in hens fed diets containing oils compared with the control. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acids (SFA content decreased as oils percentage increased. Total Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was significantly (P<0.01 greater in canola and soybean oil fed hens eggs than the control diet fed hens eggs. Addition of 5% canola oil to the diet resulted in yolk omega-6:omega-3 PUFA being significantly lower (P<0.01 than those of the control diets.

  20. Human intake fractions of pesticides via greenhouse tomato consumption: comparing model estimates with measurements for Captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraske, R; Antón, A; Castells, F; Huijbregts, M A J

    2007-04-01

    Human intake due to pesticide residues in food commodities can be much higher than those related to water consumption and air inhalation, stressing the importance to correctly estimate pesticide uptake into plants and predict subsequent intake by humans. We calculated the human intake fraction of captan via tomato consumption taking into account the time between pesticide application and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the absorption of spray deposit on plant surfaces, transfer properties through the cuticle, degradation inside the plant and loss due to food processing. Human population intake fractions due to ingestion were calculated for complete, washed and peeled tomatoes. The calculated intake fractions were compared with measurements derived from an experimental setup in a Mediterranean greenhouse. The fraction of captan applied in the greenhouse as plant treatment that eventually is ingested by the human population is on average 10(-2)-10(-5), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion of tomatoes and the processing step considered. Model and experimentally derived intake fractions deviated less than a factor of 2 for complete and washed tomatoes and a factor of 3 for peeled tomatoes. Intake fractions due to air inhalation and consumption of drinking water are expected to be significantly lower (5-9 orders of magnitude) than those induced by the intake of tomatoes in this case study.

  1. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  2. Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13800 patients and 23340 controls in 19 observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimopoulos Meletios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary fat, both in terms of quantity and quality, has been implicated to cancer development, either positively or negatively. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether olive oil or monounsaturated fat intake was associated with the development of cancer. A systematic search of relevant studies, published in English, between 1990 and March 1, 2011, was performed through a computer-assisted literature tool (i.e., Pubmed. In total 38 studies were initially allocated; of them 19 case-control studies were finally studied (13800 cancer patients and 23340 controls were included. Random effects meta-analysis was applied in order to evaluate the research hypothesis. It was found that compared with the lowest, the highest category of olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of having any type of cancer (log odds ratio = -0.41, 95%CI -0.53, -0.29, Cohran's Q = 47.52, p = 0.0002, I-sq = 62%; the latter was irrespective of the country of origin (Mediterranean or non-Mediterranean. Moreover, olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of developing breast cancer (logOR = -0,45 95%CI -0.78 to -0.12, and a cancer of the digestive system (logOR = -0,36 95%CI -0.50 to -0.21, compared with the lowest intake. The strength and consistency of the findings states a hypothesis about the protective role of olive oil intake on cancer risk. However, it is still unclear whether olive oil's monounsaturated fatty acid content or its antioxidant components are responsible for its beneficial effects.

  3. Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo-Silva, A.C.; Kaushik, S.; Terrier, F.; Schrama, J.W.; Médale, F.; Geurden, I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the long-term effect of feeding coconut oil (CO; rich in lauric acid, C12) on voluntary food intake and nutrient utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with particular attention to the metabolic use (storage or oxidation) of ingested medium-chain TAG. Trout were fed for 15 w

  4. Studies on the mechanism by which a high intake of soybean oil depresses the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.L.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Vries, de H.T.; Hallebeek, J.M.; Hovenier, R.; Kuilen, van der J.; Huurdeman, C.M.; Verstappen, D.C.G.M.; Gresnigt, M.C.; Beynen, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of an iso-energetic amount of non-structural carbohydrates reduces the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses. Literature data indicate that bile acids and linoleic acid (C18:2 n ¿ 6) may inhibit growth of pure cultures of microorganisms. In the p

  5. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.;

    1995-01-01

    dietary self- administered questionnaire and interview, with fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids. Daily intake (g/d) and nutrient density of marine n-3 fatty acids (mg/MJ) correlated with the n-3 fatty acid: arachidonic acid ratio (FA-ratio) with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.......54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  6. Increased intake of vegetable oil rich in n-6 PUFA enhances allergic symptoms and prevents oral tolerance induction in whey-allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; van Esch, Betty C A M; Dingjan, Gemma M; Hofman, Gerard A; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2015-01-01

    Increased intake of vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA, including soyabean oil, has been associated with an increase in allergic disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an increasing dose of dietary vegetable oil on allergic outcomes in mice. To study this, mice received a 7 v. 10 %

  7. Effect of refined coconut oil or copra meal on methane output and on intake and performance of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E; Lovett, D K; Monahan, F J; Callan, J; Flynn, B; O'Mara, F P

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish the effect of feeding either refined coconut oil (CO) or copra meal containing CO to beef heifers on DMI, animal performance, enteric CH4 emissions, diet digestibility, and the fatty acid profile of the resulting meat. Forty-one Charolais and Limousin crossbred beef heifers (474 +/- 29 kg; 661 +/- 89 d of age) were blocked by BW before being assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (n = 12) or to a pretrial slaughter group (n = 5) used to determine the initial carcass weight. The experimental period lasted for 93 d. Enteric CH4 output was recorded for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days from d 14 to 18 and from d 70 to 74. The 3 dietary treatments were 1) control, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 0 g of CO/ d; 2) RCO, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from refined coconut oil; and 3) CM, a copra meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from copra meal. Each diet had a 50:50 forage:concentrate using grass silage as the forage source. There was no effect of diet on DMI (P = 0.734) or GE intake (P = 0.486). The addition of RCO increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with the control treatment. The CM treatment decreased (P < 0.05) average daily carcass gain compared with the RCO treatment only. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in the digestibility of the DM, OM, CP, and GE fractions of the diet only with the CM treatment. Both the RCO and CM concentrates decreased (P < 0.001) daily enteric CH4 output when expressed in terms of liters per day, liters per kilogram of DMI, percentage of GE intake, liters per kilogram of ADG, and liters per kilogram of average daily carcass gain. The RCO treatment produced the greatest numerical response for all measures. Ruminal protozoa numbers on the RCO treatment were lower (P < 0.05) than on the control treatment. The concentrations of the fatty acid methyl esters, lauric (P < 0.001) and myristic (P < 0.002) acids, were

  8. Comparative Analysis of Biodiesels from Calabash and Rubber Seeds Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Awulu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils depend on the inherent properties of the oil-producing seeds. The purpose of this study is to investigate the physicochemical properties of biodiesels extracted from calabash and rubber seeds oils, as well as their combined oil mixtures with a view to ascertaining the most suitable for biodiesel production. Calabash and rubber seeds oils were separately extracted through the use of a mechanical press with periodic addition of water. Biodiesels were produced from each category of the oils by transesterification of the free fatty acid (FFA with alcohol under the influence of a catalyst in batch process. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesels were investigated and comparatively analysed. The results obtained indicated an average of 1.40 wt% FFA for biodiesel produced from the purified calabash oil, which has a specific gravity of 0.920, pH of 5.93, flash point of 116 0C, fire point of 138 0C, cloud point of 70 0C, pour point of -4 0C, moisture content of 0.82 wt% and specific heat capacity of 5301 J/kgK. Conversely, the results obtained for biodiesel produced from the purified rubber oil showed an average of 33.66 wt% FFA, specific gravity of 0.885, pH of 5.51, flash point of 145 0C, fire point of 170 0C, cloud point of 10 0C, pour point of 4 0C, moisture content of 1.30 wt% and specific heat capacity of 9317 J/kgK. However, results obtained for biodiesel produced from the combined oil mixtures indicated an average of 19.77 wt% FFA content, specific gravity of 0.904, API gravity of 25.036, pH value of 5.73, flash point of 157 0C, Fire point of 180 0C, cloud point of 9 0C, pour point of 5 0C, moisture content of 0.93 wt% and specific heat capacity of 6051 J/kgK. Biodiesel produced from calabash seed oil is superior in quality to rubber seed oil, particularly in terms of its low FFA and moisture contents.

  9. Comparative effect of olive oil and fish oil supplementation in combating gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Fouzia; M. Kaleem; Sheema; Bano, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present study is related to the comparative effects of fish oil and olive oil supplementation on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Three treatment groups (Pretrement, Co-treatment and post treatment) were chosen for the study. Nephrotoxicity in rats was induced by intraperitonial administration of gentamicin (80 mg/kg/d) for 3,5,7,10,& 12 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 12 hrs after last treatment in each group. The maximum nephrotoxicity was developed on 10 days tr...

  10. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  11. Effect of sun flower oil addition (Helianthus annuus in diet on nutrient intake, growth performance and characteristics of estrous of pre-mating Garut sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khotijah L

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of ewes at pre-breeding phase is critical for good reproductive process. Thirty-two ewes Garut sheep (initial body weight 22.5±2.21 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of addition of sunflower oil in the diet on nutrient intake, growth performance and characteristics of estrous of pre-mating garut sheep. Ewes were fed grass and supplemented with one of four isonitrogenous high concentrate diets containing four levels of sunflower oil; they were (M0 no addition of sunflower oil; (M1 2% sunflower oil; (M2 4% sunflower oil and (M3 6% sunflower oil addition. Results showed that the addition significantly reduced dry matter intake (p < 0.05, highly significantly reduce crude protein, Ca and P intake (p < 0.01, higly significant increased ether extract intake (p < 0.01 and significantly increased long of estrous (p < 0.05. There was no difference in crude fiber intake, TDN intake, body weight gain, length of estrous onset and response of estrous for ewes fed the four experimental diets. Response on estrous of treatments M0, M1, M2 and M3 were 62.50; 50.00; 75,00 and 62.5% respectively. It is concluded that the addition of sunflower oil up to 6% in the pre-mating ration affects the nutrient intake without interferering the performance, and it tends to improve the charachteristic estrous of Garut ewes.

  12. Food Intakes by Preschool Children in Flanders Compared with Dietary Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.5-6.5 years living in Flanders (Belgium were assessed in a cross-sectional study, using proxy reported 3d estimated dietary records (EDR (n 696. Statistical modelling was used to account for within-individual variation in the 3d EDR. Mean daily intakes of most food groups (beverages, vegetables, fruit and milk were below the minimum recommendations. Only ‘grains and potatoes’ and ‘meat products’ were in line with the recommendations and ‘bread and cereals’ showed borderline intakes. Mean intakes of energy-dense and low-nutritious foods, which are discouraged within a healthy diet (like snacks and sugared drinks, were high. Furthermore, the percentage of children complying with the different food-based dietary guidelines was for most food groups extremely low (ranging from approximately 4% for fluid and vegetable intakes up to 99% for potato intakes. Boys had in general higher mean intakes of the recommended food groups. In conclusion, preschool children in Flanders follow eating patterns that do not meet Flemish FBDG. Although the impact of these eating habits on preschooler’s current and future health should be further investigated, it is clear that nutrition education and intervention are needed among preschool children and their parents in Flanders.

  13. Oral strategies to supplement older adults' dietary intakes: comparing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J

    2009-01-01

    Despite the current global obesity crisis, undernutrition remains prevalent among older adults worldwide. This review compares the efficacy of the main oral strategies used to increase older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, i.e., meal enhancement, multivitamin/multimineral supplementation and oral liquid nutrition supplements. Well-designed long-term investigations that are adequately powered to differentiate effects on nutritional, clinical, functional, and cost outcomes are much needed before scientific and clinical consensus can be reached on where and when to implement any strategy as the optimal choice for improving dietary intakes in a specific older adult population.

  14. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products.

  15. Self-reported energy intake by FFQ compared with actual energy intake to maintain body weight in 516 adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, E.; Geelen, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that a FFQ is not suitable to estimate the absolute levels of individual energy intake. However, in epidemiological studies, reported nutrients by FFQ are often corrected for this intake. The objective of the present study was to assess how accurately participants report thei

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF VASELINE OIL AND GLYCELAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary therapeutic approaches offer a wide range of laxative agents, which are often used without a control, exceeding the regime recommended. Therefore, the comparative study for subchronic toxicity of both drugs from this group (Vaseline oil and Glycelax appears interesting.The aim of the study was the comparison of a toxic influence of 14-days application of the drugs under study.Methods. The drugs were studied in two doses: higher therapeutic, and toxic, which 10 times exceeds therapeutic dose. We used “Polispektr-8/B” electrocardiograph, BC 2800vet (Mindray hematologic veterinary analyzer, BS-380 (Mindray biochemical analyzer, CL-50 urine analyzer. After the animals autopsy we determined organs’ coefficient (heart, lungs, spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, adrenals.Results. While studying the ECG of female rats, amplitude of R wave increased after they got Glycelax in both doses. Female rats who got Vaseline oil this index decreased at minimum dose and increased at maximum dose. After Glycelax application, male rats had an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase. After Vaseline oil application at maximum dose, female rats had alkaline phosphatase activity lowered. Female rats, which got a maximum dose of Vaseline oil had a total protein lowered. Glycelax at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin and its fractions in male and female rats, while Vaseline oil application at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin in female rats. Male rats which got Glycelax had hemoglobin and hematocrit level increased.Conclusion. At long-term application of Vaseline oil, animals of both genders had heart disorders with possible development of arrhythmia, hepatotoxic effect, lipid exchange dysfunction. After excessive use of Glycelax the above mentioned is added with possible hemoglobin and rheological blood properties level decrease.

  17. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  18. Effect of the long-term regular intake of virgin olive oil on the phenolic metabolites in human fasting plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa-Maria; Soler, Aranzazu; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Masana, Lluis; Motilva, Maria-Jose

    2010-09-21

    The effect of repeated consumption of virgin olive oil on endogenous phenolic metabolites of fasting plasma is unknown. For this reason, we hypothesized that regular long-term virgin olive oil intake could have an indirect protection effect on the endogenous phenols. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the phenolic profile of human plasma in a fasting state of long-term regular virgin olive oil consumers, using the fasting plasma of non-consumers as a natural control. Forty participants living in the area of Reus (Catalonia, Spain) were selected, 20 life-long regular consumers of virgin olive oil and a natural control of 20 non-consumers, the latter being Rumanians who dislike the taste of olive oil. The diet was obtained from 3-day food records. The results showed similar phenolic composition of fasting plasmas of the two volunteer groups. Of special interest is that more of the compounds quantified showed higher concentration in fasting plasma from habitual virgin olive oil consumers. The compounds were semi-quantified using caffeic acid as the calibration standard. The quantification of fasting consumer's plasma showed higher concentration of a hydroxyflavanone type compound (2.90+/-0.04 microM vs 1.5+/-0.04 microM) and a catecholamine derivative (0.70+/-0.03 microM vs 0.56+/-0.03 microM) than the plasma of non-consumers (Polive oil consumption related to the protection of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  19. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  20. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel. PMID:28264428

  1. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-02-27

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (-73 kcal/day for tablet app and -108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  2. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients: comparing adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henyse Gómez Valiente da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category Methods: Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. Results: A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p < 0.01 and a lower frequency of being overweight (7% vs. 15.1%, p < 0.01 than adults. Both, adult and older adults had a high frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. The older adults had lower consumption of calories, intake of iron and folic acid. Inadequacy of vitamin intake was observed in both groups; respectively, 52%, 43%, 95%, 76% and 88% for Vitamin A, C, D, E and folic acid. The older adults had a higher folic acid and calcium inadequacy than the adults (97% vs 82%, p <0.01; 88% vs 72%, p < 0.01. There was no association of micronutrient intake with cancer, nor with nutritional status. Conclusion: The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category.

  3. Influence of cholesterol and fish oil dietary intake on nitric oxide-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sonia; Alejandre, Ma José; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Torres, Carolina; Linares, Ana

    2010-04-01

    Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) is critically involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that dietary cholesterol intake induces changes in SMC at molecular and gene expression levels. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the differential response to nitric oxide of vascular SMC obtained from chicks after cholesterol and fish oil dietary intake and to examine effects on the main pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes. Dietary cholesterol intake reduced the Bcl-2/Bax (anti-apoptotic/pro-apoptotic) protein ratio in SMC, making them more susceptible to apoptosis. When cholesterol was withdrawn and replaced with a fish oil-enriched diet, the Bcl-xl/Bax protein ratio significantly increased, reversing the changes induced by cholesterol. The decrease in c-myc gene expression after apoptotic stimuli and the increase in Bcl-xl/Bax ratio indicate that fish oil has a protective role against apoptosis in SMC. Nitroprussiate-like nitric oxide donors exerted an intensive action on vascular SMC cultures. However, SMC-C (isolated from animals fed with control diet) and SMC-Ch (isolated from animals fed with cholesterol-enriched diet) responded differently to nitric oxide, especially in their bcl-2 and bcl-xl gene expression. SMC isolated from animals fed with cholesterol-enriched and then fish oil-enriched diet (SMC-Ch-FO cultures) showed an intermediate apoptosis level (Bcl-2/Bax ratio) between SMC-C and SMC-Ch, induction of c-myc expression and elevated p53 expression. These findings indicate that fish oil protects SMC against apoptosis.

  4. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM.

  5. Estimated dietary intakes of nitrates in vegetarians compared to a traditional diet in Poland and acceptable daily intakes: is there a risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitek, Marta; Anyzewska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Vegetarian diets, by definition, are rich in vegetables and so may have high levels of nitrates, that can elicit both positive or negative effects on the human body. Exposure to nitrates can thus be potentially higher for this population group. To estimate dietary nitrates intakes in Polish vegetarians and compare these with the Polish average. A sample of 86 vegetarians were surveyed via a questionnaire to determine nitrate intake for those adopting a vegetarian diet. Nitrate intakes for the average Pole were obtained from the Central Statistical Office. The domestic intake of nitrate, per average person, during 2000-2009, ranged from 115.5 to 133.7 mg NaNO3 with a mean of 125 mg NaNO3 of which 35.4% constituted the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). For vegetarians, the corresponding levels ranged from 37.3 to 2054.3 mg NaNO3 with a mean intake of 340.1 mg NaNO3 of which 95.8% represented the ADI. This was almost twice more than values obtained from calculating nitrate intakes of a typical 7-day vegetarian menu; 104.5 to 277.6 mg NaNO3, with a mean 175.9 mg NaNO3 with the 49.1% making up the ADI. The nitrate intakes in the tested vegetarians were 140 to 270% higher than ones for the average Pole, however in both cases the ADI was not exceeded. Nevertheless, the higher intake of nitrates so observed in vegetarians can be hazardous to some from this population group.

  6. The effect of oil pulling with rice bran oil, sesame oil, and chlorhexidine mouth rinsing on halitosis among pregnant women: A comparative interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Rice bran oil when used in oil pulling was effective in reducing halitosis. It performed comparably and marginally superior to other agents tested in the study when change in halitosis postintervention was considered.

  7. Influence of ruminal or duodenal soybean oil infusion on intake, ruminal fermentation, site and extent of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis in beef heifers consuming grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Bohman, V R

    1991-06-01

    Six heifers (two Hereford X Jersey, four Hereford X Longhorn; average BW 278 kg) cannulated at the rumen and duodenum and fed a grass hay (fescue/orchardgrass) diet were used in a replicated 3 X 3 Latin square. Treatments were either no infusion (C), 150 ml of duodenally infused soybean oil (DI), or 150 ml of ruminally infused soybean oil (RI)/heifer twice daily for a total daily infusion of 300 ml of soybean oil. Periods of the Latin square included 18 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection. Forage OM, ADF, NDF, and N intakes were not affected (P greater than .10) by soybean oil infusion. Ruminal (P = .11) and total tract (P less than .10) OM digestibilities were decreased by RI compared with C or DI, but ADF and NDF digestibilities were not affected by treatment. Duodenal N (P less than .05) and microbial N flows were increased (P less than .10) for C and RI compared with DI. Microbial efficiency (g of N/kg of OM truly fermented) was improved (P less than .10) by RI compared with DI but did not differ (P greater than .10) from C. Ruminal pH was lower (P less than .05) with RI than with either C or DI. Ruminal NH3 N, total VFA, and acetate were not affected (P greater than .10) by treatment. Propionate (mol/100 mol) was greater (P less than .05) with RI than with DI and C, but the proportion of butyrate did not differ among treatments. These data indicate minimal direct benefits for improving forage usage as a result of soybean oil infusion with a 100% grass diet; however, animals should realize benefits from additional dietary energy provided by infused lipid.

  8. Comparative Study on Accelerated Thermal Ageing of Vegetable Insulating Oil-paperboard and Mineral Oil-paperboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Yang, Jun; Wang, Xuan; Fang, Fu-Xin; Kong, Hai-Yang; Qian, Hang

    2016-05-01

    To comparatively study the insulation ageing life of vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and mineral oil-paperboard, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 170°C. Then according to the temperature rise of vegetable insulating oil transformer, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 150°C for vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and at 140°C for mineral oil-paperboard. The appearance, polymerization degree, and SEM microstructure of the paperboard after different ageing experiments were comparative analyzed. The results show that after the oil-paperboard system is accelerated ageing for 1 000 h at 170°C, that is equivalent to 20 years natural ageing, the structure of paperboard in vegetable insulating oil is damaged severely, which indicates that the lifetime of transformer are in the late stage; while the structure of paperboard in mineral oil maintain complete, and the polymerization degree is still above 500, which indicate that the lifetime of transformer are in the middle stage. The accelerated ageing rate of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard system at 150°C is slower than that of the mineral oil-paperboard system, which indicates that the lifetime of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard is longer than that of the mineral oil-paperboard.

  9. Maternal Intake of Fish Oil but not of Linseed Oil Reduces the Antibody Response in Neonatal Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, T. M. R.; Porsgaard, Trine

    2011-01-01

    . From the day of conception and throughout lactation, dams were fed diets containing 4% fat from linseed oil (LSO), fish oil (FO) or a n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (DEF). Pups were injected with OVA within 24 h of birth and sacrificed at weaning (day 21). Overall, the content of n-3 PUFA in milk, liver...

  10. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  11. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  12. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  13. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  14. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  15. Coconut oil enhances tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation compared to safflower oil in the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Lauren E; King, Ryan D; Moran, Nancy E; Erdman, John W

    2012-08-29

    Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans-lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001) and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

  16. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients; comparing adults and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category. Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p cancer, nor with nutritional status. The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes of On-Reserve First Nations Schoolchildren Compared to Canadian Averages and Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated, in on-reserve First Nations (FN youth in Ontario, Canada, the following: (a the intakes of vegetable and fruit, “other” foods and relevant nutrients as compared to current recommendations and national averages, (b current prevalence rates of overweight and obesity and (c the relationship between latitude and dietary intakes. Twenty-four-hour diet recalls were collected via the Waterloo Web-Based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q (n = 443. Heights and weights of participants were self reported using measured values and Body Mass Index was categorized using the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Food group and nutrient intakes were compared to current standards, Southern Ontario Food Behaviour data and the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, using descriptive statistics. Mean vegetable and fruit, fibre and folate intakes were less than current recommendations. Girls aged 14–18 years had mean intakes of vitamin A below current recommendations for this sub-group; for all sub-groups, mean intakes of vegetables and fruit were below Canadian averages. All sub-groups also had intakes of all nutrients and food groups investigated that were less than those observed in non-FN youth from Southern Ontario, with the exception of “other” foods in boys 12–18 years. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8% and 19.6%, respectively, exceeding rates in the general population. Dietary intakes did not vary consistently by latitude (n = 248, as revealed by ANOVA. This study provided a unique investigation of the dietary intakes of on-reserve FN youth in Ontario and revealed poor intakes of vegetables and fruit and related nutrients and high intakes of “other” foods. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity exceed those of the general population.

  18. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted, compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet, a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  19. Effect of dietary intake of avocado oil and olive oil on biochemical markers of liver function in sucrose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α -amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α -amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  20. A comparative study of bio-oils from pyrolysis of microalgae and oil seed waste in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Koo, Bon Seok; Lee, Dong Hyun

    2014-06-01

    The pyrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. and Jatropha seedshell cake (JSC) was investigated under similar operating condition in a fluidized bed reactor for comparison of pyrolytic behaviors from different species of lipids-containing biomass. Microalgae showed a narrower main peak in differential thermogravimetric curve compared to JSC due to different constituents. Pyrolysis liquid yields were similar; liquid's oil proportion of microalgae is higher than JSC. Microalgae bio-oil was characterized by similar carbon and hydrogen contents and higher H/C and O/C molar ratios compared to JSC due to compositional difference. The pyrolytic oils from microalgae and JSC contained more oxygen and nitrogen and less sulfur than petroleum and palm oils. The pyrolytic oils showed high yields of fatty oxygenates and nitrogenous compounds. The microalgae bio-oil features in high concentrations of aliphatic compounds, fatty acid alkyl ester, alcohols and nitriles. Microalgae showed potentials for alternative feedstock for green diesel, and commodity and valuable chemicals.

  1. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ajiboye, John A.; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A.; Nwachukwu, Viola A.; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O.; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p 

  2. Presentation and interpretation of food intake data: factors affecting comparability across studies

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A.M.; MacIntyre, Una E.; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Steyn, Nelia P

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food consumed per day; the absolute intake value for the specific study depends on the denominator used because food intake data can be presented...

  3. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Khazanehei, Hamidreza; Jones, Peter J.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: (1) conventional canola oil (Canola); (2) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA); (3) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic); and two PUFA-rich diets: (4) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff); and (5) a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40) (FlaxSaff). Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants resulted in a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01). Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI). Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the higher abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profile, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower

  4. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaihua Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial (COMIT, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: 1 conventional canola oil (Canola; 2 DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; 3 high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; and two PUFA-rich diets: 4 a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75 (CornSaff; and 5 a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40 (FlaxSaff. Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants produced a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01. Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI. Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae (F’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profiles, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower taxonomical levels

  5. Comparing stage of change and behavioral intention to understand fruit intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Vet (Emely); J. de Nooijer (Jascha); N.K. de Vries (Nanne); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe explored if the pre-action Transtheoretical stages of change are indeed discrete stages for fruit intakes. In a longitudinal design, a cohort of 735 adults completed electronic questionnaires assessing fruit intake, stages of change and intention to increase fruit intake at baseline

  6. 社区老年慢性病患者限盐和限油干预的效果评价%Salt and Oil Intake Intervention in Community Elderly Patients with Chronic Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹祝萍; 李新辉; 姬春; 徐月贞; 刘丽; 杨京楠; 杜文娟; 毛晓润

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过健康教育干预活动促进社区老年慢性病患者油、盐摄入行为的转变并评价其效果.方法 通过家庭访视对社区老年慢性病患者进行个性化的限盐、限油健康教育及行为干预,并评价其效果.结果 干预后高血压和糖尿病患者对限盐、限油的各项基初知识的知晓率和油、盐摄入达标率均较干预前提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);干预后高血压和糖尿病患者的油、盐的摄入量均较干预前降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 通过家庭访视对老年慢性病患者进行个性化的限盐、限油健康教育是控制油、盐摄入量的有效途径.%Objectives To promote, through health education, the changes of oil and salt intake behaviors of community elderly patients with chronic diseases and evaluate its effects. Methods A personalized health education and behavior intervention of oil, salt intake were performed by home visiting in community elderly patients wTith chronic diseases, and its effects were evaluated. Results The awareness of basic knowledge about salt and oil intake and control rate after intervention improved as compared with pre - intervention in patients with hypertension and diabetes, the difference was significant ( P < 0. 01 ), and oil, salt intake decreased, the difference was significant ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusions Personalized health education on oil, salt intake through home visiting is an effective way to control oil, salt intake.

  7. Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Terrier, Frédéric; Schrama, Johan W; Médale, Françoise; Geurden, Inge

    2012-06-01

    We examined the long-term effect of feeding coconut oil (CO; rich in lauric acid, C12) on voluntary food intake and nutrient utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with particular attention to the metabolic use (storage or oxidation) of ingested medium-chain TAG. Trout were fed for 15 weeks one of the four isoproteic diets containing fish oil (FO) or CO as fat source (FS), incorporated at 5% (low fat, LF) or 15% (high fat, HF). Fat level or FS did not modify food intake (g/kg(0·8) per d), despite higher intestinal cholecystokinin-T mRNA in trout fed the HF-FO diet. The HF diets relative to the LF ones induced higher growth and adiposity, whereas the replacements of FO by CO resulted in similar growth and adiposity. This, together with the substantial retention of C12 (57% of intake), suggests the relatively low oxidation of ingested C12. The down-regulation of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) confirms the minor dependency of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on CPT-1 to enter the mitochondria. However, MCFA did not up-regulate mitochondrial oxidation evaluated using hepatic hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase as a marker, in line with their high retention in body lipids. At a low lipid level, MCFA increased mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, elongase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in liver, showing the hepatic activation of fatty acid synthesis pathways by MCFA, reflected by increased 16 : 0, 18 : 0, 16 : 1, 18 : 1 body levels. The high capacity of trout to incorporate and transform C12, rather than to readily oxidise C12, contrasts with data in mammals and may explain the absence of a satiating effect of CO in rainbow trout.

  8. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  9. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  10. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C. A.; Blanco Martínez, D.; Collazos, C. A.; Castellanos Acuña, H. E.; Cuervo, J. A.; Fernandez, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K2CO3 and Na2CO3 supported in gamma-alumina (K2CO3/γ Al2O3 y Na2CO3 /γ-Al2O3) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated.

  11. Comparative Properties of Amazonian Oils Obtained by Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Galuppo Diniz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., babaçu (Orbignya phalerata Mart., buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis oils were studied to determine their antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, as well as their total phenol and carotenoid contents. The fatty acid contents were determined by GC-MS. The three types of passion fruit oils studied were refined, cold pressed or extracted from seeds in a Soxhlet apparatus. The oils thus obtained showed differences in antioxidant activity and carotenoid content, but were similar in regard to total phenols. Buriti and pequi had the highest carotenoid contents, while refined and cold pressed passion fruit oil displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Pequi oil was the only oil to display antibacterial and cytotoxic activity.

  12. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito.

  13. Association of fish and fish liver oil intake in pregnancy with infant size at birth among women of normal weight before pregnancy in a fishing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Halldorsdottir, Sveinbjorg; Geirsson, Reynir T

    2004-09-01

    This 1998 study investigated the association between intake of fish and fish oil during pregnancy and full-term infants' size at birth in an Icelandic fishing community. Healthy women aged 20-40 years of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index: 19.5-25.5 kg/m(2)) and at 38-43 weeks of gestation were selected randomly. Information on infant size at birth was collected from maternity records. Intake of fish and fish oil in pregnancy was ascertained (n = 491, 80.1%) by using a validated, focused, food frequency questionnaire. Infants of women in the lowest quartile of fish consumption weighed less (p = 0.036), were shorter (p fish. Infants of women in the highest quartile of fish oil intake (> or =1 tablespoon (11 ml)/day), consuming threefold the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A and twofold that of vitamin D, were shorter (p = 0.036) and had a smaller head circumference (p = 0.003) than those of women consuming less. Infant size at birth increased with fish consumption, especially for women in the lower quartiles of consumption. Smaller birth size was linked to the highest levels of fish oil intake. Constituents of fish and fish oil might affect birth size differently depending on the amount consumed.

  14. Low incidence rate of overt hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in an area with moderately low iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Bülow Pedersen, I; Pedersen, K M

    1999-01-01

    In areas with relatively high iodine intake, the incidence rate of hypothyroidism is several-fold higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Recently, we found a similarly high prevalence rate of subclinical hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in a high iodine intake area, while a relatively low...... prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in a low iodine intake area. In the present study we compared the incidence rate (newly diagnosed in primary care and at hospital) of overt hypothyroidism with that of hyperthyroidism in a well-defined geographical area in Jutland, Denmark, with an iodine...... intake around 60 microg/day. The number of personsxyears studied was 569,108. Data on hyperthyroidism have been published previously. The overall incidence of hypothyroidism was 13.5/100,000 per year (F/M 22.9/3.6), hyperthyroidism 38.7/100.000 per year (F/M 63.0/13.0). The incidence of hypothyroidism...

  15. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul Jm; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D

    2017-06-01

    Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Weighed food records and duplicate portions of all foods consumed during one day were collected. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, available carbohydrates, dietary fibre, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamin A were assessed by: (i) estimating the nutrient intake from weighed food records based on an adjusted TACAM (a-TACAM); and (ii) chemical analysis of the duplicate portions. Agreement between the two methods was determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman plots. Bamako, Mali. Apparently healthy non-pregnant, non-lactating women (n 36) aged 15-36 years. Correlation coefficients between estimated and analysed values ranged from 0·38 to 0·61. At population level, mean estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly for carbohydrates (203·0 v. 243·5 g/d), Fe (9·9 v. 22·8 mg/d) and vitamin A (356 v. 246 µg retinol activity equivalents). At individual level, all estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly; the differences tended to increase with higher intakes. The a-TACAM is sufficiently acceptable for measuring average intakes of macronutrients, Ca and Zn at population level in low-intake populations, but not for carbohydrate, vitamin A and Fe intakes, and nutrient densities.

  16. Emphasizing the losses or the gains: Comparing situational and individual moderators of framed messages to promote fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Cristina A; Alvarez, Maria-João; Lima, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Health messages are a commonly used way to promote changes in dietary habits but their efficacy could be enhanced by strategies such as the way in which the presented arguments are framed. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of framed messages (gain vs. loss) on behavioural intention and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, comparing predictions based on prominent theoretical perspectives on message framing (function of the health behaviour and recipients' motivational orientation) and by further exploring the role of baseline intentions as a potential moderator of the framing effects. Undergraduate students (N = 180) completed the three assessment points in time. At baseline, individual moderators (motivational orientation and intentions) and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed. One week later, participants were randomly assigned to the loss or gain-framed message and indicated their intentions for FV intake the following week. A week later, FV intake over the previous week was assessed. The gain-frame was not conducive, per se, to higher intentions or behaviour. Having intention as the outcome, only baseline intentions moderated the effects of message frame. When considering FV intake as the outcome, both motivational orientation and baseline intentions moderated the effects of message frame, with the loss-frame promoting higher FV intake among individuals who were prevention-oriented and had higher baseline intentions. Findings suggest that the success of framed messages for FV intake depends upon the recipient's characteristics, such as motivational orientation, baseline intentions, and cultural background, with implications for health communication interventions.

  17. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  18. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n=28 or without (Control; n=26 supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS (P<0.05, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG (P<0.05, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.05 were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109 and lactation (days 1 and 3 than in early gestation (day 10. Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows’ serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P<0.05 and TBARS (P<0.01 on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows’ counts of faecal lactobacillus (P<0.001 while reducing Escherichia coli (P<0.001 and Enterococcus (P<0.001. In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow’s feed intake (P=0.07, which resulted in higher average daily gain (P<0.01 of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows’ diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress.

  19. Effects of enzyme levels in total mixed ration containing oil palm frond silage on intake, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of male goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Dwi Wahyuni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementing the total mixed ration (TMR containing oil palmfrond (OPF silage with different levels of enzyme on feed intake and growth performance of goat. Twenty four post-weaningBoer  Thai Native crossbred male goats with initial body weight (BW of 11-18 kg, were arranged to receive four dietarytreatments in a randomized complete block design. The diet used in the study contained 60% oil palm frond silage and 40%concentrate. The enzyme mixture produced by Aspergillus spp. BCC 274, containing approximately 1107, 9106, 2106, 1106and 2106 unit/kg dry weight for xylanase, -glucanase, cellulase, mannanase and amylase, respectively, was supplementedto the concentrate portion at 0, 2, 4 and 6 g/kgDM of the TMR. The results showed that the supplementation of enzyme tothe TMR did not affect (P>0.05 dry matter intake (DMI. Goats receiving TMR supplemented with enzyme at 2 g/kgDMtended to have higher ADG and better feed per gain ratio as compared with other treatments. Coefficient of DM digestibilityof TMR was not significantly affected by the enzyme supplementation. In addition, there were no significant differences(P>0.05 among treatments regarding, average NH3-N concentration, the amount of C2, C3 and C4 in the rumen fluid and BUNconcentration. However, overall mean of ruminal NH3-N concentration was significantly lower in goat receiving TMR supplemented with enzyme at 2 g/kgDM than that of goat receiving TMR with no enzyme supplementation (P<0.05. Based on thisexperiment, the application of enzyme at 2 g/kgDM in TMR containing OPF silage could increase ruminal availability of slowlydigestible carbohydrate and improve goat performance.

  20. Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed with high level of starch or neutral detergent soluble fiber associated with sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane da Silva Morgado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrate sources associated with sunflower oil on intake, digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance in diets of lambs. Twenty lambs were used, assigned in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with two sources of neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate, starch and neutral detergent soluble fiber, with and without the inclusion of 4.2% sunflower oil. The dry matter intake was not affected by carbohydrate sources and the inclusion of oil. Diets with a high percentage of starch provided higher digestibility of dry matter, starch and ether extract. The different sources of carbohydrates had no interference on digestibility of organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent soluble fiber, nonfiber carbohydrates, neutral detergent fiber, hemicellulose and acid detergent fiber. The addition of oil in the diets increased the digestibility of ether extract. The combination of 4.2% oil in the diet high in soluble neutral detergent fiber had no influence on the nutrient digestibility, otherwise, the addition of oil at high starch diet caused a significant reduction in the digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, hemicellulose and nonfiber carbohydrates. The quantities of nitrogen intake, absorbed and retained, did not differ as sources of carbohydrates and oil inclusion in the diet. The association of 4.2 % sunflower oil to the different sources of carbohydrates in the diet does not affect consumption and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. The addition of 4.2 % oil in the diet with high starch (28% of DM diet promotes reduction in digestibility of organic matter, of fibrous and nonfibrous carbohydrate in the diet.

  1. Comparative Toxicity of Different Crude Oils on the Cardiac Function of Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effect of different crude oils (heavy crude oil and bonny light crude oil on embryos of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma was measured and evaluated by exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF in the present study. The cardiac function of medaka embryos was used as target organ of ecotoxicological effect induced by oil exposure. Results showed that the developing marine medaka heart was a sensitive target organ to crude oil exposure the heavy crude oil WAF was more toxic to cardiac function of medaka embryos than bonny light cured oil one. Cardiac function of medaka embryos was clearly affected by exposure to heavy crude oil WAF after 24 hours exposure and showed a dose-dependent slowing of heart rate. Furthermore, swelled and enlarged heart morphology, lowered blood circulation and accumulation of blood cells around the heart area were found. However, the toxic effect of bonny light crude oil on cardiac function of medaka embryos was comparatively low. Statistical results showed that the cardiac function was only affected by highest bonny light crude oil WAF (9.8 mg/L exposure treatment. These findings indicated that cardiac function of marine medaka embryo was a good toxicity model for oil pollution and could be used to compare and evaluate the toxicity of different crude oils. The heart rate was an appropriate endpoint in the acute toxicity test.

  2. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    intake in the S/B groups than in the R/K groups. Diet, (n-3) LCPUFA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and plasma CVD risk markers were measured before and after the intervention. FO lowered fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) (P ...Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined...... with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA...

  3. Gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some studies have shown that acute intake of high-phenol virgin olive oil reduces pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-thrombotic states, but it remains unclear if the effects attributed to its phenolic fraction are exerted at the transcriptional level in vivo. Gene expression microarray analysis w...

  4. Comparative studies of antimycotic potential of thyme and clove oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Many plant extracts called essential oils possess antimi- crobial properties and ... preservatives especially for cosmetic products and as a. *Corresponding ..... recommend them as substitutes based on their work conducted on ...

  5. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L.; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul J.M.; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Design: Weighed food records and

  6. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AYELESO

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa. 2Department of Wellness ... 2 ml and 4 ml of red palm oil daily for seven weeks. In the liver of all the groups, ..... wellbeing and quality of life. Br. J. Biomed. Sci.

