WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil industry

  1. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  2. Wavelets in oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the role of wavelet methods applied to identification and characterization of oil reservoir is elaborated. The market rate of petroleum product is very much related to exploration, drilling and production cost. The main goal of researchers working in oil industry is to develop tools and techniques for minimizing cost of exploration and production. Efforts of researchers working in applications of wavelet methods in different parts of the world to achieve this goal is reviewed. Wavelet based solution of Buckley-Leverett equation modelling reservoir is discussed. Variants of Buckley-Leverett equations including its higher dimension versions are introduced. Wavelet methods for inverse problems associated with Buckley-Leverett equation, which are quite useful for oil recovery, are also explained in this chapter.

  3. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Rocca; Dario Viberti

    2013-01-01

    Similarly to most industrial activities, the oil industry can affect the environment at several stages. The greatest impact is the release of waste into the environment in concentrations that are not natural. Virtually in all cases, the adverse impact can be minimized or eliminated through the implementation of a proper waste management plan. Over the past few years the oil industry has placed greater emphasis on minimizing the environmental impact of its operations in all the main phases of ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Rocca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to most industrial activities, the oil industry can affect the environment at several stages. The greatest impact is the release of waste into the environment in concentrations that are not natural. Virtually in all cases, the adverse impact can be minimized or eliminated through the implementation of a proper waste management plan. Over the past few years the oil industry has placed greater emphasis on minimizing the environmental impact of its operations in all the main phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir life: from appraisal to field development, from production and recovery to reservoir decommissioning. As a consequence, the oil industry is facing important technical challenges, approaching with great interest and expectation new emerging technologies, such as nanotechnologies and alternative solutions, like CO2 underground storage. This study provides an overview of the most interesting solutions that have been proposed and critically highlights their potential benefits and drawbacks. The following paper focuses on some of the new approaches that have already changed the routine operation workflow, while others are currently being tested and may yet require further improvement.

  6. Corrosion in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brondel, D. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Edwards, R. (Schlumberger Well Services, Columbus, OH (United States)); Hayman, A. (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Hill, D. (Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States)); Mehta, S. (Schlumberger Dowell, St. Austell (United Kingdom)); Semerad, T. (Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc., Sumatra (Indonesia))

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. Attention is paid to how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing. Also the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids is reviewed. Methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion are discussed, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion. 21 figs., 32 refs.

  7. Burgeoning China Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ming; Hou Xiaoying; Xiao Yang

    1996-01-01

    @@ Despite its late inception, China's offshore oil industry has been growing rapidly over the past ten years and has become a new division of the energy sector boasting constant, swift and highly-effective development. Before foreign cooperation was introduced, offshore crude production was only about 100 000 tons per year. In 1996,the total production will surpass 10 million tons, indicating promising prospects for further progress in the future.

  8. Oil price shocks and European industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Yurtsever, Cenk

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the impact of oil price shocks at the industry level in the Euro area for the period 1983-2007. We use different oil price specifications and use dynamic VAR models and multivariate regression to investigate how 38 different industries respond to oil price shocks. We pay specific atte

  9. Oil price shocks and European industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Yurtsever, Cenk

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the impact of oil price shocks at the industry level in the Euro area for the period 1983-2007. We use different oil price specifications and use dynamic VAR models and multivariate regression to investigate how 38 different industries respond to oil price shocks. We pay specific atte

  10. Oil price shocks and European industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Yurtsever, Cenk

    We investigate the impact of oil price shocks at the industry level in the Euro area for the period 1983-2007. We use different oil price specifications and use dynamic VAR models and multivariate regression to investigate how 38 different industries respond to oil price shocks. We pay specific

  11. Sustainability in the Malaysian palm oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, CG; McKay, A

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly growing world population, the demand for palm oil is increasing. In 2010, palm oil accounted for 36.5% of the world's vegetable oil production and it is projected to be the leading vegetable oil in the world by 2016. As the Malaysian palm oil industry is committed to delivering sustainable palm oil products to meet customer demand, this research was to enable identification and prioritisation of areas for improvement. As an example, the Roadmap of Malaysian Palm Oil Industry 20...

  12. China Offshore Oil Industry and Foreign Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Ke

    1994-01-01

    @@ Offshore Oil and CNOOC The history of China's offshore oil industry can be traced back to late 1950's when geophysical surveys started in limited offshore areas. Then, in 1960's and 1970's, a few exploratory wells scattered from north down to south were drilled resulting in a number of discoveries with the total proven oil in place being merely 40 million tons. In fact, the China's offshore oil industry in a real sence did not emerge on the horizon until early 1980's when China opened its door to outside world and the China National Offshore Oil Corporation(CNOOC) was born.

  13. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-07-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  14. Oil Price Fluctuations and Industry Stock Return

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tahmoorespour; Marjan Rezvani; Meysam Safari; Elias Randjbarand

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of oil price variation on 14 industries in six markets, including Canada, China, France, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Panel weekly data were collected from June 1998 to December 2011. The results indicate that price fluctuations primarily affect the Oil and Gas as well as the Mining industries and have the least influence on the Food and Beverage industry. Furthermore, in three out of six of these countries (Canada, France, and the U.K.)...

  15. Status and tasks of oil refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, I.M. [Korea Petroleum Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The oil refinery industry is currently undergoing more difficulties than other industries. Since crude oil is all imported, whose import amount is the biggest as single item, and usance financing that once extended up to one hundred eighty (180) days is not easy to get under the current exchange and financial crisis, there are many hardships in import of crude oil. With this, domestic petroleum products demand shows sudden decline trend while competition gets more intensified due to remarkable regulation relief and liberalization measures in oil refinery industry such as the liberalization of domestic oil prices, etc. It is estimated that it entered the low growth stage as high-growth age of double-digit ends due to several complicated factors and rapid changes of economic environment. Under these crisis situations, domestic oil refinery industry drives super retrenchment management and restructuring for survival, but they are bombarded with piled up tasks while faced with liberalization and outward opening of imminent oil refinery business and domestic petroleum market. Domestic oil refinery industry should provide petroleum energy, which is blood of national economy and industries steadily without interruption overcoming wisely the worst management crisis with collective wisdom based on the accumulated management know-how and experience for the past first generation, and I also firmly believe that they can do that. 21 tabs.

  16. The Future of Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Oil and gas are the major energy resources all over the world but are not renewable. According to their present reserves, the resource volumes yet to be found and the large amount of non-conventional oil and gas resources, there is still great potential in oil and gas production. The proportion ofoil and gas in energy structure will be influenced by four major factors: 1) Potential of the world oil and gas resources; 2) Technological progress of oil and gas exploration and development; 3) Speed of the development of substitute energy resources; and 4) Variation of oil price. It is estimated that, oil and gas will still retain an important proportion in energy structure by the first half of the 21st century.

  17. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C

    2016-06-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool.

  18. Outlook for developing the Hungarian oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsengeller, I.

    1984-01-01

    Reports from the 72nd general meeting of the Hungarian state society of miners and metallurgists are presented. Half of the need for energy supply is provided by oil and natural gas. The annual extraction is 2 million T of oil and 7 billion mT of natural gas. The discovered reserves guarantee extraction for 10-30 years. The need is stressed for using new methods in oil refining to extract more valuable products. World Bank credit also has to be used for development of the industry.

  19. Potential Oil Palm Industry Development in Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasdi Syahza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of Indonesia’s main commodities that play a role in the growth of the national economy. It has a considerable contribution in generating foreign exchange and employment. Development of Indonesia’s CPO processing industry and its derivatives is in line with the growth of plantation area and production of oil palm as a source of raw materials. Until 2011, Indonesia’s oil palm plantation area reached 2,103,175 ha with an FFB production of 36,809,252 tons. Meanwhile, oil palm mill (OPM processing capacity was 30,019,200 tons only. The analysis showed the regional carrying capacity (RCC was 1.584. Each FFB should be processed in less than 8 hours or RCC for OPM must be smaller than 1 (RCC, 1. Higher production of oil palm plantations in Riau is the potency to increase the OPM. The results of calculations by land development and farm productivity, Riau region is still lacking of 16 OPM units with a capacity of 60 tons / hour or identical to 21 OPM units at a capacity of 45 tons / hour. The deficiency in OPM impacts the price and income of oil palm farmers in rural areas. High demand for OPM in Riau is a business opportunity for investors to develop an OPM and industry of products derived from oil palm.

  20. Radiological impact of oil/gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C. [Institute of Public Health, Iasi (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact on the environment and population of the oil/gas industry that is non-nuclear industry but uses and can produce materials, with an enhanced content of naturally occurring radionuclides. The natural radioactivity levels in the oil field environmental media, which could represent a risk for the people living in the areas influenced by this non-nar industry, do not indicate an increase in the natural radiation background. From a radiological point of view, the situation does not pose any immediate concern. Some places however need further investigations, with special emphasis on the control of 226 Ra releases to prevent from polluting the environment with this radionuclide. The growing concern amongst the population about the quality of their environment increases the significance of impact assessment of radioactive releases into the environment even if natural radionuclides occur. (N.C.)

  1. Quality. [Quality in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, N. (Anadrill HSE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Jeffries, J. (Dowell UK Training Center, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Mach, J. (Dowell North America, Sugar Land, TX (United States)); Robson, M. (Schlumberger North America, Sugar Land, TX (United States)); Pajot, D. (Geco-Prakla, Stavanger (Norway)); Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T. (Schlumberger Perforating and Testing Center, Rosharon, TX (United States)); Mullen, D. (Schlumberger South America, Bogota (Colombia)); Rat, F. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Theys, P. (Schlumberger, Montrouge (France))

    1993-01-01

    What is quality How do you achieve it How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs.

  2. Use of composite materials in oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trifunović, Prvoslav

    2011-01-01

    The most frequently used composites for fabrication of primary and secondary constructions within the oil industry are made of epoxy, phenolic or polymer matrix combined with glass, carbon or aramid fibers. For fabrication of risers, thermoplastic polymers (polyethylene, polyvinyldenefluoride, and polyamide) are used, which are to be wound around steel reinforcement of riser. Polymer may be reinforced with glass or carbon fibers. Instead of thermoplastic polymers, epoxy matrix reinforced with...

  3. Impressions management: lessons from the oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Halderen, Mignon; Berens, Guido; Bhatt, Mamta; Brown, Tom; Riel, Cees

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the late 1990s, after over a century of extracting hydrocarbons, the petroleum industry faced a growing scientific consensus that pollution from fossil fuels is a major cause of global warming. Operationally and in terms of their global image, oil and gas companies faced a serious dilemma. Two major players, Exxon and British Petroleum, took very different approaches in their corporate communications strategies, the outcomes of which offer valuable lessons in impressions ma...

  4. Water management in the oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauls, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Water management issues at Alberta's 4 oil sand deposits were discussed. The 4 deposits include the Peace River, Athabasca, Wabasca and Cold Lake deposits, with the Athabasca deposit being the largest and the only surface-mineable deposit. Large quantities of water are needed to extract bitumen from oil sands. This paper addressed water volume withdrawal from the Athabasca River, the primary source of water for the surface-mining oil sands industry. It also addressed Muskeg River watershed integrity, quality of water withdrawn from reclaimed landscapes, groundwater contamination, and ecological viability of end-pit lakes. Currently, half of Syncrude's oil sand is transported from mine to extraction plant by conveyor belts. The other half is pipelined as a warm water slurry. By 2005, all transport will be by pipeline. The oil sand is mixed with hot water, steam and surfactants to condition it for extraction. Seventy-nine per cent of the water used by Syncrude is recycled water and the remainder comes from the Athabasca River. Syncrude diverts 2.5 to 3 barrels of water from the Athabasca River for every barrel of oil produced. This paper discussed the in-stream flow needs of the Athabasca River based on protection of aquatic ecosystems. Flow needs are addressed by the Cumulative Effects Management Association (CEMA). The paper states that the proportion of annual flow withdrawn from the Athabasca River is too low to have a significant impact on aquatic systems, but the main concern lies in water use during low flow periods, typically during the winter months. Developers will likely come under pressure to develop off-site reservoirs to store water for use during these low-flow periods. tabs., figs.

  5. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Driven by the steady and rapid development of domestic economy and the rapid growth of oil demand in recent years, China's oil refining industry has overcome the influence of fluctuating international crude oil price and international financial crisis, and witnessed rapid increase in refining capacity and continuous rising of processed crude oil and production of gasoline,

  6. Genetic algorithms in oil industry. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez-Langs, Oswaldo [Departamento de Informatica, Estadistica y Telematica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-05-15

    The study presented here is directed to accumulate the body of knowledge which is up to now built around the techniques of Evolutionary Computation in the Oil Industry, particularly in the Exploration and Production business. The models presented cover specific aspects of application in reservoir characterization; nevertheless applications in other aspects are shown. The results are directed to improve the satisfaction by the performance of the methods of simulation of those properties in the reservoir characterization that have impact in the petroleum production. Additionally a brief framework is presented for the conception of evolutionary engineered reservoir characterization systems.

  7. Inspector shortage in the offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varcoe, David

    2002-07-01

    According to an article published by the Scotsman Online, a critical shortage of offshore safety inspectors is placing the lives of thousands of North Sea oil men at risk. Key improvements in the offshore safety regime, which followed the Piper Alpha disaster, are being compromised by the inability of front-line inspectors from the UK government's Health and Safety Executive to police platforms in the UK sector of the North Sea. The present article discusses the safety situation in the petroleum industry of the North Sea.

  8. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Corrosion in pipelines is one of the major challenges faced by oil and gas industries all ... compared to other methods and thus constant monitoring is needed to achieve optimum efficiency. ... Due to the natural composition of crude oil with.

  9. Industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemelä, J. R.K.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available High oleic sunflower oil has been developed for some special purposes where a good oxidation stability is needed and a healthy fatty acid profile is preferred. The oil is especially suitable for deep fat frying. These industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil were part of the AIR-project CT 920687 "Utilisation of Sunflower Oils in Industrial Frying Operations". High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO was tested against the traditional oils and fats in two industrial deep fat frying applications, namely crisps and prefried frozen french fries. The frying trials took place in Raisio Groups factories in Pyhanta and Vihanti, Finland in 1993 and 1994. According to the trials, high oleic sunflower oil is very suitable for deep fat frying. Problems occurred when a hard fat was substituted for a liquid oil in the preparation of prefrozen French Fries. These problems could be partly overcome by adjustments in the processing line.

  10. Reform and Opening of China's Onshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yan; Wei Fang

    1995-01-01

    @@ CNPC is Aimed to be Reformed into a State-Run Holding Corporation The management structure of China's oil industry has experience several major changes. CPNC's predecessor is the Ministry of Petroleum Industry (MOPI).

  11. Alberta petroleum industry activity and oil economics. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This report, largely in graphic form, presents the following information on current petroleum industry activity in Alberta: number of oil and gas parcels requested for public tender and their average price, number of drilling rigs, capital raised by oil and gas companies in Canada, changes in federal and provincial oil/gas fiscal systems since 1985, Alberta crude oil producer netbacks, maps showing major oil play economics and intensive oil and gas activity, heavy oil and in-situ bitumen production, and project costs. 10 figs.

  12. UK Oil and Gas Industry: Risks and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Oil and gas industry is a developing industry, which faces multiple risks. A brief review of the industry is presented, followed by an overview of the risk management. A literature review which includes empirical studies and theories is provided. The purpose of this paper is the identification and quantification of risks in oil and gas industry. Also the impact of the existing risk management on the performance and value of the firms is examined. The data for the research were collected fro...

  13. China's Oil Industry Seeking Overseas Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CD News

    1996-01-01

    @@ China is actively exploring international oil markets,while making the efforts to tap huge oil and gas resources domestically, with the participation of foreign firms,according to a senior Chinese oil official.

  14. Xinjiang--Large-scale Oil Industrial Base on Horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Record-high daily oil production The daily crude production reached 61,000 tons in Northwest China's Xinjiang Autonomous Region on June 6with the dail production value rising to 110 million yuan,setting a record high for the production and output value of a single day in the regional oil and gas industrial history.Xinjiang is rich in the oil and gas resources. With the oil reserves estimated at 20.9 billion tons, this region is regarded as the important strategic replacement base for China's onshore oil industry.

  15. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yun; Zhu He

    2012-01-01

    Prospect of China's oil refining industry during the "12th Five-Year Plan" period The "12th Five-Year Plan" period is critical to China oil refining industry to transform growth mode and grow from big to strong. China oil refining industry will base itself on domestic market demand and maintain rapider development through construction and reconstruction. The total scale will continue to grow, crude runs and product oil output will rise steadily, and the structure and layout of refining units will be further adjusted and optimized. During the period, the number of 10-million-tonnage refineries will rise to about 30, the quality of oil products will be upgraded, overseas interest capability will be improved, and the diversified of oil refining industry will be market competition pattern developed further.

  16. Is oil consumption constrained by industrial structure? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y. Q.; Duan, H. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines whether oil consumption is constrained by output value, applying a cointegration test and an ECM to the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors in China during 1985-2013. The empirical results indicate that oil consumption in China is constrained by the industrial structure both in the short run and in the long run. Regardless of the time horizon considered, the oil consumption constraint is the lowest for the primary sector as well as the highest for the tertiary sector. This is because the long-term industrial structure formation and the technological level of each sector underlines the existence of long run equilibrium and short run fluctuations of output value and oil consumption, with the latter being constrained by adjustments in industrial structure. In order to decrease the constraining effect of output value on oil consumption, the government should take some measures to improve the utilization rate, reducing the intensity of oil consumption, and secure the supply of oil.

  17. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  18. Application of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials in Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhani, Nader; Emami, Milad; Moghadam, A. B. Taghavi

    2011-12-01

    Micro and nano technologies have already contributed significantly to technological advances in a number of industries, including electronics, biomedical, pharmaceutical, materials and manufacturing, aerospace, photography and more recently the energy industries. Micro and nanotechnologies have the potential to introduce revolutionary changes in several areas of the oil and gas industries such as exploration, drilling, production, refining and distribution. For example, nanosensors might provide more detailed and accurate information about reservoirs and smart fluids for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling. This paper examines and documents applicable nanotechnology base products that can improve the competitiveness of the oil and gas industry. The future challenges of nanotechnology application in the oil and gas industry are also discussed.

  19. Sustainable Development - An Oil Industry View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langcake, Peter [Shell International BV, (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    For Shell companies, according to this presentation, sustainable development is an umbrella concept that they have been dealing with for many years and that has recently been given increased focus. Over the years, concern about the depletion of non-renewable resources has been overshadowed by concern about the depletion of renewable sources such as fisheries, forests etc. and climate changes. The primary contribution that Shell can make to sustainable development now and in the foreseeable future is in the economic sphere. Some examples of the involvement of Shell are given: (1) Shell companies have for many years invested considerably in forestry projects and recently some have developed businesses in biomass to power generation projects. Some have projects in photovoltaics. (2) In the Camisea project in Peru, a Shell company is putting the sustainability principle to work by integrating economic, environmental and social aspects. Two large oil reserves lie on either side of the Camisea River. The area is home to several indigenous peoples; it borders a national park and is rich in biodiversity. (3) In Malaysia, Shell is exploiting rich offshore gas fields. These projects are examples of technology cooperation and capability building that contribute to Malaysia`s plans for becoming fully industrialized by 2020

  20. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to ascertain the contribution of women in the oil industry. It also looked at the opportunities available and the barriers that prevent women from attaining higher heights in the oil industry. Findings from the study show several factors (institutional, cultural, social and personal that prevent women from being employed in the oil industry. The study has implication for policy formulation. It brings to the fore, the fact that governments must institute affirmative action policies to bridge the gap between men and women at all level of the Ghanaian society.

  1. Present and future position of palm oil industry in Malasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Akio

    1988-04-20

    This paper introduces the present and future problems on the palm oil industry in Malaysia. The author was dispatched as an expert to the Malaysia Palm Oil Laboratory which is a governmental investigation organization. The cultivation area of oil palms were increased with the production of palm oil in 1990 - 1985. The oil mills produce average 20,000 tons/year of raw palm oil. 38 refining factories of the approved 75 factories are in work. The treatment capability of raw palm oil is 8.86 million tons/year. The palm oil is a solid vegetable oil at room temperature. For use the palm oil is fractionated into liquid palm olein, solid palm stearin, and palm oil with an intermediate melting point. About 90% of palm oil is edible. The leaves contain about 0.49% of alpha-tocopherol. The future problems to be solved lie in that the palm oil is improved to have a high liquid content, the production cost is reduced, and new uses for the palm oil are developed. (15 tabs, 37 refs)

  2. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  3. Lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquegneau, Christian [Polytechnical University of Mons (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The paper brings some cases and presents the general principles, what the IEC 62305 international standard says, the warning and avoidance and the conclusion about lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants.

  4. Outlook for the Chinese Oil Industry--21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yongkang; Pei Ying; Guo Yi

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is one of the world major oil producers and also one of the major oil consumers. The future of Chinese oil industry will not only severely constrain the growth of the national economy, but also yield dramatic impact on the economy of Asian-Pacific region and the other parts of the world. Therefore, it has aroused greater concerns of Chinese government and the international community.

  5. The future of the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Changes are under way that are moving the oil and gas industry in Norway toward the creation of global energy companies in a global energy market. According to the author, three key forces are creating the changes of oil and gas companies comprising a global market for energy, growing demand - ample supply, and the end-user. 5 figs.

  6. Current and Future Nanotech Applications in the Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cocuzza Matteo; Pirri Candido; Rocca Rocca Vera; Verga Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Nanotech applications in the oil industry are not completely new: nanoparticles have been successfully used in drilling muds for the past 50 years. Only recently all the other key areas of the oil industry, such as exploration, primary and assisted production, monitoring, refining and distribution, are approaching nanotechnologies as the potential Philosopher's stone for facing critical issues related to remote locations (such as ultra-deep water and artic environments), ha...

  7. New business models for state companies in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanţău Adrian D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature business models are defined as architecture of the value creation, profit formula, key processes and key resources. For the oil industry there is a need to develop new business models that have to describe the specificity of this industry and to take into consideration the new objectives after the global oil crisis. Although crude oil price has dropped dramatically since second quarter 2014, OPEC raised crude output to the its highest value in more than three years as it pressed on with a strategy to protect market share and pressure competing producers. The objective of this article is to identify and promote new business models for state companies in the oil industry. The research methodology is based on case studies that present and analyze the business models in two of the main oil producers Iran and Iraq, where the state companies are playing an important role in this industry. The subject is relevant because the business models for state companies in the oil industry have to be modified after the oil crisis and these are not real analysed in the scientific literature. Furthermore, the aspects discussed in the current article represent the main factors that will influence investment prospects of companies in the field in the next decade.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CHINA'S OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wenpu; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Environmental Protection in Offshore Field Development Since its establishment in 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)has paid attention to marine environment protection, the main task in environmental protection management is to take advanced and effective measures to minimize the influence of oil development practice on marine ecologic environment.

  9. Current and Future Nanotech Applications in the Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocuzza Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nanotech applications in the oil industry are not completely new: nanoparticles have been successfully used in drilling muds for the past 50 years. Only recently all the other key areas of the oil industry, such as exploration, primary and assisted production, monitoring, refining and distribution, are approaching nanotechnologies as the potential Philosopher's stone for facing critical issues related to remote locations (such as ultra-deep water and artic environments, harsh conditions (high-temperature and high-pressure formations, non-conventional reservoirs (heavy oils, tight gas, tar sands. The general aim is to bridge the gap between the oil industry and nanotechnology community using various initiatives such as consortia between oil and service companies and nanotechnology excellence centres, networking communities, workshops and conferences and even dedicated research units inside some oil companies. Quite surprisingly, even if a lot of discussion is taking place, no substantial research on these topics is currently being undertaken around the world by the petroleum industry. A very different attitude is demonstrated by other industries and the advances they achieved are outstanding. Approach: This study provides an overview of the most interesting nanotechnology applications and critically highlights the potential benefits that could come from transposing the same-or adapted-solutions to the oil industry. Results/Conclusion: As extensively illustrated, some technologies which are already available off-the-shelf can offer real improvements in dealing with some specific issues of the oil industry. Other technologies can require further elaboration before direct use, but their potential is enormous.

  10. Palm oil based surfactant products for petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permadi, P.; Fitria, R.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    In petroleum production process, many problems causing reduced production are found. These include limited oil recovery, wax deposit, asphaltene deposit, sludge deposit, and emulsion problem. Petroleum-based surfactant has been used to overcome these problems. Therefore, innovation to solve these problems using surfactant containing natural materials deserves to be developed. Palm oil-based surfactant is one of the potential alternatives for this. Various types of derivative products of palm oil-based surfactant have been developed by SBRC IPB to be used in handling problems including surfactant flooding, well stimulation, asphaltene dissolver, well cleaning, and wax removal found in oil and gas industry.

  11. National Oil Companies and the Future of the Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the 1970s, a small number of national oil companies (NOCs) have dominated the world supply of oil and other hydrocarbons. Despite the huge influence that NOCs have on political economy, systematic scholarship remains surprisingly thin. I examine the factors that explain the wide variation in the strategy and performance of NOCs and survey the literature that has suggested the many ways in which NOCs play pivotal political and economic roles in resource-rich countries. As we look to...

  12. Rapid Development of China's Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haimin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Founded on February 15, 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has experienced two decades of rapid development, in which the annual offshore oil production rose dramatically to 23.13 million tons in 2001 from 90,000 tons in 1982while the total assets jumped to 72 billion yuan from 2.8 billion yuan, but the total employees dropped to 21,000 people from 30,000. This offshore oil giant generated a profit of 9.2 billion yuan in 2001 and turned over 4 billion yuan in taxes to the State with the crude production cost lowered to US$9 per barrel.

  13. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  14. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  15. [Analysis on oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Sheng; Kuang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Xin; Dai, Fei-Hong

    2012-06-01

    By measuring the particulate matter of oil fume which is over 10 microm or below 10 microm separately and using microradiography and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), it is found out the distributing characteristic of oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission. The result shows that the diameter of the oil fume particles which was sedimentated in the kitchen is between 10-400 microm, the concentration peak value is between 10-100 microm. The diameter of oil fume aerosol is mostly smaller than 1 microm, while the concentration peak value is between 0.063-0.109 microm. In addition, the mass concentration peak value is between 6.560-9.990 microm. Through the analysis to the physical characteristics of oil fume from catering industry cooking emissions, the eigenvalue of the oil fume has been found and the feature matter for monitoring the oil fume has been discovered to provide a reasonable standard for controlling and monitoring the catering industry cooking emission.

  16. Oil Industry Activities in Ghana: Community Perceptions and Sustainable Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Agyei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and exploitation of oil reserves in Ghana has generated different expectations and reactions from the local population about the inevitable consequences for industrialization and economic development in the oil producing area. In pursuit of the perceptions and expectations of communities closer to the offshore operations, a mixture of semi-structured, open ended questions were randomly administered. In analyzing the perceptions and reactions of the local population to the prospects created by the oil discovery in commercial quantities, insights in sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR were considered. The study reveals that the people in the communities closer to the offshore operations share the same convictions and aspirations; that is they are comfortable with their existing sources of livelihood, afraid that these sources might be hurt from oil-related activities and demanding a just allocation of the expected economic benefits through a harmonization of local fishing, farming and oil extraction activities.

  17. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  18. ECOLOGY SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL OIL RESERVES RECOVERY FOR SUSTAINABLE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Zyrin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effective technology for heavy oil recovery nowadays has a great importance, because of worsening geological conditions of the developed deposits, decreasing recovery factor, increasing the part of heavy oil. For the future sustainable development of oil producing industry the involved technologies must require energy effectiveness and ecological safety. The paper proves the enhanced oil recovery methods necessity for heavy oil deposits, highlighted thermal technologies as the most effective. But traditional thermal treatment technologies is a source of air pollutant emission, such as CO, NO etc. The calculation of emissions for traditional steam generator is provided. Besides, the paper shows the effectiveness of electrical enhanced oil recovery methods. The advantages of associated gas as a fuel for cogeneration plants is shown. The main approaches to implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry of Russia are defined. Conceptual view of СО2-EOR technologies potential within the context of sustainable development of oil and gas industry are presented. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are revealed.

  19. Climate change and the oil industry: Common problem, different strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Skjaerseth, Jon; Skodvin, Tora

    2003-01-01

    Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well-known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This volume presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. With an innovative analytical approach, the authors explain variations at three decision-making levels: withi...

  20. Oils and fats: changes due to culinary and industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Muniz, F J

    2006-07-01

    Diets of developed countries contain substantial quantities of fat subjected to different processing and heat treatments. Heating in the presence of air produces oxidative and thermal degradations in the unsaturated acyl groups of triacylglycerols and in other unsaturated compounds present in the oils and fats. These changes modify the nutritional properties of culinary fat and lead to the formation of many oxidized and polymerized compounds that present higher polarity than that of the original triacylglycerols. Some aspects of lipid peroxidation that occur in heated and used frying oils will be briefly presented and discussed. This paper will focus on appropriate methodology for the assessment of fat alteration (e.g. chromatography) and the point at which any oil used for frying should be discarded. Polar material (PM) and triacylglycerol oligomer content (TOC) determinations constitute the basis of legislation for oil discarding in some European countries; we will try to open some debate on whether PM or TOC is preferred for oil discarding assessment. Correct frying performance helps to lengthen oil frying-life and to decrease the alteration content in the fried food. Because many factors are present in the culinary and industrial frying, the effect of the process itself and that of the food and the type of oil used will be reviewed. The present report analyses and describes a wide variety of topics related to frying performance, and their nutritional implications with a special focus on the behavior during frying of most consumed oils in Mediterranean countries.

  1. Chinese Oil Industry Faces New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.

  2. Phillips Active in China's Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ Phillips has attached great importance to its cooperation with China and committed itself to the Chinese energy industrial development, said Roy Lyons, the newly appointed President of Phillips China Inc., adding that he was glad to move to Beijing and optimistic about Phillips development in China.

  3. Oil Price Likely to Spur Chinese Industry Restructuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Concern over surging oil prices could mean the restructuring and upgrading of China's industries,according to a United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) official, who made those remarks in Changchun, the capital of Northeastern China's Jinlin Province, in early September, when the 4th Northeast Asia Investment and Trade Exno was held.

  4. Hard metal lung disease in an oil industry worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Patrícia Nunes; Vasconcelos, Ana Giselle Alves; Cavalcante, Lílian Loureiro Albuquerque; Marques, Vanessa Beatriz de Vasconcelos; Nogueira, Teresa Neuma Albuquerque Gomes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2009-12-01

    Hard metal lung disease, which manifests as giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is caused by exposure to hard metal dust. We report the case of an oil industry worker diagnosed with hard metal lung disease. The diagnosis was based on the clinical, radiological and anatomopathological analysis, as well as on pulmonary function testing.

  5. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  6. Climate change in the North and the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottem, Svein Vigeland; Moe, Arild

    2007-11-15

    How will climate change affect oil industry operations in the High North? The report analyses impacts in the North that are different from, or come in addition to, the impacts felt globally, from two angles: One outlining climate-related changes in nature and their impacts on oil industry operations, and the second discussing actual and possible policy responses and their impact. Forecasts and scenarios developed by climate scientists indicate that the situation is volatile. The climate and weather will be less predictable. Although the long term tendency is clear, there will be large variations in ice from year to year, with some seasons colder and with more ice than what has been 'normal' in recent years. The industry cannot count on areas remaining ice-free, and when it comes to fixed installations it will have to prepare for a situation in 2030 with maximum ice not much different than today. Climate policies are not likely to have a strong direct impact on the operations of oil companies in the north, but the climate development in the North is likely to impact other political processes, public opinion and consumers. In turn they may affect the conditions for oil industry operations. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs

  7. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the

  8. RISK MANAGEMENT IN UK CORPORATIONS: COMPARING FINANCIAL SERVICE INDUSTRY, OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY AND OTHER NON-FINANACIAL INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olaseinde, Olumide, K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The focus of this research is to determine whether UK corporations (comparing firms in the financial service industry, oil and gas industry and other non-financial industries) have a more formal developed risk management process. Despite regulations and recommendations (such as the Walker review (2009), the Turner review (2009), the Financial Reporting Council (2011) etc.) there are only limited information on how firms manage risk and how they report risk management processes to...

  9. Economic considerations for industrial firing of coal-oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, P D; George, T J; Joubert, J I; Bienstock, D

    1978-01-01

    Industrial users of oil and gas face an uncertain future with respect to fuel availability and economics. Direct conversion to coal may be beyond the physical-technical capabilities of a large segment of the industrial community. Conversion to COM (coal-oil mixtures) offers an intermediate, near-term solution which could reduce oil consumption by as much as 40 to 45%. In many cases, COM could be utilized in existing steam-raising equipment without a significant derating. In this paper key economic and technical considerations associated with the conversion of existing clean-fuel-burning industrial boilers to COM-firing are explored. The costs incurred in converting No. 6-oil-fired boilers to COM (50% coal) firing were ascertained for two units with steam capacities of 100,000 lb/hr and 500,000 lb/hr. Based on a discounted cash flow analysis, the fuel savings ensuing from COM substitution are of sufficient magnitude to warrant modifying a substantial number of industrial boilers to COM-firing. With Eastern bituminous coal priced at $1.05/10/sup 6/ Btu and 1% S No. 6 residual oil priced at $2.16/10/sup 6/ Btu, COM appears attractive for immediate consideration as an industrial boiler fuel, based purely on the profit motive. The concept of a commercial COM/coal preparation complex, producing low-ash and low-sulfur coal for established local markets and/or a premium low-sulfur COM fuel was also examined.

  10. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  11. Computer technology explodes into the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-12

    This article presents a look at some of the specialized computer systems available to all segments of the oil and gas industry. Information on computer systems was gathered from a survey of more than 200 hardware and software suppliers. Suppliers were asked to submit information on products available specifically to the various segments of the industry. The information presented is designed to give brief details of some of the innovative and powerful applications, and to illustrate the wide range of capabilities some of these systems possess. Where possible, the equipment, computing power, and peripheral equipment required to effectively operate the various systems are given. The article is divided into three sections: upstream---exploration, drilling, and production; down-stream---refining, petrochemical, and gas processing, and pipeline; and a general section that covers generic hardware and software that have capabilities that may be useful to the oil and gas industry.

  12. EEE (environmental engineering economics) attributes for oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isreb, M. [Monash Univ., Churchill, Victoria (Australia). Gippsland School of Applied Sciences and Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This paper outlined the basic attributes of environmental engineering economics (EEE) with reference to the oil and gas industry in Australia. The paper was designed as a reference guide for policy-makers, educators, and environmental engineers. Methods of calculating the Pareto Optimum status were discussed, and environmental values and principles were identified. Air quality indicators were outlined. The paper considered multidisciplinary approaches to EEE and sustainable development, as well as the application of statistics and qualitative methods in addressing contemporary issues. The ethical aspects of environmental policies were discussed. Issues related to environmental toxicity and public health were also examined. Various taxation approaches and financial incentives were reviewed. Environmental laws related to the oil and gas industry were outlined. Environmental assessment procedures were presented. It was concluded that environmental regulations within the industry will help to ensure appropriate pollution reductions. 7 refs.

  13. Cost effective noise control in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meredith, Dave [Kinetics Noise Control Inc. (United States)], email: dmeredith@kineticsnoise.com

    2011-07-01

    Infrastructures in the oil and gas industry are often sources of excessive noise and vibration. This paper focuses on the work of Kinetics Noise Control, Inc. (KNC), an independent consulting firm specialized in corrective noise and vibration control products, to ensure that their clients' operations meet government and industry regulations. Using examples of different projects that KNC has been involved with in the oil and gas industry, the author presents new designs and approaches for reducing noise pollution. Noise and vibration control strategy should be integral parts of the concept design phase and aim at meeting regulatory requirements without loss of overall efficiency. To do this, specific elements, such as an extensive analysis of noise and vibration sources, site environmental conditions, the acoustics of the infrastructures, and of the materials used must be taken into account.

  14. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xueguang; Shao, Zhihua; Bao, Weijia; Rong, Qiangzhou

    2017-01-01

    With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry. PMID:28241460

  15. EXPERTS: OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY NEEDS MORE PREFERENTIAL POLICIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shengwei; Shi Lingtao

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Research Office under the State Council and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) jointly held a senior symposium on June 20, 1997 in Beijing on the reform and development strategy of the offshore oil industry. More than 100 experts and scholars attended the workshop, including officials from the State Planning Commission,the state Economic and Trade Commission,the State Restructuring Commission, the Ministry of Finance, China National Petroleum Corp. and China Petrochemical Corporation. Vice-Premier Wu Bangguo sent a letter of congratulation to the symposium.

  16. The Relationship Between Oil Price and Costs in the Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple structural model of the upstream sector in the oil and gas industry to study the determinants of costs with a focus on its relationship with the price of oil. We use the real oil price, data on global drilling activity and costs of drilling to estimate a three-dimensional VAR model. We use short run restrictions to decompose the variation in the data into three structural shocks. We estimate the dynamic effects of these shocks on drilling activity, costs of drilling and th...

  17. SINGLE CRITERION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vlah Jerić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider the supply chain management in olive oil industry. We construct the mixed-integer programming model connecting the optimization of olives harvesting and storage and olive oil production. The goal is to maximize the olive oil producer profit consisting of revenue, production cost and storage cost. In the same time, we have to take into the consideration the farmers’ (suppliers’ utility too. Namely, the suppliers want to maintain the harvest delay and delivery cost as minimal as possible. In the case of single criterion optimization problem we suppose that the producer is taking care of all five goals, so the objective function consists of the producer’s revenue, storage cost, production cost, harvest delay and delivery cost with the appropriate sign. Due to the big dimension of the problem two heuristics are proposed for solving it. Some simulations are performed and the results show good heuristics behavior.

  18. Fermentation assisted byproduct recovery in the palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, W.R.

    1983-05-01

    The production of palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is a leading natural product industry in Malaysia, giving rise to a number of residues, including a rich, fruity liquor from the pulp. The liquor, of which 7-10 million tonnes a year are currently produced, has some 6% organic solids, including 0.7-1.0% or more of oil which physical processing has failed to extract. Present anaerobic digestion processes exploit only the energy and fertiliser value. Methods are described in this paper for thermophilic, microbially assisted digestion for component separation and recovery, exploiting the widely used techniques for fruit juice extraction involving enzymic breakdown of starch, pectin and other cell components. Anaerobiosis and acidogenesis help protect and release residual oil, concomitantly preserving the solids against rancidity and spoilage by ensilage. The separated wet solids are nutritive (17% protein on dry matter), biologically safe and attractive to livestock. Downstream use of the liquor is aided by the thermophilic digestion. (Refs. 33).

  19. Sustaining Oil Industry Development in China and Global Prosperity in the Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao

    1996-01-01

    @@ China, a developing country with 1.2 billion people, is changing greatly and its national economy is experiencing steady and rapid growth owing to its reform and opening to the outside world. In the course of this great progress,oil and gas production are increasing steadily, oil and gas supply and demand are basically stable, and this assures critical support to the development of the national economy.

  20. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  1. The ongoing changes in the base oil industry and their potential impact on the lubricant industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Holm, Valentina [Nynas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    During the last years the base oil industry has undergone significant changes, with the rapid growth of Group II and Group III paraffinic base oils and the corresponding decline of Group I supply. The announcements of future instalments show that the increase of Group II and III capacity is indeed a stable trend all over the world. Based on publicly available information, the Group II capacity is expected to grow by 8.6 million tpa, reaching over 22 million tpa, and Group III capacity is expected to double from current 4.1 million tpa up to 8.2 million tpa. As the demand is not expected to grow at the same pace as the increasing supply, it is likely that this new capacity will lead to an oversupply situation in the next five years. Because of their production disadvantages compared to Group II and III and a shrinking demand in automotive applications, it is likely that Group I plants will close down or will operate at reduced throughput to compensate for the new Group II and III capacity. A decline of Group I capacity in favour of Group II and III may pose problems in the formulation of those industrial lubricants where solvency and/or viscosity are needed, such as lubricating greases, metalworking fluids, and several process oils applications. Either alone or in combination with Group II or III oils, naphthenic oils can be used in the formulation of industrial lubricants, as solvency and viscosity poroviders. (orig.)

  2. Sustainable biogas and biomass utilization in Malaysian palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito (Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Yacob, Shahrakbah (Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn Bhd, Selangor (Malaysia)); Ali Hassan, M. (Dept. of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia))

    2007-07-01

    Palm oil industry in Malaysia is producing palm oil more than 12 million tones every year, while yielding more than 14 million of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and 25 million tones of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the POME treatment, huge anaerobic ponds (lagoon) are adopted, generating large amount of methane, more than 20 times global warming effect than CO{sub 2}. The objective of this research is to estimate actual methane emission from the POME treatment and to find out any possibility to utilize generated methane as an energy source under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Methane emission of 0.238 kg CH{sub 4} per kg COD removed or 12.36 kg CH{sub 4} per tone POME are obtained from actual mill operation throughout annual measurement. This indicates that more than 200,000 tones of methane, which is equivalent to 4 million tones of carbon dioxide, are estimated to be emitted from whole Malaysia. 500 tones of methane fermentor installed to palm oil mill to prevent GHG emission under the CDM. By this, lagoon system as major source of local environment pollution necessary no more, thus obtaining another 3 to 4 times large land area than mill. Our proposal is to establish novel industry utilizing biogas energy for value added material or energy conversion of excess biomass, thus enabling reduction of GHG and local environment pollution and sustainable development of local community. (orig.)

  3. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  4. A guide for the gas and oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist those in the natural gas and oil industry who may not be familiar with how the Federal government, particularly the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or Department), does business with private sector companies. Basic information is provided on what DOE is trying to do, why it wants to work with the natural gas and oil industry, how it can work with companies, who to contact, and where to inquire for further information. This last item is noteworthy because it is important for users of this guide to be able to access information about subjects that may interest them. Selected other Federal agencies and their activities related to those of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (FE or Fossil Energy) also are included in this document as Appendix A. This guide provides an address and/or phone number for every topic covered to prevent any information impasse. If a question is not adequately answered by the guide, please do not hesitate to contact the appropriate person or office. It is hoped that the information provided in this guide will lead to a better understanding of the mission, roles, and procedures of DOE and result in more and better cooperative working relationships between the natural gas and oil industry and DOE. Such relationships will provide a significant benefit to our Nation`s economic, technological, and energy security.

  5. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  6. The Transition of World Oil Market and the Course of Korean Oil Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kye, Deok Nam [Korea National Oil Corporation, Anyang (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Korea lies in portal site to connect a continent and an ocean in a view of geopolitical and natural location. Fortunately, because the geographical condition is located between Japan and China, Korea has a suitable condition to play a center role of the production distribution. The large scale of harbors and plants contributes to saving the production cost and distribution cost. The production competitiveness is superior to Singapore in economy of scale. The condition of the distribution cost and equipment also can supplement the gap of Japan and China in the side of season or quality. Because the oil-refining process generally brings in the return rate at a fixed rate even if there are some differences by raw materials or plants, it is difficult that the types of consuming oil meet to the types of producing oil. That is also caused by the big differences according to the seasonal transition, the character of location, and the development level of industry. Petroleum must be the most fitted to convenience and economical efficiency as we have experienced in 60s{approx}70s. Korean oil-refining industry should promote the export strategy suitable for such an expanding market. Because the surplus capacity (about 20%) has been already over than the limit, the oil-refining industry should pull itself out of a cutthroat competition of the domestic market to impose lots of transportation cost. In the Asia-Pacific age, the future of the oil-refining industry is more optimistic. USA and European countries has already reached to a full moon, but Asian countries have been still in a half moon. That means Asian countries have the possibility of growth for more than 10 years. The surprising high rate of economic growth in China, close to 10% of annual rate, suggests that the energy consumption corresponding to the economic growth is necessary. 2 tabs.

  7. Ergonomic Risk Assessment on Oil Palm Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Mohd DEROS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was an investigation conducted at two oil palm plantations in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia on the prevalence of back pain among workers in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Many manual handling activities and tasks performed were not designed ergonomically, thus a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was found among oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs manual workers. The three main objectives of this study were to determine the level of employee awareness on health and safety of manual handling tasks; to recognize the musculoskeletal symptom on the workers body parts; and to analyze their working postures and identify the relevant risk factors.Methods: Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to collect data in 2012 at two oil palm plantations located in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia. Later, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA analysis was conducted for high risk working postures. Seventy workers participated in the study.Results: 81.4% of workers were aware on the correct methods to perform the manual handling tasks. The upper back and lower back pain were experienced by 87.1% and 94.3% of the workers respectively.Conclusion: Manual workers have high level (81.4% health and safety awareness on manual handling tasks but failed to practice it. As a result, 87.1% of them are sufferring from lower back and 94.3% from upper back pain. FFBs loading activity into the lorry is a high risk and changes needed to be done immediately. The two major risk factors identified were awkward lifting postures and repetitive lifting of FFBs. Keywords: Oil palm industry, Ergonomics, Posture, Musculoskeletal pain, workers

  8. Toward Sustainability in Concrete Industry by Using Of Solid Wastes from Palm Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pordesari Alireza Javadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most important construction materials is concrete. By the advances of the industries in the urban areas, concrete is considered as one of the highest demands. As a result, the large amount of unprocessed materials is needed for making concrete. In the meantime, the agricultural wastes and solid material disposal are giving serious damages to the environment. As a result, by employing the agricultural wastes as a cementitious material, the undesirable impacts of the concrete industry to the environment will be dramatically decreased. That’s because the source of these newly developed concretes is both reliable and environmental friendly. In this study, the utilization of agricultural wastes as a complementary cementitious material for producing the concrete is explained. In addition, it discusses the possibility of deploying the agricultural wastes by considering their engineering, physical and chemical properties. In addition, the successful use of agricultural wastes from oil palm industry such as oil palm shell, palm oil fuel ash and palm oil fibre in the concrete mixture was reported.

  9. Applications of Nanotechnology in Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    Nanotechnology could be used to enhance the possibilities of developing conventional and stranded gas resources and to improve the drilling process and oil and gas production by making it easier to separate oil and gas in the reservoir. Nanotechnology can make the oil and gas industry considerably greener. There are numerous areas in which nanotechnology can contribute to more-efficient, less-expensive, and more-environmentally sound technologies than those that are readily available. We identified the following possibilities of nanotechnology in the petroleum industry: 1-Nanotechnology-enhanced materials that provide strength to increase performance in drilling, tubular goods, and rotating parts. 2- Designer properties to enhance hydro-phobic to enhance materials for water flooding applications. 3- Nano-particulate wetting carried out using molecular dynamics 4- Lightweight materials that reduce weight requirements on offshore platforms 5- Nano-sensors for improved temperature and pressure ratings 6- New imaging and computational techniques to allow better discovery, sizing, and characterization of reservoirs.

  10. Oil refining industry: Technology complexity and supply flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulli' , F. (Univ. Commerciale L. Bocconi, Milan (Italy). Ist. di Economia delle Fonti di Energia)

    1992-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the rapid shifting of demand towards lighter products (together with a reduction in demand for crude oil), and the new environmental requirements for finished products have imposed a restructuring of the petroleum refining sector, as well as, a larger recourse to technologically more complex types of processes. However, global changes in the crude oil and petroleum products market did not take place in a uniform way; thus, remarkable differences in refining technologies now exist among the refining systems of the USA, Japan and Europe (Italy in particular). In highlighting and evaluating these differences, this paper identifies a clear technological gap between the US industry and the European and Japanese industries due mainly to the strong penetration in the US of conversion processes. In fact, this high conversion capacity is a consequence of the need to adjust the offer to increasing demand for light products. Further changes foreseen in the crude oil supply and finished products market call for greater re-conversion of downstream refining.

  11. Problems Confronting China's Petroleum Refining Industry During the High Oil Price Period and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lingli; Lü Jiahuan

    2006-01-01

    This article has suggested that high oil price could loom many years in the future and has analyzed the impact of this trend on the oil product mix and petroleum refining industry in China. This article has also put forward measures for sharpening the international competitive edge of China's petroleum refining industry to cope with the challenges of high oil price.

  12. Outlook for the Development of Oil and Gas Industry in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Pham, V. A.; Aikina, T. Yu

    2016-09-01

    Oil and gas industry makes a significant contribution to Gross Domestic Product of Vietnam. In 2015 it appeared to be in an intricate situation under the conditions of fall in oil prices caused by excess of supply over demand in the oil market. On the one hand, low prices for oil enable Vietnam as an importer to purchase more oil in the world market. On the other hand, the state company PetroVietnam loses a part of its customers in the domestic market. This tendency can lead to stagnation of the oil and gas industry in Vietnam under weak oil prices if the government does not take timely action.

  13. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  14. Transfer of Service Knowledge: A case from the oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Vianello, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    . A case study of drilling machinery for offshore oil rigs has been selected. This choice arose from the unique characteristics of this industry where solutions are specific for each rig, so re-design or adaptation of machineries and assembly is required in each project and it’s imperative to have...... a correct set of requirements and design. As the drilling machines are one-off machines, the transfer of experience between projects and knowledge from operational experience is essential. Interviews with the project team from the company owning the rig (drilling contractor), and the service engineers from...

  15. Withdrawal of 2016 Information Request for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is providing notice that it is withdrawing its requests that owners and operators in the oil and natural gas industry provide information on equipment and emissions at existing oil and gas operations.

  16. Packaging design for the Greek olive oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveli, A.; Tzetzis, D.; Kyratsis, P.

    2016-11-01

    Packaging is one of the most important elements that characterize product design. It does not only refer to the appearance of the product, that creates the first impression to the user, but it is a whole communication code. This has been identified by the enterprises involved and their competition is high. Nowadays, the most successful of them pay a great deal of attention on every day's trends concerning packaging design and try to apply these trends upon their own designs. The present paper describes the packaging design in today's industries and the existing trends. It will therefore reveal what makes a package design successful, from the company's perspective and how the company studies such factors in order to achieve the best result. Those factors and the research results are applied on the olive oil packaging industry, producing a final packaging design solution.

  17. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  18. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  19. How the palm oil industry is cooking the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    Every year, 1.8 billion tonnes (Gt) of climate changing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are released by the degradation and burning of Indonesia's peatlands, which is 4% of global GHG emissions from less than 0.1% of the land on earth. This report shows how, through growing demand for palm oil, the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel industries are driving the wholesale destruction of peatlands and rainforests. These companies include Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, who between them account for a significant volume of global palm oil use, mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia. Overlaying satellite imagery of forest fires with maps indicating the locations of the densest carbon stores in Indonesia, Greenpeace researchers have been able to pinpoint carbon 'hotspots'. Our research has taken us to the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, to document the current activities of those involved in the expansion of palm oil. These are the producers who trade with Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, as well as many of the other top names in the food, cosmetic and biofuel industries. The area of peatland in Riau is tiny: just 4 million hectares, about the size of Taiwan or Switzerland. Yet Riau's peatlands store 14.6Gt of carbon. If these peatlands were destroyed, the resulting GHG emissions would be equivalent to one year's total global emissions. Unless efforts are made to halt forest and peatland destruction, emissions from these peatlands may trigger a 'climate bomb'.

  20. CREATING THE STANDARD FOR SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Firdaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no standard for the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC in the palm oil industry. SEC is a value that can be used as an indicator to measure the optimization level in the use of energy. Indonesia as one of the largest palm oil producing countries requires a standard for energy intensity in the palm oil industry. SEC in palm oil mill is defined in the amount of energy per unit of production (kWh/kg. The classifying method that has been used in this study is K-means cluster analysis with the measurement samples in 14 palm oil mills for 12 months of period. This study has suggested the SEC standard for Indonesian palm oil industry and it is expected to be SEC reference for other studies in the palm oil industry.

  1. Computational sciences in the upstream oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Thomas C

    2016-10-13

    The predominant technical challenge of the upstream oil and gas industry has always been the fundamental uncertainty of the subsurface from which it produces hydrocarbon fluids. The subsurface can be detected remotely by, for example, seismic waves, or it can be penetrated and studied in the extremely limited vicinity of wells. Inevitably, a great deal of uncertainty remains. Computational sciences have been a key avenue to reduce and manage this uncertainty. In this review, we discuss at a relatively non-technical level the current state of three applications of computational sciences in the industry. The first of these is seismic imaging, which is currently being revolutionized by the emergence of full wavefield inversion, enabled by algorithmic advances and petascale computing. The second is reservoir simulation, also being advanced through the use of modern highly parallel computing architectures. Finally, we comment on the role of data analytics in the upstream industry.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'.

  2. The Relationship between Major Oil Products Consumption and Efficiency of Industry Sector in Selected Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji MEIDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the realization of the law of diminishing returns in usage of major oil products in the industry sector of some oil exporting and importing countries during 2002- 2008. To achieve this aim, in a first stage the efficiency of industry sector of countries has been calculated using DEA window analysis and then in the second stag the existence of an inverted U' shape relationship between major oil product consumption and efficiency has been tested in the context of dynamic panel data (GMM approach. The results confirm this relationship in each group of countries except that the turning point in the case of oil importing countries is much higher than oil exporting countries. This firstly suggests that oil dependence in oil importing countries is more than oil exporting countries and secondly indicates that the industry sector of oil importing countries have advanced technology and high scale and capacity so that they can take benefits of oil products consumption without decrease in efficiency.

  3. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  4. Transfer of Service Knowledge: A case from the oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Vianello, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    a correct set of requirements and design. As the drilling machines are one-off machines, the transfer of experience between projects and knowledge from operational experience is essential. Interviews with the project team from the company owning the rig (drilling contractor), and the service engineers from....... The reuse of this knowledge is even more critical when customized machines are involved. The aim of this paper is to investigate the knowledge arising during the later phases of a product’s lifecycle focusing in particular upon the transfer of experience between projects and between different user groups....... A case study of drilling machinery for offshore oil rigs has been selected. This choice arose from the unique characteristics of this industry where solutions are specific for each rig, so re-design or adaptation of machineries and assembly is required in each project and it’s imperative to have...

  5. Processing of tailings in Canadian oil sands industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Vast amounts of tailings are produced daily in bitumen extraction from the Athabasca oil sands. The coarse sand from the tailings stream is used to build dykes around the containment basin. The run-off slurry arrives at the water's edge in the tailings pond at a solids concentration of about 3%~8% by mass. Settling of the solids takes place "relatively fast", over several days, creating a "free water zone" that contains little solids. When the fine mineral solids concentration has reached about 15% by mass, the suspension develops non-Newtonian properties. After 2~3 years, the suspension concentration reaches a value of about 30% by mass at which the settling rate becomes extremely slow. Methods to handle the already created tailings ponds and new approaches to eliminate the creation of new ones will be discussed both from the industrial and fundamental prospective.

  6. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; A.P.J. Mol; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mills use large quantities of water and energy in the production process. On the output side, manufacturing processes generate large qu...

  7. Industry disputes administration report on oil and gas leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Despite the Obama administration's efforts to make millions of acres of public lands available for oil and gas development, most of the acreage onshore and offshore of the contiguous United States remains idle, according to “Oil and gas lease utilization, onshore and offshore,” a 15 May report issued by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The report, which is being disputed by industry representatives, notes that 72% of the nearly 36 million leased offshore acres currently are inactive and that 50.6% of onshore leased acres (about 20.8 million acres) also are idle. “As part of the Obama administration's all-of- the-above energy strategy, we continue to make millions of acres of public lands available for safe and responsible domestic energy production on public lands and in federal waters,” said DOI secretary Ken Salazar. “These lands and waters belong to the American people, and they expect those energy supplies to be developed in a timely and responsible manner and with a fair return to taxpayers. We will continue to encourage companies to diligently bring production online quickly and safely on public lands already under lease.”

  8. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  9. The impact of oil price shocks. Evidence from the industries of six OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, Rebeca [Department of Economics, University of Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, E-37007, Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Most of the studies about the macroeconomic consequences of oil price shocks have been focused on US aggregate data. In contrast to these studies, this paper empirically assesses the dynamic effect of oil price shocks on the output of the main manufacturing industries in six OECD countries. The pattern of responses to an oil price shock by industrial output is diverse across the four European Monetary Union (EMU) countries under consideration (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain), but broadly similar in the UK and the US. Moreover, evidence on cross-industry heterogeneity of oil shock effects within the EMU countries is also reported. (author)

  10. Economics of the oil and gas industry. Ekonomika neftyanoy i gazovoy promyshlennosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunayev, F.F.; Pobedonostseva, N.N.; Syromyatnikov, Ye.S.; Yegorov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Principles are presented for organization and arrangement of oil and gas industry and control. Methods are described of sector planning of technical progress and evaluation of economic effectiveness of introducing new equipment and capital investments. Composition and structure of the circulating funds are indicated. Economic problems of the oil and gas industry are covered.

  11. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  12. Passive Elimination of Static Electricity in Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićo Gaćanović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  13. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  14. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; Mol, A.P.J.; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the

  15. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; Mol, A.P.J.; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the outp

  16. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  17. Modeling policy mix to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian palm oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Y H Silitonga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a model that will explain the impact of government policies to the competitiveness of palm oil industry. The model involves two commodities in this industry, namely crude palm oil (CPO and refined palm oil (RPO, each has different added value. Design/methodology/approach: The model built will define the behavior of government in controlling palm oil industry, and their interactions with macro-environment, in order to improve the competitiveness of the industry. Therefore the first step was to map the main activities in this industry using value chain analysis. After that a conceptual model was built, where the output of the model is competitiveness of the industry based on market share. The third step was model formulation. The model is then utilized to simulate the policy mix given by government in improving the competitiveness of Palm Oil Industry. Research limitations/implications: The model was developed using only some policies which give direct impact to the competitiveness of the industry. For macro environment input, only price is considered in this model. Practical implications: The model can simulate the output of the industry for various government policies mix given to the industry. Originality/value: This research develops a model that can represent the structure and relationship between industry, government and macro environment, using value chain analysis and hierarchical multilevel system approach.

  18. Use of waste ash from palm oil industry in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangchirapat, Weerachart; Saeting, Tirasit; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood; Siripanichgorn, Anek

    2007-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product from the palm oil industry, is disposed of as waste in landfills. In this study, POFA was utilized as a pozzolan in concrete. The original size POFA (termed OP) was ground until the median particle sizes were 15.9 microm (termed MP) and 7.4 microm (termed SP). Portland cement Type I was replaced by OP, MP, and SP of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of binder. The properties of concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength, and expansion due to magnesium sulfate attack were investigated. The results revealed that the use of POFA in concretes caused delay in both initial and final setting times, depending on the fineness and degree of replacement of POFA. The compressive strength of concrete containing OP was much lower than that of Portland cement Type I concrete. Thus, OP is not suitable to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete. However, the replacement of Portland cement Type I by 10% of MP and 20% of SP gave the compressive strengths of concrete at 90 days higher than that of concrete made from Portland cement Type I. After being immersed in 5% of magnesium sulfate solution for 364 days, the concrete bar mixed with 30% of SP had the same expansion level as that of the concrete bar made from Portland cement Type V. The above results suggest that ground POFA is an excellent pozzolanic material and can be used as a cement replacement in concrete. It is recommended that the optimum replacement levels of Portland cement Type I by MP and SP are 20% and 30%, respectively.

  19. 77 FR 61026 - Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... COMMISSION Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries AGENCY...-537, Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries. DATES... commercial olive oil industry in the United States and major supplier countries, including production of...

  20. Seven Major Influential Events in China's Oil Industry in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zaixiang

    2003-01-01

    @@ Study of sustainable oil and gas development strategy kicks off China's Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a work conference on May 26 to commence the research on China's sustainable oil and gas development strategy.

  1. Understanding the oil industry: Economics as a help or a hindrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P. [Univ. of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines how economics has contributed to an understanding of the international oil industry. After considering why knowledge of the oil industry is a subject worthy of interest, the paper develops a stylized version of economic methodology. It then tries to apply this to the oil industry. However, the paper observes that in the past, because of secrecy and lack of data, there have been serious problems which inhibit the use of standard methodology. The result has been a tendency among some economists to apply untried theory to the industry with damaging results. The paper then considers how other economists have adopted a different approach and in doing so, have made significant contributions. The paper concludes by considering future avenues for the further application of economic analysis to the oil industry. 40 refs., 1 fig.

  2. China's Petrochemical Industrial Development Against High Oil Prices Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Dingyi

    2006-01-01

    @@ As China's oil consumption enters a rapid growth period,increasingly serious oil shortage has become the major factor restricting the nation from economic and social development. It is predicted that China's annual oil consumption will reach 450 million tons by 2020 when the peak crude production is around 200 million tons.

  3. Subsurface ecosystems - Oil triggered life: Opportunities for the petroleum industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kraan, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Areas of research - Petroleum microbiology: Determination of the microbial diversity of oil reservoirs and oil associated ecosystems (wellhead samples and oil field core samples). This research is performed to investigate if microbes can serve as indicators for changing conditions in subsurface

  4. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities of China Oil & Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xingkun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese economy has turned from rapid development into new normal. With economic transition, demand for oil and gas decreases as well. Consumed diesel-gasoline ratio keeps declining, and diesel export increases considerably. Gas demand grows at medium speed, and supply meets demand in general. Alternative energy dominated by gas and electricity will develop faster. As crude oil import right is gradually liberalized, domestic oil market structure will be changed. Oil price drop brings the best opportunity for oil and gas market reform, and environmental protection becomes main force boosting natural gas development.