  7. Stability of omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich photoautotrophic microalgal oils compared to commercially available omega-3 LC-PUFA oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Lemahieu, Charlotte; Muylaert, Koenraad; Van Durme, Jim; Goiris, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2013-10-23

    Microalgae are the primary producers of omega-3 LC-PUFA, which are known for their health benefits. Their oil may thus be a potential alternative for fish oil. However, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of omega-3 LC-PUFA oils are important parameters. The purpose of this work was therefore to evaluate these parameters in oils from photoautotrophic microalgae (Isochrysis, Phaeodactylum, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Nannochloropsis sp.) obtained with hexane/isopropanol (HI) and hexane (H) and compare them with commercial omega-3 LC-PUFA oils. When the results of both the primary and secondary oxidation parameters were put together, it was clear that fish, tuna, and heterotrophic microalgae oil are the least oxidatively stable oils, whereas krill oil and the microalgae oils performed better. The microalgal HI oils were shown to be more oxidatively stable than the microalgal H oils. The hydrolytic stability was shown not to be a problem during the storage of any of the oils.

  8. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA......Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined......, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, oxidized LDL, cluster of differentiation antigen 40 ligand (CD40L), adiponectin, or fasting or postprandial BP or HR after adjustment for body weight changes. In conclusion, neither fish oil supplementation nor the LA...

  9. The Impact of Health Literacy Status on the Comparative Validity and Sensitivity of an Interactive Multimedia Beverage Intake Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P. Hooper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-reported dietary assessment methods can be challenging to validate, and reporting errors for those with lower health literacy (HL may be augmented. Interactive multimedia (IMM based questionnaires could help overcome these limitations. The objectives of this investigation are to assess the comparative validity and sensitivity to change of an IMM beverage intake questionnaire (IMM-BEVQ as compared to dietary recalls and determine the impact of HL. Adults completed three 24-h dietary recalls and the IMM-BEVQ at baseline and after a six-month intervention targeting either sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB or physical activity. Correlations and paired-samples t-tests are presented. For validity (n = 273, intake of SSB (mean difference = 10.6 fl oz and total beverage consumption (mean difference = 16.0 fl oz were significantly different (p ≤ 0.001 at baseline between the IMM-BEVQ and dietary recalls for all participants. However, the differences in intake were generally greater in low HL participants than in adequate HL participants. For sensitivity (n = 162, change in SSB intake (mean difference = 7.2 fl oz was significantly different (p ≤ 0.01 between pre-/post-IMM-BEVQ and pre-/post-dietary recalls, but not total beverage intake (mean difference = 7.6 fl oz for all participants. Changes in SSB and total beverage intake were not significantly different for those with adequate HL. The IMM-BEVQ is a valid dietary assessment tool that is as responsive to detecting changes in beverage intake as dietary recalls. However, adults with lower HL may need additional guidance when completing the IMM-BEVQ.

  10. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN GREEK VIRGIN OLIVE OIL: LEVELS, DIETARY INTAKE AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoutsi, Charoula; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the occurrence of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and metabolite residues was investigated in 167 samples of Greek virgin olive oil during a two-year (2004–2005) sampling campaign. A total of 30.5% of samples contained detectable residues while only one sample contained dimethoate residues higher than the maximum residue limits. Among the seven detected OPs, fenthion and fenthion sulfoxide residues were detected in 10.8% and 14.4% of the samples...

  11. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iagher Fabiola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG (4 mg/g body weight was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C, coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO, fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO, obese control group (Ob, coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO. Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Results Obese animals (Ob presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30% and triacylglycerol (TG; 33% compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Conclusions Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  12. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (sodium (low usual...... sodium: 115-165 mmol; high usual sodium: 166-215 mmol), and high sodium (>215 mmol). METHODS: The relationship between individual measures of dietary sodium intake vs. outcome in cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) measured as hazard ratios (HRs) were integrated in meta......-analyses. RESULTS: No RCTs in healthy population samples were identified. Data from 23 cohort studies and 2 follow-up studies of RCTs (n = 274,683) showed that the risks of ACM and CVDEs were decreased in usual sodium vs. low sodium intake (ACM: HR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.99; CVDEs: HR = 0...

  13. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Remediation Technologies for Marine Oil Spills: A Critical Review and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dave

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Anthropogenic activities pollute the oceans with oil through land run off, vessels accidents, periodic tanker discharges and bilge discharges. Oil spills are environmental disasters that impact human, plants and wild life including birds, fish and mammals. Approach: In this study, the International Guidelines for Preventing Oils Spills and Response to Disasters were reviewed and the characteristics of oil spills were discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of various oil spill response methods were evaluated. A comparative analysis were performed on the currently available remediation technologies using 10 evaluation criteria that included cost, efficiency, time, impact on wild life, reliability, level of difficulty, oil recovery, weather, effect on physical/chemical characteristics of oil and the need for further treatment. The advantages and disadvantages of each response method were used to determine the score assigned to that method. Results: There are many government regualtions for individual countries that serve as prevention mesures for oil spills in the offshore environment. They have to do with the design of equipment and machinery used in the offshore environment and performing the necessary safety inspections. The primary objectives of response to oil spill are: to prevent the spill from moving onto shore, reduce the impact on marine life and speed the degradation of any unrecovered oil. There are several physical, chemical, thermal and biological remediation technologies for oil spills including booms, skimmers, sorbents, dispersants, in-situ burning and bioremediation. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages and the choice of a particular technique will depend on: type of oil, physical, biological and economical characteristics of the spill, location, weather and sea conditions, amount spilled and rate of spillage, depth of water column, time of the year and effectiveness of technique. Coclusion

  15. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    , moderate olive oil intake, and a habitual diet on blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and insulin. DESIGN: The study was a controlled, double-blinded, randomized 2 × 5-wk crossover dietary intervention study with a 14-d run-in period during which subjects consumed...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P

  16. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anjaneyulu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar, temperature (50–70 °C and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1. The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1 extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1 was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1. The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil.

  17. Bias in protein and potassium intake collected with 24-h recalls (EPIC-Soft) is rather comparable across European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.; Geelen, A.; Freisling, H.; Souverein, O.W.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Andersen, L.F.; Ruprich, J.; Keizer, de W.; Huybrechts, I.; Lafay, L.; DeMagistris, M.S.; Ricceri, F.; Tumino, R.; Krogh, V.; Bueono-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Naska, A.; Crowe, F.L.; Boeing, H.; McTaggart, A.R.; Kaaks, R.; Veer, van 't P.; Slimani, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether group-level bias of a 24-h recall estimate of protein and potassium intake, as compared to biomarkers, varied across European centers and whether this was influenced by characteristics of individuals or centers. Methods: The combined data from EFCOVAL and EPIC studie

  18. Consumption of dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake compared with milk and white chocolate in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Green, Daniel J; Naylor, Louise H; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-09-01

    Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57.6 ± 4.8yr) attended an introductory session followed by three experimental trials performed in a counterbalanced order at a standardised time of day, each separated by one week. Ad libitum energy intake, perceived appetite, mood and appetite-related peptides were assessed in response to consumption of 80% cocoa [dark chocolate], 35% cocoa [milk chocolate] and cocoa butter [white chocolate] (2099 kJ), prepared from a single-origin cacao bean. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly lower following dark (1355 ± 750 kJ) compared with both milk (1693 ± 969 kJ; P = 0.008) and white (1842 ± 756 kJ; P = 0.001) chocolate consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were transiently elevated in response to white and milk chocolate consumption compared with the dark chocolate (P chocolate (dark and milk) compared with white chocolate (P  0.05). Dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake in postmenopausal women, compared to the impact of milk and white chocolate consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative assessment of three-phase oil relative permeability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaee, Ehsan; Riva, Monica; Porta, Giovanni M.; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    We assess the ability of 11 models to reproduce three-phase oil relative permeability (kro) laboratory data obtained in a water-wet sandstone sample. We do so by considering model performance when (i) solely two-phase data are employed to render predictions of kro and (ii) two and three-phase data are jointly used for model calibration. In the latter case, a Maximum Likelihood (ML) approach is used to estimate model parameters. The tested models are selected among (i) classical models routinely employed in practical applications and implemented in commercial reservoir software and (ii) relatively recent models which are considered to allow overcoming some drawbacks of the classical formulations. Among others, the latter set of models includes the formulation recently proposed by Ranaee et al., which has been shown to embed the critical effects of hysteresis, including the reproduction of oil remobilization induced by gas injection in water-wet media. We employ formal model discrimination criteria to rank models according to their skill to reproduce the observed data and use ML Bayesian model averaging to provide model-averaged estimates (and associated uncertainty bounds) of kro by taking advantage of the diverse interpretive abilities of all models analyzed. The occurrence of elliptic regions is also analyzed for selected models in the framework of the classical fractional flow theory of displacement. Our study confirms that model outcomes based on channel flow theory and classical saturation-weighted interpolation models do not generally yield accurate reproduction of kro data, especially in the regime associated with low oil saturations, where water alternating gas injection (WAG) techniques are usually employed for enhanced oil recovery. This negative feature is not observed in the model of Ranaee et al. (2015) due to its ability to embed key effects of pore-scale phase distributions, such as hysteresis effects and cycle dependency, for modeling kro observed

  20. Comparative effects of energy restriction and resveratrol intake on glycemic control improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton-Laskibar, I; Aguirre, L; Macarulla, M T; Etxeberria, U; Milagro, F I; Martínez, J A; Contreras, J; Portillo, M P

    2017-02-20

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been proposed as an energy restriction mimetic. This study aimed to compare the effects of RSV and energy restriction on insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Any additive effect of both treatments was also analyzed. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks. They were then distributed in four experimental groups which were either fed a standard control diet (C), or treated with RSV (30 mg/kg/d), or submitted to energy restriction (R, 15%), or treated with RSV and submitted to energy restriction (RR). A glucose tolerance test was performed, and serum glucose, insulin, fructosamine, adiponectin, and leptin concentrations determined. Muscle triacylglycerol content and protein expression of insulin receptor (IRβ), protein kinase B (Akt), Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) were measured. In RSV rats, fructosamine concentrations were reduced, HOMA-IR remained unchanged, but glucose tolerance was improved, without changes in phosphorylation of IRβ, Akt, and AS160 or in GLUT-4 protein expression. Rats under energy restriction showed an improvement in all the markers related to glycemic control, as well as increased phosphorylation of AS160 and protein expression of GLUT-4. In rats from RR group the results were similar to R group, with the exception of IRβ and Akt phosphorylation, which were increased. In conclusion, mild energy restriction is more efficient than intake of RSV within a standard balanced diet, and acts by means of a different mechanism from that of RSV. No additive effects between RSV and energy restriction were observed. © 2016 BioFactors, 2016.

  1. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  2. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ajiboye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05 in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  3. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Compositions Compared to Petroleum Crude and Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner M.

    2017-02-17

    We provide a direct and detailed comparison of the chemical composition of petroleum crude oil (from the Gulf of Mexico), shale oil, and three biocrudes (i.e., clean pine, microalgae Chlorella sp., and sewage sludge feedstocks) generated by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) reveals that HTL biocrudes are compositionally more similar to shale oil than petroleum crude oil and that only a few heteroatom classes (e.g., N1, N2, N1O1, and O1) are common to organic sediment- and biomass-derived oils. All HTL biocrudes contain a diverse range of oxygen-containing compounds when compared to either petroleum crude or shale oil. Overall, petroleum crude and shale oil are compositionally dissimilar to HTL oils, and >85% of the elemental compositions identified within the positive-ion electrospray (ESI) mass spectra of the HTL biocrudes were not present in either the petroleum crude or shale oil (>43% for negative-ion ESI). Direct comparison of the heteroatom classes that are common to both organic sedimentand biomass-derived oils shows that HTL biocrudes generally contain species with both smaller core structures and a lower degree of alkylation relative to either the petroleum crude or the shale oil. Three-dimensional plots of carbon number versus molecular double bond equivalents (with observed abundance as the third dimension) for abundant molecular classes reveal the specific relationship of the composition of HTL biocrudes to petroleum and shale oils to inform the possible incorporation of these oils into refinery operations as a partial amendment to conventional petroleum feeds.

  4. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self......-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (P

  5. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation during Lactation May Adversely Affect Long-Term Blood Pressure, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity of 7-Year-Old Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    . Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7......Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children...

  6. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Goldman, Joseph; Rhodes, Donna G; Hoy, Mary Katherine; Moura Souza, Amanda de; Chester, Deirdra N; Martin, Carrie L; Sebastian, Rhonda S; Ahuja, Jaspreet K; Sichieri, Rosely; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2014-07-21

    International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007-2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population's total energy intake were compared between the countries. Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not consume a diet similar to Americans

  7. Defining product intake fraction to quantify and compare exposure to consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Oliver; Ernstoff, Alexi; Csiszar, Susan A.;

    2015-01-01

    modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products...

  8. Maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation changes body fat, inflammatory markers and glucose homeostasis in the adult progeny: role of gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Deysla Sabino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Carvalho, Janaíne Cavalcanti; Reis, Adelina Martha Dos; Soares, Patricia Novaes; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation on body composition, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation in male and female progeny at adulthood. Lactating rats were divided into the following: control 7% soybean oil (C), hyper 19% soybean oil (HS) and hyper 17% flaxseed oil+2% soybean oil (HF). Weaned pups received a standard diet. Offspring were killed in PN180. Male HF presented higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and triacylglycerol, and female HF showed insulin resistance. Both male and female HF had hyperleptinemia, and only male HF had hyperprolactinemia. In VAT, male HF presented lower PPAR-γ expressions and higher TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 expressions; in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), they presented lower PPAR-γ and TNF-α expressions. Female HF presented higher leptin, as well as lower adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β expressions in VAT and lower TNF-α in SAT. Flaxseed oil during lactation leads to gender-specific effects with more adiposity and dyslipidemia in male and insulin resistance in female. Higher prolactin and inflammatory cytokines in male could play a role in these gender differences. We suggest that the use of flaxseed oil during lactation increases metabolic syndrome risk in the adult progeny.

  9. Comparative analysis of experimental methods for quantification of small amounts of oil in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Ahkami, Mehrdad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2016-01-01

    ) and the quantification of oil is then difficult. In this study, we compare four approaches to determine the volume of the collected oil fraction in core flooding effluents. The four methods are: Image analysis, UV/visible spectroscopy, liquid scintillation counting, and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR...... comparison to a pre-made standard curve. Image analysis, UV/visible spectroscopy, and liquid scintillation counting quantify only the oil fraction by comparing with a pre-made standard curve. The image analysis technique is reliable when more than 0.1 ml oil is present, whereas liquid scintillation counting...... performs well when less than 0.6 ml oil is present. Both UV/visible spectroscopy and NMR spectrometry produced high accuracy results in the entire studied range (0.006-1.1 ml). In terms of laboratory time, the liquid scintillation counting is the fastest and least user dependent, whereas the NMR...

  10. Bio-oils from acidic, neutral and alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Centre for Environmental Engineering Research and Education, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary (Canada); Liu, Fang; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a popular technology for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Although alkaline and neutral HTL have been widely studied in the literature so far, there are almost no data available in the literature on acidic HTL of biomass to bio-oil and on the differences between acidic and neutral/alkaline HTL of biomass to bio-oil. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate and compare acidic, neutral and alkaline HTL of cellulose to bio-oil, with respect to bio-oil compositions and yields in specific conditions. As the result found was that acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions clearly impact the HTL bio-oil compositions. There is a similar trend for high temperatures and long residence time to have negative effects on HTL bio-oil yields for acidic, neutral and alkaline HTL. However, the reaction mechanisms behind them are various. This study presents the highly different underlying chemistries and the HTL bio-oil compositions that were investigated. Further classification of HTL of biomass to bio-oil is therefore necessary.

  11. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  12. Comparative toxicity of water soluble fractions of four oils on the growth of a Microalga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Toxic effects of water soluble fractions (WSF) of four different fuel oils on a microalga. Tetraselmis gracilis, were examined and compared. On applying different concentrations of WSF, a decrease in cell population was observed. Depending...

  13. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravinia, H

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control(-)), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control(+)) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain (P  0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93% decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds (P water for heat-stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  14. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravinia, H.

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control-), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control+) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain ( P 0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93 % decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds ( P stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  15. Comparative exposure to DEHP from food contact materials: application of the product intake fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    the product intake fraction (PiF: g intake/g in product) – a metric accounting for human intake of chemical mass per unit of mass embodied within a product. PiF of ingestion of DEHP is estimated from empirical data for PET water bottles on the order of 1E-7 through 1E-5 and for food handling gloves from 1E-6...... for rice and 1E-3 for radishes. The uncertainty is related to unknown information (chemical content in FCM), circumstances of use (e.g. food item), and any analytical uncertainty. Using PiF, maximum allowable concentrations of DEHP within water bottles and gloves were calculated with respect to regulatory...... thresholds. A hypothetical average PiF for the FCM sector was calculated via production volume and oral exposure doses estimated from NHANES data. In both cases the indication was gloves may contribute more to DEHP exposure when used with certain food items than bottled water. DEHP content in gloves greater...

  16. A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhaumik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to carry out a comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties of 372cSt mineral oil and 229cSt castor oil. The antiwear and extreme pressure properties of both the oils have been analysed according to ASTM G 99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. The surfaces of the balls and pins after tribo tests have been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images. The present test results predict that the antiwear and extreme pressure properties in case of the selected commercially available mineral oil are better than neat castor oil. Both coefficient of friction and frictional force increased by 16-42 % and 16-35 % respectively in case of neat castor oil as compared with that of the mineral oil. The load carrying capacity in case of mineral oil has been found to be 250 kg while in case of castor oil it has been found to be 126 kg. SEM images show a higher plastic deformation in case of castor oil as compared to the mineral oil. Both mineral oil and castor oil showed surface deteriorations and increase in roughness after 40 hrs of intermittent running during scuffing test. Thus, the present investigation indicates that the tribological properties of neat castor are inferior to that of mineral oil although close observation of the results shows that both AW and EP properties of neat castor oil are much closer to that of commercial mineral oil. Thus, the present work would help in formulating castor oil based new bio lubricants with better anti wear and extreme pressure properties

  17. Comparative study of the sources of exergy destruction on four North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the oil and gas processing systems on four North Sea offshore platforms are reported and discussed. Sources of exergy destruction are identified and the findings for the different platforms are compared. Different platforms have different working conditions, such as reservoir...... temperatures and pressures, gas- and water-to-oil ratios in the feed, crude oil properties, product specifications and recovery strategies. These differences imply that some platforms naturally need less power for oil and gas processing than others. Reservoir properties and composition also vary over...... the lifetime of an oil field, and to maintain the efficiency of an offshore platform is therefore challenging. In practice, variations in the process feed result in the use of control strategies such as anti-surge recycling, which cause additional power consumption and exergy destruction. For all four...

  18. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    .54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  19. Comparing nutritional requirements, provision and intakes among patients prescribed therapeutic diets in hospital: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Megan; Desbrow, Ben; Roberts, Shelley

    Nutrition is an important part of recovery for hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy of meals provided to and consumed by patients prescribed a therapeutic diet. Patients (N = 110) prescribed a therapeutic diet (texture-modified, low-fiber, oral fluid, or food allergy or intolerance diets) for medical or nutritional reasons were recruited from six wards of a tertiary hospital. Complete (24-h) dietary provisions and intakes were directly observed and analyzed for energy (kJ) and protein (g) content. A chart audit gathered demographic, clinical, and nutrition-related information to calculate each patient's disease-specific estimated energy and protein requirements. Provisions and intake were considered adequate if they met ≥75% of the patient's estimated requirements. Mean energy and protein provided to patients (5844 ± 2319 kJ, 53 ± 30 g) were significantly lower than their mean estimated requirements (8786 ± 1641 kJ, 86 ± 18 g). Consequently, mean nutrition intake (4088 ± 2423 kJ, 37 ± 28 g) were significantly lower than estimated requirements. Only 37% (41) of patients were provided with and 18% (20) consumed adequate nutrition to meet their estimated requirements. No therapeutic diet provided adequate food to meet the energy and protein requirements of all recipients. Patients on oral fluid diets had the highest estimated requirements (9497 ± 1455 kJ, 93 ± 16 g) and the lowest nutrient provision (3497 ± 1388 kJ, 25 ± 19 g) and intake (2156 ± 1394 kJ, 14 ± 14 g). Hospitalized patients prescribed therapeutic diets (particularly fluid-only diets) are at risk for malnutrition. Further research is required to determine the most effective strategies to improve nutritional provision and intake among patients prescribed therapeutic diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adhesion-preventing properties of 4% icodextrin and canola oil: a comparative experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengizhan Yigitler

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Postsurgical abdominal adhesions are common, serious postoperative complications. The present study compared the usefulness of 4% icodextrin and canola oil in preventing postoperative peritoneal adhesions. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Following a laparotomy, a serosal abrasion was made by brushing the cecum, and 3 mL of 0.9% NaCl, 4% icodextrin, or 3 mL of canola oil were intraperitoneally administered for the control, icodextrin, and canola oil groups, respectively. The abdomen was then closed. All of the rats were sacrificed at day 10. Macroscopic, histopathological, and biochemical evaluations were performed. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA tests. RESULTS: Macroscopic analyses revealed that both canola oil and 4% icodextrin reduced adhesion formation, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.17. The histopathological examinations revealed no significant differences in terms of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, ICAM1, or PECAM1 scores. However, both canola oil and 4% icodextrin significantly reduced fibrosis (p = 0.025. In the canola oil group, the histiocytic reactions were significantly increased (p = 0.001, and the hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower than those in the other groups (p = 0.034. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, canola oil was determined to be superior to 4% icodextrin in lowering hydroxyproline levels and increasing histiocytic reactions. Considering these results, we believe that canola oil is a promising agent for preventing adhesion formation.

  1. Adhesion-preventing properties of 4% icodextrin and canola oil: a comparative experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigitler, Cengizhan; Karakas, Dursun Ozgur; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Cosar, Alpaslan; Gülec, Bülent; Akin, Mehmet Levhi

    2012-11-01

    Postsurgical abdominal adhesions are common, serious postoperative complications. The present study compared the usefulness of 4% icodextrin and canola oil in preventing postoperative peritoneal adhesions. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Following a laparotomy, a serosal abrasion was made by brushing the cecum, and 3 mL of 0.9% NaCl, 4% icodextrin, or 3 mL of canola oil were intraperitoneally administered for the control, icodextrin, and canola oil groups, respectively. The abdomen was then closed. All of the rats were sacrificed at day 10. Macroscopic, histopathological, and biochemical evaluations were performed. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA tests. Macroscopic analyses revealed that both canola oil and 4% icodextrin reduced adhesion formation, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.17). The histopathological examinations revealed no significant differences in terms of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, ICAM1, or PECAM1 scores. However, both canola oil and 4% icodextrin significantly reduced fibrosis (p = 0.025). In the canola oil group, the histiocytic reactions were significantly increased (p = 0.001), and the hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower than those in the other groups (p = 0.034). In the present study, canola oil was determined to be superior to 4% icodextrin in lowering hydroxyproline levels and increasing histiocytic reactions. Considering these results, we believe that canola oil is a promising agent for preventing adhesion formation.

  2. Comparative clinical trial of castor oil and diclofenac sodium in patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, B; Kishore, K; Singh, U; Seth, S D

    2009-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of castor oil with diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were given a castor oil capsule 0.9 mL (n = 50) thrice daily for 4 weeks or a capsule of diclofenac sodium (n = 50), 50 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks. The subjects completed an overall evaluation of symptom relief at 2 weeks and 4 weeks of completed treatment. The subjects were evaluated by clinical, routine laboratory and radiographic investigations for improvement of disease conditions and also for adverse drug reaction. On completion of 4 weeks treatment it was observed that both drugs were significantly effective in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (p castor oil there were no adverse effects reported. The present study indicates that castor oil can be used as an effective therapy in primary knee osteoarthritis.

  3. Comparative effects of dietary corn, fish and Krill oils on intestinal glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero-Lopez, D; Servetto, C; Lopez, E; Lenoir, D; Alallon, W; Biol, M C; Louisot, P; Martin, A

    1994-08-01

    Antarctic Krill is considered as a valuable protein resource for animal and human nutrition. Due to the high content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 family, Krill consumption could be also interesting in cardiovascular diseases. In the search for the demonstration of the absence of toxicity of Krill, we studied the effect of Krill oil, as compared to fish and corn oil, on the rat intestinal fucosylation process at weaning, a very sensitive model of the influence of nutritional factors. Krill oil containing diets were very well tolerated as compared to other currently used oils and induced only slight modification in fucose and mannose proportions in intestinal glycoprotein sugars. These modifications were not reflected in the enzymatic activities involved in the fucosylation pathway. These results confirm the harmlessness of Krill derived products and their possible use in human nutrition.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Australian Diet—Comparing Dietary Recommendations with Average Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe for different food sectors. These data were augmented with food intake estimates from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. The GHGe of the average Australian diet was 14.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e per person per day. The recommended dietary patterns in the Australian Dietary Guidelines are nutrient rich and have the lowest GHGe (~25% lower than the average diet. Food groups that made the greatest contribution to diet-related GHGe were red meat (8.0 kg CO2e per person per day and energy-dense, nutrient poor “non-core” foods (3.9 kg CO2e. Non-core foods accounted for 27% of the diet-related emissions. A reduction in non-core foods and consuming the recommended serves of core foods are strategies which may achieve benefits for population health and the environment. These data will enable comparisons between changes in dietary intake and GHGe over time, and provide a reference point for diets which meet population nutrient requirements and have the lowest GHGe.

  5. Diet quality is lower and energy intake higher on weekends compared to weekdays in midlife women: A one-year cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Differences in energy and macronutrient intakes by weekday and weekend have been reported, but there are little data on differences in food group consumption and indices of diet quality. Objective: To describe dietary intake by day and on weekends compared to weekdays. Design: One-year c...

  6. [Comparative analysis of imipramine intake reactions in catatonic and wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekhina, T A; Palchikova, N A; Igonina, T N; Kuznetsova, N V

    2015-03-01

    Chronic imipramine intake (7.5 mg/kg) leads to the stable decrease of excitable reactions to sound stimulant in Wistar rats and induced phase behavioral response in catatonic GC rats. Increased noradrenaline level in frontal cortex and striatum in Wistar animals was shown, whereas it didn't reveal noradrenaline level differences in any brain structures in GC rats. The higher blood corticosterone concentration was decreased under antidepressant reaction in GC rats. Differences between intact GC animals were found out: reduced triglyceride level, lesser body weight, and greater weight index of adrenals in comparison with Wistar rats. Various mechanisms of imipramine action in two rat strains were shown: influence on adrenergic brain system, taking part in the control of exiting behavior in Wistar rats and reaction in adrenals in GC rats.

  7. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Phillip M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy; and (ii efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy. Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO; a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO; or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs. Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs. Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31; the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31; and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects. The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD

  8. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  9. Natural antioxidants of the Jaffna variety of Moringa Oleifera seed oil of Indian origin as compared to other vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatnagar, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Moringa oleifera crop is grown all over India for its nutritious pods, leaves and seeds. M. oleifera seeds are endowed with a high oil content (~39% which resembles olive oil because of its high oleic acid content (~65-75%. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the natural antioxidants of crude seed kernel oil from the Jaffna variety of M. oleifera (MSO. Natural antioxidants like tocopherols and phenolics as well as minor compounds such as sterols and carotenoids present in MSO and its radical scavenging activity were measured in comparison to dried coconut kernel (copra crude oil (CNO, crude sesame oil (SESO, crude niger seed oil (NSO, crude palm oil (CPO, crude rice bran oil (RBO and commercially refined groundnut oil (GNO. MSO contained 88 ppm of total tocopherols with α- tocopherol (56.2 ppm being the major tocopherol. MSO also contained 117.9 ppm of total phenolics with gallic acid (48.5 ppm being the major phenolic. MSO contained fair amounts of sterols (1700.8 ppm and carotenoids (17.9 ppm. MSO showed an IC50 value of 35.5 mg mL–1. This study indicates that MSO has antioxidant characteristics which are better than CNO and comparable to those of GNO.Las cosechas de Moringa oleifera se cultivan en toda la India por sus nutritivas vainas, sus hojas y sus semillas. Las semillas de M. oleifera están dotadas de un buen contenido de aceite (~39% y se asemejan al aceite de oliva debido a su alto contenido de ácido oleico (~65-75%. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar los antioxidantes naturales de aceites crudos de semillas de M. oleifera variedad de Jaffna (MSO. Los antioxidantes naturales como tocoferoles y fenoles así como esteroles, carotenoides presentes en MSO y su actividad de captación de radicales se midió en comparación con los de aceite crudos de coco desecado (copra (CNO, de sésamo (SESO, de semilla de niger (NSO, de palma (CPO, de salvado de arroz (RBO y de cacahuete refinado comercial (GNO. MSO contenía 88

  10. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  11. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7% in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length.

  12. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, I B; Pannowitz, D L; Barnetson, R S

    1990-10-15

    Tea-tree oil (an essential oil of the Australian native tree Melaleuca alternifolia) has long been regarded as a useful topical antiseptic agent in Australia and has been shown to have a variety of antimicrobial activities; however, only anecdotal evidence exists for its efficacy in the treatment of various skin conditions. We have performed a single-blind, randomised clinical trial on 124 patients to evaluate the efficacy and skin tolerance of 5% tea-tree oil gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne when compared with 5% benzoyl peroxide lotion. The results of this study showed that both 5% tea-tree oil and 5% benzoyl peroxide had a significant effect in ameliorating the patients' acne by reducing the number of inflamed and non-inflamed lesions (open and closed comedones), although the onset of action in the case of tea-tree oil was slower. Encouragingly, fewer side effects were experienced by patients treated with tea-tree oil.

  13. Loss of Bone Mineral Density Associated with Age in Male Rats Fed on Sunflower Oil Is Avoided by Virgin Olive Oil Intake or Coenzyme Q Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F2-isoprostanes were measured. Aged animals fed on virgin olive oil showed higher BMD than those fed on sunflower oil. In addition, CoQ10 prevented the age-related decline in BMD in animals fed on sunflower oil. Urinary F2-isoprostanes analysis showed that sunflower oil led to the highest oxidative status in old animals, which was avoided by supplementation with CoQ10. In conclusion, lifelong feeding on virgin olive oil or the supplementation of sunflower oil on CoQ10 prevented, at least in part mediated by a low oxidative stress status, the age-related decrease in BMD found in sunflower oil fed animals. PMID:28661441

  14. Comparative analysis of EPA and DHA in fish oil nutritional capsules by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tao; Li, Shuk-Man; Fan, Jia-Yi; Fan, Lan-Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Jian-Gang; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2014-12-13

    Fish oil is a popular nutritional product consumed in Hong Kong. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the two main bioactive components responsible for the health benefits of fish oil. Market survey in Hong Kong demonstrated that various fish oil capsules with different origins and prices are sold simultaneously. However, these capsules are labelled with same ingredient levels, namely EPA 180 mg/g and DHA 120 mg/g. This situation makes the consumers very confused. To evaluate the quality of various fish oil capsules, a comparative analysis of the contents of EPA and DHA in fish oil is crucial. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for identification and determination of EPA and DHA in fish oil capsules. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted. Ten batches of fish oil capsules samples purchased from drugstores of Hong Kong were analyzed by using the developed method. The present method presented good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. The limits of detection (LOD) for EPA and DHA were 0.08 ng and 0.21 ng, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of EPA and DHA for repeatability tests were both less than 1.05%; and the recovery for accuracy test of EPA and DHA were 100.50% and 103.83%, respectively. In ten fish oil samples, the contents of EPA ranged from 39.52 mg/g to 509.16 mg/g, and the contents of DHA ranged from 35.14 mg/g to 645.70 mg/g. The present method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of EPA and DHA in fish oil capsules. There is a significant variation in the contents of the quantified components in fish oil samples, and there is not a linear relationship between price and contents of EPA and DHA. Strict supervision of the labelling of the fish oil capsules is urgently needed.

  15. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  16. Comparative study of essential oils extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. leaves using microwaves and hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of algerian myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

  17. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S. Allaf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME and conventional hydrodistillation (HD. Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM; it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

  18. Comparing the efficacy of coconut oil and xylene as a clearing agent in the histopathology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajid Sermadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The commonly used clearing agent, xylene is supposed to be highly toxic and carcinogenic. As previous research studies have shown the effectiveness of different vegetable oils as clearants, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of coconut oil. Materials and Methods: Two equal halves of 60 soft tissue specimens were processed simultaneously in xylene and coconut oil as clearing agents. The Xylene-treated specimens (XY-S and Coconut oil-treated specimens (CO-S were checked for gross and histological features and comparison was done between the two groups. Results: Significant shrinkage was noted in XY-S compared to that in CO-S. No difference was found in either of the sections when checked for cellular details and staining quality. Morphometrically, there was significant reduction in the mean cell area in XY-S compared to that in CO-S. Conclusion: Coconut oil may be substituted for the highly hazardous xylene as a clearing agent without compromising the quality of histological details.

  19. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Ferhat, Mohamed-Amine; Hassani, Aicha; Chemat, Farid; Allaf, Karim S.

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM); it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD. PMID:22606003

  20. COMPARING ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL YIELD OF ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS AND LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA BEFORE AND FULL FLOWERING STAGES

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils and essential oil yield obtained from Rosemarinus officinalis (family Lamiaceae) and Lavandula angustifolia (family Lamiaceae) were determined in two harvesting times. Their essential oil was determined by hydro-distillation, and analysed by GC/MS. The results showed that harvesting time had significant effects on the oil content and compositions in both plants. The maximum essential oil percentage was obtained in full flowering stage in rosemary. Al...

  1. Re-esterified palm oils, compared to native palm oil, do not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia or growth performance in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, E; Tres, A; Bayés-García, L; Parella, T; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2014-08-01

    Re-esterified palm oils are obtained from the chemical esterification of palm acid oils (rich in free fatty acids) with glycerol, both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively. Thus, re-esterified palm oils could be an economically interesting alternative to native palm oil in broiler chick diets. However, because they may have different physicochemical properties than have their corresponding native oil, we assessed the effect of fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within acylglycerol molecules and the effect of acylglycerol composition on FA apparent absorption, and their possible consequences on the evolution of postprandial lipemia and growth performance in broiler chicks. Seventy-two 1-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 18 cages. The three treatments used were the result of a basal diet supplemented with 6 wt% of native palm oil (N-TAG), re-esterified palm oil (E-TAG), or re-esterified palm oil high in mono- and diacylglycerols (E-MDAG). Chemical esterification raised the fraction of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position from 9.63 mol% in N-TAG oil to 17.9 mol% in E-TAG oil. Furthermore, E-MDAG oil presented a high proportion of mono- (23.1 wt%) and diacylglycerols (51.2 wt%), with FA mainly located at the sn-1,3 positions, which resulted in a lower gross-energy content and an increased solid-fat index at the chicken's body temperature. However, re-esterified palm oils did not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia, or growth performance, compared to native palm oil, so they can be used as alternative fat sources in broiler chick diets.

  2. Comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of fenofibrate and fish oil treatments in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Wopereis, S.; Müller, M.; Kersten, S.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of fenofibrate and fish oil treatments in mice. Physiol Genomics 43: 1307-1318, 2011. First published September 27, 2011; doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00100.2011. Elevated circulating triglycerides, which are considered a risk factor for

  3. Reduced ex Vivo Interleukin-6 Production by Dietary Fish Oil Is Not Modified by Linoleic Acid Intake in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils...

  4. Dietary intake of Deepwater Horizon oil-injected live food fish by double-crested cormorants resulted in oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, Karen L; Perez, Cristina R; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Dean, Karen M; Cacela, Dave; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Cunningham, Fred; Bursian, Steven J; Link, Jane E; Shriner, Susan; Horak, Katherine; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-07-05

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history and exposing fish, birds, and marine mammals throughout the Gulf of Mexico to its toxicity. Fish eating waterbirds such as the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) were exposed to the oil both by direct contact with the oil and orally through preening and the ingestion of contaminated fish. This study investigated the effects of orally ingestedMC252 oil-contaminated live fish food by double-crested cormorants on oxidative stress. Total, reduced, and oxidized glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were assessed in the liver tissues of control and treated cormorants. The results suggest that ingestion of the oil-contaminated fish resulted in significant increase in oxidative stress in the liver tissues of these birds. The oil-induced increase in oxidative stress could have detrimental impacts on the bird's life-history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) muscle reveals the molecular basis of residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping; Luan, Sheng; Lu, Xia; Luo, Kun; Kong, Jie

    2017-09-05

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in genetic improvement programs of L. vannamei. Residual feed intake (RFI), an ideal measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed requirement predicted from maintenance and production. Exploring the molecular basis of RFI is essential to facilitate the genetic breeding of feed efficiency in L. vannamei. However, few studies have been reported in this aspect. In this study, we sequenced muscle transcriptomes of a high-efficiency group, a low-efficiency group and a control group originating from two families, and compared the gene expression patterns between each extreme group and the control group. A total of 383 differentially expressed genes were identified, most of which were involved in cell proliferation, growth and signaling, glucose homeostasis, energy and nutrients metabolism. Functional enrichment analysis of these genes revealed 13 significantly enriched biological pathways, including signaling pathways such as PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway and mTOR signaling pathway, as well as some important pathways such as ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, cell cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. These genes and pathways provide initial insight into the molecular mechanisms driving the feed efficiency in L. vannamei.

  6. Comparative analysis on technologies between Chinese and American large-sized oil companies based on patentometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patent information is critical and important object to reflect differences in technology capacity; the paper makes statistical analysis on structural elements of five large-sized oil companies from America and China as collected in Derwent Innovations Index, and compare technical similarities and differences between such companies′ patents with visualization tools, by further research on academic classes, Derwent Class Code and co-occurrence of Manual Code. It is shown from the researches that Chinese enterprises is advantaged in growth in number of patents and cooperation rate, but their patents are characterized by poor influence, less relevance and connection between various disciplines, as well as relatively backward development of patented technology. Finally, according to current status of patents of Chinese and American oil companies, the paper proposes a series of recommendations and countermeasures for improvement in patents quality and future expansion in patented technology by Chinese oil companies.

  7. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs.

  8. NR2B GENE EXPRESSION CHANGE IN WISTAR RAT PRACTICING AEROBIC EXERCISE COMPARING TO SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX OR PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI INTAKES AND SOYBEAN AND PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI COMPOSITION INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Murniati Tarawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between nutrition and brain memory. Methods: This study was an experimental laboratory study conducted during the period of June 2011 to July 2012 at the Biomedical and Biochemistry laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. The subjects were 56 8-week-old male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200–250 grams which were divided into 8 groups with different treatments. The treatment groups received no exercise or exercise and soybean (Glycine max, Phyllanthus niruri, or combination of both. Results: NR2B gene expression changes found is described as follows: (1 without practicing exercise (3.8 and after exercise (4.6; (2 Glycine max minus exercise (2.86 and Glycine max and exercise (3.17; (3 Phyllanthus niruri minus exercises (4.7 and Phyllanthus niruri and exercise (4.9; and (4 Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination minus exercise (3.14 and Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination and exercise (4.83. Conclusions: This study determines that exercises and Phyllanthus niruri intake enhance NR2B gene expressions. Glycine max inhibits the NR2B gene expressions. Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination, both with and without practicing exercises, enhance NR2B gene expressions. Therefore, practicing exercise and Phyllanthus niruri intake might cause brain cell apoptosis while Glycine max intake inhibits brain cell apoptosis.

  9. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed fish oil compared with those fed coconut oil or lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, M S; Pedersen, A R; Engberg, R M

    2001-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later, they were surgically fitted with a catheter in the pancreatic duct for continuous collection of pancreatic juice. Collections of pancreatic juice were made every other day starting 4 d postsurgically. Piglets fed the fish oil diet secreted a significantly greater volume of pancreatic juice than piglets fed the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among the dietary treatment groups. The apparent digestibilities of nutrients and energy were measured in feces and did not differ among groups. Thus, the greater output of lipase in fish oil-fed piglets did not result in a greater digestibility of fat in this diet.

  10. Comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of Murraya paniculata and M. exotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hai-Ning; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) derived from the leaves and twigs of two aromatic species of Rutaceae: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and M. exotica L. It has long been used as a folk medicine in South China for the treatment of a variety of disorders, particularly for inflammatory lesions and pains. In the present study, a detailed chemical examination as well as a comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of M. paniculata and M. exotica was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 141 volatile components were identified from the essential oil of these two plants. Sesquiterpenes were found to be the predominant constituents, accounting for 92.8% of the oil from M. paniculata and 87.9% of that from M. exotica. A comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of these two plants revealed a high level of similarity in their main constituents, such as the co-occurrence of E-caryophyllene, spathulenol and delta-elemene, which gave the chemical evidence for their equal medicinal application as MFC in TCMs. Moreover, in combination with literature reports, E-caryophyllene was theoretically deduced as one of the pharmacologically effective components of MFC that is responsible for treating inflammatory lesions and for local anaesthesia.

  11. Comparing the ecological impacts of wind and oil & gas development: a landscape scale assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nathan F; Pejchar, Liba

    2013-01-01

    Energy production in the United States is in transition as the demand for clean and domestic power increases. Wind energy offers the benefit of reduced emissions, yet, like oil and natural gas, it also contributes to energy sprawl. We used a diverse set of indicators to quantify the ecological impacts of oil, natural gas, and wind energy development in Colorado and Wyoming. Aerial imagery was supplemented with empirical data to estimate habitat loss, fragmentation, potential for wildlife mortality, susceptibility to invasion, biomass carbon lost, and water resources. To quantify these impacts we digitized the land-use footprint within 375 plots, stratified by energy type. We quantified the change in impacts per unit area and per unit energy produced, compared wind energy to oil and gas, and compared landscapes with and without energy development. We found substantial differences in impacts between energy types for most indicators, although the magnitude and direction of the differences varied. Oil and gas generally resulted in greater impacts per unit area but fewer impacts per unit energy compared with wind. Biologically important and policy-relevant outcomes of this study include: 1) regardless of energy type, underlying land-use matters and development in already disturbed areas resulted in fewer total impacts; 2) the number and source of potential mortality varied between energy types, however, the lack of robust mortality data limits our ability to use this information to estimate and mitigate impacts; and 3) per unit energy produced, oil and gas extraction was less impactful on an annual basis but is likely to have a much larger cumulative footprint than wind energy over time. This rapid evaluation of landscape-scale energy development impacts could be replicated in other regions, and our specific findings can help meet the challenge of balancing land conservation with society's demand for energy.

  12. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized oil powders for topical application-release and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from oil powders compared to redispersed powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-08-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared to those of the respective template emulsions and redispersed oil powders. Physical characterization of the various formulations was performed, such as droplet size analysis and oil leakage, and relationships drawn with regards to release and trans(dermal) delivery. The experimental outcomes revealed that the oil powders could be redispersed in water without changing the release characteristics of salicylic acid. pH and polymer type affected the release of salicylic acid from the oil powders, template emulsions, and redispersed powders similarly. Contrary, the transdermal delivery from the oil powders and from their respective redispersed oil powders was differently affected by pH and polymer type. It was hypothesized that the release had been influenced by the electrostatic interactions between salicylic acid and emulsifiers, whereas the transdermal performance could have been determined by the particle or aggregate sizes of the formulations.

  13. Comparative Bio-activity Guided Characterization of Biocide from Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communius L Seeds Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnake G. Ede

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of biocide from Jatropha (Jatropha curca and castor (Ricinus communius L seeds oil. The biocide potential of the seeds oil was evaluated against termite (Odontotermes obesus and cockroach (Blattela germanica. The bioassay study showed that Jatropha 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. Castor 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 60hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. The LD50 was determined to be 0.64% and 1.24% for termite and cockroach, respectively for jatropha oil after 72hrs exposure. It was determined to be 1.43% and 1.08% for termite and cockroach respectively for castor oil. The biocidal potential of the oil is statistically significant (p<0.05 when compared with blank and solvent controls at all concentration tested. Various physicochemical parameters were also evaluated in accordance with American standard testing method specifications.

  14. Comparing the Nutritional Impact of Dietary Strategies to Reduce Discretionary Choice Intake in the Australian Adult Population: A Simulation Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Johnson, Brittany J; Wycherley, Thomas P; Golley, Rebecca K

    2017-05-03

    Dietary strategies to reduce discretionary choice intake are commonly utilized in practice, but evidence on their relative efficacy is lacking. The aim was to compare the potential impact on nutritional intake of three strategies to reducing discretionary choices intake in the Australian adult (19-90 years) population. Dietary simulation modelling using data from the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-2012 was conducted (n = 9341; one 24 h dietary recall). Strategies modelled were: moderation (reduce discretionary choices by 50%, with 0%, 25% or 75% energy compensation); substitution (replace 50% of discretionary choices with core choices); reformulation (replace 50% SFA with unsaturated fats, reduce added sugars by 25%, and reduce sodium by 20%). Compared to the base case (observed) intake, modelled intakes in the moderation scenario showed: -17.3% lower energy (sensitivity analyses, 25% energy compensation -14.2%; 75% energy compensation -8.0%), -20.9% lower SFA (-17.4%; -10.5%), -43.3% lower added sugars (-41.1%; -36.7%) and 17.7% lower sodium (-14.3%; -7.5%). Substitution with a range of core items, or with fruits, vegetables and core beverages only, resulted in similar changes in energy intake (-13.5% and -15.4%), SFA (-17.7% and -20.1%), added sugars (-42.6% and -43%) and sodium (-13.7% and -16.5%), respectively. Reformulating discretionary choices had minimal impact on reducing energy intake but reduced SFA (-10.3% to -30.9%), added sugars (-9.3% to -52.9%), and alcohol (-25.0% to -49.9%) and sodium (-3.3% to -13.2%). The substitution and reformulation scenarios minimized negative changes in fiber, protein and micronutrient intakes. While each strategy has strengths and limitations, substitution of discretionary choices with core foods and beverages may optimize the nutritional impact.

  15. Comparative study of the methanolysis and ethanolysis of maize oils using alkaline catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, U.; Ibrahim, M.; Ali, S.; Adil, M.; Hina, S.; Bukhari, I. H.; Yunus, R.

    2012-11-01

    With an increasing population and economic development, fuel from renewable resources needs to be widely explored in order to fulfill the future energy demand. In the present study, bio diesel from maize oil using transesterification reactions with methanol and ethanol was evaluated in the presence of NaOCH{sub 3}, KOCH{sub 3}, NaOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, KOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, NaOH and KOH as catalysts. The influence of reaction variables such as the alcohol to oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50%) and reaction time (20-120 min) to achieve the maximum yield was determined at fixed reaction temperatures. The optimized variables in the case of methanolysis were 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio (mol/ mol), 0.75% sodium methoxide concentration (wt%) and 90 min reaction time at 65 degree centigrade, which produced a yield of 97.1% methyl esters. A 9:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio (mol/mol), 1.00% sodium ethoxide concentration (wt%) and 120 min reaction time at 75 degree centigrade were found to produce the maximum ethyl ester yield of up to 85%. The methanolysis of maize oil was depicted more rapidly as compared to the ethanolysis of maize oil. Gas chromatography of the produced bio diesel from maize oil showed high levels of linoleic acid (up to 50.89%) followed by oleic acid (up to 36.00%), palmitic acid (up to 9.98%), oleic acid (up to 1.80%) and linolenic acid (up to 0.98%). The obtained fatty acid esters were further analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to ensure the completion of transesterification. The fuel properties of the produced bio diesels i.e. kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, pour point, cloud point, cold filter plugging point, ash content, flash point, acid value, sulfur content, higher heating value, density, methanol content, free glycerol and bound glycerol were determined. The analyses were performed using the FTIR method and the results were compared to the bio diesel standards ASTM and

  16. Vegetable oil-derived epoxy monomers and polymer blends: A comparative study with review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Schuman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS and linseed oil (EGL have been synthesized to have higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than epoxidized soybean oil (ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO. The EGS and ESO, for comparison, were used neat and in blends with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA. Thermosetting resins were fabricated with the epoxy monomers and either BF3 catalyst or anhydride. The curing behaviors, glass transition temperatures, crosslink densities and mechanical properties were tested. The results indicated that polymer glass transition temperatures were mostly a function of oxirane content with additional influence of glycidyl versus internal oxirane reactivity, pendant chain content, and chemical structure and presence of saturated components. EGS provided better compatibility with DGEBA, improved intermolecular crosslinking and glass transition temperature, and yielded mechanically stronger polymerized materials than materials obtained using ESO. Other benefits of the EGS resin blend systems were significantly reduced viscosities compared to either DGEBA or ESO-blended DGEBA counterparts. Therefore, EGS that is derived from renewable sources has improved potential for fabrication of structural and structurally complex epoxy composites, e.g., by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding.

  17. LCA METHODS TO COMPARE TREATMENT OPTIONS ON BIOMASS RESIDUES PRODUCED IN A PALM-OIL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Bessou, Cécile; Heijungs, Reinout; de Snoo, Geert

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Palm oil systems generate large amounts of biomass residues. According to best agri-cultural practices, they are supposed to be returned back to plantation to maintain soil fertility. However, there are variations in practice. Differences in economic status and treatment options on biomass residues cause variations on the preference to perform LCA, leading to divergence in results that complicate interpretation. Difficulties found in comparing LCA results based on lite...

  18. Rosemary oil vs minoxidil 2% for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: a randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with diverse activities including enhancement microcapillary perfusion. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and compare its effects with minoxidil 2%. Patients with AGA were randomly assigned to rosemary oil (n = 50) or minoxidil 2% (n = 50) for a period of 6 months. After a baseline visit, patients returned to the clinic for efficacy and safety evaluations every 3 months. A standardized professional microphotographic assessment of each volunteer was taken at the initial interview and after 3 and 6 months of the trial. No significant change was observed in the mean hair count at the 3-month endpoint, neither in the rosemary nor in the minoxidil group (P > .05). In contrast, both groups experienced a significant increase in hair count at the 6-month endpoint compared with the baseline and 3-month endpoint (P .05). The frequencies of dry hair, greasy hair, and dandruff were not found to be significantly different from baseline at either month 3 or month 6 trial in the groups (P > .05). The frequency of scalp itching at the 3- and 6-month trial points was significantly higher compared with baseline in both groups (P minoxidil group at both assessed endpoints (P < .05). The findings of the present trial provided evidence with respect to the efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of AGA.

  19. Testing the transtheoretical model for fruit intake: comparing web-based tailored stage-matched and stage-mismatched feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, Emely; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes

    2008-04-01

    A match-mismatch test was conducted to test the transtheoretical model applied to fruit intake. Precontemplators and contemplators were randomly assigned to receive a web-based individualized precontemplation feedback (PCF), contemplation feedback (CF) or action feedback (AF) letter promoting fruit intake. Immediately and 1 week after reading this letter, post-test measures were obtained. Fruit intake increased significantly between pre- and post-test in contemplators, but not in precontemplators. No differences between the feedback conditions were found in fruit intake, stage progression, use or credibility of the feedback in precontemplators and contemplators. In precontemplators, also no differences between the conditions were found in personal relevance of the feedback. Contemplators, however, rated AF as more personally relevant than PCF or CF. To conclude, the present study failed to show superiority of stage-matched information in the promotion of fruit intake.

  20. Comparative Study of Breakdown Voltage of Mineral, Synthetic and Natural Oils and Based Mineral Oil Mixtures under AC and DC Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Beroual

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a comparative study of AC and DC breakdown voltages of based mineral oil mixtures with natural and synthetic esters mainly used in high voltage power transformers. The goal was to analyze the performances of oil mixtures from the dielectric withstand point of view and to predict the behavior of transformers originally filled with mineral oil and re-filled with synthetic or natural ester oils when emptied for maintenance. The study concerns mixtures based on 20%, 50%, and 80% of natural and synthetic ester oils. AC breakdown voltages were measured using a sphere-sphere electrode system according to IEC 60156 specifications; the same specification was adopted for DC measurements since there is no standard specifications for this voltage waveform. A statistical analysis of the mean values, standard deviations, and histograms of breakdown voltage data was carried out. The Normal and Weibull distribution functions were used to analyze the experimental data and the best function that the data followed was used to estimate the breakdown voltage with risk of 1%, 10%, and 50% probability. It was shown that whatever the applied voltage waveforms, ester oils always have a significantly higher breakdown voltage than mineral oil. The addition of only 20% of natural or synthetic ester oil was sufficient to considerably increase the breakdown voltage of mineral oil. The dielectric strength of such a mixture is much higher than that of mineral oil alone and can reach that of ester oils. From the point of view of dielectric strength, the mixtures constitute an option for improving the performance of mineral oil. Thus, re-filling of transformers containing up to 20% mineral oil residues with ester oils, does not present any problem; it is even advantageous when considering only the breakdown voltage. Under AC, the mixtures with natural ester always follow the behavior of vegetable oil alone. With the exception of the 20% mixture of natural

  1. Dietary intake, glucose metabolism and sex hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with women with non-PCOS-related infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ya-Hui; Wang, Ting-Wen; Wei, Hsiao-Jui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Ho, Hsin-Jung; Chen, Wen-Hua; Young, Robert; Liaw, Chian-Mey; Chao, Jane C-J

    2013-06-28

    The present study investigated dietary intake, glucose metabolism and sex hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of forty-five women (aged 25–40 years) with PCOS and 161 control women (aged 25–43 years) with non-PCOS-related infertility were recruited. Anthropometry, glucose tolerance and sex hormones were determined and dietary intake was assessed. Women with PCOS had lower serum sex hormone-binding globulin and increased BMI, waist:hip ratio, luteinising hormone, ratio of luteinising hormone: follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and free androgen index (FAI). Postprandial glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance were elevated in women with PCOS. Women with PCOS had reduced energy and carbohydrate intake but higher fat intake. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin level was negatively associated with BMI in both groups and negatively correlated with macronutrient intake in the PCOS group with hyperandrogenism. However, FAI was positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference and glucose metabolic parameters in both groups. Therefore, women with PCOS consume lower energy and carbohydrate compared with those with non-PCOS-related infertility and macronutrient intake is only negatively associated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin level in the PCOS group with hyperandrogenism.

  2. Utilization of soybean oil and tallow in young turkeys compared with young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossab, A; Hallouis, J M; Lessire, M

    2000-09-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy and apparent fatty acid digestibility of tallow and soybean oil (8% of the basal diet) in young (1 and 3 wk of age) turkeys compared with young chickens. At 1 wk of age, turkeys used fats, particularly saturated fats, more efficiently than young chickens (i.e., total fatty acid digestibility was 96.5 vs. 86.4% for soybean oil and 75.0 vs. 49.1% for tallow). This difference between the two species disappeared at 3 wk of age, when there was an increase (95.7 vs. 99.3% for soybean oil and 64.0 vs. 69.7% for tallow) in fat utilization in young chickens, whereas in turkeys it remained constant (96.5 vs. 99.3% for soybean oil and 75 vs. 69.3% for tallow). This result suggests a greater and earlier maturity of the digestive system for fat utilization in turkeys than in young chickens. This efficient utilization of saturated fatty acids in turkeys seemed to depend more on the fat origin than on bird age, because it remained constant with age (91.4 vs. 96%) when saturated fatty acids were provided by soybean oil, and decreased (particularly for C18:0: 5.08 vs. 35.8%) when saturated fatty acids were provided by tallow. In turkeys, fluctuations in secretion of bile salts or in lipase activity during the trial period may have caused the lower stearic acid digestibility at 3 wk of age. The present study revealed a difference in fat utilization between turkeys and young chickens. For higher validity of the digestibility of fats, it would be preferable to use turkeys to derive metabolizable energy and fatty acid digestibility of fat values in formulating turkey diets.

  3. HZSM-5 Catalyst for Cracking Palm Oil to Gasoline: A Comparative Study with and without Impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Roesyadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important to develop a renewable source of energy to overcome a limited source fossil energy. Palm oil is a potential alternative and environmental friendly energy resource in Indonesia due to high production capacity of this vegetable oil. The research studied effect of catalyst to selectivity of biofuel product from cracking of palm oil. The catalyst consisted of HZSM-5 catalyst with or without impregnation. The research was conducted in two steps, namely catalyst synthesized and catalytic cracking process. HZSM-5 was synthesized using Plank methods. The characterization of the synthesized catalysts used AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and BET (Brunaueur Emmet Teller. The cracking was carried out in a fixed bed microreactor with diameter of 1 cm and length of 16 cm which was filled with 0.6 gram catalyst. The Zn/HZSM-5 catalyst was recommended for cracking palm oil for the high selectivity to gasoline. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 28th September 2012; Revised: 19th November 2012; Accepted: 20th December 2012[How to Cite: A. Roesyadi, D. Hariprajitno, N. Nurjannah, S.D. Savitri, (2013. HZSM-5 Catalyst for Cracking Palm Oil to Gasoline: A Comparative Study with and without Impregnation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 185-190.(doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4045.185-190][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4045.185-190 ] View in  |

  4. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, Carol J.; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J.; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; DeLany, James P.; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy. PMID:28327502

  5. Fish and Fish Oil Intake in Relation to Risk of Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Although laboratory studies suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs) may reduce risk of asthma, epidemiological data remain controversial and inconclusive. We quantitatively reviewed the epidemiological studies published through December 2012 in PubMed and EMBASE by using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Eleven studies, comprised of 99,093 individuals (3,226 cases), were included in the final dataset. Of them, 7 studies examined associations between intake o...

  6. Fish and fish oil intake in relation to risk of asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Yang

    Full Text Available Although laboratory studies suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs may reduce risk of asthma, epidemiological data remain controversial and inconclusive. We quantitatively reviewed the epidemiological studies published through December 2012 in PubMed and EMBASE by using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Eleven studies, comprised of 99,093 individuals (3,226 cases, were included in the final dataset. Of them, 7 studies examined associations between intake of fish or LCn3PUFA and risk of asthma: 4 studies in children (996 cases from 12,481 children and 3 in adults (1,311 cases from 82,553 individuals. Two studies (69 cases from 276 infants investigated LCn3PUFA levels in mothers' milk, and two studies assessed maternal fish consumption (786 cases from 2,832 individuals during lactation and/or plasma LCn3PUFA levels during pregnancy (64 cases from 951 infants in relation to offspring's asthma. The pooled relative risk of child asthma were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.94 for fish consumption and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.52-0.96 for LCn3PUFA intake. No statistically significant association was found in studies among adults. Epidemiological data to date indicate that fish or LCn3PUFA intake may be beneficial to prevent asthma in children. Further studies are needed to establish causal inference and to elucidate the potential mechanisms.

  7. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2013-09-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) extracted by wet processing is popular among the scientific field and society nowadays. The present study was carried out to examine the comparative effect of VCO with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO) and sunflower oil (SFO) on endogenous antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with the synthetic diet. Results revealed that dietary VCO improved the antioxidant status compared to other three oil fed groups (P oil fed groups (P oil fed rats (P oil) and tocopherols (33.12 μg per 100 g oil) etc. compared to other oils (P < 0.05). From these observations, it is concluded that VCO has a beneficial role in improving antioxidant status and hence preventing lipid and protein oxidation.

  8. Assessing the bioavailability of polyphenols and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil by simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell assays. Comparative study with extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiquer, Isabel; Rueda, Ascensión; Olalla, Manuel; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Argan oil is becoming increasingly popular in the edible-oil market as a luxury food with healthy properties. This paper analyzes (i) the bioavailability of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil (EVA) by the combination of in vitro digestion and absorption across Caco-2 cells and (ii) the protective role of the oil bioaccessible fraction (BF) against induced oxidative stress. Results were compared with those obtained with extra virgin olive oil (EVO). Higher values of polyphenols and antioxidant activity were observed in the BF obtained after the in vitro digestion of oils compared with the initial chemical extracts; the increase was higher for EVA but absolute BF values were lower than EVO. Bioaccessible polyphenols from EVA were absorbed by Caco-2 cells in higher proportions than from EVO, and minor differences were observed for antioxidant activity. Preincubation of cell cultures with BF from both oils significantly protected against oxidation, limiting cell damage and reducing reactive oxygen species generation.

  9. The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, John Gordon; Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Donald J.; MacKinlay, Elizabeth E.; Dick, James R.; Cheseldine, Sally; Boyle, Rose M.; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by ...

  10. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  11. A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaumik, S; Pathak, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims to carry out a comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties of 372cSt mineral oil and 229cSt castor oil. The antiwear and extreme pressure properties of both the oils have been analysed according to ASTM G 99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. The surfaces of the balls and pins after tribo tests have been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. The present test results predict that the antiwear and extreme pressure properties in case of the sele...

  12. Whey Protein/Polysaccharide-Stabilized Oil Powders for Topical Application—Release and Transdermal Delivery of Salicylic Acid from Oil Powders Compared to Redispersed Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-01-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared...

  13. Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

    2013-12-01

    The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora.

  14. Comparative evaluation of online oil and gas monitor; Avaliacao de monitores de teor de oleo e graxa em linha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Jesus, Rafael Ferreira de; Santos, Lino Antonio Duarte dos; Lopes, Humberto Eustaquio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Petroleum is predominantly recovered in form of water in oil emulsions, which are stabilised by petroleum resins and asphaltenes, the colloidal disperse components of crude oil. The water phase, separated during the production process, consists of a dilute oil in water emulsion, commonly called produced water.There are a wide variety of methods for determination of oil in produced water that are commercially based on a number of technique. On line continuously monitoring shall be particularly useful in providing information to assist in optimising the separation process and also to attend the environmental legislation for discharge the produced water. There are a wide variety of on line oil in water monitors that are commercially available based on a number of technique. In this paper, a comparative evaluation was made between some methods of on line oil in water detecting. These are light scattering and ultraviolet fluorescence technique. A brief description of the optical methods will be discussed and some of associated problems and limitation are pointed. The work was done in a specific experimental set up that allows the simultaneous pumping of crude oil and water through a calibrated restriction in a pipe has been used. A permanent pressure drop induced by the restriction leads to the dispersion of the oil droplets in the water phase. The monitors based on light scattering technique tested show good agreement between monitor reading and the oil dispersion used. Otherwise for ultraviolet fluorescence based monitors show a significant effect of the variation of oil type. (author)

  15. Comparative study of the sources of exergy destruction on four North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the oil and gas processing systems on four North Sea offshore platforms are reported and discussed. Sources of exergy destruction are identified and the findings for the different platforms are compared. Different platforms have different working conditions, such as reservoir...... the lifetime of an oil field, and to maintain the efficiency of an offshore platform is therefore challenging. In practice, variations in the process feed result in the use of control strategies such as anti-surge recycling, which cause additional power consumption and exergy destruction. For all four...... platforms, more than 27% of the total exergy destruction takes place in the gas treatment section while at least 16% occurs in the production manifold systems. The exact potential for energy savings and for enhancing system performances differ across offshore platforms. However, the results indicate...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Components of Purified Essential Oil from Nilam Plants using Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Emas Agus Prastyo Wibowo; Utami Nofitasari; Atik Setyani; Nuni Widiarti

    2017-01-01

    T This study aimed to determine the chemical components of the patchouli oil. Patchouli oil is one of the export commodities that have high economic value for Indonesia. In general, patchouli oil obtained from the hydrodistillation of patchouli leaves. Most industries are still using patchouli oil refiners made by ferrous metal. The rust will dissolve in patchouli oil obtained and led to the resulting of dark oil and patchouli aroma becomes lower. The main purpose of this research is to ...

  17. Comparative Laboratory-Scale Testing of Dispersant Effectiveness of 23 Crude Oils Using Four Different Testing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled laboratory study was conducted to measure the dispersion effectiveness of Corexit 9500 on 20 different crude oils. This study was a part of a larger project initiated by the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) testing 20 oils to compare the predict...

  18. Comparative evaluation in the efficacy of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil with standards antibiotics against selected bacterial pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebenezer Jeyakumar; Rubina Lawrence; Tripti Pal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To find the efficacy of peppermint oil against selected bacterial pathogens and compare with their susceptibility towards antibiotics. Methods:Peppermint oil was evaluated for activity against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial assay was evaluated using agar well diffusion method and the viability of the organisms (MIC and MBC) was determined at different concentrations using broth dilution method. Results: Peppermint oil was found to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative organisms tested. A progressive effect of antibacterial activity with increase in concentration of oil was observed. The test organisms were found to be inhibited by peppermint oil at lower concentration in broth dilution method as compared with agar diffusion method. When comparing the assessment of the inhibitory effect of peppermint oil, broth dilution was found to be more effective as compared with agar diffusion method. Except S. aureus, the remaining organisms tested in the present study were found to possess multiple drug resistance. However, peppermint oil was found to be effective against these bacterial strains studied. Conclusions:Hence, with such broad spectrum activity of peppermint oil, it can be further recommended in the treatment of the infections caused by these multi-drug resistant bacteria.

  19. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75% lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control, supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO, of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05. However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05. In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05 while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows.

  20. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  1. Robustness of NMR-based metabolomics to generate comparable data sets for olive oil cultivar classification. An inter-laboratory study on Apulian olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinonna, Sara; Ragone, Rosa; Stocchero, Matteo; Del Coco, Laura; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is emerging as a powerful technique in olive oil fingerprinting, but its analytical robustness has to be proved. Here, we report a comparative study between two laboratories on olive oil (1)H NMR fingerprinting, aiming to demonstrate the robustness of NMR-based metabolomics in generating comparable data sets for cultivar classification. Sample preparation and data acquisition were performed independently in two laboratories, equipped with different resolution spectrometers (400 and 500 MHz), using two identical sets of mono-varietal olive oils. Partial Least Squares (PLS)-based techniques were applied to compare the data sets produced by the two laboratories. Despite differences in spectrum baseline, and in intensity and shape of peaks, the amount of shared information was significant (almost 70%) and related to cultivar (same metabolites discriminated between cultivars). In conclusion, regardless of the variability due to operator and machine, the data sets from the two participating units were comparable for the purpose of classification.

  2. Comparative performance of polymer-based fluids invasion into oil saturated formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, R.B.Z.; Bonet, E.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil); Waldmann, A.T.A.; Martins, A.L. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a polymeric solutions injection study. Polymeric solutions were injected into an oil reservoir under differential pressures. Laboratory tests were conducted using solutions based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) or xanthan gum (XC) injected in consolidated sand saturated with oil. Differential pressures and produced/injected mass at 4 points along the displacement direction were analyzed. Monitored variables included injected pressure, environmental temperature, and produced volume. Final displacement images and saturation profile were obtained through the use of X-ray and tomography scanning. Comparative analyses of 12 tests were then used to examine polymer type, injection pressure levels; and rock surface conditions. Results of the analyses showed that it is possible to verify differences in oil displacements, injection pressures, and rock surface conditions. The analysis was validated with similar permo-porosity samples. No additional resistance to the polymeric solution flow was observed for samples subjected to wettability treatments. It was concluded that differential pressure levels play a linear role in injection pressure levels. 13 refs., 1 tab., 19 figs.

  3. COMPARING ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION AND ESSENTIAL OIL YIELD OF ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS AND LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA BEFORE AND FULL FLOWERING STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Najafian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils and essential oil yield obtained from Rosemarinus officinalis (family Lamiaceae and Lavandula angustifolia (family Lamiaceae were determined in two harvesting times. Their essential oil was determined by hydro-distillation, and analysed by GC/MS. The results showed that harvesting time had significant effects on the oil content and compositions in both plants. The maximum essential oil percentage was obtained in full flowering stage in rosemary. Also and in lavender maximum linalool percentage (19.2% was obtained in full flowering, and minimum linalool percentage (0.2% was shown in the other time. Also the concentration of β – pinene (2.1%, δ-3-carene (1.5%, β – phellandrene (6.6%, Camphor(10.6%, Cryptone (0.8%, α- terpineol (2.3% and Linalool acetate (1.2% were higher than befor flowering stage. Therefore the harvesting time have a great importance in the production of essential oil and influenced on the quantity and quality of essential oil. As consequence, the best harvesting time in both medicinal plants was obtained in full flowering stage.

  4. EFFECT OF VARIOUS VEGETABLE OILS ON THE LIPID PROFILE AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIC WISTAR RATS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Ravindra Manjeshwar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Various vegetable oils are used for cooking foods in India. Controversies have been created that consumption of certain vegetable oils cause atherogenesis. A little is known about the effect of vegetable oils in hypercholesterolaemic conditions. Hypercholesterolaemia, mainly the increased plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS has been implicated in the early development and progression of atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD. Current study is designed to assess the effect of various vegetable oils such as coconut, sunflower, palm, olive oil and vanaspati on lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hypercholesterolaemia is induced by supplementing cholesterol with the basal diet. Reference dose of various vegetable oils were administered once daily for 90 days. After the treatment period of 90 days, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and oxidative stress parameters are estimated and analysed. RESULTS In the present study, we observed the lipid-lowering effect of various vegetable oils in rats fed with high-cholesterol diet. Administration of cholesterol showed increased level of lipid profile. Concurrent administration of various vegetable oils with high-cholesterol diet caused a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol. This conclusion is made based on the observation that the vegetable oils were able to restore, at least partially, the lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats. A decline of antioxidant status associated with an increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in all the vegetable oil treated groups. Among the oils, coconut oil showed a mild increase in High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL and least increase in lipid peroxidation compared to other vegetable oils treated groups. CONCLUSION Results suggest that the

  5. Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional value of the total lipid extract of different omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids producing photoautotrophic microalgae in one study. It was shown that microalgae oils from Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Pavlova and Thalassiosira contain sufficient omega-3 LC-PUFA to serve as an alternative for fish oil, which was used as the 'golden standard'. In the microalgae oils an important part of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are present in the polar lipid fraction, which may be favourable from a bioavailability and stability viewpoint. Consumption of microalgae oil ensures intake of sterols and carotenoids. The intake of sterols, including cholesterol and phytosterols, is probably not relevant. The intake of carotenoids is however definitely significant and could give the microalgae oils a nutritional added value compared to fish oil.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of fibrotic liver of rats fed high fat diet contained lard versus corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualin; Sit, Wat-Hung; Tipoe, George Lim; Liu, Zhiguo; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2017-02-01

    The influences of dietary fatty acids on the progress of chronic liver diseases have attracted lots of attentions, but the mechanisms of the effects of lipids rich in saturated fatty acids or PUFAs on hepatic fibrogenesis remain unclear. Female Fischer 344 rats were fed normal chow or chow plus 20% (w/w) of corn oil or lard, respectively, and injected CCl4 twice a week for 4 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. Masson's staining was adopted to illustrate the fibrosis level. The mRNA expression level of α-SMA and the DNA methylation level of its promoter region were analyzed. A 2-DE gel based proteomic approach was constructed to investigate the differential expression level of hepatic proteome between three diet groups. Histological evaluations and α-SMA expression analysis illustrated the high corn oil intake has no effects on hepatic fibrogenesis, but lard intake aggravated liver fibrosis, partly attributed to DNA demethylation of α-SMA promoter region. 2-DE Gel based proteomic study demonstrated excessive lard consumption elevated the expression of fibrosis related alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor, and endoplasmic reticulum stress related proteins such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1 and protein disulfide isomerase associated 3. Moreover, unlike corn oil rich in PUFAs, lard had no effects to elevate the expression of glutathione S-transferases, but decreased the expression of iron store related proteins heme binding protein 1 and ferritin. Lard intake aggravates CCl4 induced liver fibrosis via enhancing the expression of fibrogenesis and ER stress related proteins, and disturbing the hepatic transmethylation reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative evaluation of structured oil systems: Shellac oleogel, HPMC oleogel, and HIPE gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-01-01

    In lipid-based food products, fat crystals are used as building blocks for creating a crystalline network that can trap liquid oil into a 3D gel-like structure which in turn is responsible for the desirable mouth feel and texture properties of the food products. However, the recent ban on the use of trans-fat in the US, coupled with the increasing concerns about the negative health effects of saturated fat consumption, has resulted in an increased interest in the area of identifying alternative ways of structuring edible oils using non-fat-based building blocks. In this paper, we give a brief account of three alternative approaches where oil structuring was carried out using wax crystals (shellac), polymer strands (hydrophilic cellulose derivative), and emulsion droplets as structurants. These building blocks resulted in three different types of oleogels that showed distinct rheological properties and temperature functionalities. The three approaches are compared in terms of the preparation process (ease of processing), properties of the formed systems (microstructure, rheological gel strength, temperature response, effect of water incorporation, and thixotropic recovery), functionality, and associated limitations of the structured systems. The comparative evaluation is made such that the new researchers starting their work in the area of oil structuring can use this discussion as a general guideline. Practical applications Various aspects of oil binding for three different building blocks were studied in this work. The practical significance of this study includes (i) information on the preparation process and the concentrations of structuring agents required for efficient gelation and (ii) information on the behavior of oleogels to temperature, applied shear, and presence of water. This information can be very useful for selecting the type of structuring agents keeping the final applications in mind. For detailed information on the actual edible applications

  8. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  9. Comparative chemical and analgesic properties of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abena, A A; Gbenou, J D; Yayi, E; Moudachirou, M; Ongoka, R P; Ouamba, J M; Silou, T

    2007-02-16

    The chemical and analgesic comparison of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo was investigated. The chemical analysis wa carried out by using GS/MS for identification of components of the two essential oils while acetic acid-induced writhings, hot plate and tail flick test models were used for analgesic activity. The results showed that the two essential oils exhibited comparable activity on acetic acid-induced writhings, however, the essential oil of Benin induced more significant effect on hot plate model while the Congolese specie showed more effect in the tail flick test. These observations could be explained by some qualitative and/or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied.

  10. Feeding laying hens stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil, as compared to flaxseed oil, more efficiently enriches eggs with very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2015-03-18

    The desaturation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to stearidonic acid (SDA) is considered to be rate-limiting for the hepatic conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, rodents, and chickens. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding laying hens SDA, as a component of the oil derived from the genetic modification of the soybean, would bypass this inefficient metabolic step and result in the enrichment of eggs with EPA and DHA at amounts comparable to that achieved by direct supplementation of hens' diet with these very long-chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a 28-d study, laying hens incorporated 0.132 mg, 0.041 mg, or 0.075 mg of VLC n-3 PUFAs into egg yolk for each milligram of ingested dietary ALA derived primarily from conventional soybean oil (CON), dietary ALA derived primarily from flaxseed oil (FLAX), or dietary SDA derived from SDA-enriched soybean oil, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of total yolk VLC n-3 PUFAs in eggs from hens fed the CON (51 mg), FLAX (91 mg), or SDA (125 mg) oils were markedly less than the 305 mg found in eggs from fish oil-fed hens. Unexpectedly, SDA appeared to be more readily incorporated into adipose tissue than into egg yolk. Since egg yolk FAs typically reflect the hens' dietary pattern, these tissue-specific differences suggest the existence of an alternate pathway for the hepatic secretion and transport of SDA in the laying hen.

  11. Comparative effects of the long-acting GLP-1 receptor ligands, liraglutide and exendin-4, on food intake and body weight suppression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew R; Kanoski, Scott E; Alhadeff, Amber L; Grill, Harvey J

    2011-07-01

    The glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, liraglutide (Victoza) and the synthetic product of exendin-4 (Byetta), are approved for type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment and may be efficacious in obesity treatment as well, in part, due to the drugs' resistance to enzymatic degradation and prolonged half-life relative to endogenous GLP-1. To address the need to directly compare the food intake- and body weight-suppressive effects of these two GLP-1R ligands, acute and chronic dosing experiments were performed. Once-daily (q.d.) exendin-4 (0, 0.33, 1.5, and 3.0 µg/kg) and liraglutide (0, 50, 100, and 300 µg/kg, q.d.) both reduced the chow intake in nonobese rats in a dose-dependent fashion following either intraperitoneal (IP) or subcutaneous (SC) administration, whereas only liraglutide reduced 24 and 48 h body weight in nonobese, chow-maintained rats. Chow intake and body weight suppression by liraglutide were of greater magnitude and shorter latency following IP compared to SC delivery, whereas for exendin-4, the magnitude of intake-suppression was similar for IP and SC administration. The effects of chronic delivery (7 consecutive days; IP) of liraglutide (25 and 50 µg/kg; q.d.) and exendin-4 (3 µg/kg; q.d. and twice-daily (b.i.d.)) on food intake and body weight were also examined in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Liraglutide (50 µg/kg q.d.) and exendin-4 (3 µg/kg b.i.d.) were comparable in suppressing overall high fat/sucrose diet (HFS; 60% kcal from fat) intake. Both drugs regimens yielded marked weight loss over the 7-day period. The weight loss effect of liraglutide was achieved in the first 2 days and remained stable for the duration of the experiment; weight loss with exendin-4 appeared more linear over the 7-day period. In conclusion, administration of the GLP-1R ligands, exendin-4 (b.i.d.) and liraglutide (q.d.), lead to comparable and pronounced suppression of food intake and body weight in DIO rats, suggesting a potential role

  12. In silico identification and comparative genomics of candidate genes involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, modification and oil body formation are expected to be conserved in structure and function in different plant species. However, significant differences in the composition of fatty acids and total oil contents in seeds have been observed in different plant species. Comparative genomics was performed on 261 genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, TAG synthesis, and oil bodies formation in Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean and soybean. In silico expression analysis revealed that stearoyl desaturase, FatB, FAD2, oleosin and DGAT are highly abundant in seeds, thereby considered as ideal candidates for mining of favorable alleles in natural population. Gene structure analysis for major genes, ACCase, FatA, FatB, FAD2, FAD3 and DGAT, which are known to play crucial role in oil synthesis revealed that there are uncommon variations (SNPs and INDELs) which lead to varying content and composition of fatty acids in seed oil. The predicted variations can provide good targets for seed oil QTL identification, understanding the molecular mechanism of seed oil accumulation, and genetic modification to enhance seed oil yield in plants.

  13. In Silico Identification and Comparative Genomics of Candidate Genes Involved in Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Seed Oil in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, modification and oil body formation are expected to be conserved in structure and function in different plant species. However, significant differences in the composition of fatty acids and total oil contents in seeds have been observed in different plant species. Comparative genomics was performed on 261 genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, TAG synthesis, and oil bodies formation in Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean and soybean. In silico expression analysis revealed that stearoyl desaturase, FatB, FAD2, oleosin and DGAT are highly abundant in seeds, thereby considered as ideal candidates for mining of favorable alleles in natural population. Gene structure analysis for major genes, ACCase, FatA, FatB, FAD2, FAD3 and DGAT, which are known to play crucial role in oil synthesis revealed that there are uncommon variations (SNPs and INDELs which lead to varying content and composition of fatty acids in seed oil. The predicted variations can provide good targets for seed oil QTL identification, understanding the molecular mechanism of seed oil accumulation, and genetic modification to enhance seed oil yield in plants.

  14. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...

  15. Maternal diet quality and nutrient intake in the gestational period: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A woman’s diet while pregnant can play an important role in her reproductive health as well as the health of her unborn child. Diet quality and nutrient intake amongst pregnant women residing in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of the United States is strikingly inadequate. The Delta H...