  6. Analysis of Chinese Accounting Standards for the Oil and Gas Industry and Related Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Accounting standards are the tools for distribution of the revenues. Their development trend is influenced by their stakeholders. The evolution of American oil and gas accounting standards has been shaped by the profit-maximizing process of American oil and gas company shareholders, which for outside lobbying relied on their huge capital and organization. The development and perfection of Chinese new oil and gas accounting standards should consider not only the criterion of standards but also the real political fact in China oil and gas industry. The research on oil and gas accounting standards is an academic study as well as a political analysis.

  7. International Oil Price’s Impacts on Carbon Emission in China’s Transportation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry.Design/methodology/approach: This paper chooses five independent variables of GDP, international oil price, private car population, passenger and freight transportation volume as impact factors to investigate industrial carbon emissions, the paper also analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and finally the paper uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry. With the independent variables’ historical data from 1994 to 2009 as a sample, the fitting of the industry carbon emissions is satisfying. And based on the data of 2011, the paper maintains the private car owning, passenger and freight transportation volume to study international oil prices’ impact on the industry carbon emissions at different levels of GDP.Findings: The results show that: with the same GDP growth, the industry carbon emissions increase with the rise in international oil prices, and vice versa, the industry carbon emissions decrease; and lastly when GDP increases to a certain extent, in both cases of international oil prices’ rise or fall, the industry carbon emissions will go up, and the industry carbon emissions increase even faster while the energy prices are rising.Practical implications: Limit the growth in private-vehicle ownership, change China's transport sector within the next short-term in the structure of energy consumption and put forward China's new energy, alternative energy sources and renewable energy application so as to weaken the dependence on international oil, and indirectly slowdown China's GDP growth rate, which are all possible

  8. Understanding and managing environmental liability in the Saskatchewan oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrychuk, L.D.; LeBlanc, L.B. [MacPherson Leslie and Tyerman, Regina, SK (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    An overview of Saskatchewan legislative framework regarding the oil and gas industry was presented. In the oil and gas industry, environmental issues are regulated at the provincial level, but the industry must also be aware of federal environmental law when dealing with federal lands, federal financial assistance, interprovincial or international projects or projects which have transboundary environmental effects. In this context, the provisions of the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) and the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations (OGCR), the licensing of oil and gas wells, the acquisition and surrender of surface rights, and the procedures involved in environmental assessment approval were outlined. Emission control, air pollution abatement, the storage and disposal of hazardous materials, environmental issues in property transactions, and corporate environmental management are also subject to regulation under OGCA and OGCR. 42 refs.

  9. Palm oil industry: A review of the literature on the modelling approaches and potential solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabid, M. Faeid M.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-01

    Palm oil industry plays an important role as a backbone to the economy of a country, especially in many developing countries. Various issues related to the palm oil context have been studied rigorously by previous researchers using appropriate modeling approaches. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of existing modeling approaches used by researchers in studying several issues in the palm oil industry. However, there are still limited numbers of researches that focus to determine the impact of strategy policies on palm oil studies. Furthermore, this paper introduces an improved system dynamics and genetic algorithm technique to facilitate the policy design process in palm oil industry. The proposed method is expected to become a framework for structured policy design process to assist the policy maker in evaluating and designing appropriate policies.

  10. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THChemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.

  11. Current state and prospects of cost accounting enterprises oil and fat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state oil and fat industry of Ukraine and described the trend of the industry of agriculture. Revealed the pressing problems of accounting of expenses oil and fat industry, identified cost centers and their composition, raw materials, products and waste as well as the directions of economic activity (of species that cause costs to increase efficiency of resource potential sub the object management capabilities and optimize its financial results. The study singles out areas of improvement of organizational and methodological aspects of the accounting of expenses oil and fat industry, in particular in terms of internal accounting proposed disclosure of costs to activities, types of oil and fat products, cost centers and production waste, contributing optimization of production costs and expenses of the entity as a whole

  12. Monitoring some environmental impacts of oil industry on coastal zone using different remotely sensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Hegazy

    2010-06-01

    Various environmental parameters which might be affected by pollution resulting from activities related to the oil industry were identified and hot spots that might be subjected to environmental deterioration were pointed out for immediate measures for environmental protection.

  13. neural network based model o work based model of an industrial oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Marquardt. Marquardt Back Propagation Algorithm ..... Ioan I. et al “The Optimization of Feed Forward. Neural Networks ... Controller Design of an Industrial Oil-Fired Boiler. Plant” ... Mechanical Engineering Purdue University, 2006. [38].

  14. Functioning of Oil and Gas Industry Technical Committees in Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanserik B. Ilmaliev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings in complex analysis of the existing legal, organizational problems of technical committees, particularly the ones in oil and gas industry and offers ways to overcome them

  15. Proceedings of the symposium on assessing the industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, O. Jr. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Analysis and Assessment Program, through the Safety and Environmental Protection Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The symposium program included presentations centering around the themes: Recognition of Occupational Health Monitoring Requirements for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries and Status of Dosimetry Technology for Occupational Health Monitoring for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries. Sixteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; six had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  16. The Impact of Price Fluctuations in Supply Chain Uncertainty and Risk in Oil & Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mikayilova, Khatira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine the challenges faced in oil and gas Supply Chain (SC) during the oil price fluctuations, provide recommendation on a way to reduce uncertainty in SC of oil and gas industry. Design/methodology/approach-The companies chosen for this research are called BP and two service companies: Schlumberger and Halliburton. In order to carry out this study, a qualitative research method was applied. Primary data was gathered through semi-s...

  17. Fundamental research in the chemistry of industrial oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    The causes of low oil recovery from formations and physiochemical methods for increasing oil recovery are analyzed. A survey of results from research in this field at the chemical institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR is given. The primary concepts of interformation combustion are examined together with the possibilities for using this method to control the combustion processes and enhance oil recovery as well as to optimize combustion processes.

  18. THE SITUATION OF IRAQI OIL INDUSTRY AND ITS PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Dulaimi Haidar Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is a major oil producer and exporter(the second one after Saudi Arabia, member of OPEC and was able to reform its oil sector and to gradually pass to a market economy system, by restructuring and privatizing its oil production, processing and distribution. Some medium term and long term priorities set for economic development are presented in the article and also investment and business opportunities existing for domestic and foreign investors.

  19. The Mexican Oil Industry: Governance, Resource and Social Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Accessed October 16, 2011) 2 Ibid 3 Ignacio Quesada Morales, “ Pemex Business Strategy”, March 2011, http://contratos.pemex.com/portal/files/content...production, refining, etc. 10 That same year, Petroleos Mexicanos, or Pemex , the state owned oil company was created. 11 In 1940, a constitutional...JubaksJournal/TheOilSqueezeHasJustBegun.aspx?page=2 (Accessed October 14, 2011) 15 Jesse Bogan, “With Easy Oil Gone, Pemex Sobers Up”, Forbes, May 7, 2009

  20. Tendencies of Development of Export Potential of the Fat-and-oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshchuk Tetyana H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article marks that the products of the fat-and-oil industry is an important component of the Ukrainian export. It generalises views of domestic and Russian scientists with respect to interpretation of the “export potential” notion. It offers the author’s definition of the export potential of a fat-and-oil enterprise (corporation as a maximal ability of a specific structure of the fat-and-oil industry to ensure the priority positions at the relevant segment of the foreign market during a long period of time. It specifies the role of the export potential in foreign economic activity of enterprises of the fat-and-oil industry. It provides a list of major domestic exporters of sunflower oil. It justifies a hierarchical structure of the export potential of a fat-and-oil enterprise. It shows dynamics of sunflower oil export during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 marketing years. It develops justified recommendations on increase of the export potential of the fat-and-oil industry and enterprises in particular.

  1. HOW TO MANAGE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN OIL INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF OMV PETROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS BULEARCA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As exploration and exploitation of oil and gas deposits continue to be among the most polluting industrial activities, this paper deals with revealing the way OMV Petrom, a major oil company from Romania, cope with these issues aiming at protecting the environment and ensuring safe and efficient operations in order to achieve sustainable development and constant growth.

  2. Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jegathish Kanadasan; Auni Filzah Ahmad Fauzi; Hashim Abdul Razak; Paramananthan Selliah; Vijaya Subramaniam; Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC) is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory...

  3. Investigating the barriers of the green human resource management implementation in oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Fayyazi; Saeed Shahbazmoradi; Zahra Afshar; Mohammad Reza Shahbazmoradi

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for the integration of environmental management into Human Resource Management (HRM) practices; such effort is known as Green HRM initiatives. The aim of this study is to identify barriers of green human resource management in Iran's oil industry. For this purpose, mixed method has been used. In the article, existing literature was examined and questions were designed and 12 experts of international oil industry were interviewed. The aim of these interviews was to desi...

  4. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  5. Environmental Regulation and Innovation Dynamics in the Oil Tanker Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The maritime industry is widely seen as less permeable to innovation than other industries. However, the industry is now recognizing that demands for increased environment protection can only be achieved by more innovation.This study demonstrates that environmental innovation has played a signifi...... a significant role in changing the industry's innovation paradigm. It has also been transformed over time....

  6. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  7. Foreign Cooperation Promotes China's Offshore Oil Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Effective pattern for foreign cooperation China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has set up the risk contract pattern for its cooperation with foreign companies on the basis of iRules of the People's Republic of China for Foreign Cooperation in Offshore Petroleum Resources Recovery() (hereinafter referred to as the Oil Rule) released by the State Council in 1982.

  8. Timing and Institutions: Determinants of the Ownership Structure in the Oil and Gas Industry in Canada and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Thomas

    In response to 1973 oil shock, both the Canadian and Norwegian states expanded public corporate ownership in the oil and gas industry. This thesis questions why the public share of total corporate ownership in the oil industry was greater in Norway than in Canada, and why Petro-Canada was privatized completely while Statoil was not. Two hypotheses are tested from a historical institutionalist perspective. First, the timing of oil development determined whether the private sector would establish itself as the dominant player in the oil and gas industry (in Canada) or not (in Norway) before the 1973 oil shock triggered government interest in public corporate ownership. Second, overlapping jurisdiction over oil resources (in Canada) undermined the effectiveness of mechanisms of reproduction of public corporate ownership. In Norway, the later discovery of oil thus gave the state a stronger bargaining position relative to the oil industry, and in a unitary state the uncontroversial redistributional activities of Statoil attracted more vested interests.

  9. Tendencies of Development of Export Potential of the Fat-and-oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshchuk Tetyana H.

    2013-01-01

    The article marks that the products of the fat-and-oil industry is an important component of the Ukrainian export. It generalises views of domestic and Russian scientists with respect to interpretation of the “export potential” notion. It offers the author’s definition of the export potential of a fat-and-oil enterprise (corporation) as a maximal ability of a specific structure of the fat-and-oil industry to ensure the priority positions at the relevant segment of the foreign market during a ...

  10. Rio sambas to research drum[Research and development in the offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatern, R. von

    2002-09-01

    Perhaps the most published graphic in the oil industry is one that traces the price of oil through time. It is used as an overlay to correlate everything from the history of rig activity levels to predicting coming oil shortages and gluts. In Rio de Janeiro this month during the 17th World Petroleum Congress, Dr Don Paul of ChevronTexaco and Saudi Aramco's Abdulaziz Al-Kaabi used it to illustrate the role research and technology development must play within the oil industry. The author discusses the way the oil industry is spending money on research and development, he explains that in the past 20 years the biggest innovation in the industry has been 3D seismic. The critical strategy for oil business was the adaptation of 3D seismic from another industry which was then moulded for its own needs. The article goes on to describe the importance of the development of a portfolio of research and development.

  11. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia F. S. Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  12. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-07-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  13. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing...... the problems due to discrepancies between a non-linear and a linearized formulation. The proposed model covers realistic settings by allowing the blending of crude oil in storage tanks, by modeling storage tanks and relevant processing units individually, and by handling more crude oil types and quality...

  14. Multinationals and global climate change: issues for the automotive and oil industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Lundan, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by US and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional

  15. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  16. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  17. Oil and gas - a sunset industry? The role of petroleum in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses (1) issues where insights and perceptions have improved over the last 25 years of oil and gas history, (2) summarises some of the most important changes or trends that have shaped energy industries and that are expected to affect developments in the future, and (3) discusses issues that should be considered when it is discussed what the future may bring to the Norwegian petroleum industry and to the energy industries in general. Because of the petroleum activities in the North Sea, Norway is soon the 7th biggest oil producer and is becoming the most important supplier to the Continental gas market. 41 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  18. China Offshore Oil Industry Enters a New Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hao

    1995-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation has worked out the development strategy in the period of the Ninth Five-Years Plan ,i.e., running oil and gas in parallel and moving the priority towards gas, expanding reserve production, creating the downstream, developing the overseas business and strengthening the management to develop CNOOC into an international consortium with strong strength and the integrity of the upstream and the downstream.

  19. The Structure and Fundamental Problems of Vegetable Oil Industry in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Azabagaoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 167 oil factories in Turkey, with a capacity not only to meet Turkey's domestic demand but also for export purpose. Of these, 8 are concerned with the production and the marketing of margarine, while the others process unrefined and refined oil. In Turkey, the vegetable oil industry has a capacity about 6 million tons of seed grounding and 3 million tons of unrefined oil capacity. In addition, there is also a 950 thousand tons capacity for margarine production. However, the insufficiency of unrefined material has resulted low level capacity usage. For example, the capacity usage was realized as 50% for seed grounding, 47% for unrefined oil production and 40% for margarine production. In this research, the various problems such as quality of unrefined material, finance, storage, etc faced by the vegetable oil industry, from the supliance of unrefined material to domestic and international marketing have been investigated. This study was carried out thoroughly in Turkey for aiming to identify measurements in order to vegetable oil industry could operate near to full capacity.

  20. Optimization of oil retention in sesame based halva using emulsifiers and fibers: an industrial assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, F; Maazoun, B; Gargouri, Y; Miled, N

    2016-03-01

    Oil bleeding during storage oleaginous seeds based confectionery products is a major problem affecting acceptance by consumers. Halva is a popular sweet food prepared from a sesame paste and a sugar mixture. The objective of this work was to improve the oil retention in this product by incorporating commercial fibers and emulsifiers: soya lecithin and monoglycerides (MG1 or MG2) during manufacturing. Oil retention yield was optimized on small batches, by response surface methodology using a central composite design applied with two factors, emulsifier concentration (0.25-2.25 %) and fibers concentration (0-2 %) at three levels. A centrifugation test was optimized to assess oil retention in halva samples. The experimental response (oil retention) was fitted with quadratic equations for each emulsifier, using multiple regression analysis. The emulsion stability increased with increasing the emulsifier concentration, particularly to 2.25 %. The oil bleeding assessed at 45 °C was slow but yielded similar results to those estimated by centrifugation test. The latter seems an attractive rapid method to quantify oil retention in oleaginous seeds and crops based food matrices. At an industrial scale, the increase of MG1 concentration to 2.25 % in halva enhances the oil retention of the product but does not affect its color or textural characteristics. Microscopic observations allowed us to explain high oil retention in this product by a homogeneous dispersion of oil droplets in the aqueous phase.

  1. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  2. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  3. Proceedings of the OPAS oil and gas sector symposium : Human resources in the western Canada oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Office for Partnerships in Advanced Skills (OPAS), Western Office organized this conference to discuss critical human resource issues in the oil and gas sector. In order to gain a broad perspective and different viewpoints, OPAS brought together representatives from the oil and gas industry, academia, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, and Alberta's Ministry of Human Resources and Employment. Topics of discussion included market trends, skills shortages and training development needs to respond to difficulties in recruiting in the areas of thermal enhanced oil recovery technologies and unconventional gas technologies. An 18 question survey conducted prior to the symposium revealed that the majority of respondents do not think that the current post secondary curriculum adequately meets the oil and gas industry's employment skill requirements. The challenges in designing and implementing industry specific programs were then discussed along with the timeline needed to develop an appropriate program and get graduates into the marketplace. The recommended initiatives resulting from the symposium discussions were then presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for the Distinction of Essential Oils Used in the Cosmetics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vargas Jentzsch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on the market; therefore, analytical methods for control are required. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that can be used for quality control tasks; the portability of modern devices expand the analytical possibilities also to in situ measurements. Fifteen essential oils of interest for the cosmetics industry were measured using a handheld Raman spectrometer, and the assignment of the main bands observed in their average spectra was proposed. In most cases, it is possible to distinguish the essential oils by a simple visual inspection of their characteristic Raman bands. However, for essential oils extracted from closely-related vegetable species and containing the same main component in a very high proportion, the visual inspection of the spectra may be not enough, and the application of chemometric methods is suggested. Characteristic Raman bands for each essential oil can be used to both identify the essential oils and detect adulterations.

  5. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Richard B.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1980-09-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100 th that of sunlight.

  6. Oil and power industries targeted as war flares in Levant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-08-15

    More oil price records were set in July (see 'The Month in Brief'). This time, the cause was the bombing of Lebanon by the Israeli airforce, following the abduction of two Israeli soldiers by Iranian-backed guerrillas from Hizbollah, operating from southern Lebanon. Brent and WTI futures both rose above $78 a barrel on fears that the fighting would spread to other Middle Eastern countries. Israeli aeroplanes bombed oil and electricity installations inside Lebanon, causing severe shortages. Rocket attacks by Hizbollah on the northern Israeli city of Haifa led to cuts in throughputs at a nearby refining and petrochemical complex. (author)

  7. Powerful motors: Kinship, citizenship and the transformation of the Argentine oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shever, Elana

    The privatization of the Argentine oil industry has been described as an unprecedented transfer of property, capital and control from the state to the corporate sphere, but this study demonstrates that the privatization process is better understood as a transformation of the historical configurations of oil-fueled development, political communities and human subjectivities. This dissertation probes the development of the state-led oil industry, and the shift to a corporate-led one, through an ethnography of Argentines differently positioned in relation to the global oil industry. The ethnography explores the lives of middle class oil workers and their families in Northwest Patagonia, impoverished residents of the shanty neighborhoods near the refineries in metropolitan Buenos Aires, and affluent employees of the translocal corporations operating in the Argentine oil fields. After the Introduction delineates this study's four principal interventions into anthropological scholarship, each subsequent chapter engages a particular problem that cuts across the Argentine oil fields and the anthropological theoretical fields. Chapter Two scrutinizes the historical construction of the Argentine subterritory as a "natural" space of value. Chapters Three and Four investigate the articulation of capitalist production and filial reproduction. These chapters argue that sentiment is a crucial generative force that has shaped the oil industry, company towns and worker families from the founding of the state-owned oil company in beginning of the twentieth century to its conversion into a corporate-owned one at the century's close. Chapters Five and Six examine the emergence of consumer citizenship and corporate citizenship out of Argentine neoliberalismo and its transformation of the oil industry. They argue that consumer and corporate citizenship are both reformulations of the older traditions of liberalism and Peronism. All the chapters of this dissertation illustrate that the

  8. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, T. [Jaakko Poyry International, Helsinki (Finland); Bird, G.; Wallace, D. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  9. Large expansion of oil industry in the Ecuadorian Amazon: biodiversity vulnerability and conservation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Fajardo, Javier; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    Ecuador will experience a significant expansion of the oil industry in its Amazonian region, one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. In view of the changes that are about to come, we explore the conflicts between oil extraction interests and biodiversity protection and apply systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas that should be protected in different oil exploitation scenarios. First, we quantified the current extent of oil blocks and protected zones and their overlap with two biodiversity indicators: 25 ecosystems and 745 species (whose distributions were estimated via species distribution models). With the new scheme of oil exploitation, oil blocks cover 68% (68,196 km(2)) of the Ecuadorian Amazon; half of it occupied by new blocks open for bids in the southern Amazon. This region is especially vulnerable to biodiversity losses, because peaks of species diversity, 19 ecosystems, and a third of its protected zones coincide spatially with oil blocks. Under these circumstances, we used Marxan software to identify priority areas for conservation outside oil blocks, but their coverage was insufficient to completely represent biodiversity. Instead, priority areas that include southern oil blocks provide a higher representation of biodiversity indicators. Therefore, preserving the southern Amazon becomes essential to improve the protection of Amazonian biodiversity in Ecuador, and avoiding oil exploitation in these areas (33% of the extent of southern oil blocks) should be considered a conservation alternative. Also, it is highly recommended to improve current oil exploitation technology to reduce environmental impacts in the region, especially within five oil blocks that we identified as most valuable for the conservation of biodiversity. The application of these and other recommendations depends heavily on the Ecuadorian government, which needs to find a better balance between the use of the Amazon resources and biodiversity conservation.

  10. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  11. Mackerel (Scomber Scrombrus Oil Extraction and Evaluation as Raw Materials for Industrial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. BAWA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, evaluation and refining of fish oil from mackerel (scomber scrombrus has been conducted in this work. The total percentage oil yield using solvent extraction and total moisture content was 28.24% and 56.50 %respectively, which were found to increase linearly with time. The analytical properties of the crude and the refined oil were evaluated. It was observed that the crude oil consist from: acid value 2.5 mg/KOH, peroxide value 2.19 mEq/kg, saponification value 201.6 mgKOH/g, iodine value 108.09 I2/100g, specific gravity 0.911, refractive index 1.485 and reddish brown colour. The refined oil was also evaluated as follows: acid value 2.27 mg/KOH, peroxide 1.00 meq/kg, saponification value 147.84 mgKOH/g, iodine value 106.93 I2 /100g and golden brown colour. These values fall within the acceptable standard values. The refining of the oil brought about a notable improvement in the analytical properties of the oil. Thus, leads to a high quality fish oil in terms of the taste, colour, odours, shelf life and market value. Based on the improved characteristics of the oil, it could be suitable for applications in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  12. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rezende Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that the processing conditions were safe and that under these experimental conditions the oil remained suitable for frying. The linear regressions were significant for refractive index, content of polar compounds, and lightness (L*. The content of polar compounds was determined using a cooking oil tester, and it had the best fit to the proposed model and can be used as an effective index for monitoring palm oil during the continuous par frying of breaded chicken snacks. The high turnover rate of the oil was important for maintaining the oil in good running conditions.

  13. Industrial production of crisps and prefried french fries using sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébédio, J. L.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Crisps and prefried french fries were prepared during industrial operations in order to study the possibility of using sunflower oils («normal» and high oleic instead of palm olein and mixtures of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and palm oil in industrial frying. The quality of the food items was evaluated by determining the total amount of polar components, the amount of the different components in the polar fraction (dimers, oxidized triglycerides, diglycerides, the quantity of cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM, as well as the 18:2 geometrical fatty acid isomers. For both the production of crisps and french fries, very small increase in the polar components was observed. Frying of crisps did not result in any changes in the fatty acid composition and in the amount of 18:2 geometrical isomers. However the amount of CFAM increased in samples fried in SO. An increase of CFAM was observed also for french fries independently of the nature of the frying medium. No modifications of the cis and trans isomer distributions were observed for the french fries prepared in the mixture of palm oil and partially hydrogenated canola. These results show that sunflower oils could be used for the industrial production of french fries and crisps. However, storage studies are being carried out in order to determine if both types of sunflower oils give products which are as stable as those prepared in a solid frying medium.

  14. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  15. Supporting the oil industry's commitment to safe operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Haan, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    The refining industry values the safety of its employees and staff working in its installations, as well as those living in communities near to its installations. Personal safety and safe operations are prerequisites for an industry that routinely produces and manages flammable and potentially explosive products. For this reason, safety considerations have been a major focus for CONCAWE and our member companies for as long as our association has existed.

  16. Scenarios of the Oil Industry of Croatia and the Region: Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Barišić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The oil industry is historically burdened by different turbulences and tremors having the significant impact on the market. In order to anticipate unforeseen and potentially harmful situations, some firms as a part of their long-term strategic plans pay attention to scenario-based planning, which is a useful technique for preparation of appropriate strategy and responses to potential unforeseen emergencies. Scenario planning is used for a detailed analysis of the current situation in the market and potential future development, creating a research framework for creating development scenarios. Scenario planning is especially highlighted in the context of oil industry considering the technique actually originated in this business (it was also used in previous military doctrine, where, because of using a scenario-based planning, some oil companies profited and gained a privileged position. The aim of the paper is to provide an insight into the importance and various approaches in using scenario planning today and explain the potential long-term scenarios in the oil industry of Croatia and the region, obtained by means of qualitative research and in-depth interviews with a number of experts in the field of oil industry.

  17. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  18. Smart Manufacturing for the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart manufacturing will transform the oil refining and petrochemical sector into a connected, information-driven environment. Using real-time and high-value support systems, smart manufacturing enables a coordinated and performance-oriented manufacturing enterprise that responds quickly to customer demands and minimizes energy and material usage, while radically improving sustainability, productivity, innovation, and economic competitiveness. In this paper, several examples of the application of so-called “smart manufacturing” for the petrochemical sector are demonstrated, such as the fault detection of a catalytic cracking unit driven by big data, advanced optimization for the planning and scheduling of oil refinery sites, and more. Key scientific factors and challenges for the further smart manufacturing of chemical and petrochemical processes are identified.

  19. Small wind turbines recognized in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    In response to environmental concerns, many diesel generators are being replaced with wind turbines. There is a growing trend for oil rigs and gasoline service stations around the world to use small wind turbines to power their facilities. Proven Energy Ltd., a supplier and manufacturer of small, reliable wind turbines, has exhibited its products at renewable energy exhibitions in the United Kingdom, Texas and Norway. The company has developed SIRA certified explosive proof turbines that currently produce electricity on one of Shell's offshore oil rigs and at BP's gasoline service stations. The turbines went through 2 years of rigorous offshore testing to ensure their reliability in harsh working conditions. Shell has ordered 16 more turbines given the success of the one currently installed on its platform. The turbines only need servicing once a year and once every two years for offshore. As such, there is little or no disruption to public service or unmanned rigs. 1 fig.

  20. Predominant MIC Mechanisms in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-07

    allowed sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) and other troublesome microorganisms to grow protected from biocides. Several actions were taken after the...is the internal corrosion that takes place.in crude oil pipe- lines. It has now been discovered that alongside sulfate•reducing prokaryotes (SRP...been observed in a limited number of SRB strains. Direct electron uptake involves outer membrane redox proteins that inter- act with extracellular

  1. Smart Manufacturing for the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihong Yuan; Weizhong Qin; Jinsong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Smart manufacturing will transform the oil refining and petrochemical sector into a connected, information-driven environment. Using real-time and high-value support systems, smart manufacturing enables a coordinated and performance-oriented manufacturing enterprise that responds quickly to customer demands and minimizes energy and material usage, while radically improving sustainability, productivity, innovation, and economic competitiveness. In this paper, several examples of the applicatio...

  2. Corporate Environmentalism: Notes on Conceptualization and Explanation with Anecdotal Evidence from the Oil Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranoey, B.S.

    1995-12-01

    This paper originates from a project on the oil industry`s reaction to calls for environmental reform caused by concern about climate change. It discusses two sets of related questions: (1) how can corporate responses in politics and industry be measured and conceptualized, and (2) how can variance in corporate environmental behaviour be accounted for. A multidimensional typology of corporate environmental responses in the ``industrial sphere`` is presented and the role of large companies as political actors and links between corporate environmental behaviour is explored. Some attempts to explain variance in corporate environmental strategy are made in the form of two ``models``. This is done by combining fragments of various theoretical bodies, like microeconomic theory, theories of strategic marketplace interaction and organizational theory. Finally, the author illustrates his ideas by drawing on findings from research on the environmental strategies of the three oil companies BP, Shell and Statoil. 51 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. The Viability of the Oil and Gas Industry within the Former Soviet Union, excluding Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coish, J.; Pyne, M.

    2004-01-15

    The former Soviet Union (FSU) has huge potential in the future of the world's oil and gas industry. The FSU includes some of the biggest producers and consumers of oil and gas in the world, and many of these countries include areas that lie untouched or explored. FSU territory also surrounds the Caspian Sea, which is itself a hotbed of activity in the oil and gas industry. The Caspian alone is important to world energy markets because of its own potential for oil and gas production and export, and this adds to the overall potential of the FSU. The FSU has been moving towards a free market economy since the fall of communism in the early 90's, and as such, is becoming a much more attractive area for foreign companies to operate. The FSU countries still requires foreign investment for their respective industries, and some of them have even put into place legislation to provide benefits to foreign investors. There are many types of foreign investment required in the FSU. Much of the infrastructure already in place is old and dilapidated, and requires maintenance and improvement. As well, new equipment and technologies for exploration and production are required to tap the oil and gas resources that lie in inconvenient locations. Finally, transportation of the oil and gas is a major issue here, as many of the fields are in hard to reach areas, and thus pipeline projects are increasing. Since the fall of communism, the FSU has been opening its doors more and more to foreign investors eager to bite into the huge market, and many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world are already operating there. The industries are still young to foreign investment, however, and those companies who get their foot in the door early, will be able to reap the benefits for years to come.

  4. Chemical Compositions and Aroma Evaluation of Volatile Oil from the Industrial Cultivation Medium of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maeba, Keisuke; Yonejima, Yasunori; Toyoda, Masanori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of the major lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species colonizing the intestines of animals and humans. The characteristic odor of the volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) in the cultivation process of E. faecalis was investigated to determine the utility of the liquid medium. In total, fifty-six and thirty-two compounds were detected in the volatile oils from the MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (19.3%), phenylacetaldehyde (19.3%), and phenylethyl alcohol (9.3%). The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method was performed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The total number of aroma-active compounds identified in the volatile oil from MBI and MAI was thirteen compounds; in particular, 5-methyl-2-furanmethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethyl alcohol were the most primary aroma-active compounds in MAI oil. These results imply that the industrial cultivation medium after incubation of E. faecalis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  5. New Era for China's Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The first deepwater drilling rig developed in China is scheduled to drill a well in a part of the sea known as 43/11 block in 2012 at a water depth of 2,454 meters, making it the deepest well in the South China Sea. The block is now under exploration conducted by China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), BP Plc and Anadarko Petroleum Corp. It is on a short list of sites where CNOOC, the owner of the rig, is considering using semi-submersible deepwater rig this year to drill wells.