  16. The daily gluten intake in relatives of patients with coeliac disease compared with that of the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanOverbeek, FM; UilDieterman, IGA; Mol, IW; KohlerBrands, L; Heymans, HSA; Mulder, CJJ

    1997-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the amount of gluten intake in populations offers an explanation for differences in the epidemiology of coeliac disease. Investigations into first-degree relatives of coeliac disease patients have often shown that relatives exhibit intermediate features of coel

  17. The daily gluten intake in relatives of patients with coeliac disease compared with that of the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanOverbeek, FM; UilDieterman, IGA; Mol, IW; KohlerBrands, L; Heymans, HSA; Mulder, CJJ

    1997-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the amount of gluten intake in populations offers an explanation for differences in the epidemiology of coeliac disease. Investigations into first-degree relatives of coeliac disease patients have often shown that relatives exhibit intermediate features of

  18. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  19. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-25

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  20. The daily gluten intake in relatives of patients with coeliac disease compared with that of the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanOverbeek, FM; UilDieterman, IGA; Mol, IW; KohlerBrands, L; Heymans, HSA; Mulder, CJJ

    1997-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the amount of gluten intake in populations offers an explanation for differences in the epidemiology of coeliac disease. Investigations into first-degree relatives of coeliac disease patients have often shown that relatives exhibit intermediate features of coel

  1. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group

  2. Energy and protein intake increases with an electronic bedside spoken meal ordering system compared to a paper menu in hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Kirsty; Lazarus, Carmel; Walton, Karen; Williams, Peter; Ferguson, Maree; Beck, Eleanor

    2015-08-01

    Electronic bedside spoken meal ordering systems (BMOS) have the potential to improve patient dietary intakes, but there are few published evaluation studies. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the dietary intake and satisfaction of hospital patients, as well as the role of the Nutrition Assistant (NA), associated with the implementation of an electronic BMOS compared to a paper menu. This study evaluated the effect of a BMOS compared to a paper menu at a 210-bed tertiary private hospital in Sydney during 2011-2012. Patient dietary intake, patient satisfaction and changes in NA role were the key outcomes measured. Dietary intake was estimated from observational recordings and photographs of meal trays (before and after patient intake) over two 48 h periods. Patient satisfaction was measured through written surveys, and the NA role was compared through a review of work schedules, observation, time recordings of patient contact, written surveys and structured interviews. Baseline data were collected across five wards from 54 patients (75% response rate) whilst using the paper menu service, and after BMOS was introduced across the same five wards, from 65 patients (95% response rate). Paper menu and BMOS cohorts' demographics, self-reported health, appetite, weight, body mass index, dietary requirements, and overall foodservice satisfaction remained consistent. However, 80% of patients preferred the BMOS, and importantly mean daily energy and protein intakes increased significantly (paper menu versus BMOS): 6273 kJ versus 8273 kJ and 66 g versus 83 g protein; both p interaction increased significantly (p < 0.05), and patient awareness of the NA and their role increased with the BMOS. The utilisation of a BMOS improved patient energy and protein intake. These results are most likely due to an enhancement of existing NA work processes, enabling more NA time with patients, facilitating an increase in patient participation and satisfaction with the

  3. A comparative analysis of physical and chemical properties of Jatropha Curcas. L, Calophyllum Inophyllum. L and Sterculia Feotida. L oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medan State Polytechnic (Indonesia)], email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id, email: a_atabani2@msn.com; Atabani, A.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum (Sudan); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, (Indonesia); Masjuki, H.H.; Badruddin, I.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Production of bio-diesel converted from edible oil has raised the issue of competition for resources between food production and fuel production, as well as other questions of environmental impact. It has been established that producing bio-diesel from non-edible vegetable oils was one of the effective ways to resolve these issues. Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. are all non-edible oils and all can be potential sources for future energy supply. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the results of a comparative analysis of the physical and chemical properties of Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. oils. Physical and chemical properties of these vegetable oils, such as density, iodine value, free fatty acid, etc. were investigated and measured. These properties were then compared with those of other non-edible vegetable oils in terms of potential. This paper finds that the results of analysis indicate that there is high potential for using Jatropha curcas L., Calophyllum inophyllum L., and Sterculia foetida L. crude oil as an alternative fuel.

  4. Vegetable oil-derived epoxy monomers and polymer blends: A comparative study with review

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. Schuman; Wang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) and linseed oil (EGL) have been synthesized to have higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO). The EGS and ESO, for comparison, were used neat and in blends with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). Thermosetting resins were fabricated with the epoxy monomers and either BF3 catalyst or anhydride. The curing behaviors, glass transition...

  5. Effects of solvent-free microwave extraction on the chemical composition of essential oil of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi compared with the conventional production method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riela, Serena; Bruno, Maurizio; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Rosselli, Sergio; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Senatore, Felice

    2008-04-01

    The essential oil of Calamintha nepeta has been obtained by solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and by classical hydrodistillation (HD). A comparative qualitative-quantitative study on the composition of the oils was carried out. A total of 38 compounds, constituting 97.6% of the oil, were identified in the oil obtained by SFME, whereas 46 compounds, representing 95.4% of the oil, were characterized in the HD oil. SFME-distilled oil is richer in lightly oxygenated monoterpenes (LOM) than HD oil. It also has a higher amount of sesquiterpenes and a lower quantity of hydrocarbon monoterpenes. HD oil seems to be affected by chemical changes more than SFME oil.

  6. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  7. Global Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Expenditure in 2003 Rises 4.8 Percent as Compared to Previous Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A recent survey by Friedman Billings Ramsey (FBR) shows that the oil and gas companies worldwide plan to increase the fund for exploration and development to US$136 billion in 2003, 4.8 percent up from the previous year. The second half of 2003 will see even a higher increase in the fund. In 2002, the exploration and development expenditure of the surveyed oil and gas companies rose 3.6 percent as compared to 2001.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Components of Purified Essential Oil from Nilam Plants using Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emas Agus Prastyo Wibowo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available T This study aimed to determine the chemical components of the patchouli oil. Patchouli oil is one of the export commodities that have high economic value for Indonesia. In general, patchouli oil obtained from the hydrodistillation of patchouli leaves. Most industries are still using patchouli oil refiners made by ferrous metal. The rust will dissolve in patchouli oil obtained and led to the resulting of dark oil and patchouli aroma becomes lower. The main purpose of this research is to improve the quality of patchouli oil by the purification process technologies after oil refining process. In this research the purification of the impure and crude oil can be carried out using adsorption process with bentonite. Purification results with UV-VIS spectrophotometer showed that the activation energy at a wavelength of 510 nm-550 nm with 3.9 x 10-19 Joules. GC (Gas Chromatography analysis showed that there are 13 components from patchouli oil, the 6 dominant peaks were compounds of patchouli alcohol (29.64%, delta-guanine (23.26%, alpha-guanine (21.9%, alpha-patchouline (4.24%, pogostol (4.15%, palustrol (4.00%, beta-pinene (3.9%. Based on the physical properties, the main constituent component content, and the Fe2+ content, refined patchouli oil meets the requirements of the Indonesian National Standards.

  9. Effect of a 6-month intervention with cooking oils containing a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive and canola oils) compared with control oil in male Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Priyanka; Bhatt, Suryaprakash; Misra, Anoop; Chadha, Davinder S; Vaidya, Meera; Dasgupta, Jharna; Pasha, Qadar M A

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary intervention with canola or olive oil in comparison with commonly used refined oil in Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This was a 6-month intervention study including 93 males with NAFLD, matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Subjects were randomized into three groups to receive olive oil (n=30), canola oil (n=33), and commonly used soyabean/safflower oil (control; n=30) as cooking medium (not exceeding 20 g/day) along with counseling for therapeutic lifestyle changes. The BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin levels, lipids, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA denoting β-cell function (HOMA-βCF), and disposition index (DI) were measured at pre- and post-intervention. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference multiple comparison test procedures. Olive oil intervention led to a significant decrease in weight and BMI (ANOVA, P=0.01) compared with the control oil group. In a comparison of olive and canola oil, a significant decrease in fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, HOMA-βCF, and DI (Poil group. Pre- and post-intervention analysis revealed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein level (P=0.004) in the olive oil group and a significant decrease in FBG (P=0.03) and triglyceride (P=0.02) levels in the canola oil group. The pre- and post-intervention difference in liver span was significant only in the olive (1.14 ± 2 cm; Poil groups. In the olive and canola oil groups, post-intervention grading of fatty liver was reduced significantly (grade I, from 73.3% to 23.3% and from 60.5% to 20%, respectively [Poil group no significant change was observed. Results suggest significant improvements in grading of fatty liver, liver span, measures of insulin resistance, and lipids with use of canola and olive oil compared with control oils in Asian Indians with NAFLD.

  10. Comparative study on the quality of oil extracted from two tucumã varieties using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Elizabeth Teixeira COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The vast Amazon region has considerable territorial peculiarities and plant species diversity, sometimes from the same botanical family, which can exhibit significant differences in physicochemical properties. From this diversity, two species stand out – Amazonas tucumã (Astrocaryum aculeatum Meyer and Pará tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.. The research focus is to analyze, comparatively, these oleaginous fruits, their similarities, particularities and potentials regarding the oil quality extracted from two tucumã varieties from the states of Amazonas and Pará, obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide, under different extraction parameters. The results demonstrate the biometric particularities of each species, highlighting the Amazon fruit, which also showed higher oil yield using supercritical CO2 extraction. The fatty acid quality and profile aspects of the oils show their unsaturated predominance, considering carotenoid content and how the extraction temperature can influence the nutritional quality of the oils. The statistical analyses indicated that the Amazon tucumã oil is superior to the Pará tucumã oil. However, in terms of added value both oils have potential applications in various industrial segments.

  11. Comparative Research of Oil-paper Aging Characteristics Under Thermal Stress and Combined Thermo-electrical Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-qiang; WU Feng-jiao; XU Hao; ZHANG Guan-jun

    2011-01-01

    During the operation of power transformer, its oil-paper insulation is continuously subjected to various stresses, e. g. , the thermal, electrical, mechanical, and chemical stresses, which cause insulation aging gradually. It has been considered that the combined thermal and electrical stresses are the most important and unavoidable factors that induce insulation materials aging. In this work, accelerated aging experiments of oil-impregnated pressboards un der combined thermal (130℃) and electrical stresses (4 kV/mm) are performed, while the aging experiments under single thermal stress are also carried out at the corresponding temperature (130 ℃). The electrical and physic-chemical properties of oil, including dielectric losses factor tanδ resistivity, acid value and pH value etc. , are measured during the aging process. Dissolved gasses in oil and polymerization degree of cellulose are also measured. The relationship between these properties of oil-paper insulation and aging time is investigated. The results show that dissolved gases in oil, resistivity, tanδ of oil under combined thermal and electrical stresses are obviously different from that under thermal stress during aging process while some other properties show similar changing :trend. For cellulose, compared with the single thermal aging results, it even shows a slower degradation rate in the presence of elec trical stress.

  12. Some aspects of coal utilization in cement ovens as compared with fuel oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucchi, R.; Botti, R.

    1981-01-01

    The technical problems specific to the use of coal in the cement industry of Italy, compared with the use of fuel oil or gas, are reviewed. Considers the heat and energy aspects of the problem - losses due to combustion gas, primary air and the coal's moisture content. Looks at the role of the minor constituents in coal, on the manufacturing process: the roles of S, K/SUB/2O, Na/SUB/2O and some chlorides; and discusses the incidence of heterogeneity of the various coals. Discusses atmospheric pollution (by sulphur dioxides, nitrogen and thallium compounds). In conclusion, it appears that whilst the use of coal leads to a slight increase in primary energy consumption (30 to 60 kcal/kg of clinker) the presence of minor constituents has little effect on the manufacturing process, except in the case of chlorides. (45 refs) (In French)

  13. A Comparative Study of Eating Habits and Food Intake in Women with Gestational Diabetes according to Early Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Jeong Hwang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWomen with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD; continuous life-style intervention, especially diet, is central to managing T2DM and CVD. However, little is known about the dietary patterns of women with GDM after delivery. The goal of this study was to compare the eating habits and food intakes of women diagnosed with GDM during the early postpartum period.MethodsWe performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in 184 women with GDM between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. Based on the results of the OGTT, the subjects were divided into three groups according to the American Diabetes Association criteria; normal glucose tolerance (NGT (n=100, pre-diabetes (n=73, and diabetes mellitus (DM (n=11. Eating habits and usual food intake after delivery were investigated using a questionnaire, based on 24 hour-recall, which was administered by a trained dietitian. The daily intake data were analyzed using CAN Pro 3.0. Blood tests were performed pre- and post-delivery.ResultsEating habits were not significantly different among the three groups. However, animal fat consumption was significantly different among the three groups. The intake ratio of fat calories to total calories was also significantly higher in the pre-diabetes and DM groups.ConclusionAlthough diet in the period 6 to 12 weeks postpartum did not influence glucose level, it may be important to educate women with GDM about the risks of excessive animal fat intake during pregnancy and the postpartum period in order to prevent later onset of T2DM.

  14. 北京地区中小学生血压与油盐摄入量的关系%Associations between dietary oil and sodium intake with blood pressure among primary and middle school students in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芳; 张普洪; 张璐; 高建梅; 卢立新; 刘彩霞; 高仙; 钮文异

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between dietary oil, sodium intake and blood pressure in primary and middle school students. Methods The " One week oil and sodium intake estimation method" was used to investigate the dietary oil and sodium intake of 890 students who were chosen from grade 3-5 in 4 primary schools and grade 7-8 in 4 middle schools in urban and suburban areas of Beijing. Height, weight and blood pressure were measured. The associations between dietary oil, sodium intake and blood pressure were analyzed by using univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 19.0% in all the students, with girls higher than boys (Χ2 =0.185 ,P>0.05) , suburban students higher than urban students (Χ2 =0.185,P<0.01). With the increasing intake of dietary oil, the hypertension detection rate increased significantly (Χ2 = 31. 853,P<0. 01). There were significant differences in hypertension detection rate among different intake of dietary sodium (Χ =42.965 ,P<0.01). After controlling gender, age and body mass index, sodium intake was still risk factor for hypertension , while dietary oil intake was no more risk factor for hypertension. Conclusion The dietary sodium intake is associated with the high blood pressure among primary and middle school students. Cardiovascular diseases prevention in children and adolescents should be focused on dietary risk factors.%目的 探讨中小学生血压与油盐摄入量的关系,为改善儿童青少年健康水平提供依据.方法 方便选取北京市城区、郊区各4所学校愿意配合的三~五年级小学生、七~八年级初中生共890名,应用“家庭1周油盐摄入估算法”调查中小学生油盐摄入量,并测量身高、体重、血压等体格指标.结果 筛查性高血压检出率为19.0%,其中中学生高于小学生(x2=42.656,P<0.01),郊区学生高于城区学生(x2 =0.185,P<0.01).随着食用油摄入水平的递增,学生

  15. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Fruits and Anti depressant Potential of volatile oils of fruits of Local Piper Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohib Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study an attempt is made to evaluate physicochemical properties comparatively for the fruits of different Piper species available in the Mumbai region. The fruits of five species, viz. Piper betle Linn, Piper cubeba Linn. f., Piper retrofractum Vahl, Piper longum Linn and Piper nigrum Linn were evaluated comparatively for physicochemical properties, viz. Ash Value, Extractive Value, Loss on Drying, Mucilage Content, Crude Fibre Content, Volatile Oil Content and Piperine Content by Spectroscopic method. At the same time an attempt is made to evaluate antidepressant potential comparatively for the volatile oils of mentioned species, using forced swimming method, on albino mice with fluoxetine as standard antidepressant drug.

  16. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  17. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvig, Stine Erbs; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2013-01-01

    compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative...

  18. Comparative study of the methanolysis and ethanolysis of Maize oil using alkaline catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid, U.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing population and economic development, fuel from renewable resources needs to be widely explored in order to fulfill the future energy demand. In the present study, biodiesel from maize oil using transesterification reactions with methanol and ethanol was evaluated in the presence of NaOCH3, KOCH3, NaOCH2CH3, KOCH2CH3, NaOH and KOH as catalysts. The influence of reaction variables such as the alcohol to oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1, catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50% and reaction time (20-120 min to achieve the maximum yield was determined at fixed reaction temperatures. The optimized variables in the case of methanolysis were 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio (mol/ mol, 0.75% sodium methoxide concentration (wt% and 90 min reaction time at 65°C, which produced a yield of 97.1% methyl esters. A 9:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio (mol/mol, 1.00% sodium ethoxide concentration (wt% and 120 min reaction time at 75°C were found to produce the maximum ethyl ester yield of up to 85%. The methanolysis of maize oil was depicted more rapidly as compared to the ethanolysis of maize oil. Gas chromatography of the produced biodiesel from maize oil showed high levels of linoleic acid (up to 50.89% followed by oleic acid (up to 36.00%, palmitic acid (up to 9.98%, oleic acid (up to 1.80% and linolenic acid (up to 0.98%. The obtained fatty acid esters were further analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to ensure the completion of transesterification. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesels i.e. kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, pour point, cloud point, cold filter plugging point, ash content, flash point, acid value, sulfur content, higher heating value, density, methanol content, free glycerol and bound glycerol were determined. The analyses were performed using the FTIR method and the results were compared to the biodiesel

  19. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High protein high fibre snack bars reduce food intake and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles compared with high fat snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gemma; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Foster, Paul; Clifton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The replacement in the diet of refined carbohydrate and fat with fibre and protein has been shown to promote satiety and improve glucose and insulin profiles. It is less clear whether the macronutrient composition of individual foods such as snacks have any meaningful impact on metabolic parameters and satiety. We examined if the consumption of higher protein higher fibre snack bars would result in reducing outcome measures such as food intake and glucose and insulin patterns compared to a conventional isocaloric high fat high refined carbohydrate snack bar. Twenty three women were randomized in a single blind cross over study with 2 interventions, a high fat high sugar snack bar and a comparatively higher protein, higher fibre snack bar intervention. Snack bars were eaten at mid morning and mid afternoon, and a standard breakfast and ad libitum buffet lunch. The glucose and insulin responses over 9 hours were significantly lower (P = 0.014 and P = 0.012 respectively) during the high protein snack bar intervention. Peak glucose levels were also 16% lower after the morning HP bar (P bar reduced the energy intake at the buffet lunch meal by 5% (4657 +/- 1025KJ vs 4901 +/- 1186KJ, P bar can assist in reducing the energy intake at a subsequent meal and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles.

  1. Comparative Studies between Conventional and Microwave Assisted Extraction for Rice Bran Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Himanshu S; Pratap, Amit

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with comparison of microwave assisted extraction to that of conventional solvent extraction for the extraction of rice bran oil (RBO); focusing on extraction yield and oil composition. Microwave assisted extraction act as a green process over other method and proved that it is effective method for extraction of oil. The investigation also focuses on the study of functional group and component present in oil. Natural antioxidant component; its activity was confirmed by DPPH assay. The oryzanol content was also determined by measuring the optical density of the sample at 315 nm in n-heptane using UV visible spectrophotometer.

  2. Zinc status as compared to zinc intake and iron status: a case study of Iranian populations from Isfahan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Nazanin; Wegmueller, Rita; Kelishadi, Roya; Schulin, Rainer; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) status of different age groups in rural (Rooran) and suburban (Khomeini Shahr) populations in central Iran, to relate the Zn status to Zn intake from animal and plant foods, and to examine the relationship between Zn and Fe status. Blood samples from 341 subjects including preschool children (27), schoolchildren (157), women (91), and men (66) were analyzed for serum zinc (SZn), serum ferritin (SF), total C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin. Daily Zn and phytic acid (PA) intakes from major food groups were estimated using a 3-day weighed food record. The overall prevalence of Zn deficiency based on low SZn was 5.9 % in Rooran and 7.2 % in Khomeini Shahr. Anemia was higher in the village than in the suburb (33.5 % vs. 22.7 %; p = 0.04) and almost half of the anemia in Khomeini Shahr and 36 % in Rooran was associated with iron deficiency (ID) based on low SF. The PA:Zn molar ratio in the diet was 10 - 13, indicating a diet of moderate Zn bioavailability. About 18 % of the population consumed less Zn than their WHO Estimated Average Requirements. There was no association between Zn status and Fe status. The modest prevalence of Zn deficiency in the study populations can be explained by a relatively high Zn intake from animal source foods. Anemia however is a serious public health problem affecting some 30 % of the subjects, with almost half due to ID. The lower Fe status than Zn status could be due to the frequent consumption of tea and dairy products.

  3. Comparative chemical and antimicrobial study of nine essential oils obtained from medicinal plants growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashwa Tarek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are one of interesting natural products group that are used in different aspects of life due to their various biological activities. This study investigate the antimicrobial activities of 9 herbal essential oils on survival and growth of selected pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method and were analyzed using GC/MS technique. The oils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 2 Gram +ve, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Listeria innocua (L. innocua, 2 Gram −ve, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi as well as 2 Fungi, Aspergillus niger (A. niger and Candida albicans (C. albicans, using agar dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed against the test organisms by disc diffusion method. Results showed that Cinnamon oil was found effective against all the tested strains (MIC ≤ 1 μl/ml. Peppermint, lemon grass, caraway, anise, fennel and clove showed activity at (MIC ≤ 1 μl/ml with all the tested organisms except for P. aeruginosa. Lavender oil exhibited antimicrobial activities against 4 strains (S. aureus, L. innocua, A. niger and C. albicans with MIC (≤1 μl/ml while geranium oil was inhibitory at (MIC ≤ 1 μl/ml against S. aureus, S. Typhi, A. niger and C. albicans and with MIC ∼ 2 μl/ml against L. innocua. Although Gram −ve organisms had shown high resistance toward different essential oils, they were found to be susceptible to cinnamon oil even at lower concentration. Cinnamon oil is effective against drug resistant organisms. It can be suggested to use essential oils/constituents as potential natural preservatives and would be helpful in the treatment of various infections.

  4. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production

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    Anshuman Bhanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification. The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD were 88.72% and 86.75% in 96 hrs and the observed substrate based biomass yields were 0.21 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.22 mg VSS/mg COD for M. circinelloides reactor and for T. reesei reactor, respectively. The resulted bio-oil production from wastewater treatment by M. circinelloides and T. reesei reactors was 142.2 mg/L and 74.1 mg/L, whereas biomass containing bio-oil contents (%w/w were 22.11% and 9.82%, respectively. In this experiment, the fungal wastewater treatment was also compared with conventional bacterial process with respect to specific growth rate, biomass production, and oil content. This study suggests that wastewater can be used as a potential feedstock for bio-oil production with the use of oleaginous fungal strains and which could be a possible route of waste to energy.

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CASTOR AND JATROPHA OIL SOURCE AND ITS METHYL ESTER TEST ON THE DIESEL ENGINE

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    DEVENDRA VASHIST,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neat non-edible oils pose problems when subjected to use when used in the CI engines. These problems are attributed to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of these oils. Two non-edible sources of the oils were identified i.e jatropha and castor. The biodiesel was prepared from neat oils and blends preparedwith diesel. up till 20 percent of biodiesel. Produced blends were tested for their use as a substitute fuel for diesel in a single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads. The best engine operating condition based on lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency were identified and compared. On the observed data for both the fuels, Chi square (2 statistical test was applied. The values calculated for 2 jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME = 0.0104 and 2 castor oil methyl ester (COME = 0.0524. The values concluded that there is no effect of fuel type on fuel consumption up till 20 percent biodiesel blended fuel.

  6. Surveying and Comparing Thermal Conductivity and Physical Properties of Oil Base NanoFluids Containing Carbon and Metal Oxide Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ahmadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, nano materials with tubular structures are added to SAE 20W50 engine oil to study the rate of their effects on the properties of engine oil. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and vanadium oxide nanotubes (VONTs has been used as two different additive materials, one of them is carbonic and the other is metallic oxides and their effect on  different parameters containing viscosity, thermal conductivity coefficient, flash point and pour point of engine oil as the quality properties of engine oil has been studied and compared. The samples of two concentrations 0.1 and 0.2 wt% with using planetary ball mill were made. The obtained results show that MWCNTs in all cases, which  have been evaluated, had better functionality with respect to vanadium oxide nanotubes. In the 0.1 wt% concentration, flash point of MWCNTs/oil and VONTs/oil increased about 9.3% and 5.8% respectively. In addition, thermal conductivity of them increased 13.2% and 10.2% respectively.

  7. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, Anshuman; Minde, Gauri; Magdum, Sandip; Kalyanraman, V

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 88.72% and 86.75% in 96 hrs and the observed substrate based biomass yields were 0.21 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.22 mg VSS/mg COD for M. circinelloides reactor and for T. reesei reactor, respectively. The resulted bio-oil production from wastewater treatment by M. circinelloides and T. reesei reactors was 142.2 mg/L and 74.1 mg/L, whereas biomass containing bio-oil contents (%w/w) were 22.11% and 9.82%, respectively. In this experiment, the fungal wastewater treatment was also compared with conventional bacterial process with respect to specific growth rate, biomass production, and oil content. This study suggests that wastewater can be used as a potential feedstock for bio-oil production with the use of oleaginous fungal strains and which could be a possible route of waste to energy.

  8. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Montoya

    Full Text Available We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL, 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs, 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs, 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL, and 40% (two QTLs for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  10. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008

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    Carol E. O'Neil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Body mass index (BMI z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [~19% of population], explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (< 0.05/12 = < 0.0042. Consumers of the Eggs/Grain/Meat, Poultry, Fish (MPF/Fruit Juice (FJ and MPF/Grain/FJ patterns showed higher daily intakes of saturated fats, solid fats, and sodium and lower daily intakes of added sugars than breakfast skippers. Consumers of most breakfast patterns showed higher daily intakes of some nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium; however, those consuming the Grain or MPF/Grain/FJ pattern did not. Consumers of the Grain/Lower Fat Milk (LFM/Sweets/FJ, Presweetened (PS Ready-to-eat Cereal (RTEC/LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ patterns was associated

  11. Decommissioning of offshore oil and gas facilities: a comparative assessment of different scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Paul; Vanner, Robin; Firebrace, James

    2006-06-01

    A material and energy flow analysis, with corresponding financial flows, was carried out for different decommissioning scenarios for the different elements of an offshore oil and gas structure. A comparative assessment was made of the non-financial (especially environmental) outcomes of the different scenarios, with the reference scenario being to leave all structures in situ, while other scenarios envisaged leaving them on the seabed or removing them to shore for recycling and disposal. The costs of each scenario, when compared with the reference scenario, give an implicit valuation of the non-financial outcomes (e.g. environmental improvements), should that scenario be adopted by society. The paper concludes that it is not clear that the removal of the topsides and jackets of large steel structures to shore, as currently required by regulations, is environmentally justified; that concrete structures should certainly be left in place; and that leaving footings, cuttings and pipelines in place, with subsequent monitoring, would also be justified unless very large values were placed by society on a clear seabed and trawling access.

  12. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

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    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  13. Comparing capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry fingerprints of urine samples obtained after intake of coffee, tea, or water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Erik; Bäckström, Daniel; Danielsson, Rolf; Sjöberg, Per J R; Bergquist, Jonas

    2008-12-01

    Metabolomic fingerprinting is a growing strategy for characterizing complex biological samples without detailed prior knowledge about the metabolic system. A two-way analysis system with liquid separation and mass spectrometric detection provides detail-rich data suitable for such fingerprints. As a model study, human urine samples, obtained after intake of coffee, tea, or water, were analyzed with capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-TOF-MS). In-house-developed software (in Matlab) was utilized to manage and explore the large amount of data acquired (230 CE-MS runs, each with 50-100 million nonzero data points). After baseline and noise reduction, followed by suitable binning in time and m/z, the data sets comprised 9 and 14 million data points in negative and positive ESI mode, respectively. Finally, a signal threshold was applied, further reducing the number to about 100 000 data points per data set. A set of interactive exploratory tools, utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) results based on a general linear model, facilitated visual interpretation with score plots (for group assessment) and differential fingerprints (for "hot spot" detection). In the model study highly significant differences due to beverage intake were obtained among the 10 first principal components (p coffee" and "tea or water" indicated several "hot spots" with highly elevated intensities (e.g., for uncharged masses 93, 94, 109, 119, 123, 132, 148, 169, 178, 187, 190, and 193) suitable for further analysis, for example, with tandem MS.

  14. Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism.

  15. Comparative effects of TV watching, recreational computer use, and sedentary video game play on spontaneous energy intake in male children. A randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jiang, Yannan; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    To compare the effects of three screen-based sedentary behaviours on acute energy intake (EI) in children. Normal-weight males aged 9-13 years participated in a randomised crossover trial conducted in a laboratory setting between November 2012 and February 2013 in Auckland, New Zealand. EI during an ad libitum meal was compared for three 1-hour conditions: (1) television (TV) watching, (2) sedentary video game (VG) play, and (3) recreational computer use. The primary endpoint was total EI from food and drink. Mixed regression models were used to evaluate the treatment conditions adjusting for age, BMI, and appetite at baseline. A total of 20 participants were randomised and all completed the three conditions. Total EI from food and drink in the TV, computer, and VG conditions was estimated at 820 (SE 73.15), 685 (SE 73.33), and 696 (SE 73.16) kcal, respectively, with EI being significantly greater in the TV versus computer condition (+135; P = 0.04), a trend towards greater intake in the TV versus VG condition (+124; P = 0.06), but not significantly different between the computer and VG conditions (-10; P = 0.87). TV watching was associated with greater EI compared with computer use, and a trend towards greater EI compared with VG play.

  16. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product

    OpenAIRE

    Barker Stephen C; Altman Phillip M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There are many different types of pediculicides available OTC in Australia. In this study we compare the efficacy and safety of three topical pediculicides: a pediculicide containing melaleuca oil (tea tree oil) and lavender oil (TTO/LO); a head lice "suffocation" product; and a product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (P/PB). Method This study was a randomised, assessor-blind, comparative, parallel study of 123 subjects with live head lice. The head lice produ...

  17. Comparative analysis of olive oil organogels containing beeswax and sunflower wax with breakfast margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop olive oil organogels with sunflower wax (SW) and beeswax (BW) at 3%, 7%, and 10% addition levels and to compare these organogels with breakfast margarine (BM). The organogels and BM sample were stored at 2 different temperatures (4 and 20 °C), and the peroxide values (PVs) and textural properties were monitored for 3 mo. The PVs of all organogels were within legal limits and the gels were structurally stable throughout the storage period. The textural properties of 3% SW and 7% BW organogels were closely similar to BM. The solid fat contents of the organogels were lower than that of the BM. Moreover, the thermal properties of 3% BW gel were more similar to that of the BM. The results of X-ray diffraction peaks, approximately 3.70 and 4.10 Å, were similar to β' polymorphic form. In conclusion, both of the organogel types may have value in replacing BMs.

  18. Comparing the benefits: use of various well head gas coning control strategies to optimize production of a thin oil rim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nennie, E.D.; Savenko, S.V.; Alberts, G.J.N.; Cargnelutti, M.F.; Donkelaar, E. van

    2009-01-01

    With an increasing number of smart well applications being installed in the field, more knowledge is required to optimize their operation. This paper compares the benefits of various wellhead gas coning control strategies to optimize production of a thin oil rim. This study is performed within the "

  19. Essential oils compared to chlorhexidine with respect to plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.C. van Leeuwen; D.E. Slot; G.A. van der Weijden

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the effects of an essential-oil mouthwash (EOMW) compared to a chlorhexidine mouthwash with respect to plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation. Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched for studies

  20. The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Gordon; Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Donald J; MacKinlay, Elizabeth E; Dick, James R; Cheseldine, Sally; Boyle, Rose M; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne E

    2010-04-01

    The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by two-sample t tests. Relatively few differences were seen between erythrocyte fatty acids in autism and TD subjects although the former had an increased arachidonic acid (ARA):EPA ratio. This ratio was also increased in plasma samples from the same children. No changes in n-3 fatty acids or ARA:EPA ratio were seen when comparing autism with DD subjects but some SFA and MUFA were decreased in the DD subjects, most notably 24 : 0 and 24 : 1, which are essential components of axonal myelin sheaths. However, if multiple comparisons are taken into account, and a stricter level of significance applied, most of these values would not be significant. Autism subjects consuming fish oil showed reduced erythrocyte ARA, 22 : 4n-6, 22 : 5n-6 and total n-6 fatty acids and increased EPA, 22 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids along with reduced n-6:n-3 and ARA:EPA ratios. Collectively, the autism subjects did not have an underlying phospholipid disorder, based on erythrocyte fatty acid compositions, although the increased ARA:EPA ratio observed suggested that an imbalance of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids may be present in a cohort of autism subjects.

  1. Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    M?jean, A.; Hope, Chris

    2010-01-01

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil (SCO) produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs...

  2. Comparative Study on Particles Formation in a Diesel Engine When Lubricating Oil Involved in Fuel Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lubricating oil on the morphology of particulate matter (PM was studied in a diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel and blended fuel containing 0.5% by weight of lubricating oil. Particulate matter emitted by diesel engines is formed primarily by soot agglomerates which are composed of primary particles. In this paper, particulate matter was collected with a thermophoretic sampling system, and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM was used to investigate the primary particles. A Fast Particulate Spectrometer, DMS 500, was used to determine the particle size distributions. The TEM results indicated that the mean diameters of the primary particles increased after the oil was added into the fuel. Particle size distributions results showed that lubricating oil in the fuel gave rise to a higher concentration in nucleation mode.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  4. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping

    2014-07-01

    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  5. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Caselles, C. [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); Kalman, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); Riba, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); DelValls, T.A. [UNESCO UNITWIN/UNICOP, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain) and Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia - CSIC and UCA, Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain)]. E-mail: angel.valls@uca.es

    2007-03-15

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige.

  6. Comparative effects of oil palm and selective logging on erosion, river channels and water chemistry in Malaysian steeplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Nainar, Anand; Nurhidayu, Siti; Higton, Sam; Annammala, Kogilavani; Wall, Katy; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Darling, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm land-use has expanded greatly in recent decades in SE Asia and other parts of the wet tropics, including to steepland areas, where bench-terraced landscaping is involved. Retaining (and sometimes restoring) riparian forest strips and rainforest fragments on the steepest slopes have been adopted as elements of strategies designed to reduce adverse effects on runoff generation, erosion, downstream sedimentation, flooding and pollutional problems - as well as biodiversity and emissions. Results of catchment monitoring, soil erosion and sediment fingerprinting research in oil palm and selectively logged steeplands of eastern Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia are presented. The evidence indicates the greater scale and temporal persistence of effects that oil palm land-use (compared with selective logging) has had on suspended sediment dynamics, soil erosion, downstream sedimentation, channel geometry and dynamics and river pollution. The importance of (1) high densities of roads and tracks and (2) relatively impermeable bench-terraced terrain in enhancing runoff, sediment and nutrient outputs in storm events is stressed. Influences of oil palm management practices including riparian forest strips in increasing or reducing these effects are critically reviewed and ways of increasing the effectiveness of riparian forest strips are proposed. The design and rationale of current projects exploring and testing consequences of existing and proposed improved land management practices are briefly described. The key importance of involvement of people from the oil palm industry (including multinational companies, smallholders and their organizations) and Government bodies that are responsible for land-use policies and land management practices is stressed.

  7. Modulation of antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male wistar rats following intake of red palm oil and/or rooibos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ademola Ayeleso; Nicole Brooks; Oluwafemi Oguntibeju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of red palm oil(RPO), rooibos tea extract(RTE) and their combined treatment(RPO+RTE) on antioxidant status in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods:Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single administration of streptozotocin(50 mg/kg) and the rats were treated for7 weeks.Antioxidant enzymes [catalase(CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase(SOD)], antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity(ORAC)] as well as total protein, albumin, globulin, total glutathione, conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) were investigated.Results:Treatment withRPO,RTE andRPO+RTE significantly(p>0.05) improved liverSOD and plasmaORAC in the diabetic rats.Similarly, diabetic rats treated withRTE and RPO+RTE enhanced liverGPx.A significant(P<0.05) increase in the plasmaTBARS in the diabetic control group was observed when compared with the normal control group.Treatment of diabetic rats withRTE andRPO+RTE reduced plasmaTBARS to a level not significantly different atP<0.05 from the normal control group. Conclusions:The results revealed the anti-oxidative potentials of red palm oil, rooibos and their combination in diabetic conditions and hence, they could be useful in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  8. Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón

    2010-12-22

    Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p oils produced in Spain and Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin.

  9. Adult Cranberry Beverage Consumers Have Healthier Macronutrient Intakes and Measures of Body Composition Compared to Non-Consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyah J. Duffey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891 were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES Survey 2005–2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581 were older (>50 year non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001, but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001 and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001. Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001 and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001. Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers.

  10. Cod liver oil consumption at different periods of life and bone mineral density in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysteinsdottir, Tinna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2015-07-01

    Cod liver oil is a traditional source of vitamin D in Iceland, and regular intake is recommended partly for the sake of bone health. However, the association between lifelong consumption of cod liver oil and bone mineral density (BMD) in old age is unclear. The present study attempted to assess the associations between intake of cod liver oil in adolescence, midlife, and old age, and hip BMD in old age, as well as associations between cod liver oil intake in old age and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Participants of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (age 66-96 years; n 4798), reported retrospectively cod liver oil intake during adolescence and midlife, as well as the one now in old age, using a validated FFQ. BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region was measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography, and serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Associations were assessed using linear regression models. No significant association was seen between retrospective cod liver oil intake and hip BMD in old age. Current intake of aged men was also not associated with hip BMD, while aged women with daily intakes had z-scores on average 0.1 higher, compared with those with an intake of < once/week. Although significant, this difference is small, and its clinical relevance is questionable. Intake of aged participants was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D: individuals with intakes of < once/week, one to six time(s)/week and daily intake had concentrations of approximately 40, 50 and 60 nmol/l respectively (P for trend < 0.001).

  11. Comparative chemical, cytotoxicity and antileishmanial properties of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Nance, Marcelina R; García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Setzer, William N

    2011-02-01

    In countries where leishmaniasis is endemic, there are not very many treatment alternatives and most options have problems associated with their use. Plants and their natural products constitute good sources of interesting lead compounds that could be potentially active against Leishmania. Chenopodium ambrosioides is a plant that is widely used in popular medicine and its antiparasitic effects have been documented, including the antileishmanial potentialities of Chenopodium oil. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, in-vitro cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of essential oils extracted from C. ambrosioides, which received different treatments prior to extraction. The chemical characterization by GC-MS of the three essential oil samples showed similar composition and the major components were alpha-terpinene (17.0-20.7%), p-cymene (20.2-21.1%) and ascaridole (30.5-47.1%). The essential oils exhibited similar antileishmanial activities against intracellular amastigote form, with IC50 values between 4.7 and 12.4 microg/mL. However, a lower cytotoxicity was displayed by the essential oil extracted from fresh green vegetable material, which was statistically different (P ambrosioides but did change their cytotoxicity, which should be taken into account in further studies.

  12. Comparative Study of Crude Oil Contamination Effect on Industrial and Forest Soil Microbial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Ansari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Petroleum hydrocarbons are widespread pollutant that enters to soil by some pathwayssuch as: Transportation of crude oil, conservation of oil compounds, crude oil spill and treatment process on refineries. Oil pollution has some ecological effect on soil that disturbed composition and diversity of microbial community. Also this pollution has some effects on microbial activity and enzymes of soil. Forests ecosystems may be polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons via different ways such as transportation and spill of crude oil from resource of petroleum storage. Industrial soil defined as the soils that located in industrial area such as petrochemical plant, mine, chemical factories and etc. These soils always contaminated to many pollutant such as: oil, diesel and heavy metals. These pollutants have some effects on the texture of the soil and microbial community. The aim of this research is to understand the effect of oil pollution on two different soils. Material and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of crude oil on soil microbial community, two different soil samples were collected from industrial and forest soils. Six microcosms were designed in this experiment. Indeed each soil sample examined inthree microcosms asunpolluted microcosm, polluted microcosm, and polluted microcosm with nutrient supply of Nitrogen and PhosphorusSome factors were assayed in each microcosm during 120 days of experiment. The included study factors were: total heterotrophic bacteria, total crude oil degrading bacteria, dehydrogenase enzyme and crude oil biodegradation. For enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria nutrient agar medium was used. In this method serial dilutions were done from each soil and spread on nutrient agar medium then different colonies were counted. For enumeration of degrading bacteria Bushnel-Hass (BH medium were used. The composition of this medium was (g/lit: 1 gr KH2PO4, 1gr K2HPO4, 0.2 gr MgSO4.7H2O, 0.02 gr CaCl2, 1 gr NH4

  13. Comparative study of the chemical composition of essential oils of five Tagetes species collected in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Kaylin; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Morales, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The leaves and inflorescences of five species of Tagetes, family Asteraceae, were collected from different locations in Mérida state, Venezuela, and their essential oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Several differences were observed in the composition of these oils, mainly regarding the major components, which for T. caracasana were trans-ocimenone (64.3%) and cis-tagetone (13.7%), and for T. erecta, piperitone (35.9%) and terpinolene (22.2%). High amounts of trans-anethole (87.5%) and estragole (10.7%) were observed in T. filifolia, while T. subulata essential oil contained terpinolene (26.0%), piperitenone (13.1%) and limonene (10.8%). For T. patula, two different oil samples were analyzed, leaves (TPL) and inflorescences (TPI). The TPL oil showed terpinolene (20.9%) and piperitenone (14.0%) as main components, while the TPI sample was composed mainly of beta-caryophyllene (23.7%), terpinolene (15.6%) and cis-beta-ocimene (15.5%).

  14. Compared Ageing of Oil from Curcubitea Pepo in Two Different Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.W. Nakavoua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the oil pumkin seeds of Curcubitea pepo from Congo- Brazzaville. The ageing of oil extracted from the seeds of the pumpkin Curcubitea pepo stored at two temperatures (6 and 30ºC was monitored during storage for 11 months by comparison of physical and chemical characteristics correlated with spectroscopic data. Medium infrared spectroscopy confirmed saponification index data. Ultraviolet absorption confirmed peroxide index data. Antioxidant behaviour was monitored by fluorescence and the effect of ageing on the two major fatty acid families was analysed by a study of chemical composition correlated with differential scanning calorimetry measurements. This study showed an overall lengthening of the fatty acid carbon chains and allowed preferential storage conditions to be specified for this oil.

  15. Comparative studies of antifugal potentialities for some natural plant oils against different fungi isolated from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. H.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of eight natural oils on ten pathogenic fungi isolated from the digestive and respiratory tracts of dead chickens in Kena Governorate showed that crude peppermint oil only has a highest effect against some isolated fungi and a low response against others. While its 10% and 2% oil concentrations failed to give any effect against all the tested fungi. Crude chamomile and pelargonium oils showed moderate effect against all isolated fungi. The effect of different dilutions of chamomile, cumin and celery oils appeared that the 10% concentration showed more effective than the crude oil. Lemongrass and basil oils have almost the same behaviour towards the isolated fungi as the crude oils and the 10% concentration affected them greatly. On the other hand 2% basil oil gave no effect at all. Critical concentrations of the efficient oils against isolated fungi were calculated. The most efficient oils were lemongrass against Aspergillus flavipes, chamomile against A. fumigatus and cumin against A. nidulans, while cumin against A. glaucus, clove against A. flavus were chamomile against A. flavus and clove against A. flavipes were the lowest efficient oils.

    El efecto inhibidor de ocho aceites naturales sobre diez aislados de hongos patógenos de los tractos digestivo y respiratorio de pollos muertos en "Kena Governorate" mostró que el aceite de menta crudo tiene un mayor efecto frente a algunos aislados y una repuesta menor frente a otros. Aunque sus concentraciones en aceite al 10% y 2% consiguieron dar algún efecto frente a todos los hongos ensayados. Aceites de geranio y manzanilla crudo mostraron efecto moderado frente a todos los aislados de hongos. El efecto de disoluciones diferentes de aceites de manzanilla, comino y apio dieron como resultado que la concentración al 10% era más efectiva que el aceite crudo. Aceites de lemongras y albahaca tienen casi el mismo

  16. Comparative Physical properties of Karanj Seed Oil by Using Different Organic Solvents: an Environmental Viable Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Savita Sagwan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil yielding crop plants are very important for economic growth of the energy and agricultural sectors. The oil seeds containing polyunsaturated fatty acids are important source of biodiesel. These organic seed oils are better than diesel fuels in terms of physico-chemical properties and biodegradability. One such plant species is Pongamia pinnata belonging to family Fabaceae. It is drought resistant, semi-deciduous, nitrogen fixing leguminous tree. It grows about 15-20 meters in height with a large canopy which spreads equally wide. Detail physical study in different organic solvents (n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether intends to identify all advantages and disadvantages of pongamia pinnata as a sustainable feedstock for the production of Biodiesel equivalent to fossil fuel as per ASTM.

  17. Comparative field evaluation of divided-dosing and reduced feed intake upon treatment efficacy against resistant isolates of Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M; Jackson, F; Patterson, M; Jackson, E; McKellar, Q A

    1998-01-01

    The effects of modifying drug administration and food intake upon the efficacy of fenbendazole against resistant isolates of Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta were investigated using naturally infected sheep and goats. Administration of the manufacturer's recommended dose (MRD) as two 2.5 mg kg(-1) bodyweight doses divided by a 12-hour interval resulted in an apparent increase in efficacy of over 28 per cent compared with conventionally treated sheep. Withholding feed for 24 hours before treatment at the MRD resulted in respective increases of 39.7 per cent (P<0.05) and 25.2 per cent compared with conventionally treated sheep and goats. A combination of food withdrawal and divided dosing did not further increase treatment efficacy in goats. It is suggested that withholding feed, divided-dosing or combining these methods may extend the useful life of the broad spectrum class of anthelmintics.

  18. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garden Tabacchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. Design and subjects: The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14–17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy, completed the ASSO–FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients (cc, kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland–Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. Results: High cc (≥0.40 were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25–0.40 for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks to 100% (dried fruit; for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin to 77% (lactose. Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups’ intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson's cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusions: The ASSO–FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the

  19. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Sanaz; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Asemi, Mehdi; Mehrabani, Sepideh; Feizi, Awat; Safavi, Seyyed Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appetite lowering characteristics of dairy have attracted scientists to look for its effect on energy intake particularly among children. In the present study, we tried to assess the effect of low-fat milk on total and short-term energy intake among obese boys in a randomized three-way cross-over clinical trial. Methods: A total of 34 obese 10-12-year-old boys were randomized to consume three beverages (low-fat milk, apple juice, or water) with a fixed energy breakfast for two consecutive days, 1 week apart. Ad libitum lunch was provided for subjects 5 h later. The energy intake from breakfast till lunch and total energy intake on intervention days, and 2 days after intervention were compared. Generalized linear model repeated measures procedure in which test beverages were considered as repeated factors. Results: Energy intake from breakfast till lunch was lower when low-fat milk consumption was included in the breakfast compared with water and apple juice (adjusted mean ± standard error: Low-fat milk = 1484.33 ± 15.30 Kcal, apple juice = 1543.39 ± 20.70 Kcal, water = 1606.6 ± 19.94 Kcal; P 0.05). Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined. PMID:25538836

  20. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium......+: 2.19 ± 4.6 kg; whey: 2.01 ± 4.6 kg; soy: 1.76 ± 4.7 kg; and control: 2.23 ± 3.8 kg; P = 0.96), fat mass regains (whey+: 0.46 ± 4.5 kg; whey: 0.11 ± 4.1 kg; soy: 0.15 ± 4.1 kg; and control: 0.54 ± 3.3 kg; P = 0.96), or improvements in lean body mass (whey+: 1.87 ± 1.7 kg; whey: 1.94 ± 1.3 kg; soy: 1......-sensation profile.Conclusion: Protein supplementation does not result in improved WM success, or blood biochemistry after WL compared with the effects of normal dietary protein intake (0.8-1.0 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)). This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01561131....

  1. Exergy destruction and losses on four North Sea offshore platforms: A comparative study of the oil and gas processing plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    differs across offshore platforms. However, the results indicate that the largest rooms for improvement lie in (i) gas compression systems where large amounts of gas may be compressed and recycled to prevent surge, (ii) production manifolds where well-streams are depressurised and mixed, and (iii......The oil and gas processing plants of four North Sea offshore platforms are analysed and compared, based on the exergy analysis method. Sources of exergy destruction and losses are identified and the findings for the different platforms are compared. Different platforms have different working...... conditions, which implies that some platforms need less heat and power than others. Reservoir properties and composition vary over the lifetime of an oil field, and therefore maintaining a high efficiency of the processing plant is challenging. The results of the analysis show that 27%-57% of the exergy...

  2. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. Anjaneyulu; S. Satyannarayana; Sanjit Kanjilal; V. Siddaiah; K. N. Prasanna Rani

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1...

  3. Comparing terpenes from plant essential oils as pesticides for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, O; Khallaayoune, K; Duvallet, G; Nayak, S; George, D

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to conventional synthetic pesticides has been widely reported in ticks, parasitic mites and other pests of veterinary and medical significance. New and novel approaches to manage these pests are therefore needed to ensure efficient control programmes that can be implemented now and in the future. Recent research in this area has focused on the pesticidal potential of plant essential oils. These products are attractive as pesticide candidates on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries (limiting the development of pest resistance against them). Although issues may exist concerning reliability in efficacy of essential oils, these may be overcome by identifying and developing bioactive oil components for use in pest management. In the current work, three such components (terpenes) found in essential oils (eugenol, geraniol and citral) were tested against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. All provided 100% mortality in toxicity tests when undiluted. Even at 1% of this dose, eugenol was 20% effective against experimental pest populations, although the remaining terpenes were largely ineffective at this concentration.

  4. Crude oil affecting the biomass of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus: Comparing a simple and complex population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hoop, Lisette; Broch, Ole Jacob; Hendriks, A Jan; De Laender, Frederik

    2016-08-01

    In the current study differences were evaluated between a complex 3D multistage population model (SINMOD) and a simpler consumer-resource population model for estimating the effects of crude oil on the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. The SINTEF OSCAR model was used to simulate hypothetical oil spills in the Lofoten area in 1995, 1997, and 2001. Both population models simulated a negligible effect of crude oil on the Calanus' biomass when assuming low species sensitivity. The simple model estimated a larger effect on the biomass (up to a 100% decline) compared to the complex model (maximum decline of 60-80%) at high species sensitivity to crude oil. These differences may be related to the inclusion of copepod advection in the complex model. Our study showed that if little data is available to parameterize a model, or if computational resources are scarce, the simple model could be used for risk screening. Nevertheless, the possibility of including a dilution factor for time-varying biomass should be examined to improve the estimations of the simple model. The complex model should be used for a more in depth risk analysis, as it includes physical processes such as the drift of organisms and differentiation between developmental stages.

  5. RISK MANAGEMENT IN UK CORPORATIONS: COMPARING FINANCIAL SERVICE INDUSTRY, OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY AND OTHER NON-FINANACIAL INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olaseinde, Olumide, K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The focus of this research is to determine whether UK corporations (comparing firms in the financial service industry, oil and gas industry and other non-financial industries) have a more formal developed risk management process. Despite regulations and recommendations (such as the Walker review (2009), the Turner review (2009), the Financial Reporting Council (2011) etc.) there are only limited information on how firms manage risk and how they report risk management processes to...

  6. Comparative study on the quality of oil extracted from two tucumã varieties using supercritical carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Elizabeth Teixeira COSTA; Santos, Orquídea Vasconcelos dos; CORRÊA,Nádia Cristina Fernandes; FRANÇA,Luiz Ferreira de

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The vast Amazon region has considerable territorial peculiarities and plant species diversity, sometimes from the same botanical family, which can exhibit significant differences in physicochemical properties. From this diversity, two species stand out – Amazonas tucumã (Astrocaryum aculeatum Meyer) and Pará tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart.). The research focus is to analyze, comparatively, these oleaginous fruits, their similarities, particularities and potentials regarding the oil...

  7. Comparative evaluation of selected vegetable oils and Terpenes on Transdermal permeation of Ketorolac Tromethamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudanavar Prakash

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A reservoir type transdermal patch for delivery of ketorolac tromethamine (KT, a potent analgesic agent was studied. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of permeation enhancers on the in vitro permeation of KT across rat skin. Films were prepared by using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and polyvinylalcohol (PVA polymers by incorporating glycerine as plasticizers using solvent casting method. A total of fourteen formulations were prepared by using same drug polymer ratio of 1:1 and incorporated different terpenes and vegetable oils as permeation enhancers in same concentrations. The prepared systems released the drug in the following order: FP2 > FP3 > FH2 > FP5 > FH3 > FP4 > FH5 > FH4 > FH6 > FP6 > FH7 > FP7 > FH1 > FH1. The various permeation parameters such as enhancement ratio and percent of drug permeated were determined for all the formulations. The maximum percent of drug permeation was observed with PVA monolithic system containing 10% d-limonene. Permeation enhancement of KT with different enhancers followed the order: d-limonene > cineole > olive oil > menthol >linseed oil > sunflower oil. The in vitro release studies revealed that terpenes showed better permeation enhancement than vegetable oils and the release was sustained up to 24 h and it follows zero-order kinetics. All the films were found to be stable at 37°C and 45°C with respect to their physical parameters. A reservoir type transdermal patch for delivery of KT thus appears to be feasible of delivering KT across skin.

  8. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila V. Kothiwale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO, clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index (GI, and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16, PI (0.57, and PMA (0.02 scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000. Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy.

  9. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothiwale, Shaila V.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Gandhi, Megha; Sohoni, Rahul; Kumar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO), clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO) mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA) Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU) were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16), PI (0.57), and PMA (0.02) scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000). Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy. PMID:25024544

  10. A comparative study on the deterioration of oils by microwave and conventional heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag, Radwan S.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Refined cottonseed oil and hydrogenated palm oil were heated by two methods, i.e., conventionally by gas-cooker and microwaves. Quality assurance methods such as refractive index, color, diene content, acid value, peroxide value, TBA value, iodine value, petroleum ether insoluble oxidized fatty acid content and degree of polymerization were determined. Exposing the oil samples to various heating times and microwave oven power caused some hydrolysis to free fatty acids, accelerated the formation of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products. The values from each test increased with both the power settings of microware oven and time of heating. In general, the development of rancidity for refined cottonseed oil heated by microwaves was twice faster than that produced by conventional heating. Also, the chemical values for refined cottonseed oil were much higher than that of hydrogenated palm oil in all cases.

    Se han calentado aceites de semilla de algodón y de palma hidrogenado mediante dos métodos: convencionalmente en cocina de gas y microonda. Se han determinado como métodos de garantía de calidad el índice de refracción, color, contenido en dienos, índice de acidez, índice de peróxido, índice de TBA, índice de iodo, contenido en ácidos grasos oxidados insolubles en éter de petróleo y grado de polimerización. La exposición de las muestras de aceite a varios tiempos de calentamiento y potencia del horno microonda causó hidrólisis hacia ácidos grasos libres, aceleró la formación de hidroperóxidos y productos de oxidación secundarios. Los valores para cada test aumentaron con los ajustes de potencia del horno microonda y el tiempo de calentamiento. En general, el desarrollo de la rancidez para aceite de semilla de algodón refinado calentado por microonda fue 2 veces más rápido que el producido por calentamiento convencional. También, los índices químicos para aceites de semilla de algodón refinado fueron

  11. Acute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation, as compared with non-flavonoid white chocolate, by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yumi; Funabashi, Nobusada; Lee, Kwangho; Murayama, Taichi; Nakamura, Koki; Wakatsuki, Yu; Daimon, Masao; Komuro, Issei

    2009-01-24

    To assess the effects of the oral intake of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on coronary circulation, we measured coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, single-blind design conducted for 2 weeks in 39 healthy men (mean age 29.7+/-3.9 years, range 23-40 years). Subjects were randomly assigned a daily intake of either flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (Meiji Black Chocolate 45 g, Meiji Seika kaisya Ltd, including cacao polyphenol 550 mg/day, 200 kcal) or non-flavonoid white chocolate (Meiji White Chocolate 35 g, Meiji Seika kaisya Ltd, including cacao polyphenol 0 mg/day, 140 kcal) as a control. CFVR was recorded by TTDE, and assessed before and after 2 weeks of intake. At the same time, we also assessed serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, 8-isoprostanes, and malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) as markers of oxidative stress. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate consumption significantly improved CFVR (3.38+/-0.49 before intake, 4.28+/-0.85 after intake; pchocolate consumption did not (3.28+/-0.49 before intake, 3.16+/-0.49 after intake; p=0.44). All predictor variables were used as dependent variables in a multiple regression model of the incremental change in CFVR after 2 weeks of chocolate intake. Intake of dark (but not white) chocolate, MDA-LDL, triglyceride (TG) and heart rate (HR) significantly influenced the change of CFVR after 2 weeks of intake (pchocolate intake, X1=intake of dark (but not white) chocolate, X2=MDA-LDL, X3=TG, X4=HR). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake significantly improved coronary circulation in healthy adults, independent of changes in oxidative stress parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile, whereas non-flavonoid white chocolate had no such effects.

  12. Comparing ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills for an asphaltenic, a waxy and a light crude oil as a function of weathering conditions under arctic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan; Villumsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    In situ burning of oil spills in the Arctic is a promising countermeasure. In spite of the research already conducted more knowledge is needed especially regarding burning of weathered oils. This paper uses a new laboratory burning cell (100 mL sample) to test three Norwegian crude oils, Grane...... (asphalthenic), Kobbe (light oil) and Norne (waxy), for ignitability as a function of ice conditions and weathering degree. The crude oils (9 L) were weathered in a laboratory basin (4.8 m3) under simulated arctic conditions (0, 50 and 90% ice cover). The laboratory burning tests show that the ignitability...... is dependent on oil composition, ice conditions and weathering degree. In open water, oil spills rapidly become “not ignitable” due to the weathering e.g. high water content and low content of residual volatile components. The slower weathering of oil spills in ice (50 and 90% ice cover) results in longer time...

  13. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding.

  14. Comparative life cycle assessment study on environmental impact of oil production from micro-algae and terrestrial oilseed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, S; Spinelli, D; Fierro, A; Dibenedetto, A; Aresta, M; Busi, E; Basosi, R

    2017-09-01

    In this study the LCA methodology is applied in order to satisfy two goals: i) to evaluate the hot spots in site-specific production chain of biodiesel from terrestrial and micro-algae feedstock; ii) to compare quantitatively, utilizing primary data, the impacts of the first generation in respect to the third generation bio-fuels. Results show that micro-algae are neither competitive yet with traditional oil crops nor with fossil fuel. The use of renewable technologies as photovoltaics and biogas self production might increase the competitiveness of micro-algae oil. Further investigations are however necessary to optimize their production chain and to increase the added value of co-products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and Comparative Characterization of Alginate-Made Microcapsules and Microspheres Containing Tomato, Seabuckthorn Juices and Pumpkin Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Csernatoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown the benefits of tomatoes, seabuckthorn juices and pumpkin oil, rich in bioactives with antioxidant capacity, in the prevention of prostate diseases. To stabilize their antioxidant activity, microencapsulation represent a good technological alternative, improving the stability and bioavailability of bioactive molecules ( phenolic derivatives, carotenoids, phytosterols, vitamins.   The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize microspheres and microcapsules based on emulsions made of natural polymers like Natrium alginate mixed with tomato and/or seabuckthorn juices, with or without pumpkin oil.  The viscosity of emulsions, the morphology of microcapsules and microspheres were characterized comparatively and the bioactives were monitored by UV-Vis spectrometry.  In the lipophilic extract there were identified, before and after encapsulation, different classes of compounds, from lipids, to phenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids and carotenoids. Carotenoids were the major components having concentrations from 9.16 up to 19.71 mg/100 g sample. The viscosity of  each emulsion including juices, oil and natrium alginate 2%, before encapsulation, showed differences, dependent on the oil addition and speed of homogenization. The macroscopic and microscopic structure of microspheres and microcapsules were comparatively evaluated. Both microspheres and microcapsules had external diameters  ranging from 750 to 900 μm and the microcapsules’ oily core of 150-180 μm. The results obtained from emulsion’s viscosity will be correlated with the rigidity and optimal release rate of bioactive molecules from microcapsules and microspheres.  Further studies are directed towards these aspects.

  16. Bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis in Vietnam: a randomized controlled trial comparing vitrectomy with silicone oil versus vitrectomy alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tan Do,1 Do N Hon,1 Tin Aung,2 Nguyen DTN Hien,1 Claude L Cowan Jr3 1Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore; 3Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA Background/aims: To compare treatment outcomes with and without silicone oil tamponade in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV for severe endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (BEE. Methods: One hundred and eight consecutive patients with severe BEE (defined by the absence of pupil red reflex at presentation and/or dense vitreous opacity on ultrasound and no improvement after 24–36 hours of medical treatment were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: Group 1, standard PPV with intravitreal antibiotics; and Group 2, PPV with intravitreal antibiotics and silicone tamponade. Overall success was defined as: a visual acuity ≥ count fingers at 1 meter, with an attached retina, and no intraocular oil. Results: Fifty three patients were randomized to Group 1 and 55 patients to Group 2. The mean age of study subjects was 32 years and baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. At the final follow-up visit at 9 months, the overall success rate of Group 2 (67.3% was significantly better than Group 1 (43.4%; P=0.01. There were also fewer devastating complications (such as inoperable retinal detachment, phthisis bulbi in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (21.8% versus 43.4%; P=0.01. Conclusion: The outcome at 9 months of patients with BEE treated by vitrectomy with silicone oil was better than those treated by vitrectomy alone. Keywords: bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis, vitrectomy, silicone oil endotamponade, randomized controlled trial

  17. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis of Streptomyces tsukubaensis reveals the metabolic mechanism of FK506 overproduction by feeding soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Jin, Lina; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2017-03-01

    FK506 (tacrolimus) is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that possesses powerful immunosuppressant activity. In this study, feeding soybean oil into the fermentation culture of Streptomyces tsukubaensis improved FK506 production by 88.8%. To decipher the overproduction mechanism, comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis was carried out. A total of 72 protein spots with differential expression in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), and 66 intracellular metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analysis of proteome and metabolome indicated that feeding soybean oil as a supplementary carbon source could not only strengthen the FK506 precursor metabolism and energy metabolism but also tune the pathways related to transcriptional regulation, translation, and stress response, suggesting a better intracellular metabolic environment for the synthesis of FK506. Based on these analyses, 20 key metabolites and precursors of FK506 were supplemented into the soybean oil medium. Among them, lysine, citric acid, shikimic acid, and malonic acid performed excellently for promoting the FK506 production and biomass. Especially, the addition of malonic acid achieved the highest FK506 production, which was 1.56-fold of that in soybean oil medium and 3.05-fold of that in initial medium. This report represented the first comprehensive study on the comparative proteomics and metabolomics applied in S. tsukubaensis, and it would be a rational guidance to further strengthen the FK506 production.

  18. Protein/energy ratios of current diets in developed and developing countries compared with a safe protein/energy ratio: implications for recommended protein and amino acid intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, D Joe; Jackson, Alan A

    2004-05-01

    Revised estimates of protein and amino acid requirements are under discussion by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organizaion (WHO), and have been proposed in a recent report on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from the USA. The nature and magnitude of these requirements are not entirely resolved, and no consideration has been given to the potential influence of metabolic adaptation on dietary requirements. We have examined the implications of these new values, and of the conceptual metabolic framework in which they are used, for defining the nutritional adequacy of protein intakes in developed and developing countries. We have expressed proposed values for protein requirements in relation to energy requirements, predicted for physical activity levels of 1.5, 1.75 and 2.0 times basal metabolic rate, in order to generate reference ratios for protein energy/total energy (reference P/E ratio) as a function of age, body weight, gender and physical activity level. Proposed values for amino acid requirements have been used to adjust the available digestible P/E ratio of foods and diets for protein quality. Focusing on the diets of UK omnivores and vegetarians and on diets in India, the risk of protein deficiency is evaluated from a comparison of P/E ratios of metabolic requirements with protein-quality-adjusted P/E ratios of intakes. A qualitative and conservative estimate of risk of deficiency is made by comparing the adjusted P/E ratio of the intake with a reference P/E ratio calculated for age, body weight, gender and physical activity according to FAO/WHO/United Nations University. A semi-quantitative estimate of risk of deficiency has also been made by the cut point approach, calculated as the proportion of the intake distribution below the mean P/E ratio of the requirement. Values for the quality-adjusted P/E ratio of the diet range from 0.126 for the UK omnivore diet to 0.054 for a rice-based diet of adults in West Bengal, which is lysine

  19. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (Pomega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, Pomega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown.

  20. Rapid detection of authenticity and adulteration of walnut oil by FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingning; Wang, Haixia; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Ouyang, Jie; Wu, Yanwen

    2015-08-15

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy combined with soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least square (PLS) were used to detect the authenticity of walnut oil and adulteration amount of soybean oil in walnut oil. A SIMCA model of FTIR spectra could differentiate walnut oil and other oils into separate categories; the classification limit of soybean oil in walnut oil was 10%. Fluorescence spectroscopy could differentiate oil composition by the peak position and intensity of emission spectrum without multivariate analysis. The classification limit of soybean oil adulterated in walnut oil by fluorescence spectroscopy was below 5%. The deviation of the prediction model for fluorescence spectra was lower than that for FTIR spectra. Fluorescence spectroscopy was more applicable than FTIR in the adulteration detection of walnut oil, both from the determination limit and prediction deviation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual pigments and oil droplets in diurnal lizards: a comparative study of Caribbean anoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Ellis R; Fleishman, Leo J; Foster, Russell G; Provencio, Ignacio

    2002-04-01

    We report microspectrophotometric (MSP) data for the visual pigments and oil droplets of 17 species of Caribbean anoline lizard known to live in differing photic habitats and having distinctly different dewlap colors. The outgroup Polychrus marmoratus was also examined to gain insight into the ancestral condition. Except for Anolis carolinensis, which is known to use vitamin A(2) as its visual pigment chromophore, all anoline species examined possessed at least four vitamin-A(1)-based visual pigments with maximum absorbance (lambda(max)) at 564, 495, 455 and 365 nm. To the previously reported visual pigments for A. carolinensis we add an ultraviolet-sensitive one with lambda(max) at 365 nm. Five common classes of oil droplet were measured, named according to apparent color and associated with specific cone classes - yellow and green in long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones, green only in medium-wavelength-sensitive (MWS) cones and colorless in short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) and ultraviolet-sensitive (UVS) cones. MSP data showed that the colorless droplet in the SWS cone had significant absorption between 350 and 400 nm, while the colorless droplet in the UVS cone did not. The pattern for Polychrus marmoratus was identical to that for the anoles except for the presence of a previously undescribed visual cell with a rod-like outer segment, a visual pigment with a lambda(max) of 497 nm and a colorless oil droplet like that in the UVS cones. These findings suggest that anoline visual pigments, as far as they determine visual system spectral sensitivity, are not necessarily adapted to the photic environment or to the color of significant visual targets (e.g. dewlaps).

  2. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic? Diets enriched with olive, rapeseed, or sunflower oil affect postprandial factor VII differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  3. Problems of coal burn in cement ovens, compared with heavy fuel oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucchi, R.; Botti, R.

    1981-10-01

    The article examines the main problems associated with the use of coal or natural gas in place of heavy fuel oil to heat cement ovens. As regards combustion, the heat loss increases with coal and natural gas and consequently the specific primary energy consumption rises. With respect to treatment, the authors examine the effect of the sulphur, alkalis and chlorides present in the three types of fuel in question. The topic of atmospheric pollution by dust and oxides of nitrogen is also dealt with. (45 refs.) (In Italian)

  4. Remediation of floating, open water oil spills: Comparative efficacy of commercially available polypropylene sorbent booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Ed L.

    1991-03-01

    Several complex methods of remediation are applied to open water oil spills. Sorbing the liquid hydrocarbons with polypropylene booms is an effective and less complex means of treating such events. There are, however, a variety of commercially available booms which display different performances in sorbing different viscosity hydrocarbons. There is no acceptable A.S.T.M. protocol to evaluate these booms for performance efficiency in various weather and hydrocarbon viscosity scenarios. The current paper proposes such a protocol and evaluates the most commonly used sorbent products with the new test procedures. Nine specific performance criteria, based on actual field applications, are demonstrated.

  5. Rice Bran Oil Compared to Atorvastatin for Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Shakib

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The use of rice bran oil together with dietary modifications may have implications in lowering fasting and postprandial blood glucose, suppressing serum lipid levels, reduce the TC/HDL-C ratio and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, RBO exerts a hypouricemic action and anti-inflammatory effects. The findings obtained from the current study reinforce the use of RBO as an alternative natural potent hypolipidemic agent safer than atorvastatin drug that may induce side effects in some cases in patients intolerant to statins.

  6. The comparative metrological estimation of methods of emission spectral analysis for wear products in aviation oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alchimov, A.B.; Drobot, S.I.; Drokov, V.G.; Zarubin, V.P.; Kazmirov, A.D.; Skodaev, Y.D.; Podrezov, A.M. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The comparison of different spectral methods of analysis for wear diagnostics of aircraft engines has been carried out. It is shown that known techniques of determination of metals content in aviation oils with the use the spectrometers MFS (Russia) and MOA (USA) give a low accuracy of measurements. As an alternative the method of wear diagnostics on the base of a scintillation spectrometer is suggested. This method possess far better metrological properties in comparison with those on the base of the spectrometer MFS and MOA. (orig.) 6 refs.

  7. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (Pintake than the control throughout the day. There were no significant differences in satiety from visual analog scale scores (P>.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing Various Type of Natural Fibers as Filler in TPU: Mechanical Properties, Morphological and Oil Absorption Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Nor Azwin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of using natural fibers as filler in various polymers has been extensively studied. Various types of natural fibers and polymers have been identified and it can be varied according to the particular application and the two main composite materials will have advantages and disadvantages of each. However, natural fibers are usually selected as filler because it is readily available and environmentally friendly, inexpensive, non-toxic, biodegradable and still have good characteristics for a variety of uses. In this study, four types of natural fiber have been used which; coconut shell, coconut fiber, corn cob, and pineapple skin, as fillers in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU. The mixing process conducted through melt mixing techniques. The percentage of TPU and natural fibers are 100/0, 95/5, 90/10 and 85/15. Different type of fiber will affect the mechanical properties of the composites and have been studied through tensile testing. It showed that the result for pineapple fiber at 5% was the highest and can also be related to the characterizations of this composite that have been studied via the SEM morphology. Swelling testing is also having been done to prove the absorbency ability by natural fiber composites in cooking oil and engine oil. Then it concluded that the pineapple fiber absorbed large amount of both oil compared to others.

  9. Morphology of autogenous bone graft and castor oil polyurethane in the infraorbital rim of rabbits: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça José Carlos Garcia de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Morphological study comparing castor oil polyurethane and autogenous bone graft to repair bone defect in zygomatic bone of rabbits. METHODS: Twenty-four adult, male New Zealand rabbits were randomly distributed between two groups of twelve. Bone defects of 5mm in diameter were cut through the zygomatic bone and filled with polyurethane discs in the experimental group or autogenous bone harvested from the tibia in the control group. Animals were sacrificed after 30, 60 or 90 days, and the zygomatic bones were macro- and microscopically analyzed. Student's, Fisher's, chi-squared and McNemar's tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Both the castor oil polyurethane and the autograft adapted well to the defect, with no need for fixation. Fibrous connective tissue encapsulated the polyurethane, but no inflammation or giant cell reaction was observed. Acidophilic and basophilic areas were observed inside the micropores of the polyurethane, suggesting cell nuclei. After 90 days, bone repair with a lamellar pattern of organization was observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: The castor oil polyurethane was biocompatible and did not cause inflammation. It may be considered an alternative to fill bone defects.

  10. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (Pmilk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (Pmilk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (Pmilk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (Pmilk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (Pmilk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6 to 11), trans-18:2, CLA (cis-9,trans

  11. Comparable lumefantrine oral bioavailability when co-administered with oil-fortified maize porridge or milk in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebaza, Norah; Jerling, Markus; Gustafsson, Lars L; Obua, Celestino; Waako, Paul; Mahindi, Margarita; Ntale, Muhammad; Beck, Olof; Hellgren, Urban

    2013-07-01

    Co-administration of artemether-lumefantrine with milk is recommended to improve lumefantrine (L) absorption but milk may not be available in resource-limited settings. This study explored the effects of cheap local food in Uganda on oral bioavailability of lumefantrine relative to milk. In an open-label, four-period crossover study, 13 healthy adult volunteers were randomized to receive a single oral dose of artemether-lumefantrine (80 mg artemether/480 mg lumefantrine) with water, milk, maize porridge or maize porridge with oil on separate occasions. Plasma lumefantrine was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic exposure parameters were determined by non-compartmental methods using WinNonlin. Peak concentrations (Cmax ) and area under concentration-time curve restricted to 48 hr after single dosing (AUC(0-48) ) were selected for relative bioavailability evaluations using confidence interval approach for average bioequivalence. Lumefantrine exposure was comparable in milk and maize porridge plus oil study groups. When artemether-lumefantrine was administered with maize porridge plus oil, average bioequivalence ranges (means ratios 90% CI, 0.84-1.88 and 0.85-1.69 for Cmax and AUC(0-48) , respectively) were within and exceeded acceptance ranges relative to milk (90% CI, 0.80-1.25). Both fasted and maize porridge groups demonstrated similarly much lower ranges of lumefantrine exposures (bioinequivalence) relative to milk. If milk is not available, it is thus possible to recommend fortification of carbohydrate-rich food with little fat (maize porridge plus vegetable oil) to achieve similarly optimal absorption of lumefantrine after artemether-lumefantrine administration.

  12. Comparative antilipidemic effect of N-acetylcysteine and sesame oil administration in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzas Theodoros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of novel antilipidemic therapies under consideration. The putative hypolipidemic effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC and sesame oil was studied in a mouse model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Methods Male C57bl/6 mice were assigned to the following groups: (NC control group, (HC group receiving test diet supplemented with 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 8 weeks, (HCN group receiving the test diet with NAC supplementation (230 mg/kg p.o. and (HCS group fed the test diet enriched with 10% sesame oil. Total serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Total peroxides and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured in the serum at the end of the experiment. Hepatic and aortic lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Results Higher serum levels of total and LDL-cholesterol were recorded in all groups fed the high cholesterol diet. The HCN group presented reduced lipid levels compared to HC and HCS groups. No differences were observed between HCS and HC groups. Peroxide content in serum was markedly increased in mice consuming high cholesterol diet. NAC and sesame oil administration led to a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation in the levels of control group, whereas only NAC restored NO bioavailability. In terms of liver histology, the lesions observed in HCN group were less severe than those seen in the other high cholesterol groups. Conclusion Co-administration of NAC, but not sesame oil, restored the disturbed lipid profile and improved hepatic steatosis in the studied diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice. Both agents appear to ameliorate serum antioxidant defense.

  13. Comparative molecular docking analysis of essential oil constituents as elastase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamani, Periyasamy; Singaravelu, Ganesan; Thiagarajan, Venkatesan; Jayalakshmi, Tamilarasu; Ramesh Kumar, Gopal

    2012-01-01

    Elastase is a protease or proteolytic enzyme, responsible for the breakdown of protein. There are eight human genes encoding for elastase, of which Elastase-1 (CELA-1) and Elastase-2 (ELANE) has significant implications on human diseases. Elastase-1 is primarily expressed in skin keratinocytes and is regarded as the major cause for the blistering in bullous pemphigoid, which affects the skin. On the other hand, Elastase-2 (ELANE), is expressed in the azurophil granules of neutrophils, is responsible for pulmonary emphysema and cyclic hematopoiesis a rare genetic disorder. Elastase is also produced by bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and forms the virulent factor in human. The ingredients from essential natural oils were found to have wound healing effects on non-healing wounds that is interfered by elastase due to microbial infection. Essential oils such as citral, citronellal, geranial, geraniol, and thymol were screened for their inhibitory activity on elastase produced by neutrophil, skin, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by docking and were analyzed for their subcutaneous ADMET properties by ADME - TOX - Web server.

  14. Comparative study on the radioactivity of TE-NORM in different components of oil separator tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attallah, M.F.; Awwad, N.S.; Aly, H.F. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories and Management Center (HLWMC); El Afifi, E.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories and Management Center (HLWMC); Sebha Univ. (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Faculty of Engineering and Technology

    2013-03-01

    Natural radioactivity in the crude oil, produced water, sludge and scale wastes from the petroleum industry on the Suez gulf (Abu Redeis), Egypt were investigated. A low radioactivity was found in the produced water and crude oil samples. In the sludge waste samples, the levels of radioactivity were found to be 11.96 and 1.75 kBq kg{sup -1} for Ra-226 (of U-series) and Ra-228 (of Th-series), respectively. In the scale waste samples, the levels of radioactivity were 11.7 and 4.2 kBq kg{sup -1} for Ra-226 and Ra-228, respectively. Leaching of different radionuclides in the sludge and scale wastes was investigated using mineral acid alone or after treatment with certain carbonate solutions. The different parameters affecting the treatment were optimized. It is found that high removal of Ra-226 was achieved from sludge and scale wastes when pretreated with 10% sodium carbonate solution, followed by acid dissolution. Removal % of Ra-226 reached 77 and 87% from the sludge and scale wastes, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Production of furfural from palm oil empty fruit bunches: kinetic model comparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaitan, J. R. H.; Monica, S.; Gozan, M.

    2017-05-01

    Furfural is a chemical compound that can be applied to pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, resins and cleaning compound which can be produced by acid hydrolysis of biomass. Indonesia’s demand for furfural in 2010 reached 790 tons that still imported mostly 72% from China. In this study, reaction kinetic models of furfural production from oil palm empty fruit bunches with submitting acid catalyst at the beginning of the experiment will be determine. Kinetic data will be obtained from hydrolysis of empty oil palm bunches using sulfuric acid catalyst 3% at temperature 170°C, 180°C and 190°C for 20 minutes. From this study, the kinetic model to describe the production of furfural is the kinetic model where generally hydrolysis reaction with an acid catalyst in hemicellulose and furfural will produce the same decomposition product which is formic acid with different reaction pathways. The activation energy obtained for the formation of furfural, the formation of decomposition products from furfural and the formation of decomposition products from hemicellulose is 8.240 kJ/mol, 19.912 kJ/mol and -39.267 kJ / mol.

  16. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Floret and Fruit Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok S.Y.; Ong-Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes are expected when flowers are fertilized and fruit formation is initiated.In this study,differentially expressed proteins between florets (day before pollination and day after pollination) and fruit (2 weeks after pollination) tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were identified and characterized.Proteins were extracted using phenol-based method and subjected to one-and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts showed a number of protein bands common to both types of floret and fruit tissues.Subsequently,protein extracts resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in the 4 to 7 pH range revealed about 53 expressed proteins showed significant differences during fertilization and fruit formation.The differentially expressed proteins were excised and digested with trypsin.Proteins were then identified with the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS),resulting in a 73.5% success in protein identification.The identified proteins were mainly involved in protein metabolism,biological regulation,stress response and oxidationreduction process.Further verification of the results are underway but nonetheless this study has provided some valuable information on fertilization and early fruit formation in oil palm.

  17. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activities of fourteen mentha essential oils and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzmann, Judith; Habegger, Ruth; Schnitzler, Wilfried H; Grassmann, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The essential oils of 14 species and hybrids, respectively, of the genus Mentha were examined for their antioxidant capacity in the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assay and in a lipid-peroxidation (LPO) assay. The ABTS(.+) -scavenging capacity of pure essential-oil components and mixtures of them was also tested. In both assays, Mentha×dumetorum (classification not fully confirmed), Mentha suaveolens, and Mentha×villosa (classification not fully confirmed) showed the highest antioxidant capacity, which was ascribed to the components germacrene D, piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide. The high antioxidant activity in the LPO assay of the two hybrids Mentha×gracilis and, to a lower degree, of Mentha×dalmatica (classification not fully confirmed) was ascribed to their high contents of cis-ocimene and β-caryophyllene. Of the pure components tested (germacrene D, piperitone oxide, and piperitenone oxide were not tested, as not commercially available), only cis-ocimene showed a distinct antioxidant effect, whereas dihydrocarvone and linalool had pro-oxidant effects in the ABTS assay.

  18. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka

    2013-01-01

    . For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake...

  19. Intake of fish oil during pregnancy and adiposity in 19-y-old offspring: follow-up on a randomized controlled trial1234

    OpenAIRE

    Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil H.; Christensen, Jeppe H; Schmidt, Erik B.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is well established that obesity tends to track from early childhood into adult life. Studies in experimental animals have suggested that changes in the peri- and early postnatal intake of n−3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated acids can affect the development of obesity in adult life.