  6. Remote sensing for the oil in ice Joint Industry Program 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickins, D. [DF Dickins Associates LLC, La Jolla, CA (United States); Andersen, J.H.S [Norconsult, Horten (Norway); Brandvik, P.J.; Singsaas, I. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Buvik, T. [Trondheim Dog Training Centre, Trondheim (Norway); Bradford, J. [Boise State Univ., Boise, ID (United States); Hall, R. [Kongsberg Satellite Services, Tromso (Norway); Babiker, M.; Kloster, K.; Sandven, S. [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of detecting, mapping and tracking oil spills on ice were discussed with particular reference to the importance of spill detection and mapping for Arctic oil spills, where the oil can be hidden from view under snow and ice during periods of almost total darkness. The remote sensing project (P5) with in the Oil-in-Ice Joint Industry Program aimed to establish whether off-the-shelf technologies and sensors could detect oil in the presence of ice in particular scenarios. The specific goals were to evaluate the limitations and capabilities of currently operational remote sensors for spill surveillance in ice regimes encountered during the 2008 and 2009 field experiments and to draw conclusions regarding which sensors are most likely to be effective in a variety of oil and ice situations. The project focused on proven, commercially available systems and technologies. These included airborne sensors such as Ultra-violet/Infrared ( UV/IR ), forward looking infrared (FLIR) and synthetic aperture radar/side-looking airborne radars (SAR/SLAR); all weather satellite systems involving SAR; dogs for surface oil detection; and ground penetrating radar (GPR) for low level airborne oil on ice detection. The key finding was that flexible combinations of sensors operating from a variety of platforms are needed to cover a range of oil in ice scenarios. The most effective solution to detect oil patches during periods of darkness or fog was to deploy closely spaced global positioning system (GPS) tracking buoys to follow the ice and the oil. 34 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  7. Economics of Newfoundland and Labrador's offshore oil industry : separating fact from myth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, W. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided an analysis of the Newfoundland offshore oil sector to help inform public understanding and debate. Four questions were posed to the oil sector in order to provide answers to questions the public may have concerning oil and gas operations and their socio-economic impacts in the region. It was observed that Newfoundland's daily production, reserves and activity levels are relatively small in comparison with other major oil producing regions, accounting for only 0.4 per cent of the world's daily oil production. On a per capita basis, oil production in the region is significant in comparison to other oil-producing regions, placing fourth in the world behind the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Norway. The oil and gas sector is the largest single contributor to Newfoundland's economy, providing 16 per cent of Newfoundland's gross domestic product (GDP). An estimated $16 billion will be provided to the province's treasury through the exploitation of the province's resources. Production statistics for Hibernia, Terra Nova, White Rose and Hebron were presented. Price forecasts and projected royalty payments were also provided. It was noted that the Newfoundland government receives more than 50 per cent of the profits of the combined fields, and higher oil prices will yield higher shares to the government. Equity holders incur more risk and receive lower net present value than royalty and tax collectors. It was suggested that increases in local benefits will lead to increased project costs, which will in turn lead to reduced royalty incomes. It was concluded that the Newfoundland offshore oil sector is vitally important to all aspects of the province's economy. An informed debate on public policy issues that impact Newfoundland's offshore oil industry is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina da Silva Grem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

  9. China's Oil Industry Facing Challenge & Opportunity from WTO Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ With ups and downs in the past 15 years, China was officially admitted into World Trade Organization in November 2001. China's entry into WTO inevitably poses a severe challenge to the country's domestic petroleum and petrochemical industry, which has been protected by means of tariff hurdles and other administrative measures for a long time.

  10. Psychosocial risks and hydrocarbon leaks : an exploration of their relationship in the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, L.I.V.; Ringstad, A.J.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon leaks have a major accident potential in the oil and gas industry. Over the years the oil and gas industry in Norway has worked hard to find means to prevent hydrocarbon leaks and is today able to report significant progress. In this context, the exploration of accidents in light of huma

  11. Economics of industrial cogeneration with a residual-oil-fired low-speed diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Belak, F.J.; Bernard, M.J.; Stodolsky, F.; Suchy, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The only residual-oil-fired low speed diesel cogeneration facility in the US has been in operation for a year at the Hoffman-LaRoche Vitamin C plant in Belvidere, NJ. Operating data for this grid-connected 23 MW facility are used to construct a generic evaluation of the economic desirability of such systems for industrial electric/thermal applications and industrial-thermal/commercial-electrical applications made possible by recent US legislation (PURPA). The post 1980 changes in relative electrical and residual oil prices are shown to have made oil fired on-site generation more attractive. The likely 1985-2005 movements of electricity and residual oil prices are discussed, along with risks of error in projections. The system is evaluated as a whole and on an incremental basis. Incremental analysis includes (1) the economics of steam and hot water use given the diesel and (2) the economics of system generation given industrial electric, steam and hot water loads. The sensitivity of the economics of the system to the full range of US electricity and residual oil prices is estimated. The effect of variation in system loads is examined. The economic desirability of the system is often great but is also highly variable geographically, largely as a function of local evaded electricity charges.

  12. HOW TO USE SOLID WASTE OF OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN CERAMIC BRICKS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinovа T. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the recycling problem of solid waste of oil and gas industry is observed. We have developed the bases of resource saving technology for minimizing exhausted sorbents and catalysts pollution with their using as silica-containing additives in raw mix for production of ceramic bricks of standard quality

  13. Engineering industrial oil biosynthesis: cloning and characterization of Kennedy pathway acyltransferases from novel oilseed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    For more than twenty years, various industrial, governmental, and academic laboratories have developed and refined genetic engineering strategies aimed at manipulating lipid metabolism in plants and microbes. The goal of these projects is to produce renewable specialized oils that can effectively c...

  14. Using whole number models with Boolean variables for solving optimization problems in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorodinskiy, B.I.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical justification is given for a method for solving one of the common problems in whole number linear programming with Boolean variables. It is shown that a number of optimization problems in the oil industry can be reduced to this model.

  15. The Impact of Post-Training on Job Performance in Nigera's Oil Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibieyi, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The Nigeria's oil industry has been criticized for some time now for its inability to render adequate services to the general public. This criticism is predicated on the fact that the standards of productivity in their services are low and that their facilities (i.e. the refineries) are not working up to capacity. This is evident in their…

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility and the Oil Industry in the Russian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Laura A.; Nysten-Haarala, Soili; Tulaeva, Svetlana; Tysyachnyuk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Examining the oil and gas industry in the Russian Arctic, this article investigates the gap between corporate social responsibility (CSR) as articulated in corporate offices and implemented at the local level. In Russia, global CSR norms interact with weak formal institutions and the strong informal

  17. Structures of mobilization and resistance: Confronting the oil and gas industries in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierk, Simone; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the problematic relationship between the oil industry and local communities in the Republic of Komi, we develop a case study of environmental grassroots mobilization in northwest Russia. Using a qualitative methodology comprising semi-structured interviews and

  18. Structures of mobilization and resistance: Confronting the oil and gas industries in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierk, Simone; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the problematic relationship between the oil industry and local communities in the Republic of Komi, we develop a case study of environmental grassroots mobilization in northwest Russia. Using a qualitative methodology comprising semi-structured interviews and parti

  19. The Russian oil industry re-structuration: towards the emergence of western type enterprises?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-01-01

    The Russian oil industry has undergone fundamental changes since the collapse of the Soviet Empire and its bureaucratic administrative structure, dominated by its various Branch Ministries. The monopoly in the Soviet oil industry has now been replaced by a number of ''oil companies'', some of which are very powerful, the best known of them being Lukoil. These ''joint stock companies'' are the product of a reform aimed essentially at implanting, out of all the numerous organisational arrangements developed in the West, the model of the vertically integrated private firm. Beyond the legal reforms in the Russian oil industry sector, however, the nature of the organisational model that has actually emerged in Russia begs several questions. Many entities, which are complex and highly diversified, are involved in this industry. There are, of course, the many private structures in which the banks sometimes carry a considerable amount of weight. There are also some vertically integrated organisations, but the degree of integration is variable and their method of centralization is based on a specific form of economic logic. It should not be considered, however, that these actors are similar to capitalist-type private enterprises, whose behaviour is regulated by the demands of international competition. Reform of property rights has not been sufficient to create true private enterprise in Russia. (author)

  20. Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atabaki, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the life and times of Indian migrant workers in Persia/Iran during the first half of the twentieth century, and discusses their contributions to the founding, development and eventual consolidation of the Persian/Iranian oil industry. A number of factors that shaped this

  1. Oil producing plants of the wildflora as potential crop plants supplying industrial raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radatz, W.; Hondelmann, W.

    1981-01-01

    The wildflora exhibits a continuously renewing potential for the production of chemical constituents suitable for industrial uses. Among them seed oil producing species assume a preferred position. Forty-two indigenous as well as adaptable taxa along with their botanical, agronomical and biochemical data are presented. Furthermore an approach to their domestication and agronomic improvement is given. (Refs. 158).

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility and the Oil Industry in the Russian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Laura A.; Nysten-Haarala, Soili; Tulaeva, Svetlana; Tysyachnyuk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Examining the oil and gas industry in the Russian Arctic, this article investigates the gap between corporate social responsibility (CSR) as articulated in corporate offices and implemented at the local level. In Russia, global CSR norms interact with weak formal institutions and the strong informal

  3. Toward the next fiber optic revolution and decision making in the oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boering, M.; Braal, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber optic data transmission has caused revolutionary developments in the current information society. It was also an eye opener for the Oil & Gas industry when fiber optic-based Distributed Temperature Sensing was introduced in the nineties. Temperature profiles over the entire length of the wellb

  4. China's Onshore Oil Industry is in Full Scale Opening to the Outside World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xueming; Wei Fang

    1995-01-01

    @@ In 1994, China's onshore petroleum industry continuously emphasized on making use of domestic and foreign resources and funds as well as opening to the outside world in full scale, so that a great progress has been achieved in the cooperation with foreign companies, contracting overseas projects, introducing advanced technology, importing equipment from abroad etc. CNPC has developed constant ties with the world oil circles.

  5. Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atabaki, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the life and times of Indian migrant workers in Persia/Iran during the first half of the twentieth century, and discusses their contributions to the founding, development and eventual consolidation of the Persian/Iranian oil industry. A number of factors that shaped this experi

  6. Working in verticalized platform vessel: an ergonomic approach in the oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garotti, Luciano; Mascia, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we point some aspects of workers activities in offshore units in the oil industry. These units became more verticalized and have a greater number of operating systems. Our goal is to present the main difficulties that workers face in these units.

  7. Safety in the mineral oil industry; Sicherheit in Mineraloelbetrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, B.-R. [Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Jentz, A. [TOTAL Raffinerie Mitteldeutschland GmbH, Spergau (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    For many years now, there have been less accidents in the petroleum industry than in other industries. This is due not least to the fact that safety has become a top level concern. For example, up to 20 percent of the salaries of top managers are linked to the annual accident statistics. Motivation for accident prevention must be made top-down. Staff members must be made aware that business success and accident prevention have equal priority, that accidents can indeed be prevented, that there is no good work unless it is safe, that constant safety training is required, that each staff member is responsible for safety to an equal extent, and that safety awareness must constantly be activated and enhanced. (orig.)

  8. Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: Approaches and organizational mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this thesis has been to explore how experience transfer works in Norwegian oil and gas industry. This includes how the concept of experience transfer is defined, what the barriers to achieve experience transfer are, how the oil and gas companies address experience transfer, and how these approaches work. The thesis is organized in five papers: (1) describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer and then specifies the organizational and structural barriers that must be overcome to achieve efficient transfer. (2) discusses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. (3) describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. (4) explores how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. (5) compares organizational members` perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. 277 refs., 3 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Stepwise Isothermal Fast Pyrolysis (SIFP of Biomass. Part III. SIFP of Olive Oil Industry Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Luna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of olive oil industry wastes was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP. SIFP consists of a succession of isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions in which the solid products obtained from the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis reaction become the substrates for subsequent reactions at higher temperatures. This article reports the results obtained from the SIFP of olive oil residue carried out between the temperatures of 300 and 500 °C using 100 °C intervals under reduced pressure (200 mm Hg. The maximum yield of liquid products occurred at 300 °C and consisted of around 35% bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols, furans, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. At 400 and 500 °C, FAME, which is derived from residual olive oil, was the major product.

  10. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, A. [Awaken Consulting, Shropshire, Herefordshire (United Kingdom); Den Haan, K.H.

    2013-08-15

    In this nineteenth annual report on European downstream oil industry safety performance, 2012 statistics are presented on work-related personal injuries for the industry's own employees and contractors. Data were received from 38 CONCAWE Member Companies representing approximately 98% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last nineteen years are also highlighted and the data are compared to similar statistics from related industries. This report also presents the fourth year of results for Process Safety Performance Indicators from CONCAWE members.

  11. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, A. [Awaken Consulting, Shropshire, Herefordshire (United Kingdom); Den Haan, K.H.

    2012-07-15

    In this eighteenth annual report on European downstream oil industry safety performance, 2011 statistics are presented on work-related personal injuries for the industry's own employees and contractors. Data were received from 34 CONCAWE Member Companies representing approximately 96% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last eighteen years are also highlighted and the data are compared to similar statistics from related industries. This report also presents the third year of results for Process Safety Performance Indicators from CONCAWE members.

  12. Industrial and utility applications coal-oil mixture data index. [Oil-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    The seriousness of the present and projected national energy picture dictated the adoption of several approaches by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop alternate fuel sources as a means of curtailing our present dependence on imported oil. One approach, which offers near term potential for reducing the domestic consumption rate of natural gas and oil, is the application of coal-oil mixture (COM) combustion technology. The idea of burning coal and oil in the form of a mixture has been around for some time and is not viewed by DOE, in any degree, as the solution to our domestic energy problem. However, it is viewed as a near-term retrofit coal utilization technology with a high degree of application potential to existing oil fired systems. In view of this, DOE has undertaken several demonstration and support-research projects to further define existing COM technical uncertainties. The purpose of this manual is to present a comprehensive technical description and status of each project, both informative and practical with respect to the diverse data requirements.

  13. Market entry mode and competency building of Western oil companies in the Russian up stream oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Paul M.

    This dissertation investigated the market entry and competency building strategies within the context of the Russian oil and gas industry. The study was designed to be of interest to business practitioners and academics given the growing importance of fossil fuel in the energy balance of the global economy and the importance of Russia as a supplier and purchaser in the international market. The study's mixed methodology provides an understanding on the environmental factors that are postulated to impact foreign direct investment flow into Russia and the oil and gas sector. A case study of a fictitiously named Western-Russo oil company was conducted to provide a deep understanding of how capability is viewed by Russian and Western employees and the factors that influences the implementation of a successful competency development program. The case was centered on the development of a Well-Site supervisor group within a Western-Russian oil company. Findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between corruption and foreign direct investment inflow into the Russian economy. The findings also showed that both Russian and Western employees in the oil and gas industry are less focused on nontechnical competency development issues, that Western employees are more orientated towards the bottom-line than Russian employees, and that both groups see operational management as a core competency. In the area of financial management and technology application, there were significant differences in the viewpoint of both groups. Western employees saw a stronger need for financial management and less need for technology application when compared to their Russian counterparts. The results have implications for Western business contemplating entering the Russian oil and gas industry. Western firms need to understand the key drivers that will help them overcome the social and cultural barriers between Western and Russian employees. The role of the company leader is very

  14. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  15. A review of shape memory material’s applications in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The continuously increasing demand for oil and gas and the depleting number of new large reservoir discoveries have made it necessary for the oil and gas industry to investigate and design new, improved technologies that unlock new sources of energy and squeeze more from existing resources. Shape memory materials (SMM), with their remarkable properties such as the shape memory effect (SME), corrosion resistance, and superelasticity have shown great potential to meet these demands by significantly improving the functionality and durability of offshore systems. Shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory polymer (SMP) are two types of most commonly used SMM’s and are ideally suited for use over a range of robust engineering applications found within the oil and gas industry, such as deepwater actuators, valves, underwater connectors, seals, self-torqueing fasteners and sand management. The potential high strain and high force output of the SME of SMA can be harnessed to create a lightweight, solid state alternative to conventional hydraulic, pneumatic or motor based actuator systems. The phase transformation property enables the SMA to withstand erosive stresses, which is useful for minimizing the effect of erosion often experienced by downhole devices. The superelasticity of the SMA provides good energy dissipation, and can overcome the various defects and limitations suffered by conventional passive damping methods. The higher strain recovery during SME makes SMP ideal for developments of packers and sand management in downhole. The increasing number of SMM related research papers and patents from oil and gas industry indicate the growing research interest of the industry to implement SMM in offshore applications. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of SMM in the offshore oil and gas industry.

  16. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  17. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  18. The Oil Industries Fake Abundance Story: Is Distortion of the Truth Ever Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The oil industries and their cornucopian supporters (press, politicians, energy agencies) promote the story that in the oil is abundant and oil production will increase. The reality is that 1) World crude oil production has been on a plateau since 2005, in spite of new technology (fracking), record high prices (Brent Oil > 100 per barrel) and record spending on exploration and development (5.4 trillion over the past six years) and 2) The price of oil has risen steadily from 1999 to present. Typically when commodities are abundant the price tends to fall. How is this reality being distorted? 1) Resources are being equated with reserves (both are amounts), neither of which can be equated with each other or with production (a rate). 2) Crude oil (the price or which is rigorously defined by API density) has been redefined as total liquids, which includes substances (lease condensates, natural gas liquids, biofuels, refinery gains) which can not be used in the same way oil is or sold for the same price as oil. If what you are selling cannot be sold on the world market as crude oil, then it is not crude oil. 3) The demand for oil remains high, but World production is stagnant and World net-export production has been decreasing since 2005. Thus the price remains high and will only increase in the future. Growth in Global GDP is impacted by high-priced oil. How do you know unethical behavior when you see it? It has to do with intentionality and motivation. "Advocacy science" often reports data to support their cause. Is that unethical? Where is the divide between being an "Issue Advocate" and "Advocacy Science"? If data are reported poorly, is it unethical or just "bad science"? Do the same ethical standards apply to businesses (when profits are involved) and politicians (when elections are at stake)? Why would the definition of oil include NGL, condensates and refinery gains if not trying to inflate the numbers. The standards should be the same, but when there are no

  19. Mideast Oil and Petrochem Industrial Influence on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The petroleum and petrochemical industry in the Middle East region is exerting influence on the Chinese market because the Middle East has become an important option for China to import crude. In 2003, China imported 91.12 million tons of crude, of which the Middle East accounted for 50.7 percent. China imported 15.18 million tons of crude from Saudi Arabia in 2003, 16.7 percent of the nation's total import,and 12.39 million tons of crude from Iran, 13.6percent of the total.

  20. Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shires, T.M.; Loughran, C.J. [URS Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This document is a compendium of currently recognized methods and provides details for all oil and gas industry segments to enhance consistency in emissions estimation. This Compendium aims to accomplish the following goals: Assemble an expansive collection of relevant emission factors for estimating GHG emissions, based on currently available public documents; Outline detailed procedures for conversions between different measurement unit systems, with particular emphasis on implementation of oil and gas industry standards; Provide descriptions of the multitude of oil and gas industry operations, in its various segments, and the associated emissions sources that should be considered; and Develop emission inventory examples, based on selected facilities from the various segments, to demonstrate the broad applicability of the methodologies. The overall objective of developing this document is to promote the use of consistent, standardized methodologies for estimating GHG emissions from petroleum industry operations. The resulting Compendium documents recognized calculation techniques and emission factors for estimating GHG emissions for oil and gas industry operations. These techniques cover the calculation or estimation of emissions from the full range of industry operations - from exploration and production through refining, to the marketing and distribution of products. The Compendium presents and illustrates the use of preferred and alternative calculation approaches for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions for all common emission sources, including combustion, vented, and fugitive. Decision trees are provided to guide the user in selecting an estimation technique based on considerations of materiality, data availability, and accuracy. API will provide (free of charge) a calculation tool based on the emission estimation methodologies described herein. The tool will be made available at http://ghg.api.org/.

  1. Role of Japan's oil industry and emergence of Japan as a world leader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taeb, S.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of three powerful economic centers, Japan, Europe, America, collapse of Soviet political empire, and emergence of a new global nationalism are evident of a transitional period in the history of world leadership. Experiences of the previous world hegemon have taught us that extraordinary economic performance of an industrial country has been the necessary step in the process of becoming the world hegemon. Given its powerful industrial productivity and its economic expansionism, Japan has been considered by some scholars and journalists as a potential candidate for the new world hegemon. Japan's lack of influence on natural resource supply, particuarly energy supply, and its unfit political structure for world leadership are two interrelated problems that this study investigates. A careful investigation of Japan's industrial and political structures suggests that Japan has to resolve a series of complicated and time consuming obstacles in order to achieve world hegemon status. Historically, domination of the world economy has been tied with having an influential role in international energy industry. In this respect and the fact that over 50 percent of the internationally traded petroleum is under the control of American and European entities, it is essential for Japan to gain some tangible control and influence over the international oil industry in order to achieve world leadership status. This success has to be at the expense of American and European oil companies rather than the OPEC countries. This study suggests that Japan has to anticipate more cooperation with these oil-producing countries if it desires to become a world leader. Furthermore, there is a positive relation between the current global political power transition and the present power transition in the international oil industry. Japanese political institutions have not developed to a degree that enable its government to act as a world superpower.

  2. Experience Transfer in Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry: Approaches and Organizational Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-07-01

    The core aim of the study is to explore the concept of experience transfer in oil and gas industry, and how an oil company approaches this concept. The thesis consists of five papers which are combined in a general description entitled 'Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: approaches and organizational mechanisms'. The first paper describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer, and then specifies the many organizational and structural barriers that have to be overcome to achieve efficient experience transfer. The second paper elaborates and assesses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. The third paper describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. The fourth paper explores in more detail how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. And the fifth paper compares organizational members' perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. Some of the papers are based upon the same data material. Therefore there are reiterations in parts of the contents, especially in the methodological sections.

  3. Desmetalization of industrial oils; Proceso de desmetalizacion de aceites industriales usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Perez, V.; Brana Redondo, L. F.; Luque de Castro, M. D.

    2002-07-01

    The use of a microwave-assisted liquid-liquid extraction device for the removal of metals from used industrial oils is proposed for the first time. For this purpose, an exhaustive study of the most relevant variables affecting the extraction process was made. The method thus developed was validated using a certified reference material (C.R.M. 1084, N.I.S.T.) as well as four different used industrial oils where the extraction of seven metals, namely Cu, Fe, V, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd was monitored by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The extractant used was water containing 4% nitric acid and 13 min was sufficient for achieving yields of the extraction within 70.4% and 97.4%. The precision of the overall method (including determination of the final metal content in the oil), expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.%), ranged between 2.6 and 16.2. The use of liquid-liquid extraction assisted by microwave irradiation was shown as a good approach for removing hazard metals from used industrial oils. (Author) 22 refs.

  4. History of partnership between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkongho Raymond N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores the origin and changes in partnership agreements established between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders in Cameroon. The different forms of partnership which have existed over the years in the oil palm sector until now are assessed, notably the FONADER-sponsored smallholder scheme (1978 to 1991 and more recently the Afriland First Bank sponsored villagisation project of Socapalm Eseka (2007/2008 to present. Special attention is given to the factors and conditions that have influenced the outcomes of these partnerships, specifically the failure of the FONADER-sponsored smallholder scheme. The authors conclude that with the current absence of steady support from the government to oil palm smallholders, especially after the implementation of the structural adjustment plans, private partnership schemes between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders could be highly profitable for both stakeholders. Such partnerships can foster social cohesion and limit further encroachment of agro-industries into the primary forest, provided such partnership agreements are carefully planned and adequately implemented.

  5. [Reflection on developing bio-energy industry of large oil company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    China's energy supply becomes more serious nowadays and the development of bio-energy becomes a major trend. Large oil companies have superb technology, rich experience and outstanding talent, as well as better sales channels for energy products, which can make full use of their own advantages to achieve the efficient complementary of exist energy and bio-energy. Therefore, large oil companies have the advantages of developing bio-energy. Bio-energy development in China is in the initial stage. There exist some problems such as available land, raw material supply, conversion technologies and policy guarantee, which restrict bio-energy from industrialized development. According to the above key issues, this article proposes suggestions and methods, such as planting energy plant in the marginal barren land to guarantee the supply of bio-energy raw materials, cultivation of professional personnel, building market for bio-energy counting on large oil companies' rich experience and market resources about oil industry, etc, aimed to speed up the industrialized process of bio-energy development in China.

  6. Understanding and managing environmental risks in the Saskatchewan oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrychuk, L.D.; Delahanty, B. [MacPherson Leslie and Tyerman LLP, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    In Saskatchewan, environmental issues regarding the oil and gas industry are regulated at the provincial level, but the industry must be aware of the application of federal environmental law when dealing with federal lands, federal financial assistance, or international and interprovincial projects that have transboundary environmental impacts. The first part of this paper outlined some of the legislation that applies to the petroleum industry and which relates to the environment, including the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) and the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulation of 1985 (OGCR). This paper provided an overview of the legislative regime in Saskatchewan and described other laws that affect environmental considerations, such as the surface rights; licensing of oil and gas wells; environmental assessment approval; emission control and abatement; storage; disposal; discharge of pollutants; and, abandonment and decommissioning. The second part of this paper discussed environmental issues in property transactions, with reference to responsibility for clean-up for environmental damage. The final part of this paper described the elements of a corporate environmental management program with reference to liabilities and due diligence. 46 refs.

  7. Industrial vegetable oil by-products increase the ductility of polylactide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruellan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of industrial by-products of the vegetable oil industry as ductility increasing additives of polylactide (PLA was investigated. Vegetable oil deodorization condensates were melt-blended by twin-screw extrusion up to a maximum inclusion quantity of 20 wt% without preliminary purification. Sample films were obtained by single screw cast extrusion. Compounded PLA films featured largely improved ductility in tensile testing with an elongation at break up to 180%. The glass transition temperature remained higher than room temperature. The native mixture of molecules, which composed the deodorization condensates, had superior performance compared to a synthetic mixture of main compounds. The investigation of the correlation between composition of the additives and the ductility of the PLA blends by Principal Component Analysis showed synergy in property improvement between fatty acids having a melting point below and beyond the room temperature. Furthermore, a compatibilizing effect of molecules present in the native mixture was evidenced. Oil deodorization condensates, which are a price competitive by-product of the vegetable oil industry, are therefore a very promising biobased and biodegradable additive for improving the ductility of PLA.

  8. The social history of labor in the Iranian oil industry : the built environment and the making of the industrial working class (1908-1941)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehsani, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the wage laboring class in the Iranian oil industry during the first decades of the 20th century is studied as a tangled global-local social history. The analysis seeks to situate the oil complex in Iran within the interlinked contexts of the global transformations of World War One,

  9. Sterols and sterol oxides in the potato products, and sterols in the vegetable oils used for industrial frying operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta, Paresh Chandra

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the composition of sterols in vegetable oils used in industrial frying operations, and sterols and sterol oxides in the fried potato products. The sterols and sterol oxides were enriched by saponification of oils and by solid phase extraction. Preparative thin layer chromatography, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were used to give qualitative and quantitative data. The results revealed that the content of desmethylsterols in palm oil, sunflower oil, high oleic sunflower oil, and rapeseed oil/palm oil blend were, 790, 4501, 3550, and 4497 ppm, respectively. Sitosterol was the major desmethylsterol in all samples. Palm oil also contained the lowest levels of total unsaponifiables. The sterols and unsaponifiable contents in sunflower oil were, to some extent, higher than in higholeic sunflower oil. The compositions of sterols after two days of frying were neither markedly different in the oils nor in the potato products fried in these oils compared with the original oils. Isomerised sterols were tentatively quantified to account for 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 20 ppm, in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oils, respectively. Lipids extracted from French fries prepared in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend contained the highest levels of total sterol oxides, 191 ppm, and epoxides of both sitosterol and campesterol were the major contributors, together at a level of 172 ppm. On the other hand, lipids extracted from French fries prepared in sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil contained 7α-hydroxy-, 7β-hydroxy-, 7-keto- and both epimers of epoxysitosterol, generally in equal amounts. All samples also contained small amounts of different oxidation products of campesterol and stigmasterol.

  10. The party's over : oil, war and the fate of industrial societies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinberg, R. [New College of California, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    This book offers insight into the central role that energy has played in our world and why it will shape the fate of nations in the future. The industrial era began in the twelfth century with the Europeans' first use of coal. The basic driver for economic growth in our current industrialized society is cheap-oil based energy that is limited in quantity according to estimates of current reserves and extraction rates of oil resources. The author describes what society may look like decades from now when oil production and reserves begin to decline. Control of energy supplies may well determine the economic health and survival of nations, given that world food and transportation systems have become very dependent on growing supplies of oil, natural gas and coal. World supplies of petroleum, coal, natural gas, and uranium were examined and suggestions on how to prepare for the possibility of running out of fossil fuels were presented. In particular, substitutes for fast-depleting fossil fuels were examined to see if the use of renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar energy, hydrogen and cold fusion could enable industrialism to continue indefinitely. Policy recommendations for world leaders were proposed with reference to social, economic, political, and individual lifestyle changes that will be required if industrial civilization is to continue. Many recommendations described what people can do at a personal level in their own lives, particularly in the United States. The author also examined the global strategic competition for dwindling oil supplies and tried to predict the flash points for possible resource wars. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA) and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The r...

  12. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  13. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaofu; Napier, Johnathan A; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2011-04-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MANAGING REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH LOCAL CONTENT REQUIREMENTS IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Olegovna Semykina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the regional economic impact of mineral resource endowment and offers specific inputs to the debate on the local content requirement (LCR policy, gaining urgency in modern economic and political environment. The paper considers the intricacies related to greenfield investment projects in Russian oil and gas industry. Focusing on the experience of the Krasnoyarsk region, the paper examines the way national companies operate in the newly developing oil and gas provinces of Russia. The analysis of key economic indices shows that the existing approach does not allow having significant benefits from resource endowment in the region. The main idea is that the establishment of completely new industry has to affect regional economic development, budget revenues dynamics and employment to influence the related industries and services in the region. The conducted analysis let to form possible scenarios and evaluate the dynamics of regional economic development depending on the scale of LCR policy. The developed approach based on statistical modeling allows assessing both direct and indirect effects of LCR policy. The obtained results allow to conclude that the implementation of LCR policy leads to the growth of real income per capita and the job creation in the region. The development of equipment and services suppliers for oil and gas industry by ripple effects can boost socio-economic development and diversify regional economy. The paper also dwells on some pitfalls and risks accompanying LCR policy and considers crucial points of introducing this kind of policy for local and federal government.

  15. Valorization of Palm Oil Industrial Waste as Feedstock for Lipase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erick A; Tardioli, Paulo W; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-06-01

    The use of residues from the industrial processing of palm oil as carbon source and inducer for microbial lipase production can be a way to add value to such residues and to contribute to reduced enzyme costs. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using palm oil industrial waste as feedstock for lipase production in different cultivation systems. Evaluation was made of lipase production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Lipase activity levels up to 15.41 IU/mL were achieved under SSF. The effects of pH and temperature on the lipase activity of the SSF extract were evaluated using statistical design methodology, and maximum activities were obtained between pH 4.0 and 6.5 and at temperatures between 37 and 55 °C. This lipase presented good thermal stability up to 60 °C and higher specificity towards long carbon chain substrates. The results demonstrate the potential application of palm oil industrial residues for lipase production and contribute to the technological advances needed to develop processes for industrial enzymes production.