  20. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  1. Comparative evaluation of the effect of sweet orange oil-diesel blend on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S. M. Ashrafur; Hossain, F. M.; Van, Thuy Chu; Dowell, Ashley; Islam, M. A.; Rainey, Thomas J.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, global demand for essential oils was 165 kt and it is expected to grow 8.5% per annum up to 2022. Every year Australia produces approximately 1.5k tonnes of essential oils such as tea tree, orange, lavender, eucalyptus oil, etc. Usually essential oils come from non-fatty areas of plants such as the bark, roots, heartwood, leaves and the aromatic portions (flowers, fruits) of the plant. For example, orange oil is derived from orange peel using various extraction methods. Having similar properties to diesel, essential oils have become promising alternate fuels for diesel engines. The present study explores the opportunity of using sweet orange oil in a compression ignition engine. Blends of sweet orange oil-diesel (10% sweet orange oil, 90% diesel) along with neat diesel fuel were used to operate a six-cylinder diesel engine (5.9 litres, common rail, Euro-III, compression ratio 17.3:1). Some key fuel properties such as: viscosity, density, heating value, and surface tension are presented. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption) and emission parameters (CO, NOX, and Particulate Matter) were measured to evaluate running with the blends. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm (maximum torque condition) with different loads. The results from the property analysis showed that sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibits lower density, viscosity and surface tension and slightly higher calorific value compared to neat diesel fuel. Also, from the engine test, the sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibited slightly higher brake specific fuel consumption, particulate mass and particulate number; however, the blend reduced the brake specific CO emission slightly and brake specific NOX emission significantly compared to that of neat diesel.

  2. Consumo, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com óleo de soja e diferentes fontes de carboidratos na dieta Effects of different carbohydrates sources and soybean oil on intake, milk yield, and milk composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-02-01

    with 0 or 2.25% of soybean oil. No significant interactions between soybean oil and carbohydrate sources were observed in this trial. Both dry matter intake (18.4 kg/day and milk yield (23.5 kg/day did not differ among carbohydrate sources but cows fed WB had higher NDF intake and lower apparent total tract digestibilities of OM, total carbohydrates, and milk lactose content. Neither carbohydrate sources nor soybean oil changed significantly the ruminal microbial protein synthesis that averaged 239.4 g N/day. Cows fed diets supplemented with soybean oil showed lower dry matter intake (19.0 vs. 17.8 kg/day and contents of milk lactose (4.49 vs. 4.33% and milk fat (3.34 vs. 3.13% compared to those with no soybean oil in the diet. Oil diets showed no differences on milk production, milk protein content, digestibility of nutrients, and microbial protein synthesis. In addition, supplementation with soybean oil improved feed efficiency (1.35 vs. 1.23 and the milk protein:milk fat ratio (0.94 vs. 1.00. It can be concluded that for cows yielding up to 24 kg of milk per day WB and CP can economically replace CO in the concentrate. Inclusion of soybean oil in the diet changed milk composition and decreased dry matter intake but maintain milk yield, which improved feed efficiency.

  3. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (Pextraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  4. Adult cranberry beverage consumers have healthier macronutrient intakes and measures of body composition compared to non-consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Sutherland, Lisa A

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005-2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers.

  5. Castor oil and commercial thermoplastic polyurethane membranes modified with polyaniline: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose Humberto Santos; Meneguzzi, Alvaro; Ferreira, Carlos Arthur, E-mail: jhsajunior@globomail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegtre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Bertuol, Daniel Assumpcao [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Amado, Franco Dani Rico [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2013-11-01

    The study of conducting polymeric membranes is decisive in some areas, as in fuel cells and electrodialysis. This work aims the study of membranes using conventional and conductive polymers blends. Two types of polyurethane were used as conventional polymers, commercial thermoplastic polyurethane and polyurethane synthesized from castor oil and 4-4-dicyclohexylmethane isocyanate. Two kinds of conducting polymers were used, polyaniline doped with organic acid and a self doped polyaniline. The polymers and the membranes were characterized by electrical conductivity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis of the membranes produced was proper, featuring a complete reaction, analyzed by FTIR. The membranes also showed good mechanical properties and thermal stability ( Almost-Equal-To 220 Degree-Sign C). Among the membranes studied, the polyaniline doped with p-toluenesulphonic acid obtained higher thermal and viscoelastic properties. Thus they can be used in separation techniques using membranes. (author)

  6. A comparative study on the membrane based palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Chong, M F; Bhatia, S

    2009-11-15

    The discharge of palm oil mill effluent (POME) causes serious pollution problems and the membrane based POME treatment is suggested as a solution. Three different designs, namely Design A, B and C distinguished by their different types and orientations of membrane system are proposed. The results at optimum condition proved that the quality of the recovered water for all the designs met the effluent discharge standards imposed by the Department of Environment (DOE). The economic analysis at the optimum condition shows that the total treatment cost for Design A was the highest (RM 115.11/m(3)), followed by Design B (RM 23.64/m(3)) and Design C (RM 7.03/m(3)). In this study, the membrane system operated at high operating pressure with low membrane unit cost is preferable. Design C is chosen as the optimal design for the membrane based POME treatment system based on the lowest total treatment cost.

  7. Castor oil and commercial thermoplastic polyurethane membranes modified with polyaniline: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Santos Almeida Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of conducting polymeric membranes is decisive in some areas, as in fuel cells and electrodialysis. This work aims the study of membranes using conventional and conductive polymers blends. Two types of polyurethane were used as conventional polymers, commercial thermoplastic polyurethane and polyurethane synthesized from castor oil and 4-4-dicyclohexylmethane isocyanate. Two kinds of conducting polymers were used, polyaniline doped with organic acid and a self doped polyaniline. The polymers and the membranes were characterized by electrical conductivity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The synthesis of the membranes produced was proper, featuring a complete reaction, analyzed by FTIR. The membranes also showed good mechanical properties and thermal stability (≈ 220 °C. Among the membranes studied, the polyaniline doped with p-toluenesulphonic acid obtained higher thermal and viscoelastic properties. Thus they can be used in separation techniques using membranes.

  8. Comparing Parameter Estimation Techniques for an Electrical Power Transformer Oil Temperature Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines various sources of error in MIT's improved top oil temperature rise over ambient temperature model and estimation process. The sources of error are the current parameter estimation technique, quantization noise, and post-processing of the transformer data. Results from this paper will show that an output error parameter estimation technique should be selected to replace the current least squares estimation technique. The output error technique obtained accurate predictions of transformer behavior, revealed the best error covariance, obtained consistent parameter estimates, and provided for valid and sensible parameters. This paper will also show that the output error technique should be used to minimize errors attributed to post-processing (decimation) of the transformer data. Models used in this paper are validated using data from a large transformer in service.

  9. Utilização de óleo de soja em rações para vacas leiteiras no período de transição: consumo, produção e composição do leite Use of soybean oil for dairy cows during transition period: Intake, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Domingos Ferreira Santos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas leiteiras sob suplementação com óleo de soja durante o período de transição. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas da raça Holandesa, multíparas e gestantes, distribuídas aleatoriamente em duas rações: controle, com 2,5% de extrato etéreo (EE na matéria seca (MS; e gordura, com adição de 3,0% de óleo de soja e 5,5% de EE na MS. Os valores médios de consumo de MS e nutrientes não diferiram no período pré e pós-parto nas vacas das dietas controle e com óleo de soja, exceto no maior consumo de EE, em decorrência da maior concentração desse nutriente na dieta com óleo. Em virtude da maior densidade energética da ração com óleo de soja, as vacas apresentaram maior consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais e energia líquida no pós-parto. Não foi observada alteração nas produções de leite e gordura, no entanto, observou-se redução do teor de gordura do leite nas vacas da ração com óleo de soja em relação àquelas da ração controle. As rações utilizadas não influenciaram o consumo, mas a dieta com óleo de soja aumentou a ingestão de energia líquida e melhorou o balanço de nutrientes no início da lactação. Foi observado aumento não-significativo (+ 2,53 kg/dia na produção de leite das vacas da dieta com óleo de soja.The objective of this study was to evaluate the productivity of dairy cows supplemented with soybean oil during the transition period. Twenty multiparous and pregnant Holstein cows were randomly allocated to two diets: control (C, 2.5% ether extract (EE in the dry matter (DM; and fat (G, with the addition of 3% soybean oil, and 5.5% EE in the dry matter. The average values for intake were not different in the pre- and post-partum for cows on the control and fat diets except for an increase in EE intake due to great concentration of this nutrient in the soybean oil diet. Due to the higher energy density of the fat diet, cows had

  10. Total Energy Intake May Be More Associated with Glycemic Control Compared to Each Proportion of Macronutrients in the Korean Diabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMajor macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans.MethodsA total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%. Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire.ResultsHigh total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002. Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted.ConclusionTotal energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  11. Decreased aortic early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters fed oleic acid-rich TriSun oil compared to linoleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Robert J.; Wilson, Thomas A.; Handelman, Garry; Foxall, Thomas; Keaney, John F.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2002-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that low density lipoprotein (LDL) enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are more susceptible to oxidation (ex vivo) than those containing monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). To test whether this observation was associated with various parameters considered to be related with the development of early aortic atherosclerosis, hamsters were fed commercial hypercholesterolemic diets (HCD) containing either the PUFA, sunflower oil (SF) or the MUFA, TriSun oil (TS) at 10% with 0.4% cholesterol (wt/wt). LDL isolated from hamsters fed TS had significantly longer lag phase (30%, P < 0.05), a decreased propagation phase (-62%, P < 0.005), and fewer conjugated dienes formed (-37%, P < 0.007) compared to hamsters fed SF. Aortic vasomotor function, measured as degree of aortic relaxation, was significantly greater in the TS vs SF-fed hamsters whether acetylcholine or the calcium ionophore A23187 was used as the endothelium-dependent agonist. As a group, the SF-fed hamsters had significantly more early atherosclerosis than hamsters fed TS (46%, P < 0.006). When animals across the two diets were pair-matched by plasma LDL-C levels, there was an 82% greater mean difference (P < 0.002) in early atherosclerosis in the SF versus the TS-fed hamsters. While there were no significant associations with plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol, early atherosclerosis was significantly correlated with lag phase (r = -0.67, p < 0.02), rate of LDL conjugated diene formation (r = 0.74, p < 0.006) and maximum dienes formed (r = 0.67, p < 0.02). Compared to TS-fed animals, aortic sections from hamsters fed the SF-containing diet revealed that the cytoplasm of numerous foam cells in the subendothelial space reacted positively with the monoclonal anti-bodies MDA-2 and NA59 antibody, epitopes found on oxidized forms of LDL. The present study suggests that compared to TS, hamsters fed the SF-diet demonstrated enhanced LDL oxidative susceptibility, reduced

  12. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  13. The effects of the Danish saturated fat tax on food and nutrient intake and modelled health outcomes: an econometric and comparative risk assessment evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smed, S; Scarborough, P; Rayner, M; Jensen, J D

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends governments to consider the use of fiscal policies to promote healthy eating. However, there is very limited evidence of the effect of food taxation in a real-life setting, as most evidence is based on simulation studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the Danish tax on saturated fat in terms of changes in nutritional quality of the diet, that is, changes in saturated fat consumption, as well as other non-targeted dietary measures, and to model the associated changes in mortality for different age groups and genders. On the basis of household scanner data, we estimate the impact of the tax on consumption of saturated fat, unsaturated fat, salt, fruit, vegetables and fibre. The resultant changes in dietary quality are then used as inputs into a comparative risk assessment model (PRIME (Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl)) to estimate the effect of these changes on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mortality. The tax resulted in a 4.0% reduction in saturated fat intake. Vegetable consumption increased, and salt consumption increased for most individuals, except younger females. We find a modelled reduction in mortality with 123 lives saved annually, 76 of them below 75 years equal to 0.4% of all deaths from NCDs. Modelling the effect of the changes in diet on health outcomes suggests that the saturated fat tax made a positive, but minor, contribution to public health in Denmark.

  14. Comparative Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Amended Tropical Soil Microcosms by Natural Attenuation, Bioaugmentation, or Bioenrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Marques Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is an efficient strategy for cleaning up sites contaminated with organic pollutants. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of monitored natural attenuation, bioenrichment, and bioaugmentation using a consortium of three actinomycetes strains in remediating two distinct typical Brazilian soils from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes that were contaminated with crude oil, with or without the addition of NaCl. Microcosms were used to simulate bioremediation treatments over a 120-day period. During this period, we monitored total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs and n-alkanes degradation and changes in bacterial communities. Over time, we found the degradation rate of n-alkanes was higher than TPH in both soils, independent of the treatment used. In fact, our data show that the total bacterial community in the soils was mainly affected by the experimental period of time, while the type of bioremediation treatment used was the main factor influencing the actinomycetes populations in both soils. Based on these data, we conclude that monitored natural attenuation is the best strategy for remediation of the two tropical soils studied, with or without salt addition.

  15. Comparative mesocosm study of biostimulation efficiency in two different oil-amended sub-antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delille, Daniel; Coulon, Frédéric

    2008-08-01

    Biological treatment has become increasingly popular as a remediation method for soils and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Bioremediation has been considered for application in cold regions such as Arctic and sub-Arctic climates and Antarctica. Studies to date suggest that indigenous microbes suitable for bioremediation exist in soils in these regions. This paper reports on two case studies at the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Island in which indigenous bacteria were found that were capable of mineralizing petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with crude oil and diesel fuel. All results demonstrate a serious influence of the soil properties on the biostimulation efficiency. Both temperature elevation and fertilizer addition have a more significant impact on the microbial assemblages in the mineral soil than in the organic one. Analysis of the hydrocarbons remaining at the end of the experiments confirmed the bacterial observations. Optimum temperature seems to be around 10 degrees C in organic soil, whereas it was higher in mineral soil. The benefit of adding nutrients was much stronger in mineral than in the organic soil. Overall, this study suggests that biostimulation treatments were driven by soil properties and that ex situ bioremediation for treatment of cold contaminated soils will allow greater control over soil temperature, a limiting factor in cold climates.

  16. Comparative Biochemical and Proteomic Analyses of Soybean Seed Cultivars Differing in Protein and Oil Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chul Woo; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, So Wun; Lee, So Eui; Kim, Yong Chul; Bae, Dong Won; Han, Won Young; Lee, Byong Won; Ko, Jong Min; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-08-19

    This study develops differential protein profiles of soybean (Glycine max) seeds (cv. Saedanbaek and Daewon) varying in protein (47.9 and 39.2%) and oil (16.3 and 19.7%) content using protamine sulfate (PS) precipitation method coupled with a 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) approach. Of 71 detected differential spots between Daewon and Saedanbaek, 48 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Gene ontology analysis revealed that up-regulated proteins in Saedanbaek were largely associated with nutrient reservoir activity (42.6%), which included mainly seed-storage proteins (SSPs; subunits of glycinin and β-conglycinin). Similar results were also obtained in two cultivars of wild soybean (G. soja cv. WS22 and WS15) differing in protein content. Western blots confirmed higher accumulation of SSPs in protein-rich Saedanbaek. Findings presented and discussed in this study highlight a possible involvement of the urea cycle for increased accumulation of SSPs and hence the higher protein content in soybean seeds.

  17. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Carol E. O'Neil; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni III, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200) participating in the National Health and ...

  18. Effect of supplemented intake of omega-3 fatty acids on arrhythmias in patients with ICD: fish oil therapy may reduce ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Dalit; Beinart, Roy; Erez, Aharon; Koren-Morag, Nira; Goldenberg, Ilan; Eldar, Michael; Glikson, Michael; Luria, David

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fish oils, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on ventricular tachyarrhythmic episodes (VTEs) in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) recipients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. One hundred five ICD recipients with ischemic cardiomyopathy received 3.6 g of EPA and DHA and placebo for 6 months, each at a random order, with a 4-month washout period between treatments. Eighty-seven patients completed the 16-month study protocol. The primary end point was any VTE (including sustained and non-sustained ventricular tachycardias at a rate of >150 bpm) as recorded by the ICDs. Secondary end points included device therapy (anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) or shocks). During treatment with fish oils, there was a significant increase in EPA and DHA concentrations in red blood cells (RBCs) and subcutaneous fat tissue. Among 87 patients who completed the study protocol, the mean number of VTEs was significantly lower during treatment with fish oil (1.7) vs. placebo (5.6; p = 0.035). Appropriate device therapy for VTE occurred in 18 (21%) patients. Fish oil therapy was associated with a trend toward fewer VTEs terminated with ATP (2.8 ± 13.7 vs. 0.5 ± 2.1, respectively; p = 0.077). VTE terminated by ICD shocks, however, was rare, and rates were similar between both groups (0.11 ± 0.6 vs. 0.10 ± 0.4, p = not significant, respectively). Our data suggest that fish oil therapy may be associated with a reduction in the frequency of VTE in ICD recipients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  19. Pinolenic Acid in Structured Triacylglycerols Exhibits Superior Intestinal Lymphatic Absorption As Compared to Pinolenic Acid in Natural Pine Nut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Woo, Hyunjoon; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2017-03-01

    The positional distribution pattern of fatty acids (FAs) in the triacylglycerols (TAGs) affects intestinal absorption of these FAs. The aim of this study was to compare lymphatic absorption of pinolenic acid (PLA) present in structured pinolenic TAG (SPT) where PLA was evenly distributed on the glycerol backbone, with absorption of pine nut oil (PNO) where PLA was predominantly positioned at the sn-3 position. SPT was prepared via the nonspecific lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with free FA obtained from PNO. Lymphatic absorption of PLA from PNO and from SPT was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Significantly (P PNO (26.2 ± 0.6% dose), thereby indicating that PLA present in SPT has a greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than PLA from PNO.

  20. Comparative study of white brined cheeses obtained from whole milk and milk-olive oil emulsion: Physicochemical and sensory properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Felfoul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the physicochemical and sensory parameters of low-fat white brined cheese-like product obtained from the substitution of milk fat by milk-olive oil emulsion, in comparison with full and low-fat control cheeses. Formulated milk samples were initially pasteurized at 63 °C for 30 min, cooled down to 35 °C, and subsequently 0.35 mL L-1 of microbial rennet were added. The obtained cheeses were stored at 4 °C during 24 hours and then analyzed for physicochemical and sensory properties. The replacement of milk fat in white brined cheese resulted in a lower total solids content due to the higher water-binding capacity of fat replacers used. Fat content was significantly higher for low-fat white brined cheese-like product than in low-fat control cheese. This result was attributed to fat retention capacity of the fat replacers used. Lipolysis index was the highest in the case of low-fat white brined cheese-like product due to changes in cheese microstructure after fat replacers incorporation in low-fat products. Milk-olive oil emulsion showed the lowest cheese-making yield compared to its full and low-fat counterparts. The cheese like- product sample received a significantly lower overall impression score by the panelists than full and low-fat cheeses.

  1. Comparative study of using Water-Based mud containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes versus Oil-Based mud in HPHT fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abduo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-Based mud (WBM and Oil-Based mud (OBM are the most common drilling fluids currently used and both have several characteristics that qualify them for High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT purposes. This paper compares the different characteristics of WBM containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs and OBM to help decide the most suitable mud type for HPHT drilling by considering mud properties through several laboratory tests to generate some engineering guidelines. The tests were formulated at temperatures from 120 °F up to 500 °F and pressures from 14.7 psi to 25,000 psi. The comparison will mainly consider the rheological properties of the two mud types and will also take into account the environmental feasibility of using them. The results showing that the Water-Based offers a more environmental friendly choice yet some of additives that are used to enhance its performance at (HPHT conditions, such as (MWCNTs, thus it is necessary to develop new formulas for (HPHT Water-Based muds that could act like Oil-Based mud but cause less harm to the environment.

  2. Eyes in the sky: a comparative spatial analysis of aerial and satellite surveillance of east coast Canadian oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieske, David J. [Mount Allison University (Canada)], email: dlieske@mta.ca; Mahoney, Matthew [Environment Canada (Canada); Wilhelm, Sabina I. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada (Canada); Weir, Laurie [Marine and Ice Services, Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada (Canada); O' Hara, Patrick [Canadian Wildlife Service, Institute of Ocean Science (canada)

    2011-07-01

    This study offers an insight into three different oil spill detection schemes used in Canadian waters: visually unaided aerial surveillance, SLAR-assisted aerial surveillance, and RADARSAT-based image processing. The main purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of these schemes with respect to spill surveillance methodology, and to make recommendations for future planning techniques. In order to quantify the surveillance capacity of each method, flight paths had to be generated, followed by calculating oil loading. Flight paths were generated manually from images and records for the first approach, while this information was extracted from digitalized records for the second and third approaches. Results showed that SLAR technology increased the efficiency of NASP aircraft in spill detection by increasing the area surveyed and by its not having to rely on naked-eye spotting of the spills. Moreover, ISTOP widened the aircraft coverage range due to its satellite-based imagery, which can operate at night as well as in daylight.

  3. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Fleischer Rex

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. Objective: We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI, gender and age in an Arctic population. Design and methods: Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441 and non-Inuit (94 in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136. Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Results: Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035. Alcohol intake was associated with AST (p<0.001 and GGT (p=0.001, and HBV infection was associated with ALP (p=0.001 but not with AST, GGT, bilirubin or albumin in the adjusted analysis. Inuit had higher AST (p<0.001, GGT (p<0.001 and ALP (p=0.001 values than non-Inuit after adjustment for alcohol, diet, BMI and HBV exposure. Ethnic origin modified the association between alcohol and AST, while HBV infection did not modify the associations between alcohol and liver biochemistry. Conclusions: Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified

  4. Comparative Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Volatile Oils of Hawk Tea from Six Botanical Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bao; Zhang, Dan; Yan, Xue-Wei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Yao, Ling; Tan, Li-Hong; Zhao, Sheng-Ping; Li, Na; Cao, Wei-Guo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, volatile oils of six Hawk tea varieties were studied for their chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to screen the most suitable botanical origins of Hawk tea. A total of 72 components were separated and identified from the six oils. The major constituents of the volatile oils were: α-pinene, camphene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, cis-nerolidol, and germacrene B. Moreover, the volatile oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. The results showed that all volatile oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which suggested that these volatile oils may serve as natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants and preservatives to be applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. Principal component analysis results denoted that some major compounds may be closely related to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It also showed that the volatile oils from Litsea coreana var. lanuginosa and Litsea pungens Hemsl. were characterized by positive values of first two principal components, indicating higher active chemical compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with other species. Thus, they were temporarily considered as good sources of Hawk tea.

  5. The Olive Oil-Based Lipid Clinoleic Blocks Leukocyte Recruitment and Improves Survival during Systemic Inflammation: A Comparative In Vivo Study of Different Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Buschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fish oil-based and olive oil-based lipid emulsions have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory functions, the immunomodulating properties of lipids are still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of three different parenterally administered lipid emulsions in vivo: olive oil-based Clinoleic, fish oil-based Smoflipid, and soybean oil-based Lipofundin. We observed leukocyte recruitment in inflamed murine cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy and survival in a murine model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation and analyzed expression of leukocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules. Olive oil-based Clinoleic and fish oil-based Smoflipid profoundly inhibited leukocyte adhesion compared to Lipofundin during LPS-induced inflammation of the murine cremaster muscle. In the trauma model of cremaster muscle inflammation, Lipofundin was the only lipid emulsion that even augmented leukocyte adhesion. In contrast to Smoflipid and Lipofundin, Clinoleic effectively blocked leukocyte recruitment and increased survival during lethal endotoxemia. Flow chamber experiments and analysis of adhesion molecule expression suggest that both endothelial and leukocyte driven mechanisms might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects of Clinoleic. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of Clinoleic are superior to those of Smoflipid and Lipofundin even during systemic inflammation. Thus, these results should stimulate further studies investigating parenteral lipids as an anti-inflammatory strategy in critically ill patients.

  6. Olive oil authentication: A comparative analysis of regulatory frameworks with especial emphasis on quality and authenticity indices, and recent analytical techniques developed for their assessment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Bendini, Alessandra; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-09-22

    Over the last decades, olive oil quality and authenticity control has become an issue of great importance to consumers, suppliers, retailers, and regulators in both traditional and emerging olive oil producing countries, mainly due to the increasing worldwide popularity and the trade globalization of this product. Thus, in order to ensure olive oil authentication, various national and international laws and regulations have been adopted, although some of them are actually causing an enormous debate about the risk that they can represent for the harmonization of international olive oil trade standards. Within this context, this review was designed to provide a critical overview and comparative analysis of selected regulatory frameworks for olive oil authentication, with special emphasis on the quality and purity criteria considered by these regulation systems, their thresholds and the analytical methods employed for monitoring them. To complete the general overview, recent analytical advances to overcome drawbacks and limitations of the official methods to evaluate olive oil quality and to determine possible adulterations were reviewed. Furthermore, the latest trends on analytical approaches to assess the olive oil geographical and varietal origin traceability were also examined.

  7. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  8. Comparative trial of Aloe vera/olive oil combination cream versus phenytoin cream in the treatment of chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Y; Izadi, M; Sayyadi, N; Rezaee, R; Jonaidi-Jafari, N; Beiraghdar, F; Zamani, A; Sahebkar, A

    2015-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used to accelerate wound healing. Olive oil is also a natural product that may contribute to wound healing owing to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an Aloe vera-olive oil (AVO) combination cream on the healing process of chronic wounds. In this randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled, parallel-group trial, patients with chronic wounds were treated with either AVO cream or phenytoin cream as the standard treatment for a period of 30 days. Wound healing was evaluated using Bates-Jensen assessment tool and the severity of pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). After initial assessment, 60 patients with chronic wounds (41 with pressure ulcer, 13 with diabetic wounds and 6 with venous ulcers), were recruited and randomised into 2 groups of 30. After 30 days of treatment, significant improvements in the wound size, depth, and edges; necrotic tissue type and amount; exudate type and amount; colour of wound surroundings; and peripheral tissue oedema score were observed in the AVO cream group (p<0.001). The total score of wound healing showed significant improvement with both AVO (p<0.001) and phenytoin (p<0.01) creams, although AVO was more efficacious (p<0.001). Likewise, although both treatments reduced the initial VAS score, the efficacy of AVO was significantly greater (p<0.001). AVO cream significantly accelerates biological healing of chronic wounds and helps to reduce pain severity with a higher efficacy compared with phenytoin cream.

  9. Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252)

    KAUST Repository

    Koo, Hyunmin

    2014-09-10

    The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  10. Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyunmin; Mojib, Nazia; Thacker, Robert W; Bej, Asim K

    2014-11-01

    The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Thermal Behavior, Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Polymorphism of Palm Oil Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xia; Lin LI; Xie, He; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Liu, Guoqin; LI, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behavior of palm stearin (PS) and palm olein (PO) was explored by monitoring peak temperature transitions by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fatty acid composition (FAC), isothermal crystallization kinetics studied by pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR) and isothermal microstructure were also compared. The results indicated that the fatty acid composition had an important influence on the crystallization process. PS and PO both exhibited more multiple endotherms than...

  12. Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, M-P; Mayrsohn, B; O'Keeffe, M; Kissileff, H R; Choudhury, A R; Laferrère, B

    2014-10-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) enhance thermogenesis and may reduce food intake relative to long chain triglycerides (LCT). The goal of this study was to establish the effects of MCT on appetite and food intake and determine whether differences were due to differences in hormone concentrations. Two randomized, crossover studies were conducted in which overweight men consumed 20 g of MCT or corn oil (LCT) at breakfast. Blood samples were obtained over 3 h. In Study 1 (n=10), an ad lib lunch was served after 3 h. In Study 2 (n=7), a preload containing 10 g of test oil was given at 3 h and lunch was served 1 h later. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to determine the effects of MCT and LCT oil on change in hormones and metabolites from fasting, adjusting for body weight. Correlations were computed between differences in hormones just before the test meals and differences in intakes after the two oils for Study 1 only. Food intake at the lunch test meal after the MCT preload (Study 2) was (mean±s.e.m.) 532±389 kcal vs 804±486 kcal after LCT (Ptriglycerides (P=0.014) and glucose (P=0.066) and a higher rise in peptide YY (PYY, P=0.017) and leptin (P=0.036) compared with LCT (combined data). Correlations between differences in hormone levels (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), PYY) and differences in food intake were in the opposite direction to expectations. MCT consumption reduced food intake acutely but this does not seem to be mediated by changes in GLP-1, PYY and insulin.

  13. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...straightener. The annular gap at the inner diameter of the straightener feeds air to a centrally located pilot flame and the proportion that passes to...integrated with the missile forebody. A central air transfer duct feeds the Odin engine at the rear. The central schematic in figure 10 shows the

  14. HZSM-5 CATALYST FOR CRACKING PALM OIL TO BIODIESEL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH AND WITHOUT PT AND PD IMPREGNATION

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Budianto; Danawati Hari Prajitno; Achmad Roesyadi; Kusno Budhikarjono

    2014-01-01

    The Needs of healthy environment and green energy poses a great demand for alternative energy. Biofuel is one of the alternative energy products that are environmentally friendly. Biofuel can be made from plant oils, especially palm oil. Cracking of palm oil into biofuel is constrained by the availability of catalysts. Moreover the available catalyst still gives a low yield. This research aims to study the effect of Pt and Pd impregnation into HZSM-5 catalyst on the catalytic properties. Anot...

  15. Overweight children have higher circulating hepcidin concentrations and lower iron status but have dietary iron intakes and bioavailability comparable with normal weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity increases the risk for iron deficiency, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. It is possible that overweight individuals may have lower dietary iron intake and/or bioavailability. Alternatively, obesity-related inflammation may increase hepcidin concentrations and reduce iron

  16. Overweight children have higher circulating hepcidin concentrations and lower iron status but have dietary iron intakes and bioavailability comparable with normal weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity increases the risk for iron deficiency, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. It is possible that overweight individuals may have lower dietary iron intake and/or bioavailability. Alternatively, obesity-related inflammation may increase hepcidin concentrations and reduce iron

  17. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Flummer, Christine; Hurley, W L

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how...... were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n = 10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n = 8 per diet......) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil + 4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations...

  18. Rheology of Structured Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbaliev, G. I.; Rasulov, S. R.; Rzaev, A. G.; Mustafaeva, G. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rheological models of structured oils are proposed and compared with available experimental data on oils from different deposits. It is shown that structured oils can possess properties of Bingham and power-law non-Newtonian fluids.

  19. Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-11-14

    Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.

  20. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Thermal Behavior, Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Polymorphism of Palm Oil Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behavior of palm stearin (PS and palm olein (PO was explored by monitoring peak temperature transitions by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The fatty acid composition (FAC, isothermal crystallization kinetics studied by pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR and isothermal microstructure were also compared. The results indicated that the fatty acid composition had an important influence on the crystallization process. PS and PO both exhibited more multiple endotherms than exotherms which showed irregular peak shapes. An increasing in cooling rate, generally, was associated with an increase in peak size. Application of the Avaimi equation to isothermal crystallization of PS and PO revealed different nucleation and growth mechanisms based on the Avrami exponents. PS quickly reached the end of crystallization because of more saturated triacylglycerol (TAG. The Avrami index of PS were the same as PO under the same isothermal condition at lower temperatrue, indicating that the crystallization mechanism of the two samples based on super-cooling state were the same. According to the polarized light microscope (PLM images, crystal morphology of PS and PO was different. With the temperature increased, the structure of crystal network of both PS and PO gradually loosened.

  2. Biofuel production from crude palm oil with supercritical alcohols: comparative LCA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Teeravitud, Sunsanee; Piumsomboon, Pornpote; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2012-09-01

    A recent life cycle assessment (LCA) reported that biodiesel production in supercritical alcohols (SCA) produces a higher environmental load than the homogeneous catalytic process because an enormous amount of energy is required to recover excess alcohol. However, the excess alcohol could be dramatically reduced by increasing the operating temperature to 400°C; although the product would have to be considered as an alternative biofuel instead of biodiesel. A comparative LCA of the biodiesel production in two SCA at 300°C (C-SCA) and novel biofuel production in the same two SCA at 400°C (N-SCA) is presented. It was clear that the N-SCA process produces a dramatically reduced environmental load over that of the C-SCA process due to a lower amount of excess alcohol being used. The N-SCA process could be improved in terms of its environmental impact by changing from fossil fuel to biomass-based fuels for the steam generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A randomized controlled pilot study comparing aqueous cream with a beeswax and herbal oil cream in the provision of relief from postburn pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Wright, Kay; Webster, Anne; Steer, Matthew; Rudd, Michael; Doubrovsky, Anna; Gardner, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Postburn itch is reported to affect up to 87% of the burn population. Although treatments for postburn itch are multimodal, they remain consistently ineffective. However, recent anecdotal evidence from several outpatients at a tertiary referral hospital suggests that a cream combining beeswax and several herbal oils may be effective in the minimization of postburn itch. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of beeswax and herbal oil cream against the standard treatment of aqueous cream in the provision of relief from the symptoms of postburn itch. A randomized controlled trial compared two groups using a visual analog scale, frequency of cream application, itch recurrence after cream application, use of antipruritic medications, and sleep disturbance to determine the effect of itch severity and duration. Fifty-two participants were enrolled in the study (84% male) with a mean age of 35 years (SD = 16) and mean burn TBSA of 7.2% (SD = 7.7). Study results found that the beeswax and herbal oil cream reduce itch after application more frequently than aqueous cream (P = .001). In addition, when managed with beeswax and herbal oil cream, participants found that their itch recurred later (P ≤ .001) and their use of antipruritic medications was lower (P = .023). Findings of this study suggest beeswax and herbal oil cream to be more effective in the minimization of postburn itch than aqueous cream. Given this, a larger study examining the efficacy of beeswax and herbal oil cream appears warranted.

  4. Comparative biodistribution and safety profiling of olmesartan medoxomil oil-in-water oral nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorain, Bapi; Choudhury, Hira; Tekade, Rakesh Kumar; Karan, Saumen; Jaisankar, P; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Poor aqueous solubility and unfavourable de-esterification of olmesartan medoxomil (a selective angiotensin II receptor blocker), results in low oral bioavailability of less than 26%. Improvement of oral bioavailability with prolonged pharmacodynamics activity of olmesartan in Wistar rats had been approached by nanoemulsification strategy in our previous article [Colloid Surface B, 115, 2014: 286]. In continuation to that work, we herewith report the biodistribution behaviour and 28-day repeated dose sub-chronic toxicity of olmesartan medoxomil nanoemulsion in Wistar rats following oral administration. The levels of olmesartan in collected biological samples were estimated using our validated LC-MS/MS technique. Our biodistribution study showed significantly higher brain concentrations of olmesartan (0.290 ± 0.089 μg/mL, 0.333 ± 0.071 μg/mL and 0.217 ± 0.062 μg/mL at 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 h post dosing, respectively) when administered orally as nanoemulsion formulation as compared to the aqueous suspension. In addition, the olmesartan nanoemulsion was found to be safe and non-toxic, as it neither produced any lethality nor remarkable haematological, biochemical and structural adverse effects as observed during the 28-days sub-chronic toxicity studies in experimental Wistar rats. It is herewith envisaged that the developed nanoemulsion formulation approach for the delivery of olmesartan medoxomil via oral route can further be explored in memory dysfunction and brain ischemia, for better brain penetration and improved clinical application in stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative study of the essential oil and hydrolate composition of Lythrum salicaria L. obtained by hydro-distillation and microwave distillation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manayi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are considered as very complex natural mixtures containing numerous components at quite various concentrations. Lythrum salicaria has not been previously subjected to examination of its volatile oil. The present study was carried out to evaluate the essential oil composition of the flowering aerial parts of the plant by using conventionally hydro-distillation (HD and microwave assisted hydro-distillation (MAH methods along with the aromatic water obtained by hydro-distillation. Components of these three samples were recognized by GC/MS. Identification of components resulted in recognition of 14 (98% oil, 32 (98.4%, and 10 (95.5% compounds for HD, its hydrolate, and MAH samples, respectively. The predominant constituents in the HD oil were bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (29.2%, n-hexadecanoic acid (22%, and pentacosane (9.5%. The major constituents of the hydrolate were elucidated as 2(4H-benzofuranone-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl (6.4%, neryl acetone (6%, pentanoic acid (5.7%, nonanoic acid (5.6%, and octanoic acid (5.5%. Accordingly, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (43.2%, methyl-cyclopentane (36.5%, and pentacosane (4.7% were assessed as the main components of MAH oil. Comparing the three samples compositions, it was concluded that the extraction procedure led to variations in quality and quantity of volatiles. Besides, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate, the common plasticizer, was identified as the main pollutant in both HD and MAH oils. The presence of this substance in the oils provided the evidence of contaminations that was absorbed from water into the plant suggesting GC/MS as a suitable method for its detection in plant materials.

  6. Surface Film Adsorption and Lubricity of Soybean Oil In-Water Emulsion and Triblock Copolymer Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Taheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the surface film adsorption and lubricity of two different types of potential environmentally friendly cold metal forming lubricants: soybean vegetable oil in water VO/W emulsions and triblock copolymer aqueous solutions. The lubricants have different visual appearance, surface film adsorption characteristic, lubricity and surface cleaning behaviour. The effects of concentration, temperature and emulsification ultrasonic energy (for VO/W emulsion are studied. The result shows that the soybean VO/W emulsions have stronger adsorption, superior lubricity and anti-wear property compared to the copolymer solutions. The effect of temperature is investigated at 30 °C and 65 °C which are below and above cloud point of the aqueous copolymer solutions. Both lubricants show improved friction and anti-wear property at 65 °C. However, tenacious residual film remained on the discs surface after surface cleaning indicates lower cleanability of the soybean VO/W emulsions compared to the copolymer solutions, postulating the need for extra post-processing cleaning operations after cold forming process with VO/W emulsion lubricant.

  7. Comparative antiplaque and antigingivitis effectiveness of tea tree oil mouthwash and a cetylpyridinium chloride mouthwash: A randomized controlled crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a mouthwash containing tea tree oil (TTO with a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC mouthwash. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized 4 × 4, controlled, cross-over, involving 20 healthy volunteers in a 5-day plaque re-growth model. Test mouthwashes were TTO (Tebodont® and a mouthwash containing CPC 0.05% (Aquafresh® . A 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash (Oro-Clense® was used as positive and colored water (placebo [PLB] as negative controls. Gingival bleeding index (GBI and plaque index (PI scores were recorded before and after each test period. Test periods were separated with 2 weeks washout period. Results: All four mouthwashes significantly (P < 0.001 reduced the GBI scores when compared to the baseline GBI scores. There was no significant difference between PLB and active mouthwashes in the GBI scores. CHX and CPC mouthwashes were found more effective in reducing the PI scores than TTO and PLB mouthwashes. There was no significant difference in PI scores of CHX and CPC mouthwashes. Conclusion: 0.05% CPC mouthwash can be an alternative to CHX mouthwash since it is alcohol free and found as efficient as CHX in dental plaque reduction with lesser side effects. More studies are needed to test antigingivitis effects of the mouthwashes used in this study, preferably without initial scaling and polishing.

  8. A Comparative Study on the Mechanical, Thermal and Morphological Characterization of Poly(lactic acid/Epoxidized Palm Oil Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieng Buong Woei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, poly(lactic acid (PLA a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix was melt blended with three different epoxidized palm oil (EPO. The aim of this research was to enhance the flexibility, mechanical and thermal properties of PLA. The blends were prepared at various EPO contents of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% and characterized. The SEM analysis evidenced successful modification on the neat PLA brittle morphology. Tensile tests indicate that the addition of 1 wt% EPO is sufficient to improve the strength and flexibility compared to neat PLA. Additionally, the flexural and impact properties were also enhanced. Further, DSC analysis showed that the addition of EPO results in a decrease in Tg, which implies an increase in the PLA chain mobility. In the presence of 1 wt% EPO, TGA results revealed significant increase in the thermal stability by 27%. Among the three EPOs used, EPO(3 showed the best mechanical and thermal properties compared to the other EPO’s, with an optimum loading of 1 wt%. Conclusively, EPO showed a promising outcome to overcome the brittleness and improve the overall properties of neat PLA, thus can be considered as a potential plasticizer.