  16. Prioritization of Effective Risk Factors on Oil Industry Construction Projects (By PMBOK Standard Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Baharmand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an applied, analytic-descriptive research in terms of nature. It is thus an analysis in which a sample has been applied for data collection and it is descriptive since its variables are assessed and reported as they are in reality. This study seeks to identify effective risks existing in construction industry specifically in the national macro projects such as oil industry projects through utilizing Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK model and to estimate the relative impact of each risk on the projects. It aims at prioritizing the effective risk factors on the construction projects (a case study of National Iranian Oil Company. Thus NIOC construction projects, consulting engineers companies and contractor companies in construction projects of oil industry have been selected as the statistical universe to identify and prioritize the risks. Due to the focus of oil industry construction projects on South Pars Special Economic Zone, under planning, implementation or completion phases and with regard to the phases' expansion in terms of number and volume of activities and also strategic features and confidentiality of information, three phases out of 28 ones have been case-studied. It is generally concluded in this study that with respect to the country significant strategic, geopolitical, geographical, economic and military position in the world, it is a matter of great magnitude to regard the risks identification and management as one of the important areas in the project management and to consider it as a national and comprehensive plan when designing and ratifying industrial projects of the country.

  17. Comparative Study of Crude Oil Contamination Effect on Industrial and Forest Soil Microbial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Ansari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Petroleum hydrocarbons are widespread pollutant that enters to soil by some pathwayssuch as: Transportation of crude oil, conservation of oil compounds, crude oil spill and treatment process on refineries. Oil pollution has some ecological effect on soil that disturbed composition and diversity of microbial community. Also this pollution has some effects on microbial activity and enzymes of soil. Forests ecosystems may be polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons via different ways such as transportation and spill of crude oil from resource of petroleum storage. Industrial soil defined as the soils that located in industrial area such as petrochemical plant, mine, chemical factories and etc. These soils always contaminated to many pollutant such as: oil, diesel and heavy metals. These pollutants have some effects on the texture of the soil and microbial community. The aim of this research is to understand the effect of oil pollution on two different soils. Material and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of crude oil on soil microbial community, two different soil samples were collected from industrial and forest soils. Six microcosms were designed in this experiment. Indeed each soil sample examined inthree microcosms asunpolluted microcosm, polluted microcosm, and polluted microcosm with nutrient supply of Nitrogen and PhosphorusSome factors were assayed in each microcosm during 120 days of experiment. The included study factors were: total heterotrophic bacteria, total crude oil degrading bacteria, dehydrogenase enzyme and crude oil biodegradation. For enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria nutrient agar medium was used. In this method serial dilutions were done from each soil and spread on nutrient agar medium then different colonies were counted. For enumeration of degrading bacteria Bushnel-Hass (BH medium were used. The composition of this medium was (g/lit: 1 gr KH2PO4, 1gr K2HPO4, 0.2 gr MgSO4.7H2O, 0.02 gr CaCl2, 1 gr NH4

  18. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-03-15

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  19. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  20. Environmental and economic problems in the oil-extracting industry of north territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Sergeevna Krestovskikh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is substantiation of environmental and economic problems in the sphere of nature protection activities of oil-extracting industry of north territories (on the example of the Komi Republic and development of proposals for decreases a negative effect on the environment and population health. The authors have made the analysis of nature protection activities of the Komi Republic oil-extracting enterprises. Strengthening negativeimpact on theenvironment wasestablished despite growth ofexpenses for environmental measures. It is related to the fact that enterprises invest in the elimination of consequences of man-made impact technogenicinfluence and man-made accidents, instead of fortheirconsecutivereduction and prevention. In the work, the assessment of socio-economiceffects from oil waste disposal iscarried out. Proposals for regional integrated programs of an environmental orientation are developed.

  1. Vital Importance of Unconventional Oil-gas Resources in China's Energy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lijie; Zeng Wang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The first World Heavy Oil Conference (WHOC)was held in Beijing on November 12, 2006. Present at the conference were more than 600 delegates from over 40 countries and regions worldwide. Themed as "Heavy Oil - The Future of Global Energy?", the 1st WHOC aims to discuss the strategies and measures to promote the development of global heavy oil industry..The WHOC is initiated and proposed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and Alberta government of Canada. Approved by the state council of China, the 1st WHOC was jointly hosted by CNPC, Sinopec, CNOOC,Sinochem, three government departments of Canada and Indonesia, and several national petroleum corporations,such as PDVSA, Petrobras, Statoil, IOC, and Shell.

  2. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  3. Hydrotreating of used oil; Prediction of industrial trickle-bed operation from pilot-plant data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, D.U.; Saban, M.D.; Orlovie, M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Tehnolosko-Metalurski Fakultet); Meyn, V.W.; Severin, D.K.; Rahimian, I.G.H. (German Inst. for Petroleum Research, 3392 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (DE)); Marjanovic, M.V. (Refinery Beograd, Pancevacki put 83, 11001 Beograd (YU))

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on oil hydrotreating that was investigated in a pilot trickle-bed reactor (TBR) at 270-350{degrees} C, 5-7 MPa, and 1.1-4.6 liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and with different hydrogen/oil ratios using a commercial Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), and metals removal were investigated by using a modified power- law kinetic model with a power term for LHSV. It was found that the HDS and HDO reactions can be described by pseudo- first-order kinetics. The removal of metals was found to be primarily due to the physical process of deposition on the catalyst bed. With the use of the kinetic data from a pilot plant, the simulation of an industrial TBR was performed. Simulated HDS and HDO, removal of metals, and prediction of catalyst deactivation agreed well with the industrial data for three charges of catalyst.

  4. Early considerations: NAFTA: Possible indications for Mexico's oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-20

    After rancorous debate in the US over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the treaty is scheduled to become effective January 1, 1994. The topic of energy was scarcely mentioned during all of the discussions because NAFTA is expected to have only a negligible effect on the US energy industry. But NAFTA is a trade agreement among three oil producers, and that is worth remembering. According to the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, the U.S. energy industry can expect marginal gains and a framework for future opportunities in Mexico's energy sector as NAFTA takes effect. In terms of energy, Mexico gains the most from NAFTA.

  5. Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

    2001-01-01

    The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment.

  6. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks. © 2012 CSIRO Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The Technology Contribution Analysis on Crude Palm Oil Industry in Jambi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahrial Sahrial

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analysis the technology contribution coeficient (TCC on crude palm oil industry in Jambi Province. This research was conducted in several steps i.e. determination of the research object, assessment of technology components, analysis of experimental data (tabulation of data, estimation the degree of sophisticated, analysis the state-of-the-art for technology components, calculation of technology component contribution, calculation of contribution intensity, and calculation of technology contribution coeficient (TCC. The research obtained 0,590 TCC value for PT. Sumbertama Nusa Pertiwi Bakrie Sumatra Plantation Tbk. Palm Oil Mill and  0,585TCC value for PSB II Bunut PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VI (PerseroPalm Oil Mill. The both of values indicated the level of technology in the crude palm oil industry on Jambi Province based on a qualitative assessment of TCC interval are in good classification and based on the level of technology is at the level of semi-modern technology. 

  8. Helicopter passenger survival suit standards in the UK offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leese, W.L.; Norman, J.N.

    1979-02-01

    Special protective clothing for helicopter passengers in transit to and from installations in the U.K. offshore oil industry is considered essential. Such clothing is required to increase the survival chances in the unlikely event of a helicopter ditching. This paper discusses the nature of the threat to life in such an event and proposes standards for the specific protective clothing required to meet it. Test criteria are also outlined, to ensure that standards set are maintained.

  9. Economic Performance of China's Oil and Petrochemical Industry in First Quarter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    @@ International oil price continued souring in the first quarter of 2008. It was bouncing up and down above $100/barrel and even getting close to $120/barrel by the end of April. Products related to energy and resources all responded with higher prices, triggering a general increase in cost of petroleum and petrochemical industry. World's economy was seriously affected by USA's subprime lending crisis, weakening US dollar, sullen stock markets,and etc, major economies lowered their expectations for economic growth rate.

  10. Sustainable Development in Emerging Markets & CSR Codes of Conduct: Oil and Gas Industry in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ligia Maura; FGV-EAESp

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to provide a comparative analysis of corporate social responsibility codes of conduct (CSR Codes) of the oil and gas industry operating in Brazil with the provisions embodied in the international legal framework system, such as the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights and the Fundamental Conventions of the International Labour Organization. For comparative purposes, and given the usual structure that CSR Codes tend to follow, the analysis has been developed around the...

  11. Automation and control trends in the upstream sector of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plucenio, Agustinho; Pagano, Daniel J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Automacao, Controle e Instrumentacao para a Industria do Petroleo e Gas, PRH-34

    2004-07-01

    The need to continuously improve the aspects of Health, Safety and Environment to operators, installation's security, optimization of oil reservoir recovery in wells operating with different artificial lift methods, subject to different secondary recovery techniques, has motivated the development of technologies in the automation and control for the upstream sector of the oil industry. While the application of control and automation techniques is well established in the downstream sector of the oil industry that is not the case in the downstream sector. One tendency in this sector is the utilization of control via Field bus Networks. This technology uses equipment that communicate with each other in a two wire digital network and can be programmed to execute function blocks algorithms designed to perform a designed control strategy. The most noticeable benefits are the improvements in the process performance and the equipment reusability and interoperability. Proprietary solutions can be replaced by systems composed of equipment supplied by different manufacturers connected in the same network. These equipment operate according to a strategy designed by automation and control engineers under the supervision of professionals working in computer terminals located in different company departments. Other gains are a better understanding about the industry processes, application of optimization techniques, fault detection, equipment maintenance follow-up, and improved operators working conditions and workers qualification. Other tendencies are: permanent well monitoring. Either with installation of down hole sensors based on fiber grating sensors or surface sensors using embedded electronic processors. Developments of instrumentation technology for low cost multiphase flow measurements. Application of control techniques for flow regime control and optimization of reservoir recovery through better identification, optimization and Model Based Predictive Control

  12. Persisting in Reform and Open Policy to Develop Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan

    1994-01-01

    @@ Offshore Petroleum Industryis one of China's industries that takes the lead in cooperation with foreign companies.Through considerable development in 1980s, CNOOC has made the breakthrough progress in technology, administration and available qualified personnel. It has become a state oil corporation with independent operations taking whole responsibility for the profits and losses, independ ent development and self-control and risen rapidly from strong international petroleum competition.

  13. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004).

  14. Standardization of industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals: TRANSPETRO's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Correa, Marcelo Leal [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO concerning standardization of its industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, preparation and implementation of standards and five corporate operational procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, and consequently the sense of unity and creation of a nucleus consisting of 30 professionals who mobilized a learning network with great capillarity. In this context, the paper presents the results of implementing corporate standards, based on internationally recognized yardsticks such as American Petroleum Institute (API), US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), as well as PETROBRAS standards. It covers the following topics: an overview of the whole process; preparation of corporate operational procedures, which resulted in a total of 5 standards against 60 in the original situation; preparation and implementation of visual quick guides corresponding to the new corporate operational procedures; and proposal of a set of industrial maintenance performance indicators in compliance with operational guidelines established by TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals business segment. (author)

  15. Responsible management of peatlands in Canada, from peat industry to oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Line

    2013-04-01

    Canada harbors one third of the peat resources of the world. Peat is an accumulated organic matter composed of dead and partly decomposed plant material, forming huge deposit through time in wetlands like peatlands and boreal coniferous swamps. Peat is a valuable resource as a growing media and soil amendments, an eco-friendly absorbent, also used as biofilters, for body care and for wastewater treatment. Peatlands also offer valuable ecological services : for example, they are the most efficient terrestrial ecosystem to store carbon on a long-term basis. Their ability to "cool off" the planet warrants a good look at their management. The horticultural peat industry of Canada has invested 22 years in R&D in habitat restoration and is now a strong leader in managing industrial peatlands in a sustainable way. The oil sand industry, which is strongly impacting the wetland landscapes of northern Canada, does realize that it has to reduce its ecological footprint, which is heavily criticized around the world. Decommissioned open mines near Fort McMurray have already begun recreating peatland ecosystems, and some restoration attempts of former oil pads are underway in the Peace River region. But the restoration of the largely disturbed wetland landscape of the oil sands is commanding innovative solutions.

  16. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  17. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities: A conjoint study of purchase of vegetable oils in the mayonnaise and margarine industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Skytte, Hans

    Executive summary The purpose of this working paper is to study whether current market and technological developments in the vegetable oil industry can be used as the outset for a price and/or quality based segmentation of the major industrial markets for this product. More specifically we want......, then follows current developments in the demand and technology conditions on the market for vegetable oil. Later we discuss how concepts from industrial buying behaviour can add to the understanding of commodity buying and segmentati Following this a conjoint model of vegetable oil procurement in the vegetable....../S, and the MAPP Centre. The majority of theoretically-founded segmentation studies in industrial buying behaviour has dealt with large investments or technologically complex products, whereas research in commodities is almost non-existent. Based on the results of a preliminary study, this paper argues...

  18. Facilitating Oil Industry Access to Federal Lands through Interagency Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Ben Grunewald

    2007-05-31

    Much of the environmental and technical data useful to the oil and gas industry and regulatory agencies is now contained in disparate state and federal databases. Delays in coordinating permit approvals between federal and state agencies translate into increased operational costs and stresses for the oil and gas industry. Making federal lease stipulation and area restriction data available on state agency Web sites will streamline a potential lessors review of available leases, encourage more active bidding on unleased federal lands, and give third-party operators independent access to data who otherwise may not have access to lease restrictions and other environmental data. As a requirement of the Energy Policy Conservation Act (EPCA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of inventorying oil and natural gas resources beneath onshore federal lands and the extent and nature of any stipulation, restrictions, or impediments to the development of these resources. The EPCA Phase 1 Inventory resulted in a collection of GIS coverage files organized according to numerous lease stipulation reference codes. Meanwhile, state agencies also collect millions of data elements concerning oil and gas operations. Much of the oil and gas data nationwide is catalogued in the Ground Water Protection Council's (GWPC's) successfully completed Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS). The GWPC and the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Montana are implementing a pilot project where BLM lease stipulation data and RBDMS data will be displayed in a GIS format on the Internet. This increased access to data will increase bid activity, help expedite permitting, and encourage exploration on federal lands. Linking environmental, lease stipulation and resource inventory assessment data and making a GIS interface for the data available to industry and other agencies via the internet represents an important step in the GWPC strategy for all oil and gas regulatory e

  19. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining: the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of...

  20. Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory factors were assessed. POC were incorporated as a replacement material for aggregates and their engineering characteristics were ascertained. Almost 7% of density was reduced with the introduction of POC as aggregates. A sustainability assessment was made through greenhouse gas emission (GHG and cost factor analyses to determine the contribution of the addition of POC to the construction industry. Addition of POC helps to lower the GHG emission by 9.6% compared to control specimens. By channeling this waste into the construction industry, an efficient waste-management system can be promoted; thus, creating a cleaner environment. This study is also expected to offer some guides and directions for upcoming research works on the incorporation of POC.

  1. How a Physicist Can Add Value In the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The talk will focus on some specific examples of innovative and fit-for-purpose physics applied to solve real-world oil and gas exploration and production problems. In addition, links will be made to some of the skills and areas of practical experience acquired in physics education and research that can prove invaluable for success in such an industrial setting with a rather distinct and unique culture and a highly-collaborative working style. The oil and gas industry is one of the largest and most geographically and organizationally diverse areas of business activity on earth; and as a `mature industry,' it is also characterized by a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21st. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To be successful at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most exotic or improbable technologies can take off in this industry if they honestly offer the best solution to a real problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. On the other hand, any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well would prevail, no matter how inelegant! The speaker started out in atomic spectroscopy (Harvard), post-doc'ed in laser cooling and trapping of ions for high-accuracy time and frequency metrology (NIST), and then jumped directly into Drilling Engineering with Schlumberger Corp. in Houston. Since then, his career has moved through applied electromagnetics, geological imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, some R and D portfolio

  2. Approach of Bioremediation in Olive Oil and Dairy Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation methods are a promising way of dealing with soil and subsoil contamination by organic substances. This biodegradation process is supported by micro-organisms which use the organic carbon from the pollutants as energy source and cells building blocks. There are several advantages of the implementation of such methods but mainly they have to do with the lack of interference with the ecology of the ecosystem. This study presents the use of technique in numerous ways such as olive oil industry and dairy industry. Although the use of bioremediation technique is not innovative in food industry and microbiology. The use of herbicides, pesticides and contaminated chemicals are producing pollutant compounds in ecosystem which is effecting the environment. Bioremediation method is very constructive method to converted contaminated compounds into non contaminated compounds.

  3. Aggregated services to the product of an equipment manufacturer of the oil industry: the PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Magalhães Calvilho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the service operations that a manufacturer of equipment for the oil industry now offers together with their products, in order to maintain its position in a market in which technology is a competitive criterion. The research method is the case study. The integration between product and associated services is well suited described by PSS: Product-Service Systems. The research techniques were: analysis of industry-specific documents, semi-structured interviews, and non-participant observation in plant. Thirteen services which the manufacturer offers, associated with the product, gas turbines, where studied. The services were detailed and contextualized in industry and compared with theoretical elements found in the literature on PSS. Most services are based on the product and are offered as aftermarket activities. The study also describes expected economic and environmental gains.

  4. Preventable disasters in the offshore oil industry: from Piper Alpha to Deepwater Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article compares two industrial disasters in the offshore oil industry, the explosion and fire on Piper Alpha off the coast of Scotland in 1988, the world's worst offshore disaster, and the blowout and explosions on Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It attempts to answer a simple question: Given the enormity of the first tragedy and the careful analysis of its circumstances and causes, why were the lessons of previous failure not learned by this globally organized industry, in the very heartland in the United States? The answer tells us much about the ability of corporate capital to configure regulatory regimes in its own interests and to do so in a manner that continues to threaten the safety and well-being of its employees and the wider environment.

  5. Interfacial behaviour between oil/water systems using ionic surfactants from regional vegetable industry and animal pet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Francisco Klebson G.; Alves, Juan V.A.; Dantas, Tereza N. Castro; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio V.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Interfacial tension (IFT) is one of the most important physical properties in the study of fluid-fluid interfaces. In this research the surfactants - saponified coconut oil, saponified castor oil, saponified soybean oil, saponified sunflower oil and basis soap - were synthesized in laboratory, using carboxylic acids from regional industry and animal fat (bovine fat). This study focuses on the search of a high-efficient, low-cost, and safe for the environment flooding system to be applied in enhanced oil recovery. The principal aim of this work is the obtaining of interfacial tensions between oil/water systems, using the developed ionic surfactants. Results showed that the studied surfactants are able to reduce the IFT between oil and brine. The surfactant that was more effective in reducing the IFT value was the one from animal fat. The composition, as well as the kind of the bond, as saturated or unsaturated, of the surfactants has influence in the IFT value. The ionic surfactants from regional industry and animal fat besides presenting low cost propitiate very low interfacial tensions between oil and brine, favoring the interactions with residual oil and thus increasing oil recovery. (author)

  6. Industrial Cluster Development of Grain and Oil%论粮油产业集群式发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢智勇; 王瑞元; 孙瑞

    2015-01-01

    近年来,粮油产业园区或粮油产业集群作为一种新型的企业空间组织形态引起业内的广泛关注,粮油产业集群式发展成为一种新的生产方式,显示出新的活力,其发展势头十分迅猛,已成为粮油加工业转变发展方式,调整产业结构,走新型智能化道路的重要途径。本文分析了我国粮油产业特点和产业集群运作模式,探讨了我国产业集群发展战略,提出了天津粮油产业集群式发展思路。%In recent years, grain and oil industrial park or grain an d oil industrial cluster as a new formof enterprise spatial organization has caused widespread concern in industry. Grain and oil industrial cluster development has become a new mode of production, showed new vitality. It has a rapid development momentum, and has become an important pathway to grain and oil processing industry in transforming development mode, adjusting industrial structure and taking new intelligent roads. Character-istics of China′s grain and oil industry and industrial cluster operational mode wereanalyzed, China′s development strategy on in-dustrial clusterswas discussed, and cluster development ideas for grain and oil industry in Tianjin wasproposed.

  7. Investigating the barriers of the green human resource management implementation in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Fayyazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for the integration of environmental management into Human Resource Management (HRM practices; such effort is known as Green HRM initiatives. The aim of this study is to identify barriers of green human resource management in Iran's oil industry. For this purpose, mixed method has been used. In the article, existing literature was examined and questions were designed and 12 experts of international oil industry were interviewed. The aim of these interviews was to design questionnaire and collects the necessary information. To examine the reliability of the questionnaires, Cronbach alpha coefficient was equal to 0.732, which validated the reliability of the questionnaire. Finally, the questionnaires were shared among 31 members of oil's experts and HR managers. The results of the study have shown that the lack of comprehensive plan to implement green HRM and ambiguous of green values were in the highest level and they were considered as the most important barriers. Furthermore, staff resistance had the lowest importance.

  8. Saskatchewan water policy : what does the oil and gas industry need to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybvig, W. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Water use and supply in the province of Saskatchewan was discussed along with planning activities, regulatory processes and current water issues facing the province. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority was created to address water use and concerns regarding water protection. Some historical information regarding water management strategies in the province of Saskatchewan was presented, including the creation of SaskWater in 1984; the provincial wetlands policy in 1995; a water management framework in 1999; the North Battleford water contamination in 2001; a long term drinking water strategy in 2002; and the creation of the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority in 2002. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority took over responsibilities from SaskWater, the Saskatchewan Wetlands Conservation Corporation and Saskatchewan Environment with a mandate for watershed planning; water source protection; wetlands conservation; water allocation; infrastructure management; and public education about water. This presentation explained how the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority will achieve its goals for a safe and sustainable water supply, and healthy watersheds and aquifers. Industrial water use charges were described with reference to the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan, the second largest crude oil producer in Canada and the third largest natural gas producer. In 2002 there 1700 gas well and 3400 oil wells drilled in the province. All non domestic water uses require approval from the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. Regulations for groundwater use and purchasing water from other users were also outlined. tabs., figs.

  9. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-01-15

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  10. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  11. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  12. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  13. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  14. ECOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES OF IMPLEMENTING CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Cherepovitsyn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define the main approaches to the implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry in Russia, and also to identify ecological, economic and social issues of their usage. Promotion of the technology of carbon dioxide (CO2 sequestration by means of capturing and injecting it into underground reservoirs is a promising mechanism of reducing carbon dioxide concentration. Carbon capture and storage (CCS technologies might be used to enhance oil recovery (EOR-CO2 and production by means of oil extraction and decreasing oil viscosity. Conceptual view of the potential of EOR-СО2 technologies within the context of oil and gas industry sustainable development are presented. Incentives of the CCS projects implementation are identified. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are presented.

  15. Heavy Metal In Food Ingredients In Oil Refi nery Industrial Area, Dumai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sundari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial waste generally contains a lot of heavy metals such as Plumbum (Pb, Arsenic (As, Cadmium(Cd and Mercury (Hg, which can contaminate the surrounding environment and cause health problems. Bioaccumulation ofheavy metals from the environment can occur in foodstuffs. The study aims to determine levels of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Asand Hg in foodstuffs in the oil refi nery industry. Methods: The analytical method used Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer(AAS. Samples were taken from two locations, namely: the exposed area and non exposed area. The sample consisted ofcassava, papaya leaves, fern leaves, cassava leaves, guava, papaya and catfi sh. Results: The analysis showed levels ofmetals As in all samples at exposed locations is below the maximum limit of SNI, the location is not exposed only in catfi shlevels of As (2.042 mg/kg exceeds the SNI. Cd levels of both locations are not detected. Pb levels in catfi sh in exposedlocations (1,109 mg/kg exceeds the SNI. Hg levels in leaves of papaya, cassava leaves, fern leaves, cassava and fruitpapaya exceed SNI. Conclusion: There has been a heavy metal contamination in foodstuffs. Recommendation: Thelocal people are advised to be careful when consuming food stuffs from oil refi nery industrial area.

  16. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intini, Francesca; Kuhtz, Silvana [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Basilicata (Italy); Gianluca Rospi, [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Basilicata (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF) and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  17. A New Method to Calculate Centrifugal Pump Performance Parameters for Industrial Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad hassan shojaeefard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumping of oil instead of water using centrifugal pumps causes rapid increase in the hydraulic losses which results significant reduction in head and efficiency. Therefore, deriving analytical methods to calculate variation of pump performance parameters versus working fluid viscosity is very important. In the present study, a novel method is proposed to calculate the head (H, efficiency ( and input power ( in P based on the loss analysis for pumps using industrial oils. A computer code is developed based on represented method and the results of this method are compared with experimental results for a centrifugal pump of type KWP KBloc65- 200. The results show good agreement between analytical and experimental methods. Finally, using such computer code, diagrams of head, efficiency and input power versus working fluid viscosity are plotted.The results show an interesting point known as “sudden rising head” which is observed experimentally and numerically in literatures.

  18. Life cycle assessment (LCA of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Intini, Silvana Kühtz, Gianluca Rospi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  19. 75 FR 75995 - Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... manufacture neutron detectors used by the well logging industry or wireline or Logging-While-Drilling tools incorporating neutron detectors, and whether companies purchase or lease logging tools that contain neutron... for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry AGENCY: Office of...

  20. Can we use near-miss reports for accident prevention? A study in the oil and gas industry in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, H.B.; Drupsteen, L.; Dyreborg, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The oil and gas industry in the Danish sector of the North Sea has always focused on reducing work-related accidents. Over the years, accident rates have been reduced, and near-miss reporting has gained in importance, because it allows the industry to learn from experience and prevent fu

  1. PIROLISIS LIGNIN DARI LIMBAH INDUSTRI KELAPA SAWIT UNTUK PENGEMBANGAN SURFAKTAN DALAM PROSES ENHANCE OIL RECOVERY (EOR (Pyrolysis of Lignin From Waste of Palm Oil Industries for The Development of Surfactants for Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryo Purwono

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pirolisis dari lignin yang berasal dari limbah industri kelapa sawit dapat menghasilkan alkohol dan derivatif lainnyd yang dapat digunakan sehagai surfaktan. Prosedur penelitian proses pirolisis ini odalah sebagai berikut: I serabut atau tandan sisa pengolahon kelapa sawit yang sudah dikeringkan dimasukkan kedalam reaktor dengan berat tertentu dan dipanaskan sampai suhu yang diinginkan, 2 produk pirolisis yang keluar dari reoktor kemudian didinginkan sampoi mencapai suhu kamor, 3 hasil cair ditampung didalam gelas ukur dan hasil gasnya ditampung di suatu botol tertentu. Suhu paling baik yang dicapai adalah 4A0 "C untuk lignin yong berasal dari serabut dan 350'C untuk lignin yang berasal dari tandan kelapa sawit. Surfaktan yang dihasilkan sekitar j4 sampai 38% dari produk pirolisis. Pada penelitian ini kecepatan reaksi dianggap order satu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa surfakton yang dihasilkan dapat membentuk emulsi dengan minyak menta.h. Hal ini menunjukkon bahwa surfaktan yang dihasilkan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan untuk proses EOR.   ABSTRACT Pyrolysis of lignin from waste of palm oil industries produces alcohol and its derivatives which can be sulfonated to become surfactant. The experimental procedures for the pyrolysis process were as follows: 1 dried palm oil husks at a certain weight were put into the pyrolysis reactor and heated up to a certain temperafure; 2 the product leaving the reactor was cooled down to room temperature; and 3 the liquid product was collected in a flask while the gas product was put into a big bottle. The best temperature obtained for producing liquid product was 400 oC for lignin from palm oil fruit fibers and 350 oC for lignin from palm oil fruit stems. The surfactant developed was in the range between 34 and 38% from the pyrolysis product. In this experiment, the reaction rate was assumed to be in first order. The result showed that the surfactant obtained from the experiment could form emulsion

  2. The oil industry in France: contribution to the debate on energy; L'industrie petroliere en France contribution au debat sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Proposed by the professional body of the French oil industry, this document proposes a contribution of this body to the energy challenge. The authors first discuss the context and its evolution in terms of energy demand and of energy sources. They outline the necessary development of renewable energies. While giving recommendations, they state how the oil sector will support the economy and employment, how this sector will keep on exploring and producing hydrocarbons, how the refining activity needs to be adapted, how the oil logistics must evolve, and how the service station network is already evolving

  3. Enhancing National Participation in the Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heum, Per; Mwakali, Jackson A.; Ekern, Ole Fredrik; Byaruhanga, Jackson N.M.; Koojo, Charles A.; Bigirwenkya, Naptali K.

    2011-07-01

    In realization of the petroleum industry potential, Uganda's Oil and Gas policy seeks to optimize wealth creation from the industry to enhance the welfare of the citizens. This study has examined how Uganda may benefit from the participation of Ugandans and Ugandan firms in the petroleum activities. In the literature this is frequently referred to by applying the term local content. Local in this sense, however, refers to national as opposed to international or foreign contributions. Thus, we apply the concept national content to avoid any misunderstanding. Focus of our study has been on identifying the opportunities, gaps and challenges posed by the petroleum industry to recommend necessary measures to maximize the benefits of national content otherwise defined as national participation.The study has examined lessons Uganda may draw on from other countries and from the economic literature on industrial growth and national wealth. Furthermore, the specific point of departure for Uganda with regard to expected petroleum activities, Uganda's industrial base and its human resource base, has been investigated. On this basis, the study has made its recommendations.(eb)

  4. Evaluation of sustainable development using business excellence model in used motor oil industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Business and commerce are a chance to create wealth and economic development in companies and industries. Leader of companies must be containing a sense of relief and hope as one of the factors of production and wealth to enhance trust, cooperation between the organization and the community. In order to achieve at the Business Excellence (BE is emphasized to the need for the simultaneous measurement of organizational performance on the Critical Success Factors (CSFs, environmental, social issues and challenges. Objective of current study was to evaluate of sustainable development in used motor oil industry using BE models. Therefore, a framework was discussed as distinct from other common practices to measure performance of an industry. The models allow multi -dimensional focuses on different indicators of the organization's internal, external and CSFs. The check list method was used to collect data in site of industry in the present study. Then, obtained results were surveyed by models such as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA, European Federation for Quality Management (EFQM and Kanji’s Business Excellence Model (KBEM. Results of current analyze indicated that despite the fact that these models and approaches are different, but they are same in term of shared concepts. Finally, we can be able to say that the simultaneous implementation of these models and approaches can be a suitable process in the study of sustainable development of organizations. According to the obtained results of models, the case study industry was in sustainable development conditions.

  5. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.