  9. Comparative study of chemistry compositions and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dried and fresh Mentha longifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical compositions and antimicrobial potentials of the essential oils and oleoresins obtained from fresh and dried Mentha longifolia L. Methods: Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques were used to determine the profiling of the essential oils and oleoresins. In order to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the volatile oil and oleoresins, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger (1884, Aspergillus flavus (2479, Fusarium monoliforme (1893, Fusarium graminearum (2088 and Penicillium viridicatum (2007 were undertaken whereas four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (1790, Staphylococcus aureus (3103 (Gram-positive, Escherichia coli (1672, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942 (Gram-negative were selected for the present study. Food poisoned, inverted Petri plate, agar well diffusion and disk diffusion methods were employed for investigating antimicrobial potentials. Results: Piperitenone oxide, an oxygenated monoterpene, dominated the chemical compositions of essential oils and oleoresins whose compositions varied from 23.5%–87.8%. Both essential oils showed good antifungal activities against Aspergillus and Fusarium species. The antibacterial investigations revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oils. Conclusions: Drying the fresh herbal materials influences the chemical contents and the biological activities of the essential oils and oleoresins. Such results indicate that essential oils of Mentha longifolia L. can be possible candidates for further investigations to isolate and characterize their active principles as possible new natural preservatives.

  10. Essential oil composition of Senecio graciliflorus DC: comparative analysis of different parts and evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Shabir H; Bhat, Khursheed A; Bhat, Haroon M; Majeed, Rabiya; Anand, Rajneesh; Hamid, Abid; Khuroo, Mohd A

    2014-05-15

    The essential oil of different parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS for the first time. A total of 17, 20, 19 and 17 constituents were identified comprising 99.90, 95.50, 98.93 and 95.96% of the essential oil of flower, leaf, stem and root parts of Senecio graciliflorus respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in the essential oil with 85.28% in flower, 57.53% in leaf, 67.74% in stem and 64.98% in root oil. α-pinene, cis-ocimene, 1,2,3-trimethylcyclohexane and β-pinene were the major constituents of the essential oil. The flower essential oil exhibited a strong antioxidant potential displaying IC50 values of 21.6±0.6 and 26.0±1.0μg/ml in DPPH and hydroxyl radical assays respectively. On the other hand the essential oil of flower and root displayed highest cytotoxicity against lung (A-549) cancer cell lines (IC50=19.1±0.9 and 21.3±1.1μg/ml respectively. This study which represents the first report of the essential oil composition and bioevaluation of Senecio graciliflorus, can serve as a new source of cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.

  11. Comparative GC analyses of ripe fruits, leaves and floral buds essential oils of Tunisian Myrtus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Snoussi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Tunisian wild growing myrtle ripe fruits, leaves and floral buds was examined by GC and GC-MS. The yields of hydrodistilled oils obtained from different plant parts were: leaves 0.5%, floral buds 0.2% and ripe fruits 0.02%. Significant differences were found in the concentration of main constituents of the oils: α-pinene [48.9% (floral buds, 34.3% (fruits, 23.7% (leaves], 1,8-cineole [15.3% (floral buds, 26.6% (fruits, 61.0% (leaves]. The leaves oil contained less linalool than floral buds and ripe fruits oils. Tunisian myrtle is characterized by the absence of myrtenyl acetate.

  12. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two Brassica napus near-isogenic lines reveals a network of genes that influences seed oil accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl lipid metabolism (ALM genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs. The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates more than 10% of seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1, LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  13. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  14. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Two Brassica napus Near-Isogenic Lines Reveals a Network of Genes That Influences Seed Oil Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxue; Singh, Sanjay K.; Du, Chunfang; Li, Chen; Fan, Jianchun; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs). The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates significantly higher (∼10%) seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1), LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3), ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl-lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  15. A randomised comparison of increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration after 4 weeks of daily oral intake of 10 microg cholecalciferol from multivitamin tablets or fish oil capsules in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Madar, Ahmed A; Meyer, Haakon E; Lofthus, Cathrine M; Stene, Lars C

    2007-09-01

    Many types of vitamin supplements are available on the market, but little is known about whether cholecalciferol obtained from fat-containing capsules differs in bioavailability from that of solid tablets. Our objective was to test whether 4 weeks of daily supplementation with 10 mug cholecalciferol given as a fish oil capsule produces a larger increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentration compared with the same dose of cholecalciferol given as a multivitamin tablet. A total of seventy-four healthy subjects aged 19-49 years were initially included and fifty-five of these completed the study and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After completing a self-administered questionnaire about diet and sunshine exposure and having a non-fasting venous blood sample drawn, participants were randomised to receive daily multivitamin tablets (n 28) or fish oil capsules (n 27), each containing equal doses of cholecalciferol. A second blood sample was drawn after 28 d. Mean baseline s-25(OH)D was 40.3 (sd 22.0) nmol/l in the multivitamin group and 48.5 (24.8) nmol/l in the fish oil group. When controlling for baseline s-25(OH)D, mean 4-week increase in s-25(OH)D was 35.8 (95 % CI 30.9, 40.8) nmol/l in the multivitamin group and 32.3 (95 % CI 27.3, 37.4) nmol/l in the fish oil group; the mean difference was 3.5 (95 % CI - 3.6, 10.6) nmol/l (P = 0.33). The results were unaltered by statistical adjustment for BMI, ethnic background, age and sex. We conclude that fish oil capsules and multivitamin tablets containing 10 microg cholecalciferol administered over a 4-week period produced a similar mean increase in s-25(OH)D concentration.

  16. Large differences in incidences of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism associated with a small difference in iodine intake: A prospective comparative register-based population survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Knudsen, N.; Jorgensen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Around 3-4 billion people in the world are covered by iodine supplementation programs to prevent developmental brain damage and other iodine deficiency (ID) disorders. Mild ID is associated with more hyperthyroidism and less hypothyroidism in the population than a high iodine intake. Knowledge...... of the iodine intake levels where the shifts in incidences occur is important for planning of iodine supplementation programs. A computer-based register linked to thyroid diagnostic laboratories was used to continuously identify all new cases of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism in two population cohorts...... that iodine supplementation of a population may increase the incidence of overt hypothyroidism, even if the population is moderately iodine-deficient. In such a population, the increase in risk of hypothyroidism should be weighed against the risk of ID disorders such as hyperthyroidism due to multinodular...

  17. Performance of layers fed diets containing different oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Lelis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out at the Animal Science Department of the Federal University of Viçosa to evaluate the performance of heavy and light layers. During four periods of twenty-eight days, 432 layers in the second production cycle, being 216 Hy Line W36 (light birds and 216 Hy Line Brown (heavy birds, were used. A completely randomized experimental design with a 1+(4x2x2 factorial arrangement (one control treatment, four oil sources, two inclusion levels, and two genetic lines with four replicates of six birds per experimental unit, was applied. The treatments consisted of diets containing 16.5% crude protein, formulated to supply the nutritional requirements, and the inclusion of each oil source at 2 or 4%. Soybean, canola, linseed and fish oils were used. The control diet did not contain any oil. The studied parameters were: feed intake (g/hen/day, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion ratio (kg feed /dozen of eggs and per kg eggs. Oil levels and sources did not influence egg mass, feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and dozen eggs, or egg production. During the first three periods, independently of oil source or genetics, eggs from layers fed 4% oil were the heaviest, except for those of light birds fed soybean oil during the third period, which egg weight was similar for the 2 and 4% levels. Light layers presented lower feed intake and better feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and dozen eggs as compared to heavy layers, and there was no influence of the evaluated oil sources on feed intake.

  18. 湖北恩施地区油茶籽油与茶叶籽油的对比分析%Comparative Analysis of Oil Tea Camellia Seed Oil and Tea Seed Oil in Enshi Area of Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴登辉

    2016-01-01

    详细介绍湖北省恩施地区油茶籽和茶叶籽在整籽含油率、水分、含仁率、油脂中脂肪酸组成方面的区别以及对人体功效的简介。其中,油脂是采用精心筛选的茶籽为原料,用超临界二氧化碳萃取技术提取的油脂,油脂质量达到油茶籽油国家标准一级油(GB 11765-2003)和食用植物油卫生标准(GB 2716-2005)。%This paper introduced the difference of oil tea camellia seed and tea seed in the whole seed oil content, moisture, kernel rate, oil fatty acid composition in Enshi area of Hubei province. Among them, careful screening of the tea seed oil was used as raw material, extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology of oil and grease quality tea seed oil of national standard (GB 11765-2003) for ifrst grade oil and edible vegetable oil health standard (GB 2716-2005).

  19. High intake of dairy during energy restriction does not affect energy balance or the intestinal microflora compared to low dairy intake in overweight individuals in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Blædel, Trine; Holm, Jacob Bak

    2017-01-01

    During weight loss, dairy calcium is proposed to accelerate weight and fat mass loss through increased fecal fat excretion. The primary objective was to investigate if a high-dairy energy-restricted diet is superior to low-dairy in terms of changes in body weight, body composition and fecal fat...... (2100 kJ) deficit diet either high (HD: 1500 mg calcium/d) or low (LD: 600 mg calcium/d) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Habitual calcium intake was ~1000 mg/d. Body weight loss (HD: -6.6±1.3 kg, LD: -7.9±1.5 kg, P=0.73), fat mass loss (HD: -7.8±1.3 %, LD: -8.5±1.1 %, P=0.76), changes in fecal fat...... excretion (HD: -0.57±0.76 g, LD: 0.46±0.70 g, P=0.12) and microbiota composition were similar for the groups over 24 weeks. However, total fat mass loss was positively associated with relative abundance of Papillibacter (P=0.017) independent of diet group. Consumption of a high dairy diet did...

  20. Comparative study on the cytotoxicity of different Myrtaceae essential oils on cultured vero and RC-37 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, P; Wiesenhofer, K; Reichling, J

    2008-11-01

    Medicinally and commercially important essential oils from the family Myrtaceae, i.e. cajuput, clove, kanuka and manuka were phytochemically analysed by GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of these essential oils was evaluated in a standard neutral red assay. Maximum noncytotoxic concentrations for cajuput oil and clove oil were determined at 0.006%, kanuka oil and manuka oil were more cytotoxic with a maximum noncytotoxic concentration of 0.001%. The compounds alpha-pinene, eugenol and leptospermone demonstrated maximum noncytotoxic concentrations at dilutions of 0.001%, 0.003% and 0.001%, respectively. However, the terpene 1,8-cineole was about 100 times less toxic to cultured cells with a maximum noncytotoxic concentration of 0.1% and a TC50 value of 0.44%. Manuka essential oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 as well against drug-resistant HSV-1 isolates in viral suspension tests. Determination of cytotoxicity of natural products is an important prerequisite for application in cosmetic and health care products and in antiviral tests.

  1. Comparative evaluation of chemical and enzymatic saccharification of mixotrophically grown de-oiled microalgal biomass for reducing sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Bhattacharya, Sourish; Bachani, Pooja; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-03-01

    For the commercialization of microalgal based biofuels, utilization of de-oiled carbohydrate rich biomass is important. In the present study, chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of mixotrophically grown Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 de-oiled biomass is evaluated. Among the chemical hydrolysis, use of 0.5M HCl for 45 min at 121°C resulted in highest saccharification yield of 37.87% w/w of de-oiled biomass. However, enzymatic hydrolysis using Viscozyme L at loading rate of 20 FBGU/g of de-oiled biomass, pH 5.5 and temperature 45°C for 72 h resulted in saccharification yield of 43.44% w/w of de-oiled biomass. Further, 78% ethanol production efficiency was achieved with enzymatically hydrolyzed de-oiled biomass using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 6793. These findings of the present study show application of mixotrophically grown de-oiled biomass of Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as promising feedstock for bioethanol production.

  2. [Comparative analysis of occupational health services practice of international companies of oil and gas industry and ILO Convention "Occupational Health Services"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, É V; Spiridonov, V L; Shatokhin, A S; Ékgardt, E V; Avdokhin, A V; Iakovlev, A P

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of current work practices of occupational health services of international companies of Russian oil & gas industry and provisions of ILO Convention 161 and Recommendation 171 "Occupational Health Services" has been carried out. Proposals for improvement and harmonization of labor legislation related to this problem have been formulated.

  3. The effect of an essential-oils mouthrinse as compared to a vehicle solution on plaque and gingival inflammation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.C. Van Leeuwen; D.E. Slot; G.A. Van der Weijden

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this review was to systematically evaluate the effects of an alcohol vehicle solution (V-Sol) compared with an essential-oils mouthwash (EOMW) and if available with a water-based control (WC) on plaque, gingival inflammation parameters and extrinsic tooth staining. Materials

  4. Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Harriëtte L.; Meesters, Koen P.H.; Conijn, Sjaak G.; Corré, Wim J.; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams, als

  5. Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Harriëtte L.; Meesters, Koen P.H.; Conijn, Sjaak G.; Corré, Wim J.; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams, als

  6. Comparative analysis of mosqito (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedes aegypti Liston) responses to the insecticide Temephos and plant derived essential oil derived from Piper betle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide resistance development is a problem where insecticides are heavily used. Evaluation of a plant extracted oil compound as a 'green pesticide' was compared to treatments with Temephos. Evaluations on two insect populations either Wild strain (WS), or a susceptible laboratory strain (LS),...

  7. Comparative efficacy of emulsifiable-oil, wettable-powder, and unformulated-powder preparations of Beauveria bassiana against the melon aphid Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphicidal efficacy of two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA conidia, an emulsifiable-paraffinic oil dispersion (OD) and a clay-based wettable powder (WP), were compared to unformulated conidia in laboratory tests with adult melon aphids (Aphis gossypii). For the initial 24 hou...

  8. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus Communis, Marigold (Calendula Officinalis Compared with DEET Against Anopheles Stephensi on Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative effi­cacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis and marigold (Calendula officinalis collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protec­tion time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours com­pared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50 of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2.Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to mari­gold against An. stephensi.

  9. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis, Marigold (Calendula officinalis Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavassoli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative effi­cacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis and marigold (Calendula officinalis collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods:  Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protec­tion time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis.   Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours com­pared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50 of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to mari­gold against An. stephensi.

  10. A Comparative Study on Turpentine Oils of Oleoresins of Pinus sylvestris L. from Three Districts of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tümen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oleoresin samples collected from Pinus sylvestris L. trees from Acıpayam, Çal and Çamlıbel, three different locations in Denizli-Turkey. The constituents of the turpentine oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of oleoresin of Pinus sylvestris L., were identified by GC-MS. Fifty four constituents were detected from the turpentine oil, which constituted about between 96.2% and 98.2% of the total amount. Major constituents of the oil were a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, longifolene, D3-carene, limonene and b-caryophyllene

  11. Comparative study on the effect of symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates on crude oil remediaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates in remediation of crude oil contaminated soil was studied. Three organisms including Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans obtained from Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR were used. The plants used for this study were four annual indigenous crops including two annual forage leguminous crop, vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata and velvet bean Mucuna pruriens; a cereal- maize (Zea mays and a vegetable crop- fluted pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of sample comprising of sterilized soil seeded with Bacillus subtilis, sterilized soil with Pseudomonas putida and sterilized soil with Candida albicans to be 1.721 mg/kg, 5,791mg/kg and 4.987mg/kg respectively. Treated soil seeded with B. subtilis recorded the least value followed by treated soil with C. albicans and treated soil with P. putida in that order. However, for Z. mays sample that was coated with B. subtilis recorded the least value of 2,339mg/kg. By contrast though, amongst all the plant samples V. unguiculata coated with C. albicans recorded the lowest TPH value of 1,902mg/kg whereas T. occidentalis coated with P. putida had the lowest TPH value of 2.285mg/kg. Different alkane groups degraded during these remediation processes were also highlighted. C alkanes ranging from C8 – C12 were removed though some plants were not able to degrade C8 and/or C9 whereas C40 was generally degraded by all set ups. Statistical analysis depicting the effect of individual plant samples and non- indigenous microorganisms and different plants per individual non- indigenous microorganisms in degrading different concentration of crude oil at 5% significant difference and 95% confident limit was analysed using SPSS software. It showed that the performance of B. subtilis was more acceptable. Generally, the TPH

  12. Nutrient intake of Swiss toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; Casetti, Luca; Haueter, Petra; Müller, Pascal; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes

    2017-08-10

    During the first years of life, food preferences are shaped that might last throughout a person's entire life affecting his/her health in the long term. However, knowledge on early feeding habits is still limited for toddlers. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to: (1) assess toddlers' nutrient intake; (2) compare the findings to past studies as well as to national feeding recommendations and (3) identify major food sources for energy and macronutrients. A food survey using a 4-day diary was conducted. The dietary software nut.s(®) was used to analyse the data. A cohort of 188 healthy toddlers (aged 1-3 years) was analysed. The energy intake of most toddlers was below the recommended daily intake (RDI) but in accordance with earlier studies. Protein intake was three- to fourfold higher than the RDI and reached the proposed upper limit of 15% of total energy intake. Fat intake was in accordance with the RDI, but the balance of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids should be improved. Carbohydrate intake met the RDI. For the micronutrients, iron and vitamin D intakes showed critical values. As in other European countries, the diet of Swiss toddlers in general seems adequate but does not meet all nutritional requirements. In particular, the quality of the fats and vitamin D supplementation should be improved. For proteins and iron, additional research is needed to gain more confidence in the recommendations.

  13. Readily Available Sources of Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils: Is Farmed Australian Seafood a Better Source of the Good Oil than Wild-Caught Seafood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Nichols

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils. Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and barramundi (Lates calcifer, have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%–50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1. Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health.

  14. Comparative protective effects of royal jelly and cod liver oil against neurotoxic impact of tartrazine on male rat pups brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Galal, Azza A A; Elewa, Yaser H A

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure.

  15. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, D.; Avinash, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugesan, A. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology – Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME), neem oil methyl esters (NOME), and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel) a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  16. Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO(2) extract of Schinus molle L. growing in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Al-Othman, Al-Husein M R

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we report the preliminary data on the chemical composition of Yemeni Schinus molle L. volatile oil obtained by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide (40°C and 90 bar), SFE, and by hydrodistillation (HD). The composition of the volatile oil has been analysed by GC and GC-MS. The content of the major constituents in the oils from leaves varied in the following ranges: germacrene D 3.7% in SFE and 16.7% in HD; β-caryophyllene 19.1% in SFE and 13.5% in HD. The amount of monoterpenes constituted 4%, in all the analysed samples, while the number of sesquiterpenes was 44% in supercritical and 67% in HD oil. Some compounds were not identified by GC-MS and it will require further analysis using other analytical techniques.

  17. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinashy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME, neem oil methyl esters (NOME, and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  18. Antimicrobial activity and a comparative essential oil analysis of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahriman, N; Tosun, G; İskender, N Yılmaz; Alpay Karaoğlu, Ş; Yayli, N

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima (Asteraceae) were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and a microwave distillation (MD), than characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 58 and 57 compounds were identified, constituting over 93.7%, and 91.6% of volatile oil composition of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima, respectively. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents (HD: 42.4% versus MD: 51.5%). The major component of the oils of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima was germacrene D (HD, 17.8% versus MD, 23.2%). The antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils of the plant was also investigated, and they showed good antibacterial activity against to tested gram-positive bacteria, especially to M. smegmatis and a yeast-like fungus C. albicans.

  19. Comparative studies of products obtained from solvolysis liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres using different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suet-Pin; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin-Hua; Jamaluddin, Fatin; Nabihah, Sharifah; Liew, Tze-Khong; Pua, Fei-Ling

    2011-02-01

    Solvolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fibres using different solvents (acetone, ethylene glycol (EG), ethanol, water and toluene) were carried out using an autoclave at 275°C for 60 min. The solvent efficiency in term of conversion yield was found to be: EG>water>ethanol>acetone>toluene. The liquid products and residue obtained were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography/mass selectivity. The obtained results showed that the chemical properties of the oil product were significantly affected by the type of solvent used for the solvolysis process. The higher heating value (HHV) of oil products obtained using ethanol is ∼29.42 MJ/kg, which is the highest among the oil products produced using different solvents. Water, ethanol and toluene yield major phenolic compounds. While EG favors the formation of alcohol compounds and acetone yields ketone and aldehyde compounds.

  20. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Ferula gummosa plant essential oil compared to NaOCl and CHX: a preliminary in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abbaszadegan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The usage of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents has grown in many fields including dental medicine. The aim of this in vitro study was three-fold: (i to determine the chemical compositions of the Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO, (ii to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the oil with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and chlorhexidine (CHX, (iii to assess the toxic behavior of FGEO in different concentrations compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Materials and Methods Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used to determine the chemical compositions of the oil. The disk diffusion method and a broth micro-dilution susceptibility assay were exploited to assess the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, and Candida albicans. The cytocompatibility of the FGEO was assessed on L929 fibroblasts, and compared to that of NaOCl and CHX. Results Twenty-seven constituents were recognized in FGEO. The major component of the oil was β-pinene (51.83%. All three irrigants significantly inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms compared to the negative control group. FGEO at 50 µg/mL was effective in lower concentration against Enterococcus faecalis than 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX, and was also more potent than 0.2% CHX against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. FGEO was a cytocompatible solution, and had significantly lower toxicity compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Conclusions FGEO showed a promising biological potency as a root canal disinfectant. More investigations are required on the effectiveness of this oil on intracanal bacterial biofilms.

  1. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Stephen C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many different types of pediculicides available OTC in Australia. In this study we compare the efficacy and safety of three topical pediculicides: a pediculicide containing melaleuca oil (tea tree oil and lavender oil (TTO/LO; a head lice "suffocation" product; and a product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (P/PB. Method This study was a randomised, assessor-blind, comparative, parallel study of 123 subjects with live head lice. The head lice products were applied according to the manufacturer's instructions (the TTO/LO product and the "suffocation" product were applied three times at weekly intervals according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0, Day 7 and Day 14 and the P/PB product was applied twice according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0 and Day 7. The presence or absence of live lice one day following the last treatment was determined. Results The percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing tea tree oil and lavender oil (41/42; 97.6% and the head lice "suffocation" product (40/41, 97.6% was significantly higher compared to the percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (10/40, 25.0%; adj. p Conclusion The high efficacy of the TTO/LO product and the head lice "suffocation" product offers an alternative to the pyrethrins-based product. Trial Registration The study was entered into the Australian/New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12610000179033.

  2. Comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil and two different extract from Salvia urmiensis Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hossein Farjam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil, ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. urmiensis Bunge were screened against some species of bacteria and fungi. Also, the essential oil of the aerial part of S. urmiensis Bunge was examined by GC and GC-MS. Methods:The oils obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus from fresh and dried aerial parts of S. urmiensis Bunge were analyzed by GC and GC-MS to investigate the variations of oil components. Ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. urmiensis Bunge were obtained using powdered aerial part and appropriate amounts of each solvent (ethyl acetate, ether) by maceration method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and extracts against the bacteria and fungi was determined using broth microdilution method. Results: In the essential oil of S. urmiensis Bunge 27 Compounds have been identified. Benzyl benzoate (60.3 %), n-hexyl benzoate (16.7 %), Amyl benzoate (5.2 %) and 2- octyl benzoate (4.2 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity againstStaphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). Conclusions: we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. urmiensis may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

  3. Comparative analysis of essential oils from eight herbal medicines with pungent flavor and cool nature by GC-MS and chemometric resolution methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenxi; Zeng, Yingxu; Wan, Mingzhu; Li, Rongxi; Liang, Yizeng; Li, Chengyong; Zeng, Zhongda; Chau, Foo-Tim

    2009-02-01

    Systematic comparative research was conducted on essential oils from eight traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) of pungent flavor and cool nature because the essential oils are the main active ingredients of herbs of this kind. The work was based on their component analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), on their retention indices, as well as on chemometric resolution methods. A total of 144 compounds were tentatively identified, accounting for 69.0% to 91.8% of the total essential oils. It is worth noting that there are 67 compounds in at least three of these eight essential oils. Moreover, many biologically active compounds, such as hexanal, alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, p-cymene, limonene, eucalyptol, (Z)-ocimene, gamma-terpinene, camphor, p-menthone, 4-terpineol, alpha-terpineol, carvone, eugenol, caryophyllene, beta-farnesene, alpha-curcumene, beta-selinene, delta-cadinene, caryophyllene oxide, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde, phthalic acid diisobutyl ester, linoleic acid, tetradecanoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, eucalyptol, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, linoleic acid methyl ester, exist in at least four of the eight essential oils. These results might help us to understand why the eight herbs are all of pungent flavor and cool nature according to the theory of TCM, and may provide a useful chemical basis for future research on herbs of this kind.

  4. A Comparative Study on Essential Oil Intraspecific and Seasonal Variations: Melissa romana Mill. and Melissa officinalis L. from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usai, Marianna; Atzei, Aldo Domenico; Marchetti, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Two species of Melissa are currently present in Sardinia: Melissa officinalis L. and Melissa romana Mill. Our research can only count on a few supported evidences (as reported in Flora Italiana and Moris) and some notes on new stations in Sardinia that give us some information about morphology, distribution, bioecological, and ethnobotanical characteristics of both species. In this paper, we present the results of the research about morphological aspects of M. romana vs. M. officinalis, and their essential oils in different stations at different phenological periods. Moreover, we compared the essential oil of M. romana with the one obtained from M. officinalis growing in the few naturalized stations still present in Sardinia. The most evident morphological differences between the two entities are the long-stalked capitate glandular trichomes, shorts and inclined capitate trichomes, and peltate hairs. The chemical composition of essential oil presents several significant differences between the species. In fact, oils show that in none of the phenological stages, M. romana recalls in its composition M. officinalis. Major distinctions are also evident between dry and fresh plants, and among essential oils distilled in different seasons. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  5. Identification of oil residues in Roman amphorae (Monte Testaccio, Rome): a comparative FTIR spectroscopic study of archeological and artificially aged samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Gabriele; Nunziante Cesaro, Stella; Campanella, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to the analysis of oil residues in fragments of archeological amphorae (3rd century A.D.) from Monte Testaccio (Rome, Italy) is reported. In order to check the possibility to reveal the presence of oil residues in archeological pottery using microinvasive and\\or not invasive techniques, different approaches have been followed: firstly, FTIR spectroscopy was used to study oil residues extracted from roman amphorae. Secondly, the presence of oil residues was ascertained analyzing microamounts of archeological fragments with the Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, the external reflection analysis of the ancient shards was performed without preliminary treatments evidencing the possibility to detect oil traces through the observation of the most intense features of its spectrum. Incidentally, the existence of carboxylate salts of fatty acids was also observed in DRIFT and Reflectance spectra of archeological samples supporting the roman habit of spreading lime over the spoil heaps. The data collected in all steps were always compared with results obtained on purposely made replicas.

  6. The effects of folate intake on DNA and single-carbon pathway metabolism in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster compared to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatch, Sydella A; Stabler, Sally P; Harrison, Jon F

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms of vitamin function in non-mammals are poorly understood, despite being essential for development. Folate and cobalamin are B-vitamin cofactors with overlapping roles in transferring various single-carbon units. In mammals, one or both is needed for nucleotide synthesis, DNA methylation, amino acid conversions and other reactions. However, there has been little investigation of the response to folate or cobalamin in insects. Here, we manipulated folate intake and potentially cobalamin levels in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with chemically-defined diets, an antibiotic to reduce bacterially-derived vitamins, and the folate-interfering pharmaceutical methotrexate, to see if single-carbon metabolites and DNA synthesis rates would be affected. We found that similar to mammals with low folate intake, fruit fly larvae had significantly slower growth and DNA synthesis rates. But changes to single carbon-metabolites did not mirror that of mammals with abnormal folate or given MTX. Five of the nine metabolites measured were not significantly affected (methionine, serine, glycine, methylglycine, and dimethylglycine) and three (cystathionine, methylgycine, and methylmalonic acid) were only decreased in larvae consuming methotrexate. Metabolites expected to be elevated if flies used cobalamin from microbial symbionts were not affected by dietary sulfaquinoxaline. Our data support the role of folate in nucleotide synthesis in D. melanogaster and that microbial symbionts provide functioning folates. We could not confirm how folate intake affects single carbon pathway metabolites, nor whether Drososphila use microbially-derived cobalamin. Further work should explore which cofactors are used in fruit flies in these important and potentially novel pathways.

  7. [Comparative study of the consumption of virgin olive oil or seje on lipid profile and oxidation resistance of high density lipoprotein (HDL) of rat plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel Giacopini, María; Guerrero, Omaira; Moya, Manuel; Bosch, Virgilio

    2011-06-01

    We compared the effect of the consumption of seje oil (Oenocarpus bataua), with that of olive oil, on plasma lipids and susceptibility in vitro to oxidation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the rat. Two groups often male Sprague Dawley rats were fed ad libitum, for a lapse of eight week, with a purified diets with 10g de seje oil or olive oil/100 g of diet (GS y GO respectively). The animals were exsanguinated at the end of the experimental after a 14 hour fast. Plasma was isolated by centrifugation, and the fractions of lipoproteins were separated from the plasma by sequential ultracentrifugation. Rats of GO had a statistically significant lower in concentration of TG (p < 0.05) compared with GS group. HDL fractions in both groups were oxidatively modified by incubation with copper ions. Differences in the fractions susceptibilities to peroxidation were studied by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) for 3 hours. HDL in GS had a statistically significant decrease in TBARS formation (p < 0.05) relative to HDL of GO. This may be explained by the lower concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids of HDL in GS compared with HDL in GO.

  8. Influence of virgin coconut oil-enriched diet on the transcriptional regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, Sakunthala; Rajamohan, Thankappan

    2014-05-28

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower-seed oil on the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids and the molecular regulation of fatty acid metabolism in normal rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the test oils at 8 % for 45 d along with a synthetic diet. Dietary supplementation of VCO decreased tissue lipid levels and reduced the activity of the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, namely acyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase (FAS) (P< 0·05). Moreover, VCO significantly (P< 0·05) reduced the de novo synthesis of fatty acids by down-regulating the mRNA expression of FAS and its transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, compared with the other oils. VCO significantly (P< 0·05) increased the mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, which was evident from the increased activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, acyl CoA oxidase and the enzymes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation; this was accomplished by up-regulating the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion, the present results confirmed that supplementation of VCO has beneficial effects on lipid parameters by reducing lipogenesis and enhancing the rate of fatty acid catabolism; this effect was mediated at least in part via PPARα-dependent pathways. Thus, dietary VCO reduces the risk for CHD by beneficially modulating the synthesis and degradation of fatty acids.

  9. Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries.

  10. Coconut oil increases HDL-c and decreases triglycerides in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiani Figueiredo Santana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile in rats, supplemented with coconut oil, are evaluated and compared to other lipid sources. Female Wistar rats received by gavage 1 mL kg-1 of saline, soybean oil, lard or coconut oil during 21 days. At the end of the study period, body composition, food intake, feces, urine, organ weight and serum lipid profile were assessed. No statistical differences between the groups were found in body composition, food intake, fecal and urinary analysis, and organ weight. In the case or plasma lipid concentrations, coconut oil and lard raised total cholesterol levels, without changes in LDL levels. On the other hand there was no change in total cholesterol levels in the soybean oil group. HDL fraction increased in all groups when compared to that in the saline group; this increase was more significant in the coconut oil group. There was significant reduction of serum triglycerides only in the coconut oil group when compared to the saline group. Supplementation with coconut oil did not interfere in weight and body composition of the animals used in current study, but revealed significant effect on the increase of HDL-c levels and decrease of serum triglycerides.

  11. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  12. Dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in people with type 2 diabetes: The TOSCA.IT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, M; Masulli, M; Rivellese, A A; Bonora, E; Cappellini, F; Nicolucci, A; Squatrito, S; Antenucci, D; Barrea, A; Bianchi, C; Bianchini, F; Fontana, L; Fornengo, P; Giorgino, F; Gnasso, A; Mannucci, E; Mazzotti, A; Nappo, R; Palena, A P; Pata, P; Perriello, G; Potenziani, S; Radin, R; Ricci, L; Romeo, F; Santini, C; Scarponi, M; Serra, R; Timi, A; Turco, A A; Vedovato, M; Zavaroni, D; Grioni, S; Riccardi, G; Vaccaro, O

    2016-12-21

    Proper evaluation of polyphenols intake at the population level is a necessary step in order to establish possible associations with health outcomes. Available data are limited, and so far no study has been performed in people with diabetes. The aim of this work was to document the intake of polyphenols and their major food sources in a cohort of people with type 2 diabetes and in socio-demographic subgroups. We studied 2573 men and women aged 50-75 years. Among others, anthropometry was measured by standard protocol and dietary habits were investigated by food frequency questionnaire (EPIC). The intake of polyphenols was evaluated using US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. The mean total polyphenol intake was 683.3 ± 5.8 mg/day. Non-alcoholic beverages represented the main food source of dietary polyphenols and provided 35.5% of total polyphenol intake, followed by fruits (23.0%), alcoholic beverages (14.0%), vegetables (12.4%), cereal products and tubers (4.6%), legumes (3.7%) and oils (2.1%); chocolate, cakes and nuts are negligible sources of polyphenols in this cohort. The two most important polyphenol classes contributing to the total intake were flavonoids (47.5%) and phenolic acids (47.4%). Polyphenol intake increased with age and education level and decreased with BMI; furthermore, in the northern regions of Italy, the polyphenol intake was slightly, but significantly higher than in the central or southern regions. The study documents for the first time the intake of polyphenols and their main food sources in people with diabetes using validated and complete databases of the polyphenol content of food. Compared with published data, collected in people without diabetes, these results suggest a lower intake and a different pattern of intake in people with diabetes.

  13. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  14. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  15. Cultivar classification of Apulian olive oils: Use of artificial neural networks for comparing NMR, NIR and merceological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Giulio; Del Coco, Laura; Ragone, Rosa; Zelasco, Samanta; Perri, Enzo; Montemurro, Cinzia; Valentini, Raffaele; Naso, David; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2017-03-15

    The development of an efficient and accurate method for extra-virgin olive oils cultivar and origin authentication is complicated by the broad range of variables (e.g., multiplicity of varieties, pedo-climatic aspects, production and storage conditions) influencing their properties. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied on several analytical datasets, namely standard merceological parameters, near-infra red data and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fingerprints, obtained on mono-cultivar olive oils of four representative Apulian varieties (Coratina, Ogliarola, Cima di Mola, Peranzana). We analyzed 888 samples produced at a laboratory-scale during two crop years from 444 plants, whose variety was genetically ascertained, and on 17 industrially produced samples. ANN models based on NMR data showed the highest capability to classify cultivars (in some cases, accuracy>99%), independently on the olive oil production process and year; hence, the NMR data resulted to be the most informative variables about the cultivars.

  16. Comparative analyses of different variants of standard ground for automatic control systems of technical processes of oil and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromakov, E. I.; Gazizov, A. T.; Lukin, V. P.; Chimrov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses efficiency (interference resistance) of standard TT, TN, IT networks in control links of automatic control systems (ACS) of technical processes (TP) of oil and gas production. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a standard term used to describe the interference in grounding circuits. Improved EMC of ACS TP can significantly reduce risks and costs of malfunction of equipment that could have serious consequences. It has been proved that an IT network is the best type of grounds for protection of ACS TP in real life conditions. It allows reducing the interference down to the level that is stated in standards of oil and gas companies.

  17. Comparing quality of camellia oil extracted by different methods%不同提取方法所得茶油的品质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 赵曼丽; 范亚苇; 邓泽元; 熊华

    2012-01-01

    According to sensory index,physicochemical index and some active components content of camellia oil,the quality of camellia oil extracted by different methods as aqueous enzymatic extraction,aqueous extraction,pressing process,supercritical C02 extraction and organic solvent lixiviation process was compared. The results showed that the sensory and physicochemical index of camellia oil extracted by aqueous enzymatic and aqueous process was similarity and better than that extracted by other ways. The VE in camellia oil was nearly all a-VE. The oil by pressing has highest squalene content and lowest VE content,and the oil of supercritical process has highest VE content. The squalene content and VE content of camellia oil extracted by aqueous enzymatic,aqueous,solvent extraction were similar. The fatty acids composition of camellia oil extracted by all these methods had no sianificant differences.%通过茶油的感官指标、理化指标及部分功能性成分含量,比较水酶法、水代法、压榨法、超临界CO2萃取法以及有机溶剂浸出法所得茶油的品质。结果表明,水代法和水酶法茶油的感官指标和理化指标相近,并优于其他方法所提茶油。茶油中的维生素E(VE)几乎全部是α-VE。压榨茶油中角鲨烯含量最高,VE含量最低;超临界提取的茶油中VE含量最高,水代法、水酶法与浸出法所得茶油角鲨烯和VE含量相近。各方法提取的茶油中脂肪酸组成没有显著差异。

  18. Protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis: metabolic studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Romaãna, G; Graham, G G; Morales, E; Massa, E; MacLean, W C

    1983-04-01

    The nutritional quality of lupins (Lupinus mutabilis) for infants and children was evaluated in two sets of balance studies. In the first the digestibility and protein quality of diets based on lupin flour, with and without methionine supplementation, were compared with those of a control diet consisting of casein, sucrose and vegetable oil. Apparent nitrogen absorption from lupin flour (81.8 and 84.3% of intake) was slightly but significantly less than that during casein control periods (87.2 and 86.8% of intake, P less than 0.05 and less than 0.001). Apparent nitrogen retention from unsupplemented lupin (15.6 +/- 5.8% of intake) was significantly less than that from casein in the corresponding control periods (29.8 +/- 4.9%, P less than 0.001); a small but significant (P less than 0.05) increase in nitrogen retention was observed during the control period following the lupin diet when compared with that preceding it. Methionine supplementation of lupin produced a marked improvement in apparent nitrogen retention (to 22.2 +/- 6.9%, P less than 0.05). In the second set of studies the digestibility of lupin oil was compared with that of a blend of soybean and cottonseed oils (50:50). Excretion of fecal fat (9.8 +/- 3.0% of intake) and fecal energy (6.7 +/- 1.2% of intake) with the diet containing lupin oil were similar to those observed with the control diet. Both the protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis are very similar to those from soybeans processed in a similar manner. For certain countries the lupin could be a valuable source of protein and edible oil for human consumption.

  19. Time-dependent antibacterial effects of Aloe vera and Zataria multiflora plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide in teeth infected with Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Sahebi, Safoora; Gholami, Ahmad; Delroba, Alireza; Kiani, Amin; Iraji, Aida; Abbott, Paul Vincent

    2016-02-01

    In the present in vitro study, we investigated the time-related antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide ([Ca[OH]2 ) to eliminate Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from root canals. A new strain of E. faecalis (Enterococcus spp. AGH04) was isolated from a previously root-filled tooth with persistent apical periodontitis. The 16S rRNA sequence was analyzed and deposited in GeneBank under accession number KF465681. A total of 108 extracted human single-rooted teeth were contaminated with this bacterial strain and treated with Aloe vera essential oil, Z. multiflora essential oil, and Ca(OH)2 for 1, 7, and 14 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of the oils. The percentage reduction from initial c.f.u./mL counts were calculated and analyzed. Carvacrol, thymol, and linalool were the main constituents of both essential oils. The c.f.u./mL count reductions significantly increased for all three medicaments when the contact time was extended. A statistically-significant difference was observed between the medicaments after 1 and 7 days, but there was no significant difference after 14 days. Both medicinal herbs showed equal antimicrobial efficiency against E. faecalis, comparable to Ca(OH)2 for the prolonged contact time of 14 days. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  1. Myrtus communis berry color morphs: a comparative analysis of essential oils, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Extracts of mature dark blue and white berries from two Tunisian Myrtus communis morphs growing at the same site were assessed for their essential-oil and fatty-acid compositions, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils allowed the identification of 33 constituents. The oils from the dark blue fruits showed high percentages of α-pinene (11.1%), linalool (11.6%), α-terpineol (15.7%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and geraniol (3.7%). Myrtenyl acetate (20.3%) was found to be the major compound in the oils from white berries. GC Analysis of the pericarp and seed fatty acids showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted the major fraction (54.3-78.1%). The highest percentages of linoleic acid (78.0%) and oleic acid (20.0%) were observed in the seeds and the pericarps of the white fruits, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents and the concentration of the eight anthocyanins, identified by HPLC analysis, were significantly higher in the dark blue fruits. All extracts showed a substantial antioxidant activity, assessed by the free radical-scavenging activity and the ferric reducing power, with the dark blue fruit extracts being more effective.

  2. HZSM-5 CATALYST FOR CRACKING PALM OIL TO BIODIESEL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH AND WITHOUT PT AND PD IMPREGNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Budianto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Needs of healthy environment and green energy poses a great demand for alternative energy. Biofuel is one of the alternative energy products that are environmentally friendly. Biofuel can be made from plant oils, especially palm oil. Cracking of palm oil into biofuel is constrained by the availability of catalysts. Moreover the available catalyst still gives a low yield. This research aims to study the effect of Pt and Pd impregnation into HZSM-5 catalyst on the catalytic properties. Another aim is to obtain the operating conditions of the catalytic cracking process of palm oil into biofuel which gives the highest yield and selectivity, especially for biodiesel and biogasoline fractions. Catalytic cracking process was carried out in a micro fixed bed reactor with diameter of 1 cm and length of 16 cm. The reactor was filled with a catalyst. The results of the study successfully prove that Pt and Pd impregnated into HZSM-5 catalyst can increase the yield and selectivity of biodiesel. Pd and Pt are highly recommended to increase the yield and selectivity of biodiesel.

  3. Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-03-05

    In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%) and β-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC₅₀) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations.

  4. Novel transcriptome assembly and comparative toxicity pathway analysis in mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos and larvae exposed to Deepwater Horizon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Mager, Edward M.; Grosell, Martin; Hazard, E. Starr; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The impacts of Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil on morphology and function during embryonic development have been documented for a number of fish species, including the economically and ecologically important pelagic species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). However, further investigations on molecular events and pathways responsible for developmental toxicity have been largely restricted due to the limited molecular data available for this species. We sought to establish the de novo transcriptomic database from the embryos and larvae of mahi-mahi exposed to water accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) of two DWH oil types (weathered and source oil), in an effort to advance our understanding of the molecular aspects involved during specific toxicity responses. By high throughput sequencing (HTS), we obtained the first de novo transcriptome of mahi-mahi, with 60,842 assembled transcripts and 30,518 BLAST hits. Among them, 2,345 genes were significantly regulated in 96hpf larvae after exposure to weathered oil. With comparative analysis to a reference-transcriptome-guided approach on gene ontology and tox-pathways, we confirmed the novel approach effective for exploring tox-pathways in non-model species, and also identified a list of co-expressed genes as potential biomarkers which will provide information for the construction of an Adverse Outcome Pathway which could be useful in Ecological Risk Assessments.

  5. Discrimination of edible oils and fats by combination of multivariate pattern recognition and FT-IR spectroscopy: A comparative study between different modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Parish, Maryam; Karimi, Sadegh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    By using FT-IR spectroscopy, many researchers from different disciplines enrich the experimental complexity of their research for obtaining more precise information. Moreover chemometrics techniques have boosted the use of IR instruments. In the present study we aimed to emphasize on the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for discrimination between different oil samples (especially fat from vegetable oils). Also our data were used to compare the performance of different classification methods. FT-IR transmittance spectra of oil samples (Corn, Colona, Sunflower, Soya, Olive, and Butter) were measured in the wave-number interval of 450-4000 cm-1. Classification analysis was performed utilizing PLS-DA, interval PLS-DA, extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) and interval ECVA methods. The effect of data preprocessing by extended multiplicative signal correction was investigated. Whilst all employed method could distinguish butter from vegetable oils, iECVA resulted in the best performances for calibration and external test set with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Comparative effects of vetiver oil, nootkatone and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate on Coptotermes formosanus and its symbiotic fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrello, Lara; Henderson, Gregg; Laine, Roger A

    2003-01-01

    The potential of vetiver oil and nootkatone as wood treatments against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was examined by assessing the effects on termite tunneling, feeding activity and survival, and the consequences on the symbiont protozoa responsible for wood digestion. Comparisons were made with non-treated wood (control), wood treated with the borate compound Tim-Bor (a commonly used lumber preservative) and absence of a food source (starved termites), using choice and no-choice tests. All wood slices were prepared at the same time using a 10 g liter(-1) solution of each substance and were tested in four different sessions over one year to investigate longevity of the effects. Termites had to tunnel through sand to exploit the food sources, consisting of two wood slices, placed on opposite sides of the experimental enclosure. No-choice tests showed that in the presence of vetiver oil or nootkatone, tunneling activity was always the lowest; wood consumption, termite survival and flagellate numbers and species distribution were significantly different from the control and similar to the results obtained for starved termites and with Tim-Bor-treated wood. Nootkatone negatively affected termites for 12 months and was longer lasting than vetiver oil. In choice tests, when vetiver oil or nootkatone were present, termites exhibited a significant preference for non-treated wood. Our results confirmed both the toxicity and absence of repellency of Tim-Bor. Vetiver oil and especially nootkatone affected Formosan subterranean termites and their protozoa, acting as arrestants, repellents and feeding deterrents, and represent a promising natural alternative for the control of this invasive pest.

  7. Comparative mosquito repellency of essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siriporn Phasomkusolsil; Mayura Soonwera

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the repellency to female Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Anopheles dirus (An. dirus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) of seven essential oils using two treatment methods. Methods: Topical applications of three dose concentrations (0.02, 0.10 and 0.21 mg/cm2) were made on the forearms of volunteers. Dose-response study and protection time study were employed in the experiment. Results: In the dose-response test, Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus), Cymbopogon nardus (C. nardus), Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum) exhibited a high repellency against Ae. aegypti with ED50 at < 0.045 mg/cm2, whereas C. citratus, C. nardus and S. aromaticum showed repellency against An. dirus with ED50 at <0.068 mg/cm2. Furthermore, the essential oils of C. citratus, C. nardus, S. aromaticum, O.basilicum and Cananga odorata gave strong effective dose (ED 50) values at <0.003 mg/cm2 when tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. For testing by arm in cage method, at 0.21 mg/cm2, protection time of C. citratus gave the longest lasting period against three mosquito species, 72 min for Ae. aegypti, 132 min for An. dirus and 84 min for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In addition, the two essential oils exhibited moderate repellency against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus and Cx. quinquefasciatus, at 60, 90 and 78 min with C. nardus, and 54, 96 and 72 min with S. aromaticum, respectively. Conclusions: The percentage repellency increased when the concentration of essential oils increased. In contrast, biting rates decreased when the concentration of essential oils increased.C. citratus exhibited high efficiency for the protection time and the percentage of biting deterrent against all of 3 mosquito species.

  8. Fish intake in pregnancy and child growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratakis, N.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Oken, E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweight...... through middle childhood compared with women with lower fish intake (3 times/week or less). High fish intake during pregnancy (>3 times/week) was associated with increased risk of rapid infant growth, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.22 (95%CI, 1.05-1.42) and increased risk of offspring overweight/obesity...... among boys (aOR, 1.11 [95%CI, 0.92-1.34]; P = .02 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE High maternal fish intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of rapid growth in infancy and childhood obesity. Our findings are in line with the fish intake limit proposed by the US Food...

  9. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  10. A comparative study of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of tea tree oils s.l. with special reference to the activity of beta-triketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, F; Kaulfers, P M; Stahl-Biskup, E

    2000-08-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Australian tea tree oil, cajuput oil, niaouli oil, kanuka oil and manuka oil as well as of a beta-triketone complex isolated from manuka oil were investigated in a constituent-oriented study. The compositions of the oils were analysed by capillary GLC and GLC-MS. The MICs for sixteen different microorganisms were determined applying the broth dilution method. Australian tea tree oil showed the best overall antimicrobial effect. The best inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria and dermatophytes were achieved with manuka oil due to its beta-triketone content.

  11. 妊娠早期女性与非妊娠女性饮食摄入比较研究%Comparative study on the dietary intake of pregnant women and non pregnant women in early pregnant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雯惠; 黄敏; 熊梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较湖北荆州地区早期妊娠女性和非妊娠女性饮食摄入差异情况。方法:纳入湖北荆州地区2013年9月~2014年3月在荆州市中心医院产检的226例妊娠早期女性及同期在中心医院体检的健康女性211例。所有受试者完成食物频率问卷调查,调查内容包括食物种类、份量、饮酒和吸烟情况。采用描述、比较统计及偏最小二乘法PLS)模型分析数据。结果:妊娠早期女性与非妊娠女性从饮食中摄入的叶酸和维生素D都偏低。妊娠早期女性组叶酸和维生素D补充剂的摄入量高于非妊娠女性组,导致妊娠组女性预计维生素D和叶酸摄入量更高。早期妊娠女性从饮食中摄取的铁元素低于非妊娠女性,但是从铁元素补充剂中摄入的铁元素弥补两组间差异。妊娠早期女性能量摄入略低于非妊娠女性,但是差异无统计学意义,妊娠早期组女性报告摄入米饭、肉类及蔬菜低于非妊娠组女性。结论:荆州地区妊娠早期女性蔬菜、米饭、肉类和酒精摄入量低于非妊娠女性,从饮食中摄入的叶酸、维生素D及铁元素也低于营养建议标准,这有可能导致部分妊娠女性及其胎儿在分娩时并发症风险升高。%ObjectiveTo compare diet intake in early pregnant women with non-pregnant women in Jingzhou area.Meth-ods Between September 2013 and March 2014, 226 women in early pregnancy were consecutively recruited in Jinzhou area. Referent women (n=211) were randomly selected from a current health screening project running in the same region. We col-lected diet data with a self-reported validated food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates, and informa-tion on portion size, alcohol consumption, and supplement intake. Data were analysed using descriptive, comparative statistics and multivariate partial least square modelling.Results Intake of folate and vitamin D from foods was generally

  12. Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A comparative and economic study of the international, US and the Chinese compensation regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hui)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOil resources are unevenly distributed on the earth and most oil needs to be transported by sea. Therefore, ocean transport of oil is largely a one-way trade from the principal supply areas to the oil consuming states. The main routes of crude oil shipping are from the Middle East and So

  13. Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A comparative and economic study of the international, US and the Chinese compensation regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hui)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOil resources are unevenly distributed on the earth and most oil needs to be transported by sea. Therefore, ocean transport of oil is largely a one-way trade from the principal supply areas to the oil consuming states. The main routes of crude oil shipping are from the Middle East

  14. 北京市中小学生家庭成员食用油摄入量和来源调查%Invest igation on dietary oil intake and sources of primary and middle school students and their family members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芳; 张普洪; 张璐; 钮文异; 卢立新; 高建梅; 高仙; 刘彩霞

    2013-01-01

    目的了解北京市中小学生家庭成员食用油摄入量和来源。方法选择北京市城区、郊区各4所学校愿意配合的3~5年级小学生、7~8年级初中生及其家庭,应用“家庭一周油盐摄入估算法”调查中小学生及其家庭成员食用油摄入量和来源。结果北京市中小学生家庭成员食用油摄入量人均(37.9±26.4)g/d,其中来源于家庭烹饪用油、在外就餐和家庭外购食品的比例分别是45.9%、47.9%、6.3%。结论北京市中小学生家庭成员食用油摄入量仍远超过2007年中国居民膳食指南推荐量,在外就餐和家庭烹饪用油是主要来源,提示家庭烹饪用油健康教育和餐饮行业用油管理应该成为今后控油工作的重点。%Objective To understand the dietary oil intake and sources of primary and middle school students and their family members in Beijing.Methods The “One week oil and salt intake estimation method”was used to investigate the dietary oil intake and sources.Students and their families who were willing to take participant were chosen from Grade 3 -5 in 4 primary schools,and Grade 7 -8 in 4 middle schools in Beijing urban and suburban areas.Results On average, the dietary oil intake of family members was (37.9 ±26.4)g/person day,45.9 % from family cooking oil added,47.9%from restaurants or canteen,6.3% from fast food or snacks.Conclusion The cooking oil intake of primary and middle school students and their family members were far from those recommended dietary guidelines,and both eating out and fami-ly cooking were the main sources.More interventions should be focused on health education to reduce oil consumption in fami-ly cooking and management in oil usage in restaurant industry.

  15. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  16. [Consumption of nuts and vegetal oil in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-García, Juan Carlos; Granell Vidal, Lina; Muñoz Izquierdo, Amparo; Sánchez Juan, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, enriched with olive oil and nuts. People with diabetes, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, could benefit greatly from following this type of eating pattern. Analysis of vegetable fats intake from nuts and olive oil in patients with 1 Diabetes Mellitus type (DM1). Transverse descriptive study comparing 60 people with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM1) with 60 healthy individuals. We collect the frequency of consumption of vegetable oils and nuts and calculate the contribution of these foods in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid). For data collection we designed a food frequency questionnaire specifically. We also collect anthropometric variables, cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes-related variables. Vegetable fat intake from vegetable oils (3.02 ± 1.14 vs 3.07 ± 1.27 portions/day, P = 0.822) and nuts (1.35 ± 2.24 vs 1.60 ± 2.44 portions/week, P = 0.560), was similar in both groups. The DM1 group consumed fewer portions of olive oil daily than the control group (2.55 ± 1.17 vs 3.02 ± 1.34 portions/day, P = 0.046). We detected a significantly lower intake of α-linolenic acid in the control group (1.13 ± 2.06 versus 2.64 ± 4.37 g/day, p = 0.018) while there were not differences in the rest of fatty acids (oleic acid 28.30 ± 18.13 vs 29.53 ± 16.90 g/day, P = 0.703; linoleic 13.70 ± 16.80 vs 15.45 ± 19.90 g/day, P = 0.605). In DM1, it not demonstrated an influence of the intake of vegetable fats and oils from nuts in the anthropometric, metabolic and diabetes-specific variables. In people with DM1, total intake of vegetable oils and nuts do not differ from the general population. However, the consumption of olive oil and the contribution of α-linolenic fatty acid derived from such fats are slightly lower than the general population. Although intake of vegetable oils and nuts in people with DM1

  17. Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Annamaria; Héberger, Károly; Forgács, Esther

    2002-11-01

    Different vegetable oil samples (almond, avocado, corngerm, grapeseed, linseed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut, wheatgerm) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A gradient elution technique was applied using acetone-acetonitrile eluent systems on an ODS column (Purospher, RP-18e, 125 x 4 mm, 5 microm). Identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was based on the pseudomolecular ion [M+1]+ and the diacylglycerol fragments. The positional isomers of triacylglycerol were identified from the relative intensities of the [M-RCO2]+ fragments. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a common multivariate mathematical-statistical calculation was successfully used to distinguish the oils based on their TAG composition. LDA showed that 97.6% of the samples were classified correctly.

  18. Comparative Study of Oil Quality and Aroma Profiles from Tunisian Olive Cultivars Growing in Saharian Oasis Using Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Rouina, Yasmine Ben; Mansour, Amir Ben; Flamini, Guido; Rouina, Bechir Ben; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Aroma profile, oxidative stability and quality parameters of virgin olive oil from four cultivars (Chemlali, Chetoui, Koroneiki and Rjim), grown in Rjim Maatoug oasis in southern of Tunisia, were studied for the first time. The olive oil samples were obtained during maturation from a crop season (2012-2013). The results showed the quality parameters, i.e., free fatty acid, UV absorbance at 232 and 270 nm, increases during maturation exceeding the upper limit established by the IOOC norm. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments tended to decrease during ripening stages. The trend of oxidative stability, total phenols and Odiphenols exhibited a reduction of antioxidant activity at more advanced stages of maturity. The marks achieved showed that oil quality degradation is due to the great drought of climate: high temperature, high light intensity and low rainfall. Studied aroma profiles of cultivars were also influenced by severe climatic conditions. Twenty-four compounds were characterized, representing 94.8-99.8% of the total volatiles. In all samples, a strong decrease was observed in aldehydes compounds.

  19. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a copaiba oil-based root canal sealer compared to three commonly used sealers in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; de Cara, Sueli Patricia Harumi Miyagi; Marques, Marcia Martins; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2015-01-01

    Background: The constant development of new root canal sealers has allowed the solution of a large number of clinical cases in endodontics, however, cytotoxicity of such sealers must be tested before their validation as filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a new Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer (Biosealer [BS]) on osteoblast-like Osteo-1 cells. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were formed according to the culture medium conditioned with the tested sealers, as follows: Control group (CG) (culture medium without conditioning); Sealer 26 (S26) - culture medium + S26; Endofill (EF) - culture medium + EF; AH Plus (AHP) - culture medium + AHP; and BS - culture medium + BS (Copaiba oil-based sealer). The conditioned culture medium was placed in contact with 2 × 104 cells cultivated on 60 mm diameter Petri dishes for 24 h. Then, hemocytometer count was performed to evaluate cellular viability, using Trypan Blue assay. The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for cellular viability were statistically analyzed (1-way ANOVA, Tukey's test - P 0.05). Conclusion: The Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer presented promising results in terms of cytotoxicity which indicated its usefulness as a root canal sealer. PMID:25878676

  20. The economics of disposal methods for North Sea oil and gas fields: A study in comparative advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishman, D.

    1986-05-01

    One of the major development problems of new North Sea fields is the transportation of oil or gas to a landfall (the disposal method). Oil can be disposed of by offshore loading or by pipeline. While offshore loading may be cheaper, it leads to reduced operational efficiency and may not be permitted by regulatory bodies because of perceived safety or environmental hazards. A dedicated pipeline to shore may be too costly for small- to medium-sized fields, but sharing a pipeline system or tying in to an existing pipeline for a tariff are viable alternatives. The development of gas fields and the production of associated gas from oil fields has been hampered by the lack of pipeline systems for disposal. With no fallback position of offshore loading, gas fields cannot be developed unless there is an economic disposal method by pipeline. When a tariff is negotiated that results in the development of a field, all parties stand to benefit economically. The tariff negotiation would thus be expected to result in a mutually beneficial solution. This paper develops economic models of the disposal alternatives to derive the relative benefit of each with respect to the cost-of-disposal, tariff-structure, and reserve-throughput parameters.

  1. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

  2. Ways to be different: foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly-wintering shorebird compared to a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion, and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 degrees of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: Calidris p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N), and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (~40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioural, physiological, and sensory aspects of foraging, and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. Ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates, and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10-14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis likely resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the two subspecies' metabolic capacities, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioural or sensory aspects.

  3. Palm olein and olive oil cause a higher increase in postprandial lipemia compared with lard but had no effect on plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Nagapan, Gowri; Cheng, Hwee Ming; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-04-01

    Postprandial lipemia impairs insulin sensitivity and triggers the pro-inflammatory state which may lead to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. A randomized, crossover single-blind study (n = 10 healthy men) was designed to compare the effects of a high-fat load (50 g fat), rich in palmitic acid from both plant (palm olein) or animal source (lard) versus an oleic acid-rich fat (virgin olive oil) on lipemia, plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were significantly lower after the lard meal than after the olive oil and palm olein meals (meal effect P = 0.003; time effect P palm olein. A high fat load but not the type of fats influences concentrations of plasma IL-1β over time but had no effect on other pro-inflammatory markers tested in the postprandial state.

  4. Consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e parâmetros sanguíneos de cabras mestiças moxotó suplementadas com óleos de licuri ou mamona Intake, digestibility of nutrients and blood parameters of crossbred moxotó goats suplemented with licuri or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a possibilidade da inclusão dos óleos de Licuri ou Mamona, em dois níveis, na dieta de cabras mestiças Moxotó, por meio do estudo do consumo de matéria seca, da digestibilidade e dos níveis de ureia, glicose e ácidos graxos não esterificados (AGNE no sangue. Os tratamentos consistiam em um grupo controle sem óleo (SO e adição de 3 ou 5% de óleo de Licuri (OL-3 ou OL-5 ou Mamona (OM-3 ou OM-5, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizadas 10 cabras mestiças Moxotó em lactação, confinadas, distribuídas em um quadrado latino duplo (5 x 5, no qual cada período consistia em 12 dias de adaptação e três dias de coleta. A inclusão de óleo na dieta reduziu o consumo de matéria seca, com exceção do consumo dos animais suplementados com OM-3. No entanto, a adição de 3% de óleo não alterou o consumo de energia metabolizável e proteína bruta. Já a suplementação com OL-5 reduziu o consumo dos nutrientes, com exceção do consumo de extrato etéreo. A suplementação lipídica não alterou a digestibilidade da matéria seca, entretanto aumentou a digestibilidade da FDN e a digestibilidade aparente da PB e EE. Os níveis de glicose, ureia e AGNE sanguíneos não diferiram entre os tratamentos. É possível utilizar 3% de óleo de Mamona na dieta de cabras em lactação.The objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of including Castor or Licuri oil at two levels in the diets of crossbred Moxotó goat's through dry matter intake, digestibility and levels of urea, glucose and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA in the blood. The treatments consisted of control groups without oil, 3% or 5% of Licuri (LO-3 or LO-5 or Castor (CO-3 or CO-5 oil, based on dry matter supplementation. Ten Moxotó lactating goats were used according to a double Latin Square (5 x 5 experiment design. The addition of oil to the diet reduced the dry matter intake, except for animals that were supplemented

  5. Salt loading in canola oil fed SHRSP rats induces endothelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annateresa Papazzo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if 50 days of canola oil intake in the absence or presence of salt loading affects: (1 antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, (2 aortic mRNA of NADPH oxidase (NOX subunits and superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms and (3 endothelial function in SHRSP rats. SHRSP rats were fed a diet containing 10 wt/wt% soybean oil or 10 wt/wt% canola oil, and given tap water or water containing 1% NaCl for 50 days. Without salt, canola oil significantly increased RBC SOD, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, aortic p22 (phox , NOX2 and CuZn-SOD mRNA, and decreased RBC glutathione peroxidase activity. With salt, canola oil reduced RBC SOD and catalase activity, LDL-C, and p22 (phox mRNA compared with canola oil alone, whereas plasma malondialdehyde (MDA was reduced and RBC MDA and LDL-C were higher. With salt, the canola oil group had significantly reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilating responses to ACh and contractile responses to norepinephrine compared with the canola oil group without salt and to the WKY rats. These results indicate that ingestion of canola oil increases O2 (- generation, and that canola oil ingestion in combination with salt leads to endothelial dysfunction in the SHRSP model.

  6. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  7. Replacement of margarine on bread by rapeseed and olive oils: effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen-Laakso, T; Vanhanen, H; Laakso, I; Kohtamäki, H; Viikari, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of zero erucic acid rapeseed oil and olive oil on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol were studied in margarine users (n = 46). The replacement of margarine on bread by these oils accounted, on average, for 16% of the total fat and 7% of the total energy intake. Fatty acid analysis of total plasma indicated a dose-dependent rise in alpha-linolenic (alpha-LLA) and oleic acid (OA) levels during rapeseed and olive oil substitutions, respectively. Rapeseed oil substitution increased the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (0.4%- units, on average) in plasma phospholipids. A slight decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 4.5%, p acids, but also in the relationships with serum lipids, since the changes in alpha-LLA, rather than in OA, were associated with those in LDL-C and the HDL-C/TC ratio. No competitive action of polyunsaturated acids comparable to rapeseed oil was found during olive oil substitution. In contrast to the rapeseed oil diet, the reduced proportion of linoleic acid (LA) in plasma phospholipids was not restored; this may be unfavorable if the habitual intake of LA is low. However, the effects on LDL-C levels were beneficial: the concentration decreased by 5.9% (p olive oil substitution.

  8. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenni, Mohammed; El Abed, Douniazad; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-19

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were linalool (43.5% SFME; 48.4% HD), followed by methyl chavicol (13.3% SFME; 14.3% HD) and 1,8-cineole (6.8% SFME; 7.3% HD). Their antioxidant activity were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. The heating conditions effect was evaluated by the determination of the Total Polar Materials (TPM) content. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against five microorganisms: two Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one yeast, Candida albicans. Both EOs showed high antimicrobial, but weak antioxidant, activities. The results indicated that the SFME method may be a better alternative for the extraction of EO from O. basilicum since it could be considered as providing a richer source of natural antioxidants, as well as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  9. Effect of mixture of alcohols on biodiesel properties which produced from waste cooking oils and compare combustion performance and emissions of biodiesels with petrodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansourpoor Mojtaba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the petroleum price and environmental problems have been driving forces to findalternative and renewable energy resources. Biodiesel has attracted the attention of many researchersdue to various advantages associated with its usages. Several aspects including the type of catalyst,molar ratio of alcohol to oil, temperature, purity of reactants and free fatty acid content have mainlyinfluence on transesterification. In this work, waste cooking oils and two types of alcohols with differentmolar ratio of methanol to ethanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst were used as materials. Effect ofalcohol on the physical properties, combustion efficiency and emitted gases of biodiesels were studiedand compared with petrodiesel. Mixture of methanol and ethanol were used for transesterification inorder to optimize solvent property of methanol and rapid equilibrium using methanol. Waste cooking oilis considered as the most suitable material due to its availability and cost-effectiveness. To examine theperformance and emissions of biodiesels, a wet base semi-industrial boiler was used for combustion anda flue-gas analyzer has measured the emitted gases. Finally, physical properties of biodiesels weremeasured in Abadan’s Oil Refinery Laboratory.

  10. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2011-07-01

    Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. How RRV(food) is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRV(food), the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRV(prop)) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRV(prop) was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117.

  11. Comparative Safety and Efficacy Profile of a Novel Oil in Water Vaccine Adjuvant Comprising Vitamins A and E and a Catechin in Protective Anti-Influenza Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Patel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS, based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus. Vaccinations of inbred Brag Albino strain c (BALB/c mice, with HA mixed with NIDS compared to other adjuvants, i.e., a squalene oil in water emulsion (Sq. oil, and the Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3 agonist Poly (I:C, induced significantly lower select innate pro-inflammatory responses in serum, but induced significantly higher adaptive antibody and splenic T Helper 1 (TH1 or TH2, but not TH17, responses. Vaccinations with NIDS protected against infection, as measured by clinical scores, lung viral loads, and serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. The NIDS exhibited a strong dose sparing effect and the adjuvant action of NIDS was intact in the outbred CD1 mice. Importantly, vaccinations with the Sq. oil, but not NIDS, induced a significantly higher Serum Amyloid P component, an acute phase reactant secreted by hepatocytes, and total serum IgE. Thus, the NIDS may be used as a clinically safer and more efficacious vaccine adjuvant against influenza, and potentially other infectious diseases.

  12. 中英美油气会计准则比较研究%Comparative Study of Oil & Gas Accounting Standards in China, America and the UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梅; 于韬

    2012-01-01

    在比较分析中英美油气会计准则中涉及的油气资产计量、涉外会计及油气会计信息披露等多个方面的会计处理基础上,根据中国的实际情况,改进了期末完井后的会计处理,优化了折耗率的计算,对油气资产现金流量现值的计算提出了可行性建议,并引入了基于产量计提预计负债的弃置义务处理方法;对产量分成合同与联合经营合同中的会计处理进行了说明;同时建议增加储量价值及油气生产活动经营成果的披露。%This thesis compares the oil and gas accounting standards in China with the standards in America and the UK, draws on their advanced ideas, and then puts forward constructive proposals for the improvement of CAS 27, involving measurement of oil and gas asset, international accounting, and disclosure of reserves. The measurement includes accounting methods, initial measurement, and subsequent measurement. This thesis im- proves the accounting treatment at the end of period and after well finished, the calculation of NPV, and the treatment of abandon obligations. Then this thesis analyses the disadvantage of CAS 27 when confirm the profit and loss in transfer the possession of oil and gas interest, and introduce the accounting treatment in PSC and joint operation contract. Finally, this thesis standardizes the disclosure of oil & gas reserves.

  13. Flaxseed flour, compared to flaxseed oil, contributes to femoral structure in male rats subjected to early weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; da Camara Boueri, Bianca Ferolla; da Costa, Luanna Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maitê Rocha; de Abreu, Maíra Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, Letícia Rozeno; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether flaxseed flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to femoral structure in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from mothers at 14 days (early weaning, EW) or 21 days (control, C). After 21 days, the control (C60) was fed with the control diet. The EW group was divided based on control (EWC60), flaxseed flour (EWFF60) and flaxseed oil (EWFO60) diets until 60 days. Femoral dimension, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area and biomechanical properties were determined. EWFO60 showed lower (P < 0.05) femur mass. EWC60 and EWFO60 showed lower (P < 0.05) distance between epiphyses, diaphysis width and BMD. BMC was lower (P < 0.05) in EWC60 (vs. C60 and EWFF60). EWC60 and EWFO60 showed lower (P < 0.05) maximum force (vs. C60). Breaking strength was lower (P < 0.05) in EWFO60 (vs. C60). EWFF60 showed higher (P < 0.05) rigidity. Flaxseed flour abbreviated the femoral fragility secondary to early weaning.

  14. Comparative microstructure study of oil palm fruit bunch fibre, mesocarp and kernels after microwave pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jessie S. L.; Chan, Y. S.; Law, M. C.; Leo, C. P.

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of microwave technology in palm oil processing offers numerous advantages; besides elimination of polluted palm oil mill effluent, it also reduces energy consumption, processing time and space. However, microwave exposure could damage a material’s microstructure which affected the quality of fruit that can be related to its physical structure including the texture and appearance. In this work, empty fruit bunches, mesocarp and kernel was microwave dried and their respective microstructures were examined. The microwave pretreatments were conducted at 100W and 200W and the microstructure investigation of both treated and untreated samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscope. The micrographs demonstrated that microwave does not significantly influence kernel and mesocarp but noticeable change was found on the empty fruit bunches where the sizes of the granular starch were reduced and a small portion of the silica bodies were disrupted. From the experimental data, the microwave irradiation was shown to be efficiently applied on empty fruit bunches followed by mesocarp and kernel as significant weight loss and size reduction was observed after the microwave treatments. The current work showed that microwave treatment did not change the physical surfaces of samples but sample shrinkage is observed.

  15. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Luís

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs, together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities.

  16. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  17. Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil) have been recorded. Different physical constants which are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different compound is present in Japanese mint oil. It is also found that the fluorescence intensity of these oils is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol solution. Our studies suggest that Mentha oils may be a useful lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.

  18. Dietary rapeseed/canola-oil supplementation reduces serum lipids and liver enzymes and alters postprandial inflammatory responses in adipose tissue compared to olive-oil supplementation in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Michael; von Loeffelholz, Christian; Hoffmann, Daniela; Pohlmann, Antje; Seltmann, Anne-Cathrin; Osterhoff, Martin; Hornemann, Silke; Pivovarova, Olga; Rohn, Sascha; Jahreis, Gerhard; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is associated with hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and low-grade inflammation. Studies have shown that MUFA as well as PUFA have beneficial effects on blood lipids and the inflammatory state. This study investigates the effects of a daily supplementation of either 50 g of rapeseed/canola (RA) or olive (OL) oil over 4 wk on serum lipids, serum liver enzymes, and inflammatory gene expression in subcutaneous (s. c.) adipose tissue in obese men. Consuming RA resulted in increased serum n-3 fatty acids and a reduction in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and serum aspartate aminotransferase compared to OL. In s. c. adipose tissue, gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL6 was reduced in RA compared to OL. However, after 4 h after a test meal, containing the appropriate oil, white bread, and 400 mL of liquid diet drink (835 kcal in total), gene expression of IL6, IL1B, and EMR1 (egf-like module containing Mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1) was increased in RA and of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2) in both RA and OL. This demonstrates that consuming RA for 4 wk improves serum lipids, liver enzymes, and basal inflammation in s. c. adipose tissue, but it mediates an acute pro-inflammatory response in adipose tissue upon consuming a meal. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahinda Y. Abeywardena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stearidonic acid (SDA; C18:4n-3 has been suggested as an alternative to fish oil (FO for delivering health benefits of C ≥ 20 long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA. Echium oil (EO represents a non-genetically-modified source of SDA available commercially. This study compared EO and FO in relation to alterations in plasma and tissue fatty acids, and for their ability to afford protection against ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation (VF. Rats were fed (12 weeks diets supplemented with either EO or FO at three dose levels (1, 3 and 5% w/w; n = 18 per group. EO failed to influence C22:6n-3 (DHA but increased C22:5n-3 (DPA in tissues dose-dependently, especially in heart tissue. Conversely, DHA in hearts of FO rats showed dose-related elevation; 14.8%–24.1% of total fatty acids. Kidney showed resistance for incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA. Overall, FO provided greater cardioprotection than EO. At the highest dose level, FO rats displayed lower (p < 0.05 episodes of VF% (29% vs. 73% and duration (22.7 ± 12.0 vs. 75.8 ± 17.1 s than the EO group but at 3% EO was comparable to FO. We conclude that there is no endogenous conversion of SDA to DHA, and that DPA may be associated with limited cardiac benefit.

  20. Plant Oils as Potential Sources of Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele I Stangl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To combat vitamin D insufficiency in a population, reliable diet sources of vitamin D are required. The recommendations to consume more oily fish and the use of UVB treated yeast are already applied strategies to address vitamin D insufficiency. This study aimed to elucidate the suitability of plant oils as an alternative vitamin D source. Therefore, plant oils that are commonly used in human nutrition were firstly analyzed for their content of vitamin D precursors and metabolites. Secondly, selected oils were exposed to a short-term UVB irradiation to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin D. Finally, to elucidate the efficacy of plant-derived vitamin D to improve the vitamin D status, we fed UVB-exposed wheat germ oil for 4 weeks to mice and compared them with mice that received non-exposed or vitamin D3 supplemented wheat germ oil. Sterol analysis revealed that the selected plant oils contained high amounts of ergosterol, but also 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, with the highest concentrations found in wheat germ oil. Exposure to UVB irradiation resulted in a partial conversion of ergosterol and 7-DHC to vitamin D2 and D3 in these oils. Mice fed the UVB-exposed wheat germ oil were able to improve their vitamin D status as shown by the rise in the plasma concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and the liver content of vitamin D compared to mice fed the non-exposed oil. However, the plasma concentration of 25(OHD of mice fed the UVB-treated oil did not reach the values observed in the group fed the D3 supplemented oil. It was striking that the intake of the UVB-exposed oil resulted in distinct accumulation of vitamin D2 in the livers of these mice. In conclusion, plant oils, in particular wheat germ oil, contain considerable amounts of vitamin D precursors which can be converted to vitamin D via UVB exposure. However, the UVB-exposed wheat germ oil was less effective to improve the 25(OHD plasma concentration than a supplementation with vitamin D

  1. The Comparative Protective Effects of Ganoderma Spores Lipid and Fish Oil on N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea-Induced Photoreceptor Cell Lesion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare Ganoderma spores lipid (GSL and fish oil (FO in inhibiting retinal photoreceptor cell lesions induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU in rats. Methods. 120 rats were untreated (normal control, NC group or treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg MNU (MNU group then treated with GSL (GSL group or FO (FO group. Eyes were obtained at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days. Results. Light microscopy assay demonstrated that GSL and FO alleviated rat retinal photoreceptor cell damage (GSL and FO versus MNU group P.05. Conclusion. GSL, like FO, alleviates rat retinal photoreceptor cell damage induced by MNU.

  2. Assessment of pyridoxine and folate intake in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Migraine patients had lower dietary intake of folate, compared with non-migraine group subjects. There was no significant association between folate and pyridoxine intake with the frequency of migraine attacks. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  3. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    on appetite sensations, ad libitum energy intake and gastro-intestinal satiety hormones. 3. To compare the effect of dark chocolate versus milk chocolate on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake. In paper 1, the participants who received sucrose supplements had lower ratings of fullness and higher...... ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... sweetener supplements. In paper 2, the modified triacylglycerol salatrim did not reduce energy intake, compared with traditional fat, despite slightly higher ratings of fullness during the salatrim test day. The slight difference in fullness was not due to differences in gastro-intestinal satiety hormones...

  4. High intake of regular-fat cheese compared with reduced-fat cheese does not affect LDL cholesterol or risk markers of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz; Tholstrup, Tine; Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese with an equal amount of reduced-fat cheese and an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL cholesterol and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: The study was a 12-wk randomized parallel intervention preceded by a 2-wk run-in period...

  5. Comparative assessment of olive oil mill effluents from three-phase and two-phase systems, treated for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvalis, A; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, J

    2010-10-01

    By-products of a two-phase and a three-phase olive oil mill process treated in an anaerobic fermentation system for hydrogen production, were evaluated by three bioassays: the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo test and two microbiotests, Thamnotoxkit F and Daphtoxkit F™ pulex. Samples from both processes were classified as "very toxic" with LC(50) values ranging from 1.52% (T. platyurus 24 h test) to 4.48% (D. pulex 48 h-LC₅₀). Toxicity values were differently correlated to physicochemical parameters showing different degree of influence. The treated effluents of both process systems remained very toxic showing the necessity for further treatment, aiming to environmentally safe discharges.

  6. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    abdominal and liver fat deposition.Objective:We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.Methods:In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight...... postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day(-1) of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance...... (MR) imaging, and liver fat by (1)H MR spectroscopy.Results:Compared with the control fat, TFA intake decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 10%, increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 18% and resulted in an increased LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio (baseline adjusted...

  7. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    syndrome are complex disorders and are not caused by a high-calorie diet and low exercise level alone. The specific nature of the nutrients, independent of their caloric value, also play a role. The question is which. In the quest to answer this question the qualitative intake of protein is of special...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources...... interest since it has been shown that it is possible to achieve greater weight loss on a high protein diet as oppose to a high carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that specifically milk-derived whey proteins have certain biological properties that might be beneficial in the treatment...

  8. Comparative study on the in vitro human skin permeation of monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids applied in rose oil and in form of neat single compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, S; Schaefer, U; Sporer, F; Reichling, J

    2010-02-01

    Essential oils are ingredients of cosmetic and health care products as well as massage oil used in aromatherapy. There is no doubt that essential oils and their components are able to permeate human skin. But information is rare dealing with percutanous absorption of essential oils in more detail. In this paper we investigated the in vitro skin permeation of monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids applied in pure rose oil and in form of neat single substances. We found that the application form had an exceeding influence on the skin permeation behaviour of the compounds. For substances applied in rose oil a clear relationship between their lipophilic character, chemical structure, and skin permeation could be confirmed. Regarding the P(app)-values the substances are ranked in the order: monoterpene hydrocarbons rose oil than in their neat form. This suggests that co-operative interactions between essential oil components may promote skin permeation behaviour of essential oil and its components.

  9. An oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Raff, Marianne; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    women a daily supplement of 5.5 g of oil rich in either CLA mixture, an oil rich in the naturally occurring c9,t11 CLA (CLA rnilk), respectively, or olive oil for 16 wk in a double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We sampled blood and urine before and after the intervention. The ratios...... was lower in women supplemented with the CLA mixture than with olive oil. Both CLA supplements increased lipid peroxidation, a marker of in vivo oxidative stress measured as urinary free 8-iso-prbstaglandin F-2 alpha. However, the CLA mixture increased lipid peroxidation more than the CLA milk did...... isomer is more neutral, except for a small but significant increase in lipid peroxidation compared with olive oil....

  10. Comparative analysis between horizontal and vertical heater treaters: identification and analysis of efficiency variables for oil treatment; Analise comparativa entre tratadores termicos horizontais e verticais: levantamento de variaveis criticas a eficiencia do processamento primario do oleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, Fabricio de Queiroz; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Brazilian onshore oil and gas production scenario has undergone changes with the maturity of fields and the prioritization of investments towards offshore projects. Added to the issue of lack of investment issue, the increasing production of formation water, which has already exceeded the production of the oil itself. With that comes the need to study the efficiency of process stages. It is common to find oil treatment plants (ETOS) limiting production operations due to lack of capacity to deal with increasing volumes of produced water. The critical moment of an ETO in onshore operations is the 'breaking' of emulsion (water in oil) usually performed by heater treaters. This article offers a comparative analysis between horizontal (TTH) and vertical (TTV) heater treaters, indicating the main variables and demonstrating opportunities for internalization of traditional and innovative technologies in horizontal systems that result in energy efficiency, optimization of the specification of oil (for marketing) and reduced operating costs. (author)

  11. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Adams, Michael; Dallimore, Julie; Kitessa, Soressa M

    2016-01-04

    Stearidonic acid (SDA; C18:4n-3) has b