  6. On the economics of the oil refining industry in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynk, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The structural changes which have occurred in the oil refinery industry in the UK have been analysed and the input and pricing decisions of refiners have been modelled in the context of petroleum products used as inputs in the production functions of firms and sectors in the economy. Using the model of pricing and input demand, several hypotheses have been tested concerning marginal cost and mark-up pricing, the technology of production, and the speed of adjustment of inputs, particularly refining capacity, toward optimal levels.

  7. Development of alternative energies for oil and the problems facing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idemura, H.

    1982-01-01

    According to a provisional long-term energy forecast, Japan's degree of dependence on oil will drop from its present 74% to 62.9% in 1985 and to 48.1% in 1995. This is an indication of the amount of alternative energy required. Explanations are given of the characteristics of the following alternative energy sources: coal, natural gas, atomic energy, geothermal, solar energy, biomass, chemical energy, and energy from wastes. There is an introduction to the role and function of the engineering industry, which is closely related to the development of these energies.

  8. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  9. The Boundaries Of The Firm. The Case Of Oil Industry In Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudian Monica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic theory of the firm has met an exponential growth in the last decades different from the traditional neoclassical approach. In the first part of the paper we are skimming through the most spread approaches, namely the theory of incomplete contracts and evolutionary school. In the second part we apply the explications on integration provided by the economics of transaction costs with an example on the oil industry in Romania. A brief qualitative analysis reaches out the conclusion that cutting transaction and agency costs is one of the factors that leads to integration within the studied sector.

  10. Corporate Diversity Programs and Gender Inequality in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L.; Kilanski, Kristine; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, major U.S. corporations have embraced diversity as a management strategy to increase the number of women in top jobs. Diversity management programs include targeted recruitment, hiring, and promotions policies; mentoring programs; affinity groups; and diversity training. Few of these programs have proven effective in achieving gender diversity in the corporate world, despite their widespread popularity. To explore the reasons for this, the authors investigate the experiences of women scientists in the oil and gas industry who are targeted by these programs. In-depth interviews reveal possible reasons why these programs fail to achieve their intended goals. The authors find that these programs can paradoxically reinforce gender inequality and male dominance in the industry. The authors discuss alternative approaches for addressing gender inequality in work organizations and conclude with implications of their findings for corporate approaches to promoting diversity and for future research. PMID:25558125

  11. Corporate Diversity Programs and Gender Inequality in the Oil and Gas Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L; Kilanski, Kristine; Muller, Chandra

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1980s, major U.S. corporations have embraced diversity as a management strategy to increase the number of women in top jobs. Diversity management programs include targeted recruitment, hiring, and promotions policies; mentoring programs; affinity groups; and diversity training. Few of these programs have proven effective in achieving gender diversity in the corporate world, despite their widespread popularity. To explore the reasons for this, the authors investigate the experiences of women scientists in the oil and gas industry who are targeted by these programs. In-depth interviews reveal possible reasons why these programs fail to achieve their intended goals. The authors find that these programs can paradoxically reinforce gender inequality and male dominance in the industry. The authors discuss alternative approaches for addressing gender inequality in work organizations and conclude with implications of their findings for corporate approaches to promoting diversity and for future research.

  12. The Integration Aspects of Activities of the Companies in the Oil and Gas Industry Sector in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panevnyk Tetiana M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers both the dynamics and the structure of oil and gas production in Ukraine, situation of the oil and gas companies at the current stage of globalization of the world economy have been covered. The main problems impacting the functioning of the domestic industry sector have been identified, including the lack of effectiveness of the existing integration processes. The world trends and patterns of integration processes have been considered. It has been determined that the oil and gas industry sector leaders are the multinational companies that actively use integration in their practices. The current trends in creating integration linkages in different parts of the process chain in the oil and gas industry have been identified. Influence by large corporations of the innovative type on the creation of a favorable investment climate has been confirmed, as well as conducting their own policies of expansion in the overseas markets. On the basis of studying the foreign experience, expediency of development of the oil and gas sector enterprises by activating integration processes has been substantiated. Priorities and possibilities for further functioning of enterprises in the the oil and gas industry sector have been identified

  13. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  14. Strategic Transport Management Models—The Case Study of an Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Dimić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the need to preserve the environment and establish sustainable development evolved as the result of the development of the world economy and society. Transport plays a very important role in this process. It is recognized as one of the main factors in sustainable development strategy. Strategic transport management model is presented in this paper. It represents a comprehensive and complete strategic management process, beginning from the strategic analysis, then strategy formulation and its implementation to strategic control. What makes this model specific is the development of its phases using contemporary strategic management methods and MCDM (Multicriteria Decision Making techniques. In this way, subjectivity is avoided and the decision-making process is impartial. To formulate sustainable transport strategy, the authors use a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats and the fuzzy Delphi method as the basis to evaluate impact factors. Fuzzy SWOT analysis is applied to formulate strategic options and the selection of optimal option is realized through DEMATEL (Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory-based ANP (Analytic Network Process. The strategic transport management model is applied to Serbian Oil Industry (NIS as a company engaged in the production and transport of oil and oil derivatives. The results presented in this paper have shown that this model can be successfully implemented in profit organizations. It also can be used to formulate strategies on the basis of scientific principles and create conditions for successful sustainable strategies implementation.

  15. Predicted costs of environmental controls for a commercial oil shale industry. Volume 1. An engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevens, T.D.; Culbertson, W.J. Jr.; Wallace, J.R.; Taylor, G.C.; Jovanovich, A.P.; Prien, C.H.; Hicks, R.E.; Probstein, R.F.; Domahidy, G.

    1979-07-01

    The pollution control costs for a commercial oil shale industry were determined in a joint effort by Denver Research Institute, Water Purification Associates of Cambridge, and Stone and Webster Engineering of Boston and Denver. Four commercial oil shale processes were considered. The results in terms of cost per barrel of syncrude oil are predicted to be as follows: Paraho Process, $0.67 to $1.01; TOSCO II Process, $1.43 to $1.91; MIS Process, $2.02 to $3.03; and MIS/Lurgi-Ruhrgas Process, $1.68 to $2.43. Alternative pollution control equipment and integrated pollution control strategies were considered and optimal systems selected for each full-scale plant. A detailed inventory of equipment (along with the rationale for selection), a detailed description of control strategies, itemized costs and predicted emission levels are presented for each process. Capital and operating cost data are converted to a cost per barrel basis using detailed economic evaluation procedures. Ranges of cost are determined using a subjective self-assessment of uncertainty approach. An accepted methodology for probability encoding was used, and cost ranges are presented as subjective probability distributions. Volume I presents the detailed engineering results. Volume II presents the detailed analysis of uncertainty in the predicted costs.

  16. PIPELINE PRODUCTION LOSSES IN THE NIGERIAN OIL INDUSTRY FROM 1999 TO 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. STELLA MADUEME

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This empirical investigation tries to identify the causes and economic costs of pipeline production losses in the Nigerian oil industry from 1999 to 2008. It brings out the total product and value loss within the selected years. It also shows the frequency of occurrence in pipeline incidences as a result of fire outbreak, vandalization and rupture in various areas in Nigeria. Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and time series data data was collected through archival sources and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Data are presented in tables and graphs. Results show that vandalization has been increasing from 1999 to 2008 with its highest incidences at Port Harcourt pipelines. Production losses due to rupture were less frequent though physical product losses were highest between 1999 to 2006. Fire outbreaks were discovered to unfortunately be a yearly event with its highest evidences at Port Harcourt and Warri pipelines. This led to very high wastages and monetary losses over the years. Some of the recommendations are effective protection guideline policies for oil pipelines to avoid product losses through vandalisation and fire out break regular maintenance of oil pipelines to reduce incidences of rupture and increased participation or partnership with communities where pipelines are located for protection.

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT BUSINESS VALUE COMPONENTS WITHIN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Brlečić Valčić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The oil and gas industry is characterized by many complexities and specificities of business operations. The above is also reflected in the identification of value components, and the understanding of their interrelationships. In order to have an effective value management, it is especially important to follow up on the movements in key financial indicators and qualitative factors which impact the creation of financial results. This paper presents the theoretical basis in order to identify the most important qualitative value components in oil and gas companies. Therefore, the specificities of all sectors within this industry are highlighted in order for them to be related to the key financial factors influencing the creation of stable cash flows. For this purpose, a cluster analysis of selected key financial factors has been performed using self-organizing neural networks. Connecting identified qualitative value components affecting cash flows with the financial parameters through which they are reflected, creates a framework for developing an effective value management model.

  18. Magnetotactic bacteria in microcosms originating from the French Mediterranean Coast subjected to oil industry activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postec, Anne; Tapia, Nicolas; Bernadac, Alain; Joseph, Manon; Davidson, Sylvain; Wu, Long-Fei; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) mineralize nanosized magnetite or greigite crystals within cells and thus play an important role in the biogeochemical process. Despite decades of research, knowledge of MTB distribution and ecology, notably in areas subjected to oil industry activities, is still limited. In the present study, we investigated the presence of MTB in the Gulf of Fos, French Mediterranean coast, which is subjected to intensive oil industry activities. Microcosms containing sediments/water (1:2, v/v) from several sampling sites were monitored over several weeks. The presence of MTB was revealed in five of eight sites. Diverse and numerous MTB were revealed particularly from one site (named CAR), whilst temporal variations of a homogenous magnetotactic cocci population was shown within the LAV site microcosm over a 4-month period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, and a novel genus from the LAV site was evidenced. Among the physicochemical parameters measured, a correlation was shown between the variation of MTB abundance in microcosms and the redox state of sulphur compounds.

  19. Corporate Governance Induces Best Performance and Inhibits Leverage: Brazilian Industry Evidence of Oil & Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vládia Geane Moura Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study analyzes the oil industry, gas and biofuels in order to identify associations between corporate governance practices with capital structure, risk and performance.Methodology. These data were verified through 3SLS models (Three-Stage Least Squares. For this, we used a data set composed of 19 companies, for a panel data analysis in the period 2005-2009.Findings. The results suggest a negative association between leverage and corporate governance company level, supporting the substitution hypothesis, according to which the leverage works as a governance substitute. Also they did not reject the hypothesis that the greater the governance practices, greater market performances and accounting of these companies, as well as reduces the market risk.Limitations. The main limitation of this research is the sample size, 19 companies, with particular focus on an industry, reducing the generalizability of the results.Originality/Value. This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between corporate governance, capital structure, performance and risk; specifically for the oil, gas and biofuels in Brazil, an important and understudied emerging market.

  20. New Electric Online Oil Condition Monitoring Sensor – an Innovation in Early Failure Detection of Industrial Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Mauntz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new online diagnostics system for the continuous condition monitoring of lubricating oils in industrial gearboxes is presented. Characteristic features of emerging component damage, such as wear, contamination or chemical aging, are identified in an early stage. The OilQSens® sensor effectively controls the proper operation conditions of bearings and cogwheels in gears. Also, the condition of insulating oils in transformers can be monitored. The online diagnostics system measures components of the specific complex impedance of oils. For instance, metal abrasion due to wear debris, broken oil molecules, forming acids or oil soaps result in an increase of the electrical conductivity, which directly correlates with the degree of contamination in the oil. The dielectrical properties of the oils are particularly determined by the water content that becomes accessible via an additional accurate measurement of the dielectric constant. For additivated oils, statements on the degradation of additives can also be derived from changes in the dielectric constant. For an efficient machine utilization and targeted damage prevention, the new OilQSens® online condition monitoring sensor system allows for timely preventative maintenance on demand rather than in rigid inspection intervals. The determination of impurities or reduction in the quality of the oil and the quasi continuous evaluation of wear and chemical aging follow the holistic approach of a real-time monitoring of a change in the condition of the oil-machine system. Once the oil condition monitoring sensors are installed on the plants, the measuring data can be displayed and evaluated elsewhere. The measuring signals are transmitted to a web-based condition monitoring system via LAN, WLAN or serial interfaces of the sensor system. Monitoring of the damage mechanisms during proper operation below the tolerance limits of the components enables specific preventive maintenance independent of rigid

  1. Enterprise Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: An Analysis of Selected Fortune 500 Oil and Gas Companies' Reaction in 2009 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Violet C.; Ethridge, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, four of the top ten Fortune 500 companies were classified within the oil and gas industry. Organizations of this size typically have an advanced Enterprise Risk Management system in place to mitigate risk and to achieve their corporations' objectives. The companies and the article utilize the Enterprise Risk Management Integrated…

  2. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling of Multi-phase Solid–Liquid Equilibria in Industrial-Grade Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Jeppe Lindegaard; Miller, Rasmus L.; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Compositional thermodynamic phase separation is investigated for industrial-grade vegetable oils with complex compositions. Solid–liquid equilibria have been calculated by utilizing the Margules 2-suffix activity-coefficient model in combination with minimization of the Gibb’s free energy of the ...... because many different oil mixtures can be evaluated quickly with respect to specific properties, prior to more time-consuming experimental evaluation....

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EXTRACTS OBTAINED FROM OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY BYPRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad-Qasem Mateo, Margarita Hussam

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The main goal of this Thesis was to determine the influence of the main processing stages involved in obtaining natural extracts with high antioxidant potential from byproducts originating in the olive oil industry. Firstly, the effect of freezing and/or the drying methods applied to olive oil byproducts on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts subsequently obtained was addressed. For this purpose, two byproducts were considered: olive leaves and olive pomace...

  5. Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole by solid-state fermentation of Eucalyptus waste from the essential oil industry using Pleurotus ostreatus and Favolus tenuiculus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omarini, Alejandra; Dambolena, José Sebastián; Lucini, Enrique; Jaramillo Mejía, Santiago; Albertó, Edgardo; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnological conversion of low-cost agro-industrial by-products, such as industrial waste or terpenes from the distillation of essential oils from plants into more valuable oxygenated derivatives...

  6. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining - the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.M. (US Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Maricopa (US)); Mullen, R.T. (University of Guelph, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Ontario (CA))

    2008-01-15

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of industrially important fatty acids, expression of these genes in transgenic plants has routinely resulted in a low accumulation of the desired fatty acids, indicating that significantly more knowledge of seed oil production is required before any future rational engineering designs are attempted. Here, we provide an overview of the cellular features of fatty acid desaturases, the so-called diverged desaturases, and diacylglycerol acyltransferases, three sets of enzymes that play a central role in determining the types and amounts of fatty acids that are present in seed oil, and as such, the final application and value of the oil. Recent studies of the intracellular trafficking, assembly and regulation of these enzymes have provided new insights to the mechanisms of storage oil production, and suggest that the compartmentalization of enzyme activities within specific regions or subdomains of the ER may be essential for both the synthesis of novel fatty acid structures and the channeling of these important fatty acids into seed storage oils. (au)

  7. Rethinking "energy nationalism": a study of the relationship between nation states and companies in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOELE DE FREITAS PEIGO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe term "energy nationalism" is frequently used by academic literature and media, but usually without adequate conceptual accuracy. Despite this, a set of papers deepens the discussion on the relationship between nation states and the energy industry, especially the oil sector. These papers allow identifying fundamental elements to understand the energy nationalism, either complementary or divergent between each other. Thus, this study aims at presenting an interpretation of the concept that fills the gaps left by the above mentioned literature based on a global analysis of the oil industry structure and its historical evolution since the mid-19thcentury.

  8. Job Satisfaction and Quit Intentions of Offshore Workers in the UK North Sea Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The North Sea oil and gas industry currently faces recruitment and retention difficulties due to a shortage of skilled workers. The vital contribution of this sector to the U.K. economy means it is crucial for companies to focus on retaining existing employees. One means of doing this is to improve the job satisfaction of workers. In this paper, we investigate the determinants of job satisfaction and intentions to quit within the U.K. North Sea oil and gas industry. We analyse the effect o...

  9. Radiological impact of NORM generated by oil and gas industries in the kingdom of Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Husain; Sakhnini, Lama

    2017-02-01

    A study of the external background radiation in areas affected by NORM generated by oil and gas industrial activities has been performed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. In this framework, two experimental residential areas, Awali and Riffa Views, were selected due to the presence of extensive oil and gas exploration and transportation. Additionally, two control residential areas, Isa Town and Al-Budaiya Village, were selected as they lack any industrial activities that would disrupt the radiation profile. The radiation dose rates were measured using Colibri Very Low Dose radiation survey meter with a built-in GPS. A total of 317 dose rates with their GPS coordinates were acquired. The lowest dose rate was 0.02 μSv/h acquired in Isa Town while the highest dose rate was 0.37 μSv/h acquired in Awali. Since there were no studies performed in the Kingdom to measure the average background radiation, the average external background radiation calculated from the control areas was used in this study which is 0.75 ± 0.31 mSv/y. The measured mean annual equivalent doses above the background radiation levels in Isa Town, Al-Budaiya, Riffa Views and Awali were -0.05 ± 0.05 mSv/y, 0.04 ± 0.04 mSv/y, 0.62 ± 0.13 mSv/y and 1.32 ± 0.35 mSv/y respectively. In other words, the radiation measurements were notably higher in the experimental areas. This was particularly true in south and southwestern Awali where the annual equivalent dose in some areas reached 2.49 mSv/y above average background levels. The geological constituent of the earth crust could be one source that contribute to overall background radiation. However, presence of NORM generated by extensive oil and gas operations and transportation is stronger justification for the higher radiation readings in the experimental areas than geological characteristic factor. Such high radiation values were found only near oil and gas installations and not in other locations of the same areas.

  10. Selecting frameworks for multi-agent systems development for the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antão B. Moura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the years, the development of multi-agent systems (MAS has evolved and many frameworks to support such development were proposed in the literature. Some frameworks did not advance; others have evolved according to the type of usage in either academy or industry. Given the large number of frameworks for developing multi-agent systems, it is important to evaluate these frameworks in order to select which one best suits the development project at hand. There seems to be scanty information and recommendations in the specialized bibliography on development frameworks for MAS to be used in support of supply chain management (SCM by the petroleum industry in particular. We present in this work a methodology for comparing and choosing frameworks to be used for developing MAS for the oil industry. The methodology includes theoretical and practical aspects. Application of the methodology is carried out in a real case, supply chain management scenario offered by Petrobrás, the Brazilian petroleum company, in automating its planning for draining petroleum products.

  11. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Cahyono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988 to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents who worked in the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC contractors serving the upstream sector of the Oil and Gas industry in Indonesia. By using Pearson correlation, result of this study indicated that project managers were perceived to be effective in managing project conflict when implementing cooperative and confi rmative approaches, but ineffective when combining competitive and avoidance approaches. Further research should investigate correlation between cultural dimensions with conflict approaches and outcomes of managing conflict.

  12. Knowledge Transfer between Service and Design Phases in the Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    Communication between departments in any company involved in the different phases of product lifecycle is crucial in order to correct faults from previous products. This paper illustrates a case study from the oil industry where knowledge transfer across departments is analysed. Interviews...... with engineering designers and service engineers were carried out. Knowledge arising from the operation of drilling machineries was investigated and compared to that relevant for the engineering designers; furthermore the mechanisms involved in the transfer of knowledge between service and design were investigated....... Differences in knowledge needs were observed in the two departments: engineering designers were more orientated towards knowledge of machinery at a component level while service engineers were interested in obtaining an overview of the systems. The study showed that communication between the departments...

  13. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  14. Relative merits of duplex and austenitic stainless steels for applications in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Elisabeth; Wegrelius, Lena; Pettersson, Rachel [Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The broad range of available stainless steel grades means that these materials can fulfil a wide variety of requirements within the oil and gas industry. The duplex grades have the advantage of higher strength than standard austenitic grades, while the superaustenitic grades provide a cost-effective alternative to nickel-base alloys in a number of cases. The paper presents the results of various types of laboratory testing to rank the grades in terms of resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Results from field testing in actual or simulated service conditions are discussed and a number of application examples, including process piping flexible, heat exchangers and topside equipment are presented. (author)

  15. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind......, and how a decision process and corresponding software can be developed from this basis. Building on well-known hierarchical planning concepts, we include the typical anticipation mechanisms used in such systems to be able to decompose planning problems, both from the perspective of the planning problem...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...

  16. Environmental Report 2006. The oil- and gas industry's environmental work. Facts and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    An updated overview of emissions to the air and sea is presented, as well as a report on waste generated by the offshore activities at the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The report also mentions the collective, environmental efforts the oil- and gas industry have been working at in particular in 2006. All production fields on the Norwegian Continental Shelf are included, as well as Statfjord and Frigg, which are located at the dividing line between Norwegian and British sector. A total of 52 fields were in production at the Norwegian shelf in 2006, whereof one new was put in production: Ringhorne East. In 2006, 23 exploration wells were spudded, of which 15 are exploration wells and 8 are appraisal wells. The exploration activities have nearly been doubled since 2005, when only 9 exploration wells and 3 appraisal wells were drilled. Four new discoveries were made in 2006 (ml)

  17. CFD Applied to Process Development in the Oil and Gas Industry – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynal L.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD is increasingly used in the oil and gas industry. The present article aims to show how CFD can be used at all steps of the development of a new process, with a focus on refining technologies. Those different steps consist first of setting up tools that will be used during the development phase, second of obtaining data in complement with experiments required for the process development, and finally, of troubleshooting actions or technology developments that will make the process even more efficient. A large number of applications corresponding to various flow configurations, single-phase or gas-liquid, gas-solid or even gas-liquid-solid, characterised by significantly different scales and requiring adapted simulation approaches, are discussed based on original results and a review of the literature. Perspectives are given in particular on the multi-scale approach and physical phenomena coupling.

  18. Study on pyrolysis gas in thermal extraction of Bai Yinhua lignite with industrial washing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y. M.; Lian, X. P.; Zhao, F. Y.; Xu, Y. Q.; Hu, Y. Q.; Yuan, Z. K.; Hao, X. R.

    2016-08-01

    Industrial washing oil as solvent, pyrolysis gas produced from Bai Yinhua lignite during thermal extraction was studied by gas chromatography. The effects of temperature and solvent coal ration on coal pyrolysis gas were investigated. The results showed that: Pyrolysis gas produced mainly in CO, CO2, O2, H2, CH4, and so on, in which the total amount of oxygen containing compounds nearly 40%, significant effects of deoxidation was achieved. The increase of heat extraction temperature can significantly increase the degree of bond breaking and the gas formation rate, the gas yield and the rate of oxygen increase significantly, while the gas yield increases with the decrease of the solvent coal ration.

  19. Knowledge Transfer between Service and Design Phases in the Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    Communication between departments in any company involved in the different phases of product lifecycle is crucial in order to correct faults from previous products. This paper illustrates a case study from the oil industry where knowledge transfer across departments is analysed. Interviews...... with engineering designers and service engineers were carried out. Knowledge arising from the operation of drilling machineries was investigated and compared to that relevant for the engineering designers; furthermore the mechanisms involved in the transfer of knowledge between service and design were investigated....... Differences in knowledge needs were observed in the two departments: engineering designers were more orientated towards knowledge of machinery at a component level while service engineers were interested in obtaining an overview of the systems. The study showed that communication between the departments...

  20. The Relationship between mental health and social support in health staffs of Bushehr oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hajebi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study evaluated the relationship between social support, mental health and also demographic factors in health staffs of Bushehr oil industry in 2006. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study enrolled all health staffs, except 9 subjects who refuse to participate (108 male and 41 female. Subjects were evaluated by demographic questionnaire, general health Questionnaire-28 and Social Support Scale. Statistical analysis was performed by two sample t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: This study showed that female gender, 35-44 age range group, having college educations, marital status and families with 4-5 members have higher mental health and social support. Onshore shiftworker staffs in comparison with others have lower mental health and social support. Conclusion: Social support and mental health showed a direct and significant correlation. The changes of policies for promoting quality and quantity of supportive networks, especially for vulnerable staffs, can reinforce protective effects of social support.

  1. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A.G. Kostianoy; E.V. Bulycheva; A.V. Semenov; A. Krainyukov

    2015-01-01

    Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine...

  2. Oat (Avena sativa L.): Oil and Nutriment Compounds Valorization for Potential Use in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Oat is a promising plant for the future. It is edible and beneficial thanks to its nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses and, hence, recognized to be useful for a healthier world. The assessment of the vital functions of oat components is important for industries requiring correct health labelling, valid during the shelf life of any product. Oil, enzymes and other biomolecules of nutraceutic or dietary usage from oats would be valorized for this purpose. Although oats have a unique and versatile composition including antioxidants and biomolecules indispensable for health, they are undervalued in comparison with other staple cereals such as wheat, barley and rice. Furthermore, oats, apart from maize, comprise a high oil content used for a wide range of beneficial purposes. In addition, they contain beta glucan that has proven to be very helpful in reducing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular diseases risks. In fact, there is diversity in the composition and content of the beneficial oat components within their genotypes and the different environmental conditions and, thus, oats are amenable to be enhanced by agronomic practices and genetic approaches.

  3. Study on vacuum pyrolysis of coffee industrial residue for bio-oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2017-03-01

    Coffee industrial residue (CIR) is a biomass with high volatile content (64.94 wt.%) and heating value (21.3 MJ·kg-1). This study was carried out to investigate the pyrolysis condition and products of CIR using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and vacuum tube furnace. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, time, pressure and heating rate on the yield of pyrolysis products were discussed. There was an optimal pyrolysis condition: CIR was heated from normal temperature to 400 °C for 60 min, with 10 °C·min-1 heating rate and a pressure of 30 kPaabs. In this condition, the yields of bio-oil, char and non-condensable gas were 42.29, 33.14 and 24.57 wt.%, respectively. The bio-oil contained palmitic acid (47.48 wt.%), oleic acid (17.45 wt.%), linoleic acid (11.34 wt.%), octadecanoic acid (7.62 wt.%) and caffeine (5.18 wt.%).

  4. Critical challenges in ERP implementation: A qualitative case study in the Canadian oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sreekumar A.

    This exploratory qualitative single-case study examines critical challenges encountered during ERP implementation based on individual perspectives in four project roles: senior leaders, project managers, project team members, and business users, all specifically in Canadian oil and gas industry. Data was collected by interviewing participants belonging to these categories, and by analyzing project documentation about ERP implementation. The organization for the case study was a leading multinational oil and gas company having a substantial presence in the energy sector in Canada. The study results were aligned with the six management questions regarding critical challenges in ERP: (a) circumstances to implement ERP, (b) benefits and process improvements achieved, (c) best practices implemented, (d) critical challenges encountered, (e) strategies and mitigating actions used, and (f) recommendations to improve future ERP implementations. The study results highlight six key findings. First, the study provided valid circumstances for implementing ERP systems. Second, the study underscored the importance of benefits and process improvements in ERP implementation. Third, the study highlighted that adoption of best practices is crucial for ERP Implementation. Fourth, the study found that critical challenges are encountered in ERP Implementation and are significant during ERP implementation. Fifth, the study found that strategies and mitigating actions can overcome challenges in ERP implementation. Finally, the study provided ten major recommendations on how to improve future ERP implementations.

  5. Maintenance strategy and availabity increasing of a gas compression station in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilis Adriano dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to propose a maintenance strategy and a set of improvement actions for increasing the availability in a compression station of waste gases from the petroleum distillation process, composed of two alternative compressors A and B in a plant of the oil industry. The research method was the quantitative modeling. The methodology includes the calculation of the current availability and suggesting actions to raise it. Time to repair (TTR and time between failures (TBF were modeled for the individual compressors and for the gas compression station as a whole. With the average values of the models (MTBF and MTTR were calculated individual availabilities of A and B (32.4% and 83.3%, respectively and global, 96.7%. The data were collected from the company's information system. By the form factors associated with TBF, it was possible to affirm that, despite operating for over twenty years, both machines are in the premature failures phase. This fact is due to the exchange of raw materials, which occurred about five years ago: the plant proceeded to process heavier oil, originated from the pre-salt layer, for which the installation was not designed. Such divergence may be characterized as a design fault, associated with the corrective maintenance strategy. Finally, a list of improvements projects was presented to increase the availability of the post and terminate the phase of premature failures.

  6. The Management of the Competitive Differentiation of Companies that Supply Electromechanical Equipments for the Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Rada

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Let us assume that the supplier ofelectromechanical devices for the oil industry hasalready selected its target market. When it is the onlysupplier for that market, it will be able to sell at a pricethat would bring it considerable profit. If the price istoo high and there are no entering barriers forcompetitors, the latter will penetrate the market andcause a lowering of the prices for theelectromechanical devices. When the same market isprovided by companies that produce non-differentiateddevices, buyers will choose the company that sells atthe lowest price. Consequently, the other companieswill have to lower the price as well. The onlyalternative for the supplier oil electromechanicaldevices is to differentiate its offer. If this action issuccessful, it will be able to practice a higher price,due to the superior quality that is being offered. Thereare four ways of defining an offer: the agent that sellsoil products can create value by offering products thatare [1]:- Better - the offer can better satisfy the needs ofcustomers than that of competitors, whichusually involves at least a minimumimprovement of the electromechanical device:- Newer – providing a solution that does not existso far, which implies a higher risk than in thesituation mentioned above, but can bring ahigher profit- Faster - the delivery time for anelectromechanical device is reduced- Cheaper – the product is identical with thatoffered by competitors, but the price is lower

  7. Advanced Data Communications for Downhole Data Logging and Control Applications in the Oil Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, C. T.; Aslam, Tariq

    2013-12-01

    We present details of 'Mercury', a high-speed downhole communications system that utilizes the (metallic) wall of a gas or oil pipeline or a drill 'string' as the communications 'channel' to control or monitor equipment or sensors used in the oil industry. Conventional downhole communication systems typically use 'mud pulse' telemetry for 'Measurement While Drilling' (MWD) operations. Current mud pulse telemetry technology offers bandwidths of up to 40 bit/s. However the data rate drops with increasing length of the wellbore and is typically as low as 1.5 bit/s - 3.0 bit/s at a depth of 35,000 ft. - 40,000 ft. The system described, by contrast, offers data rates of several megabits per second over distances of many kilometres and uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) coupled with Wideband Frequency Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA). This paper presents details of our system; results of several trials undertaken on actual gas pipelines in the UK will be presented at the Conference.

  8. Oil industry in India: a study of financial resources management; L'industrie petroliere en Inde: une etude de la gestion des ressources financieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, S.; Jain, P.K.; Rastogi, A. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Management Studies

    1998-06-01

    Indians' energy consumption per capita is very low in comparison to that of developed countries. But it is projected to grow at much faster rate than the World average or the rate of the developed countries. As the development process, specially after the onset of economic liberalization, accelerates, there is a visible shift from the consumption of non-commercial to commercial sources. Consequently, the oil consumption is going to increase from 62 million tones in 1993 to 149 million tonnes in 2010. So far the oil industry has been totally in public sector. But, with liberalization and global economic integration having set in, the oil companies are bound to face competition. It is in this context that it is necessary to have a look at the financial resource management of oil companies. This paper considers three major oil companies, namely, IOCL, HPCL and BPCL, which together account for more than 90 % of the oil market. Their financial performance as measured in terms of profitability, liquidity and solvency has been good so far. They have been competitive when compared among themselves. It is equally important that they gear up for global competition and see the liberalization process as an opportunity to further enhance their their financial resource management. (authors)

  9. Royal Society of Canada expert panel report : environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosselin, P. [Inst. national de sante publique, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Hrudey, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Div. of Analytical and Environmental Toxicology; Naeth, M.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Agricultural, Life, and Environmental Sciences; Plourde, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics; Therrien, R. [Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Van Der Kraak, G. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Integrative Biology; Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). College of Biological Science; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2010-12-15

    This expert panel report was commissioned by the Royal Society of Canada to provide a comprehensive evidence-based assessment of the environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry. The report evaluated the feasibility of land reclamation and the impacts of oil sands contaminants on downstream residents. Health impacts on residents living in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo were assessed, and the impacts on regional water supplies were evaluated. Regional water and ground water quantities were examined, and issues related to tailing pond operations and reclamation were examined. Ambient air quality impacts were assessed, as well as potential impacts of the oil sands industry on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The environmental regulatory performance of operators in the industry was also evaluated. A summary of economic and policy issues related to the industry was also provided. The study identified major gaps in the process of assessment, prevention, and mitigation of the health impacts of oil sands exploitation, as as major indirect health impacts linked to past exploitation activities. 672 refs., 11 tabs., 11 figs. 10 appendices.

  10. Developing and testing an internal audit tool of the psychosocial work environment in the oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vestly Bergh, L.I.; Hinna, S.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss a pilot study for conducting internal psychosocial risk auditing in the oil and gas industry, focusing on offshore units. Psychosocial risk auditing is a proactive method for monitoring the status of psychosocial factors influencing the risk of s

  11. An application of artificial neural network to predict the added value of oil, gas and petroleum industry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vazifehdust

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on fluctuation and trend of added value changes in oil and gas industries and their products and also to anticipate the current added value of these industries. For this aim, fluctuation of added values of different subsidiaries such as oil group products, exporting crude oil, production of gas and petroleum is investigated over the period 1959-2004. The study selects the best network to anticipate added value in subsidiaries of energy section. For the training and testing the network, all data are divided into two groups. To define input layer neurons number which are equal to auto regressive vector rank in ARMA method, the rank of auto regressive (p and mobile mean (q have been used according to proposed method of Pesaran & Pesaran. The simulated results have been extracted by using neural networks, in feed forward network which had low compatibility with the real added value.

  12. [Complex study of various pathogenetic and physiologic parameters of the health status of watchmen in the oil industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'inskikh, N N; Medvedev, M A; Potapova, G V; Perepechaev, L Ia; Urazaev, A M; Kudriavtseva, D P

    1989-12-01

    Complex examination of oil industry workers and those engaged in nonproductive area (control group) was undertaken. It was established that in both groups there were persons with a high level of cells with cytogenetic disturbances (micronuclear test). However, as opposed to control group, oil industry workers had higher levels of systolic and pulse pressure. Besides it was shown that after 12 hours of work at an oil field under winter conditions in the north area of the Tomsk Region they had higher body temperature. It appeared that these persons primarily had the longest term of professional service. Further examination of persons with especially high level of micronuclei cells showed that they had elevated lymphocyte amount with chromosome impairments and some parameters of T- and B-immunoreactivity, phagocytosis and activity of normal killer cells were changed.

  13. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2014-05-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications.

  14. Examining Convergence in the Cultural Value Orientations of Norwegians in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Jennifer

    There is much debate in Norway as to whether Norwegian cultural values are being diluted by the increasing influx of international organizations. Little empirical work has been done to assess the effect of employment by international organizations on the cultural values of Norwegians. The aim of this study was to determine if individuals retain cultural values closest to their own nationality or the nationality of their employing organization. This objective was accomplished by comparing cultural value dimensions of Norwegians employed in organizations headquartered in one of five countries. Recruitment emails were sent to 612 possible participants and 160 individuals completed the survey completely, resulting in a sample size of N=160, a response rate of 26%. From the completed surveys, cultural dimension scores were calculated for each individual and group in the areas of power distance, individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Using those cultural dimension scores, three groups of one-way ANOVA tests were run in accordance with the parameters of each of three research questions. Comparing Norwegians employed in local government or a Norwegian oil and gas company, a significant difference existed only for uncertainty avoidance (p=.0074). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in local government with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil companies resulted in significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0007), individualism (p=.0000), and uncertainty avoidance (p=.0000); however, there was not a statistically significant difference in masculinity scores between the two groups (p=.0792). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in a Norwegian oil and gas company with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil and gas companies also resulted in statistically significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0015), individualism (p=.0000), and

  15. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  16. Preparation of MCM-41 in Industrial Scale and Its Application in Heavy Oil Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of MCM-41 molecular sieves have been prepared on an industrial scale, and the effect of preparation factors such as aging temperature, pH values on the structure and pore distribution of the MCM-41 product have been studied by using X-ray diffraction(XRD), thermogravimetric(TG) and electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that the pH values have a significant effect on the crystallinity of the synthesized product. Under proper conditions, the MCM-41 prepared on an industrial scale has the same performance as the samples prepared on an Lab-scale. The prepared MCM-41 was used as a modifier of zeolite Y for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of residual oil. It is shown that the addition of the MCM-41 in the zeolite Y catalyst increases the pore size, and surface area of the catalysts, which helps to increase the yield of gasoline and diesel and decrease the production of gaseous product and carbon deposition in the catalyst. The better performance of the MCM-41 modified zeolite Y catalyst is believed to be due to its adjustment on the acidity and increase of the pore size.

  17. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  18. Predicting the Toxicity of Oil-shale Industry Wastewater by its Phenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, A; Põllumaa, L; Reiman, R; Rätsep, A

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition and toxicity of five phenolic wastewater samples collected from the Kohtla-Järve (Estonia) oil-shale industry region were analysed. The total phenolic contents (HPLC data) of these samples ranged from 0.7mg/l to 195mg/l. A total of 11 phenolic compounds were found in the wastewater samples, the most abundant being phenol (up to 84mg/l) and p-cresol (up to 74mg/l). Artificial phenolic mixtures were also composed, to mimic the content of phenolic compounds in the wastewater samples. The theoretical toxicities of these artificial mixtures were calculated by using the toxicities of the individual phenolic constituents to photobacteria (the BioTox™ test) and were assumed to have an additive mode of action. From the BioTox data, the additive toxic effects of phenolic compounds in the artificial mixtures were confirmed to be highly probable. The toxicities of the wastewater samples and their artificial phenolic analogues (mixtures) were studied by using a battery of Toxkit microbiotests (Daphtoxkit F™ magna, Thamnotoxkit F™, Protoxkit F™ and Rotoxkit F™) and three photobacterial tests (Microtox™, BioTox™ and Vibrio fischeri 1500). The wastewaters were classified as toxic (two samples), very toxic (two samples) and extremely toxic (one sample). Comparison of the test battery responses showed that the industrial wastewaters were 2-28-fold more toxic than the respective artificial phenolic mixtures. The photobacterial tests proved to be the most appropriate for screening purposes. This was the first attempt to use a test battery approach in the toxicity testing of Estonian wastewaters. The study showed that the toxicity of oil-shale industry wastewaters could not be predicted solely on the basis of their phenolic composition, since only 7-50% of their toxicity was shown to be due to phenolic compounds. It is true, to a certain extent, that the majority of environmental samples are usually very complex and contain various types of

  19. Strategies of materials sourcing and services in the oil and gas industry; Estrategias de suprimentos de materiais e servicos na industria de oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aun, Rogerio [Arthur Andersen Business Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Strategic Sourcing is a procurement management technique that aims to establish a globally competitive supply base. By setting an appropriate sourcing strategy to specific sourcing groups considering the purchasing volume and the sourcing complexity, significant savings can be achieved in the total company expenditures. There are four basic sourcing strategies that can be used: purchasing process simplification, purchasing volume leverage, strategic relationship with suppliers, supply assurance. E-procurement is a valuable tool for Strategic Sourcing implementation and can be used to simplify and reduce the cost of the purchasing process. Strategic Sourcing can be applied in most industries, as well as in Oil and Gas Industry. Recently Arthur Andersen was engaged in a Strategic Sourcing project for an Oil and Gas Company resulting in savings of 10% cost reduction on the expenditures analyzed. (author)

  20. OIL SHALE ASH UTILIZATION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AS AN ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Azeez Mohamed, Hussain; Campos, Leonel

    2016-01-01

    Oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock with the potential to yield significant amounts of oil and combustible gas when retorted. Oil shale deposits have been found on almost every continent, but only Estonia, who has the 8th largest oil shale deposit in the world has continuously utilized oil shale in large scale operations. Worldwide, Estonia accounts for 80% of the overall activity involving oil shale, consuming approximately 18 million tons while producing 5–7 million tons of oil sha...

  1. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianoy A.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which included observation of oil pollution, suspended matter, and algae bloom at a fully operational mode. These monitoring systems differ from the existing ones by the analysis of a wide spectrum of satellite, meteorological and oceanographic data, as well as by a numerical modeling of oil spill transformation and transport in real weather conditions. Our experience in the Baltic Sea includes: (1 integrated satellite monitoring of oil production at the LUKOIL-KMN Ltd. D-6 oil rig in the Southeastern Baltic Sea (Kravtsovskoe oil field in 2004-2014; (2 integrated satellite monitoring of the “Nord Stream” underwater gas pipeline construction and exploitation in the Gulf of Finland (2010-2013; (3 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by shipping along the main maritime shipping routes in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Proper, and in the Southeastern Baltic Sea; (4 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by oil production at D-6 oil rig and oil transportation on shore via the connecting underwater oil pipeline.

  2. Sustainable development and the oil and gas industry. A tense relationship?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkink, E.

    2003-12-01

    The behaviour of a multinational company stems from strategic considerations. With the globalisation of our economy and society as a whole, information became easier retrievable. Companies had to expand their organisational scope. Consequently, the pressure on companies to act responsibly mounted over the years. Companies have gradually come to realise that they have to fulfil a societal duty and started a slow move towards sustainability. This pressure is particularly high on the international oil and gas companies that provide the whole world with energy. Corporate sustainable development can only be realised when every organisational activity takes notice of the demands of the concept. To comply with these demands a company needs to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs. Sustainable development requires a company to take its economic, environmental and social responsibilities seriously. This paper assesses the attitude of 26 international oil and gas companies with respect to sustainable development. For this purpose, an attitude test model was developed that qualifies the companies' level of sustainability along 5 predefined levels. Increased sustainability is related to better care for the companies' impact. The companies' annual reports of the year 2000 were used as main source of information. On average the industry reached an overall sustainability score of 2.84. This score represents an attitude that goes beyond compliance, but has not yet reached the level of pro-activeness. The companies' attitude towards the environment is worse, with an average score of 2.56. Most companies do not take it much further than is needed to secure their licence to operate. In comparison, West-European companies have the best attitude towards sustainable development, followed by Canada, America, Australia and Russia. The influence of home country characteristics is statistically

  3. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  4. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill.

  5. Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Shehu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area under study, the pollution lies in about 200 km2, of which 60000 ha are farmland. The water receiver environment of the oil industry emissions is Gjanica River. The effects extend to Seman River delta and then to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the water pollution causes impacts on living creatures in marine aquatic environments. These impacts can be accumulated in the marine and terrestrial food chain endangering human health. Leaks from well mouths, oil leaks and water layer leaks from the well hole, discharges and emissions from Ballsh Processing Plant, fluid collection groups and pipelines leaks are some of the most important environmental aspects in the study area. The dominant species of the spontaneous flora are Glyceria plicata dhe Sparganium erectum accompanied by a large number of species. Natural vegetation in this area is degraded and a reduction of the photosynthesis activity is observed. Pollution control and rehabilitation of the area are necessary.

  6. Study on the raw fish oil purification from PCDD/F and dl-PCB-industrial tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usydus, Zygmunt; Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Malesa-Ciećwierz, Małgorzata; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2009-03-01

    The results of tests for the purification of fish oils with activated carbon for industrial use are presented. The optimum parameters for the process of purification (granulation of the activated carbon, its dosage, the oil temperature, and the duration of mixing the oil with activated carbon) were previously established for the laboratory scale. The optimization of the process consisted of selecting purification parameters that would allow for maximum reduction of the toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) content, while retaining the favorable high fatty acid content [C20:5 n-3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and C22:6 n-3, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. The use of that optimum parameters in industrial conditions confirmed the satisfactory results obtained in laboratory tests. Five types of oil derived from various Baltic fish were purified. Reduction in the PCDD/Fs content was 77.0-93.6% on average, whereas in the dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs)-it was 42.7-50.5% on average, with insignificant changes in the total amount of EPA and DHA content. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the content of arsenic was noted (by about 62% on average), with insignificant changes in the content of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and marker polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), cadmium, lead, and mercury. Purification provided fish oil having standardized parameters that allow for its use as feed additives, whilst retaining its favorable fatty acid content.

  7. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Leslie C-L; Low, Eng-Ti L; Abdullah, Meilina O; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A A; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W; Brown, Clyde R; Kuek, Alex C S; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y; Chaudhari, Hemangi G; Shah, Shivam A; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  8. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Leslie C.-L.; Low, Eng-Ti L.; Abdullah, Meilina O.; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C.; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A. A.; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A.; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J.; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M.; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A.; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T.; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W.; Brown, Clyde R.; Kuek, Alex C. S.; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y.; Chaudhari, Hemangi G.; Shah, Shivam A.; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  9. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  10. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  11. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  12. TRANSFORMATION VERSUS STAGNATION IN THE OIL PALM INDUSTRY: A COMPARISON BETWEEN MALAYSIA AND NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kajisa, Kei; Maredia, Mywish K.; Boughton, Duncan

    1997-01-01

    This paper contrasts the successful transformation of the oil palm sector in Malaysia with the stagnation of the oil palm sector in Nigeria, and examines the factors determining the different paths that the oil palm sectors took in these two countries with the aim of drawing lessons for future development and transfer strategy in Nigeria. Comparing two countries in different regions is not easy, especially when Nigeria has been in political chaos and the agro-climatic environments for oil-pal...

  13. Industrialized countries and the oil price crisis: how are they coping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, R.

    1975-03-01

    The ways in which Japan, France, the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the German Federal Republic reacted to the 1973 oil crisis were surveyed. The contrasts in their individual responses to this situation were very sharp, putting in the background the few collective measures agreed to in the OECD and in the International Monetary Fund. Each country's response can be seen to have been shaped by its intellectual tradition, by its resources, and by its total geo-political and geo-economic situation. The author concludes that ''France turned to its diplomats and its arms salesmen, using flair and its new-found economic dynamism; Germany left the field to the big guns of its heavy industry, still keeping its head down politically; Japan decided it was a matter of discipline, and of adjusting policy towards a greater emphasis on social goals; the United States behaved like the super power it is. All of these countries decided to tighten belts at home. Britain alone went off on an expansionary tack, because its economists and Chancellors wanted to show the world the way forward, and because of the bias towards expansionism that has been the hallmark of its economic policy, and the reason for its low growth, since the war.'' (MCW)

  14. Model of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (Ghg's in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarildo da Cruz Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The warming of Earth's atmosphere is a natural phenomenon and necessary to sustain life on the planet, being caused by the balance between the electromagnetic radiation received by the Earth from the Sun and the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth back into space. Since the mid-eighteenth century, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the consequent increase in burning fossil fuels, changes in land use and agriculture, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O has increased significantly. By the year 2010, the concentrations of these three gases showed increments respectively in the order of 39%, 158% and 20% (WMO 2009, 2010 and 2011. Such increases in the concentrations of these gases are changing the Earth's radioactive balance, intensifying the natural greenhouse effect, which over millions of years has been essential to support life on the planet. The main objective of this paper is to present the development of a model based on the language of System Dynamics (SD, of how the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs is in complex installations Exploration and Production (E & P of oil and gas. To illustrate one of the results of this modeling process a computer simulation was performed involving emissions from production estimate for the Pilot Production System and Drainage Area Tupi - Tupi Pilot (ICF, 2008.

  15. Open Innovation at the Root of Entrepreneurial Strategy: A Case from the Norwegian Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Iakovleva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to extend the discussion about entrepreneurial strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs by including the concept of open innovation. How can SMEs overcome the challenges of resource scarcity and harsh competition? How they can gain competitive advantage in today’s ever-changing business environment? The answer to both of these questions might be through open innovation: collaborating with researchers, customers, suppliers – even competitors – as well as research institutions and universities. A common barrier to open innovation in an SME is the perception that it will be too time consuming to gain access to a knowledge base of external knowledge providers and link to “gatekeepers” of knowledge. However, an entrepreneurial mindset might help SMEs to move toward an open-innovation approach, where more codified and transferrable knowledge are important. This article discusses the implications of an entrepreneurial focus for open-innovation activities. The usefulness of the open-innovation principles are highlighted through a case study of an Norwegian SME operating in the maritime-oil industry.

  16. Performance evaluation of integrated solid-liquid wastes treatment technology in palm oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, J. R.; Suprihatin, S.; Indrasti, N. S.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.

    2017-05-01

    The oil palm industry significantly contributes to environmental degradation if without waste management properly. The newest alternative waste management that might be developed is by utilizing the effluent of POME anaerobic digestion with EFB through integrated anaerobic decomposition process. The aim of this research was to examine and evaluate the integrated solid-liquid waste treatment technology in the view point of greenhouse gasses emission, compost, and biogas production. POME was treated in anaerobic digester with loading rate about 1.65 gCOD/L/day. Treated POME with dosis of 15 and 20 L/day was sprayed to the anaerobic digester that was filled of 25 kg of EFB. The results of research showed that after 60 days, the C/N ratio of EFB decreased to 12.67 and 10.96 for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively. In case of 60 day decomposition, the integrated waste treatment technology could produce 51.01 and 34.34 m3/Ton FFB which was equivalent with 636,44 and 466,58 kgCO2e/ton FFB for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively. The results of research also showed that integrated solid-liquid wastes treatment technology could reduce GHG emission about 421.20 and 251.34 kgCO2e/ton FFB for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively.

  17. High risk, high reward : Search and Rescue and the oil and gas industry off Canada's east coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, B.F. [Canadian Coast Guard, Newfoundland and Labrador Region, NF (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The development of the Canada's offshore oil and gas industry has been made possible by many technological achievements. Oil and gas fields are being exploited farther from land and in ever deeper and more hostile waters. The industry has a duty to respond to accidents to ensure the safety of its workforce. The federal search and rescue (SAR) system has a duty to respond when an accident escalates beyond the first response capabilities of the industry. This presentation described the events that led to the sinking of two mobile offshore drilling units (MODU), the Ocean Ranger on February 15, 1982 which killed 84 people, and the Rowan Gorilla I, on December 15, 1988. The Ocean Ranger was engaged in an exploratory drilling program at the site of the Hibernia oilfield, 315 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland. A fierce Atlantic storm combined with poor training, inadequate safety equipment, and design flaws resulted in the sinking of the Ocean Ranger. Three ocean supply vessels responded to the distress calls but were unsuccessful in recovering any survivors. The search continued for a 5 day period, but only 22 bodies were recovered. This tragedy continues to influence the offshore industry. The safety issues that contributed to the disaster have been examined and several changes have been implemented to improve the safety for the offshore workforce. Significant legislative and regulatory changes were made to the Atlantic Accord Acts by both the federal and provincial governments to establish strict safety guidelines. This presentation includes statistics of east coast offshore oil and gas industry SAR activities from 1997 to 2002. It describes the levels of activity, industry's obligation, and the role of the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. The economic impacts of the upstream activities after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry; Impactos economicos da exploracao e producao apos a abertura da industria petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic impacts of the investments in the oil and gas upstream, which took place after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry. The reason why I chose to analyze such a period of time was the institutional change which took place in the Brazilian oil industry after the Brazilian Parliament approved Law n. 9.478 in 1997. The law represented the new regulation of the activities related to the oil industry in Brazil. Since then, there has been a very large amount of capital spending in the oil and gas upstream, not only by PETROBRAS, the state-owned oil company, but also by the oil companies which entered the Brazilian oil industry after it was opened to foreign and private upstream investments. This paper analyses the economic impacts of these upstream investments by PETROBRAS and by the new players in Brazil, addressing the impacts of these investments on the generation of aggregate value and yield and the economic activity of other industries. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal, whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  19. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry; Stoerrelse og loennsomhet i den internasjonale olje- og gassindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell

    2002-07-01

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process.

  20. The oil and gas industry in Austria in 2011; Die Erdoel/Erdgas-Industrie in Oesterreich 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-10-15

    With a total meterage of 82,119 m, OMV AG and Rohoel-Aufsuchungs-AG (RAG) increased about 5,000 m more in Austria than in 2010. In all, 25 deep and storage boreholes were completed. Oil and gas production was somewhat lower in 2011 than in the year before. Petroleum production, including natural gas liquids, decreased to 921,028 tons. Domestic natural gas production was 1,591 million cubic meters of which 1.334 million cubic meters were natural gas (84 percent) and 0.257 thousand million cubic meters were petroleum gas (16 percent). As of 31st December, 2011, assured and probable natural gas reserves in Austria amounted to about 23.9 thousand million standard cubic meters, i.e. about 0.8 thousand million cubic meters less than in the year before. Petroleum reserves including NGL decreased by about 0.8 million t to about 11.5 million tons. Crude oil imports into Austria were about 7.25 million tons, i.e. 7 percent more than in 2010. In the OMV refinery at Schwechat, 8.3 million tons of crude oil (2010; 7.7 million tons) and 0.6 million t of semifinished products were processed. Consumption of mineral oil products in Austria amounted to 11.0 million tons in 2011, i.e. slightly less than in the year before.

  1. Advantages of MAG-STT Welding Process for Root Pass Welding in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandzic Adi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describesthe basics of modern MAG-STT welding process and its advantages for root pass welding of construction steels in oil and gas industry. MAG-STT welding process was compared with competitive arc welding processes (SMAW and TIG, which are also used for root pass welding on pipes and plates. After experimental tests, the obtained results are analyzed and presented in this paper

  2. Reference dictionary for economics of oil and gas recovery industry. Slovar-spravochnik po ekonomike neftegazodobyvayushchey promyshlennosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perchik, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the third edition (second edition in 1976) changes are made and supplements are introduced which have occurred in economics, organization and planning of the oil and gas recovery industry in recent years. New indicators and terms are introduced for norming, automated systems of control, material-technical supply, statistical calculation, forecasting, quality control, legal regulation of the activity of enterprises, etc. The presentation of material takes into consideration the active sector terminological standards.

  3. 市售烘焙产品用油调研%Market Survey on Oils and Fats for Bakery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明明; 季敏; 牛跃庭; 潘开林; 黄清吉

    2015-01-01

    Total 60 commercial bakery products including cakes and breads were collected from Shanghai and surrounding market. Oils and fats were extracted and theirs SMP, IV, FAC and TG were analyzed to compare with physical chemical characteristics of palm oil, tallow, soybean oil, milk fat and rapeseed oil. Identity and formulations of types of oils and fats used in bakery industry and trans fatty acids content were analyzed. Results showed main oils and fats used in bakery foods were blends of palm oil, tallow, soybean oil, milk fat or rapeseed oil, and all samples surveyed contained varying amount of trans fatty acids. It also provides precise reference data for bakery manufacturing industry, and offers consumers more nutritional information about trans fatty acids used in bakery products.%收集市售以面包、蛋糕为代表的烘焙产品60种,提取油脂,分析样品中油脂的熔点(SMP)、碘值(IV)、脂肪酸组成(FAC)和甘三酯组成(TG)等特性,与棕榈油、牛油、大豆油、菜籽油和乳脂等油脂的特性进行对比,分析市场上烘焙产品用油的种类、特性及其反式脂肪酸(TFAs)含量水平.结果表明:市售烘焙产品用油主要是棕榈油、大豆油、牛油、乳脂和菜籽油间两种或两种以上的混合油脂,且调查的烘焙样品中都含有一定量的反式脂肪酸.市场调研的结果有利于食品生产企业更好地使用烘焙油脂,消费者对烘焙食品中的反式脂肪酸含量情况有进一步的了解.

  4. The Honduran palm oil industry: Employing lessons from Malaysia in the search for economically and environmentally sustainable energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Catherine, E-mail: cec6@sfu.ca [Latin American Studies Program, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Honduras is actively seeking ways to expand its palm oil industry for the purpose of processing biofuels for both internal consumption and export. This would be a critical juncture for Honduras, presenting an opportunity to move beyond the export of basic agricultural commodities and a history of path dependency and weak economic indicators. In order to glean lessons on how to approach palm oil expansion in the most effective manner, I turn to the Malaysian case. Once impoverished, Malaysia expanded plantations, promoted technological innovation, and provided financial incentives and tax structures to develop one of the most sophisticated palm oil industries in the world. In this paper, the insights to be gleaned from the Malaysian case are organized into three key themes: Governance, Investing in Research and Human Capital, and The Environment. Recommendations for Honduras include: increased collaboration with funding bodies, NGOs and universities to foster research; fiscal policies that support the development of a domestic market; and key environmental controls to ensure sustainability in the long term. These insights offer practical and pragmatic solutions not only for Honduras, but also the wider community of small, tropical, developing nations seeking to develop a viable biofuels sector. - Research Highlights: > The Malaysian biofuels industry provides key lessons for Honduras as is seeks to further develop this sector. > Malaysian Governance and Investments in Human Capital provide examples for Honduras. > Malaysian environmental policy in this sector provides a cautionary tale. > Recommendations are tailored to the Honduran context.

  5. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  6. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  7. Economic feasibility study of biodiesel production by direct esterification of fatty acids from the oil and soap industrial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. El-Galad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production of biodiesel fuel in Egypt by the transesterification of vegetable oils is being faced with the problem of feedstock shortage. Egypt imports annually about 90% of its needs as edible oils for human consumption. The production of biodiesel by direct esterification of fatty acids that can be obtained from the oil and soap industrial sector in huge quantities each year (around 16 thousand tons may be a proper solution to this problem. According to results of a previous study [1], the biodiesel produced following this approach and using methyl alcohol was quite efficient as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. However, the process should be economically feasible for application on an industrial scale. The present study assessed the economic feasibility of biodiesel production by direct fatty acid esterification. Complete process simulation was first carried out using the process simulation software, Aspen HYSYS V7.0. The process was then designed comprising four main steps being esterification, solvent recovery, catalyst removal and water removal. The main processing units include the reactor, distillation column, heat exchangers, pumps and separators. Assuming that the rate of fatty acids esterified was 2 ton/h, all process units required have been sized. Total capital investment, total manufacturing cost and return on investment were all estimated. The latter was found to be 117.1% which means that the production process is quite economically feasible.

  8. Palm oil derived trimethylolpropane triesters synthetic lubricants and usage in industrial metalworking fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Teck-Sin; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Choong, Thomas S Y; Awang Biak, Dayang Radiah; Syam, Azhari M

    2015-01-01

    Trimethylolpropane triesters are biodegradable synthetic lubricant base oil alternative to mineral oils, polyalphaolefins and diesters. These oils can be produced from trimethylolpropane (TMP) and fatty acid methyl esters via chemical or enzymatic catalyzed synthesis methods. In the present study, a commercial palm oil derived winter grade biodiesel (ME18) was evaluated as a viable and sustainable methyl ester source for the synthesis of high oleic trimethylolpropane triesters (HO-TMPTE). ME18 has fatty acid profile containing 86.8% oleic acid, 8.7% linoleic acid with the remaining minor concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid. It's high oleic property makes it superior to produce synthetic lubricant base oil that fulfills both the good low temperature property as well as good oxidative stability. The synthetic base oil produced had a viscosity of 44.3 mm(2)/s at 40°C meeting the needs for ISO 46 oils. It also exhibited an excellent viscosity index of 219 that is higher than some other commercial brands of trimethylolpropane trioleate. Properties of base oil such as cloud point, density, acid value, demulsibility and soap content were also examined. The oil was then used in the formulation of tapping oil and appraised in term of adaptability, stability and field test performance.

  9. Recovery potential of cold press byproducts obtained from the edible oil industry: physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Karasu, Salih; Tornuk, Fatih; Toker, Omer Said; Geçgel, Ümit; Sagdic, Osman; Ozcan, Nihat; Gül, Osman

    2015-03-04

    Physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties of different cold press edible oil byproducts (almond (AOB), walnut (WOB), pomegranate (POB), and grape (GOB)) were investigated. Oil, protein, and crude fiber content of the byproducts were found between 4.82 and 12.57%, between 9.38 and 49.05%, and between 5.87 and 45.83%, respectively. GOB had very high crude fiber content; therefore, it may have potential for use as a new dietary fiber source in the food industry. As GOB, POB, and WOB oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, AOB was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Oil byproducts were also found to be rich in dietary mineral contents, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. WOB had highest total phenolic (802 ppm), flavonoid (216 ppm), and total hydrolyzed tannin (2185 ppm) contents among the other byproducts. Volatile compounds of all the byproducts are mainly composed of terpenes in concentration of approximately 95%. Limonene was the dominant volatile compound in all of the byproducts. Almond and pomegranate byproduct extracts showed antibacterial activity depending on their concentration, whereas those of walnut and grape byproducts showed no antibacterial activity against any pathogenic bacteria tested. According to the results of the present study, walnut, almond, pomegranate, and grape seed oil byproducts possess valuable properties that can be taken into consideration for improvement of nutritional and functional properties of many food products.

  10. Future human resources development in British Columbia's offshore oil and gas industry : preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothen, K. [Human Capital Strategies, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2004-06-28

    Since 2001, three major studies have concluded that there are no apparent scientific or technological impediments to lifting a longstanding moratorium on West Coast oil and gas exploration and development. Over 300 occupations are involved in offshore oil and gas activity, and should the moratorium be lifted, labour demand is projected to reach 27,000 new employment openings. This report presents a preliminary analysis of factors that may facilitate offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia (BC), with specific reference to human resources. The report also highlights the broader planning environment of BC offshore oil and gas development and the potential impacts of economic, social, demographic and political factors. Potential gaps in regional training resources were identified within the context of a general overview of education training programs currently available elsewhere. Demand pressures on the supply of skilled labour for future development were considered. Interviews with key industry and stakeholder representatives were conducted. Additionally, a comparison of labour demand from oil and gas development on the east coast revealed a significant employment multiplier impact of offshore activities, averaging 3 jobs per 1 offshore job. An outline of previous employment growth patterns were provided for future reference. It was concluded that early planning and development of educational and training programs is essential in addressing eventual skills shortages. In addition to training measures, a range of public policy options should be considered, including retention measures to remove regulatory disincentives and innovative local agreements. Steps to rectify shortages in trades workers, technicians and experienced production workers is advisable, as these shortages are already evident in current onshore oil and gas activities elsewhere in Canada. A detailed description of offshore oil and gas occupations was provided, as well as questionnaires

  11. Oil and Grease Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using New Utility Approach

    OpenAIRE

    H. S. Abd El-Gawad

    2014-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate oil and grease pollution that may pollute fresh water and influence aquatic environment. Then removal of oil and grease from manufacturing wastewater befall essential but common techniques not enough. Enzyme and adsorption units representing major developed new laboratory were selected to assess the water quality and humiliation prospective of oil and grease from wastewater. Several components and environmental variables that were dissolved oxyge...

  12. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States). ITT Research Institute; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G. [Bonner and Moore Management Science, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  13. The use of essential oils against the odors of the industry; La utilizacion de aceites esenciales contra los olores producidos en la industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juaristi, J. L.

    1999-07-01

    This article explains the possibility of neutralizing, with essential oil, the wrong scents produced in the industry that result annoying, independently of that their concentration in air could de considered dangerous for the health. The essential oil act for a procedure of adsorption. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of NORM in facility Venezuelan oil industry to establish regulatory criteria; Evaluacion de NORM en una instalacion de la industria petrolera venezolana para establecer los criterios reguladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo Lozada, D. J.; Rivas, I.; Davila, L.; Flores, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The present work shows the need to identify, in the Venezuelan oil industry, the existence of exposure to natural sources of radiation should be considered as occupational. As Regulatory Authority in the area of ionizing radiation the need for regulatory processes and ensure radiation protection of personnel involved in these practices arises, as well as personal and environmental monitoring. NORM identifying an installation of the Venezuelan oil industry to establish regulatory processes and take steps to ensure occupational radiation protection. (Author)

  15. Examining the Effect of Company’s Size and Resources on the Relationship between Stakeholders’ Pressure and Environmental Strategies in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rafi Yaacob; Mohd Nor Hakimin Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important commodity exports for Malaysia. This industry contributes billions of ringgit to the country. In terms on number of employment half a million people involved in the industry. Due to its contribution, oil palm is known as a golden crop of Malaysia. Over the last four decades more and more plantation areas have been developed in the country. But nevertheless, the disproportionate expansion of this monoculture crops contributes to environmental degradations ...

  16. 广东省油棕产业现状及前景展望%Present Situation and Prospects of Oil Palm Industry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李先鹏; 陈秀龙; 李志阳; 郑永清; 曹建华

    2011-01-01

    分析广东发展油棕产业的优势和存在的问题,提出广东发展油棕产业的对策建议并展望发展前景。%The development situation of oil palm industry in Guangdong Province is analyzed. The advantages and existing problems are summarized. The countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The development prospects of the oil palm industry are envisaged.

  17. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  18. The Role of the Oil Industry and the Nigerian State in Defining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    any-illusion that the oil-companies and the Federal government are not the ... State and Corporate governance are intricately linked in the three levels of conflict in ..... The paper examined the role of the multinational oil corporations and the.

  19. Model-centered approach to early planning and design of an eco-industrial park around an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangping; Strømman, Anders H; Solli, Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-07-01

    Industrial symbiosis promises environmental and economic gains through a utilization of the waste of some processes as a resource for other processes. Because of the costs and difficulties of transporting some wastes, the largest theoretical potential for industrial symbiosis is given when facilities are colocated in an eco-industrial park (EIP). This study proposes a model-centered approach with an eight-step procedure for the early planning and design of an eco-industrial park considering technical and environmental factors. Chemical process simulation software was used to model the energy and material flows among the prospective members and to quantify the benefits of integration among different firms in terms of energy and resources saved as compared to a reference situation. Process simulation was based on a combination of physical models of industrial processes and empirical models. The modeling allows for the development and evaluation of different collaboration opportunities and configurations. It also enables testing chosen configurations under hypothetical situations or external conditions. We present a case study around an existing oil and gas refinery in Mongstad, Norway. We used the approach to propose the colocation of a number of industrial facilities around the refinery, focused on integrating energy use among the facilities. An EIP with six main members was designed and simulated, matching new hypothetical members in size to the existing operations, modeling material and energy flows in the EIP, and assessing these in terms of carbon and hydrogen flows.

  20. Oil and Grease Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using New Utility Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Abd El-Gawad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to investigate oil and grease pollution that may pollute fresh water and influence aquatic environment. Then removal of oil and grease from manufacturing wastewater befall essential but common techniques not enough. Enzyme and adsorption units representing major developed new laboratory were selected to assess the water quality and humiliation prospective of oil and grease from wastewater. Several components and environmental variables that were dissolved oxygen, bacteriology measure, flow rate and adsorption material amount studied to assess the removal performance of oil and grease. The results elucidated significant variations among different tests which influenced microbial necessary role of oxidation declining develop biological treatment process reached to 72%. The study stressed out natural material (zeolite that enhanced organic reduction under optimal conditions. These conditions were closer spacing and high length of adsorbing unit that led to increase oil and grease contact period with adsorbent and added to increase performance removal reached to 99%.

  1. Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanyan, B. P.; Petrukhina, N. N.; Kayukova, G. P.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Foss, L. E.; Romanov, G. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of studies of alterations in the elemental and SARA compositions and physicochemical and rheological properties of highly viscous heavy crude oils upon catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis are generalized. The chemistry of transformations of model hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds in aqueous media at high temperature, including subcritical and supercritical conditions, is considered. Comparative analysis of methods for activation of oil conversion via aquathermolysis using hydrogen donors, oil-soluble and water-soluble nanodispersed catalysts, ionic hydrogenation processes and various ways for reservoir heating is presented. Problems and prospects of oil-field implementation of catalytic aquathermolysis for upgrading heavy oils and natural bitumen are discussed. The bibliography includes 234 references.

  2. The use of response surface analysis in obtaining maximum profit in oil palm industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Tarmizi Mohammed

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to show how to use Response Surface Analysis in obtaining the optimum level of fertilizer needs by oil palm. The ridge analysis was proposed to overcome the saddle point problem. Data from Malaysian Palm Oil Board database was analyzed. The fertilizers considered are N, P, K and Mg. The results from ridge analysis provided several alternatives of the fertilizer combination. Profit analysis was then applied to determine the best combination of fertilizers needed by the oil palm in order to generate maximum profit. It is found that N and K fertilizers were the important fertilizers required by the oil palm. It is also found that the N and K nutrient concentrations of the foliar nutrient composition were higher compared to other nutrients. Three different stations were considered and it was found that the fertilizersneeded by the oil palm and foliar nutrient composition were different at the different type of soil series.

  3. Biomethane potential of the POME generated in the palm oil industry in Ghana from 2002 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Richard; Glover, Kwasi

    2012-05-01

    The palm oil industry experienced significant improvement in its production level from 2002 to 2009 from the established companies, medium scale mills (MSM), small scale and other private holdings (SS and OPH) groups. However, the same cannot be said for treatment of the palm oil mill effluent (POME) produced. The quantity of crude palm oil (CPO) produced in Ghana from 2002 to 2009 and IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, specifically on industrial wastewater were used in this study. During this period about 10 million cubic metres of POME was produced translating into biomethane potential of 38.5 million m(3) with equivalent of 388.29 GW h of energy. A linear growth model developed to predict the equivalent carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions indicates that if the biomethane is not harnessed then by 2015 the untreated POME could produce 0.58 million tCO(2)-eq and is expected to increase to 0.70 million tCO(2)-eq by 2020.

  4. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamella Macedo de; Goulart, Fátima Regina de Vasconcelos; Marques, Joana Montezano; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Groposo, Claudia; Sousa, Maíra Paula de; Vólaro, Vanessa; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Seldin, Lucy

    2017-04-19

    Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO) produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 78 µg/mL) the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral) and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  5. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Macedo de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 78 µg/mL the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  6. Evaluation of Oil-Industry Stimulation Practices for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Van Dyke; Leen Weijers; Ann Robertson-Tait; Norm Warpinski; Mike Mayerhofer; Bill Minner; Craig Cipolla

    2007-10-17

    fluid below fracturing gradients) (section 4.1 on page 50); b) zonal isolation methods (by use of perforated casing or packers) (section 4.2 on page 57); c) fracture re-orientation and fracture network growth techniques (e.g., by use of alternating high- and low-rate injections) (section 4.4 on page 74); and d) fluid diversion methods (by use of the SurgiFrac technique, the StimGun perforation technique, or stress shadowing). This project task is to be completed in the first project year, enabling the most promising techniques to be field tested and evaluated in the second project year. 3) Study the applicability of the methods listed above by utilizing several techniques (section 5 on page 75) including, but not limited to: a) Hydraulic Impedance Testing (HIT) to determine the location of open hydraulic fractures along a open-hole interval; b) pressure transient testing to determine reservoir permeability, pore pressure, and closure stress; and c) treatment well tilt mapping or microseismic mapping to evaluate fracture coverage. These techniques were reviewed for their potential application for EGS in the first project year (section 5.1 on page 75). This study also includes further analysis of any field testing that will be conducted in the Desert Peak area in Nevada for ORMAT Nevada, Inc. (section 5.2 on page 86), with the aim to close the loop to provide reliable calibrated fracture model results. Developed through its hydraulic fracture consulting business, techniques of Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. for stimulating and analyzing fracture growth have helped the oil and gas industry to improve hydraulic fracturing from both a technical and economic perspective. In addition to more than 30 years of experience in the development of geothermal energy for commercial power generation throughout the world, GeothermEx, Inc. brings to the project: 1) Detailed information about specific developed and potential EGS reservoirs, 2) experience with geothermal well design

  7. Corn Oil Concentrations Detection for Food Industry Research Development by Using Application of Fiber Optic Liquid Sensor Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Johari Md Ashadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper purposed application of fiber optic as liquid sensor for detection of various concentrations of corn oil. The final result would an additional understanding about fiber optic sensor and could be used in related field such as food industry sector. They are 20 samples of corn oil with different concentrations between 0% until 100% are tasted. For every concentration, would experience a dipped process together with fiber optic before measuring process. Each of concentrations would present different results in line graph. The experiment results would be discussed in listed values of sensitivity, correlation and coefficient of determination of graft which are totally dependent on concentration of corn oil and the light source. With a different value of concentration and 1550nm wavelength of light source, the maximum sensitivity of 0.00072 the coefficient of determination 94.0% is obtained at third slope, respectively. Fiber optic is successfully to be corn oil liquid sensor and would be in high performance by using 1550 nm wavelength of light source and measuring concentration more than 85%.

  8. Survival of the Unfit : Path Dependence and the Estonian Oil Shale Industry

    OpenAIRE

    HOLMBERG Rurik

    2008-01-01

    Estonia is the only country in the world, which is totally dependent on oil shale in its energy system. Although this fossil fuel exists in enormous quantities around the world, it has so far not been utilized on a larger scale. The reasons for this have been both economic and, in recent times, ecological. It can therefore be argued that in most cases, oil shale represents an inferior solution compared to other energy sources. This work examines why a technology utilizing oil shale has develo...

  9. Nexus between Oil Price and Stock Performance of Power Industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Puah, Chin-Hong; Tan, Lay-Phin; Md Isa, Abu Hassan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the reaction of KLCI and five major power sector stocks listed on Bursa Malaysia to the changes in the world spot oil price using cointegration technique and impulse response analysis. Results indicate the existence of a long run positive relationship of world spot oil price with the stock returns of KLCI, TENAGA, TANJONG and YTLP. The impulse response analysis further shows that, in most of the cases, the oil price shock has only an impact on the short time horizon. As Ma...

  10. Functional assessment of plant and microalgal lipid pathway genes in yeast to enhance microbial industrial oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huadong; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Mundree, Sagadevan; Haritos, Victoria S

    2017-06-25

    As promising alternatives to fossil-derived oils, microbial lipids are important as industrial feedstocks for biofuels and oleochemicals. Our broad aim is to increase lipid content in oleaginous yeast through expression of lipid accumulation genes and use Saccharomyces cerevisiae to functionally assess genes obtained from oil-producing plants and microalgae. Lipid accumulation genes DGAT (diacylglycerol acyltransferase), PDAT (phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltransferase), and ROD1 (phosphatidylcholine: diacylglycerol choline-phosphotransferase) were separately expressed in yeast and lipid production measured by fluorescence, solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography, and gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters. Expression of DGAT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana effectively increased total fatty acids by 1.81-fold above control, and ROD1 led to increased unsaturated fatty acid content of yeast lipid. The functional assessment approach enabled the fast selection of candidate genes for metabolic engineering of yeast for production of lipid feedstocks. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Risk management in the oil and gas industry : integration of human, organisational and technical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogdalen, Jon Espen

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to provide knowledge and tools for the major hazard risk assessment for offshore installations (and onshore plants) based on an improved understanding of the influence of organisational, human and technical (OMT) factors. This extensive objective was further described by the following sub-goals: 1. Identify and describe human and organisational barriers in risk analysis, 2. Provide knowledge regarding human, organisational and technical factors that influence safety barriers, 3. Define indicators that are suitable for the measurement of barrier performance, 4. Develop models for barrier performance reflecting human, organisational and technical factors These four sub-goals formed the basis for the more specific objectives in the articles. The Deepwater Horizon accident and Macondo blowout were important inputs for several of the articles. One important acknowledgement is that risk management of major hazards differs from managing occupational safety. Another is that managing risks in the oil and gas (O&G) industry demands a high level due to the potential severe consequences. Quantitative risk analyses/assessments (QRAs) are used for risk control in the O&G industry. An important part of the QRA process is to identify and describe barriers in risk analysis. A study of offshore QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011b) showed that there were large differences between the analyses regarding incorporation of human and organisational factors (HOFs). The study divided the QRAs into a four-level classification system. Level 1 QRAs did not describe or comment on HOFs at all. By contrast, relevant research projects were conducted to fulfil the requirements of level 3 analyses. At this level, there was a systematic collection of data related to HOFs. The methods for analyzing the data were systematic and documented, and the QRAs were adjusted according to the status of the HOFs. A second study of QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011a) revealed

  12. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  13. Reforma Energética: Mexico takes first steps to overhaul oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Plante, Michael D.; Canas, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The fiscal health of the Mexican government and the living standards of Mexico’s citizens are inextricably tied to that of Pemex, making declining crude oil production over the past decade a particularly troubling sign for many in Mexico.

  14. [Safety forms for industrial lubricating oils: a working proposal at the national level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, E; Reggiani, A; Rossi, L

    1989-01-01

    The health and safety data sheets for lubricating oils currently in use present considerable differences regarding the information they provide. Often, the information is either too generalized or incomplete--particularly on the chemical aspects of oils--and therefore the sheets are inadequate for the prevention and control of the occupational risks. For the purposes of harmonization, a data sheet has been prepared which takes into account the specific features of the products, and particularly the handling of confidential data. The most important oil manufacturers have been consulted, and they have agreed to use the data sheet in order to provide information on their products to the local health authorities. The widespread use of this data sheet should enable an easier comparison of the health and safety data of oils to be made, provide a better understanding of the information received and, consequently, evaluate the risks involved.

  15. Enabling technology: an overview of offshore innovations in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Luiz C.N. [Shell International Exploration and Production (E and P) Inc., Houston, TX (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Big accumulations found in the past are not likely to occur again. On the contrary several small size accumulations may still be there unless a new play be discovered such as the sub salt. With global demand for oil rapidly increasing and easy oil becoming scarcer, we need to start looking at more difficult reservoirs from which to produce hydrocarbons. To boost daily global oil supplies to 100 million barrels, against current levels of some 85 million barrels, will be 'extremely difficult to reach' as we have heard in the news. It is not a question of available oil reserves, but a combination of technology, geopolitics and actual production decline in existing fields. Geopolitics and depletion rates are highly complex variables upon which we do not have full control. However Technology can still be designed fit for purposes. (author)

  16. Methane’s Role in Promoting Sustainable Development in the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document summarizes a number of established methods to identify, measure and reduce methane emissions from a variety of equipment and processes in oil and gas production and natural gas processing and transmission facilities.

  17. The Demand and Supply of Petroleum Equipment for China Onshore Oil and Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian

    1995-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is a state corporation responsible for all onshore oil and gas operations in the country including islands and the shallow sea areas with depth of less than 5 m.

  18. Optimization of oil retention in sesame based halva using emulsifiers and fibers: an industrial assay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aloui, F; Maazoun, B; Gargouri, Y; Miled, N

    2016-01-01

    .... Halva is a popular sweet food prepared from a sesame paste and a sugar mixture. The objective of this work was to improve the oil retention in this product by incorporating commercial fibers and emulsifiers...

  19. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Fatty Hydrazides of By-products of Oil Processing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toliwal, S; Jadav, K; Patel, K

    2009-03-01

    Some new 2-alkyl-5-mercapto-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles and 3-alkyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3-4H triazoles were synthesized from hydrazides of acid oil and oil recovered from spent bleaching earth. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and evaluated for biological properties. Certain derivatives exhibited fairly high antibacterial and antifungal activities when compared with streptomycin and immidil used as standard antibacterial and antifungal agents respectively.

  20. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 3: Offshore oil and natural gas industry case study and generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The economic benefits of improved ocean condition, weather and ice forecasts by SEASAT satellites to the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas in the offshore regions are considered. The results of case studies which investigate the effects of forecast accuracy on offshore operations in the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico are reported. A methodology for generalizing the results to other geographic regions of offshore oil and natural gas exploration and development is described.

  1. Adsorption refinement of waste transformer oil using industrial montmorillonite-containing sorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, Е. О.; Bogomolov, М. S.; Mayer, E. А.; Bondaletov, V. G.

    2007-01-01

    The possibilities of adsorption contact refining of waste transformer oil with active montmorillonite-containing sorbents of «Filtrol» series of BASF Catalysts LLC corporation and Zikeevsk М-80 deposit sorbent have been investigated. Usage of F-160 sorbents of «Filtrol» series in the refinement process allows achieving high quality degree of lean transformer oil, permitting its further use in the equipment with operating voltage to 750 kV.

  2. The use of response surface analysis in obtaining maximum profit in oil palm industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Tarmizi Mohammed; Khalid Haron; Zuhaimy Ismail; Azme Khamis

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to show how to use Response Surface Analysis in obtaining the optimum level of fertilizer needs by oil palm. The ridge analysis was proposed to overcome the saddle point problem. Data from Malaysian Palm Oil Board database was analyzed. The fertilizers considered are N, P, K and Mg. The results from ridge analysis provided several alternatives of the fertilizer combination. Profit analysis was then applied to determine the best combination of fertilizers needed by the...

  3. Efficiency Evaluation on Sustainable Development of Oil Industry in China%我国石油工业可持续发展效率评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁浩; 代汝峰; 王钦刚

    2013-01-01

      Based on the Non-Radial DEA model,staring from the point of view of input and output of system. This paper establishes the evaluation index of oil industry of our country,and calculates the data of oil industry of our country to evaluate the efficiency on sustainable development of oil industry of our country. The Non-Radial DEA model can evaluate the efficiency on sustainable development of oil industry of our country with strong operability. In recent years,investment in oil industry is too much,while economy can not increases so fast. Environmental damage occurring in the development of our oil industry decreases the sustainable development efficiency of oil industry of our country.%  应用非径向DEA方法,从系统投入产出的角度确定我国石油工业可持续发展效率的评价指标,并对我国石油工业2000—2010年数据进行计算,评价我国石油工业可持续发展的运行效率。结果表明:①使用非径向DEA方法评价我国石油工业可持续发展效率具有较强的可操作性;②近些年石油工业的投资存在一定的盲目性,经济效益与投资规模的增速不相匹配;③石油工业发展的过程中对环境造成破坏,降低了我国石油工业可持续发展效率。

  4. Emulsions of crude glycerin from biodiesel processing with fuel oil for industrial heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Hannah E; Lucio, Anthony J; Fhaner, Cassie J; Pratama, Fredy S; Robbins, Lanny A; Karpovich, David S

    2013-02-13

    There is considerable interest in using crude glycerin from biodiesel production as a heating fuel. In this work crude glycerin was emulsified into fuel oil to address difficulties with ignition and sustained combustion. Emulsions were prepared with several grades of glycerin and two grades of fuel oil using direct and phase inversion emulsification. Our findings reveal unique surfactant requirements for emulsifying glycerin into oil; these depend on the levels of several contaminants, including water, ash, and components in MONG (matter organic non-glycerin). A higher hydrophile-lipophile balance was required for a stable emulsion of crude glycerin in fuel oil compared to water in fuel oil. The high concentration of salts from biodiesel catalysts generally hindered emulsion stability. Geometric close-packing of micelles was carefully balanced to mechanically stabilize emulsions while also enabling low viscosity for pumping and fuel injection. Phase inversion emulsification produced more stable emulsions than direct emulsification. Emulsions were tested successfully as fuel for a waste oil burner.

  5. Oil industry in Uganda: The socio-economic effects on the people of Kabaale Village, Hoima, and Bunyoro region in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyomugasho, Miriam

    This thesis examines the socio-economic effects of oil industry on the people of Kabaale Village, Hoima, and Bunyoro region in Uganda. The thesis analyses the current political economy of Uganda and how Uganda is prepared to utilize the proceeds from the oil industry for the development of the country and its people. In addition, the research examines the effects of industry on the people of Uganda by analyzing how the people of Kabaale in Bunyoro region were affected by the plans to construct oil refinery in their region. This field research was done using qualitative methods and the Historical Materialism theoretical framework guided the study. The major findings include; displacement of people from land especially women, lack of accountability from the leadership, and less citizen participation in the policy formulation and oil industry. Ugandans, East Africans and the wider Pan-African world need to re-organize their socio-economic structure to enable people own means of production; participate and form labor organizations. Additionally, there is a need for oil producing African countries to unite and setup and oil fund for resources and investment instead of relying on foreign multinationals or become rentier states.

  6. Cogeneration potential in the Columbian palm oil industry: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, F.N.; Lora, E. [Federal University of Itajuba/Excellence Group in Thermal and Distributed Generation, Itajuba-MG (Brazil); Yanez, E. [CENIPALMA (Colombia); Castillo, E. [UIS, (Colombia); Arrieta, F.R.P.

    2007-07-15

    The palm oil mills are characterized by the availability of considerable amounts of by-products of high-energy value such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), fibers, shells and liquid effluents with high content of organics called palm oil mill effluent (POME). A palm oil mill produces residues equivalent to almost three times the amount of oil produced by biomass, showing a huge potential for increasing the power efficiency of the plants and installed power, mainly by the use of by-products in cogeneration plants with high steam parameters and by reducing steam consumption in process. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the study about the cogeneration potential for three representative palm oil mills located in two important palm oil producing regions in Colombia (South-America), fifth palm oil producers of the world. The sizing of the cogeneration system was made assuming it operation during the greatest possible number of hours throughout the year (based on the seasonal availability of fruit) considering parameters for the steam at 2 MPa and 350 C, using a condensing-extraction turbine. The balance of mass and energy was made by using the Gate Cycle Enter Software, version 5.51, to estimate the potential of electricity generation. The results showed that for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing capacities between 18 and 60 t FFB h{sup -1}, it is possible to have surplus power ranging between 1 and 7 MW, if the plants are self-sufficient in electric energy and steam for process. With an average Capacity Factor (approximately 0.4), it is possible to expect a generation index of 75 and 160 kWh t{sup -1} FFB when the processing plant is operating or shutdown, respectively, 3 or 4 times better than when a traditional system with a back-pressure steam turbines is used. This analysis used up to 60% of EFB produced in plant as fuel, considering its value as fertilizer for the palm crop. Several economic conditions were considered to estimate the economic

  7. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in industrial transformer oil by radiolytic and photolytic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia G; Silverman, Joseph; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Neta, Pedatsur; Poster, Dianne L

    2003-12-15

    Used electrical transformer oils containing low or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were treated using electron, gamma, and ultraviolet radiation, and the conditions for complete dechlorination were developed. Dechlorination was determined by analysis of the inorganic chloride formed and the concentrations of remaining PCBs. Transformer oil containing approximately 95 microg g(-1) PCB (approximately 3.5 mmol L(-1) Cl) is completely dechlorinated by irradiation with 600 kGy after the addition of 10% triethylamine (TEA). Transformer oil containing >800,000 microg g(-1) PCB (17.7 mol L(-1) Cl) requires an additional solvent to prevent solidification. When this oil is diluted with 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and TEA (v/v/v, 1/79/20), complete dechlorination is achieved with a dose of 2500 kGy. Ultraviolet photolysis of the same oil/2-PrOH/TEA solutions led to 90% dechlorination after exposure for 120 h in our experimental setup. Such yields were obtained by radiolysis with a dose of 2000 kGy (300 h in our Gammacell). Replacing TEA with KOH in 2-PrOH solutions greatly increases the yield of dechlorination in both the radiolytic and the photolytic experiments, demonstrating that a chain reaction plays a role in both of these treatment methods and suggesting that both methods deserve further consideration for large-scale application.

  8. Holistic oil field value management: using system dynamics for 'intermediate level' and 'value-based' modelling in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corben, D.; Stevenson, R.; Wolstenholme, E.F. [Cognitus Ltd., Harrogate (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    System dynamics has been seen primarily as a strategic tool, most effectively used at the highest level of strategy to identify robust policy interventions under a wide range of scenarios. However, an alternative, complementary and powerful role is emerging. This is at an 'intermediate level' in organisations to coordinate and integrate policies across the value chain. It is at this level where business value, as defined by the discounted value of future free cash flow, is both created and destroyed. This paper introduces the need for 'intermediate-level' and 'value-based' modelling and emphasises the natural role of system dynamics in supporting a methodology to fulfil the need. It describes the development of an approach and its application in the oil industry to coordinate the response of people and tools within operational, financial and commercial functions across the value chain to address a variety of problems and issues. (author)

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Samuel Ameri

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the research and development work reported in this document was to develop a Virtual Intelligence Technique for optimization of the Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) for the upstream oil industry. The work included the development of a software tool for identification and optimization of the most influential parameters in upstream common practices as well as geological, geophysical and reservoir engineering studies. The work was performed in cooperation with three independent producing companies--Newfield Exploration, Chesapeake Energy, and Triad Energy--operating in the Golden Trend, Oklahoma. In order to protect data confidentiality, these companies are referred to as Company One, Two, Three in a randomly selected order. These producing companies provided geological, completion, and production data on 320 wells and participated in frequent technical discussions throughout the project. Research and development work was performed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI), West Virginia University (WVU), and Intelligent Solutions Inc. (ISI). Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA) participated in technology transfer and data acquisition efforts. Deliverables from the project are the present final report and a user-friendly software package (Appendix D) with two distinct functions: a characterization tool that identifies the most influential parameters in the upstream operations, and an optimization tool that seeks optimization by varying a number of influential parameters and investigating the coupled effects of these variations. The electronic version of this report is also included in Appendix D. The Golden Trend data were used for the first cut optimization of completion procedures. In the subsequent step, results from soft computing runs were used as the guide for detailed geophysical and reservoir engineering studies that characterize the cause-and-effect relationships between various parameters. The general workflow and the main

  10. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  11. New opportunity for enzymatic modification of fats and oils with industrial potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica lipase)-catalyzed glycerolysis of commercial oils and fats to produce monoglycerides (MGs) was investigated using a tetraammonium-based ionic liquid (IL) as a reaction medium. A 90% yield of MGs and nearly 100% conversion of triglycerides in this ionic liquid were...... achieved, markedly higher than in normal solvents. The amphiphilic structure of cocosalkyl pentaethoxi methyl ammonium methosulfate (CPMA·MS) was suggested to be capable of creating a compatible system for glycerol, oils and fats, as well as inducing the shift of reaction equilibrium to the formation of MG....... Interestingly, over a wide range of solvent dosage, the higher yields of MG were observed, indicating the good bulky substrate-tolerating capacity of the IL. The universal validity of the protocol was verified by being successfully applied to different commercial oils and fats. Excellent operational stability...

  12. Modeling the Competitiveness of Indonesian Palm Oil Industry: A Conceptual Model Using Hierarchical Multi-Level System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Y.H. Silitonga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Palm Oil Industry has the largest market share in the world, but still faces problems in order to strengthen the level of competitiveness. Those problems are in the industry chains, government regulation and policy as meso environment, and macro economic condition. Therefore these three elements should be considered when analyzing the improvement of competitiveness. Here, the governmental element is hoped to create a conducive environment. This paper presents the industry competitiveness conceptual model, using hierarchical multilevel system approach. The Hierarchical multilevel system approach is used to accommodate the complexity of the industrial relation and the government position as the meso environment. The step to develop the model firstly is to define the relevant system. Secondly, is to formulate the output of the model that is competitiveness in the form of indicator. Then, the relevant system with competitiveness as the output is built into a conceptual model using hierarchical multilevel system. The conceptual model is then discussed to see if it can explain the relevant system, and the potential of it to be developed into mathematical model.

  13. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Dynamics of Alcanivorax spp. in Oil-Contaminated Intertidal Beach Sediments Undergoing Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind K.; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D.; Jones, Martin D.; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Head, Ian M.

    The industrial revolution has led to significant increases in the consumption of petroleum hydrocarbons. Concomitant with this increase, hydrocarbon pollution has become a global problem resulting from emissions related to operational use, releases during production, pipeline failures and tanker spills. Importantly, in addition to these anthropogenic sources of hydrocarbon pollution, natural seeps alone account for about 50% of total petroleum hydrocarbon releases in the aquatic environment (National Research Council, 2003). The annual input from natural seeps would form a layer of hydrocarbons 20 molecules thick on the sea surface globally if it remained un-degraded (Prince, 2005). By contrast with natural seeps, many oil spills, e.g. Sea Empress (Milford Haven, UK), Prestige (Galicia, Spain), EXXON Valdez (Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA), released huge amounts of oil (thousands to hundreds of thousand tonnes; Table 24.1) in a locally confined area over a short period of time with a huge acute impact on the marine environment. These incidents have attracted the attention of both the general public and the scientific community due to their great impact on coastal ecosystems. Although many petroleum hydrocarbons are toxic, they are degraded by microbial consortia naturally present in marine ecosystems.

  14. A value chain analysis for sustainable development of olive oil agro-industry: the case of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkhire Boudi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the performance of the olive oil value chain in Algeria and identifies the bottlenecks that must be overcome to achieve sustainable development. Surveys were carried out and interviews conducted during a five-year period. Value chain approach was used as a tool to analyze the entire chain. The results showed that despite the value chain was found to be profitable for all chain actors, significant shortcomings and bottlenecks continue to undermine the overall development of the value chain. Major bottlenecks to improve productivity and value added were the poor agricultural practice and institutional environment; issues related to natural, structural, technology and economic environment; lack of market transparency; market uncertainties; lack of quality control; absence of traceability monitoring system throughout the chain; lack of certification and labelling; almost total absences of organized structures exist around the product; and limited effectiveness of agricultural extension services with low involvement of farmers and millers in professional organization related to olive oil industry. However, Algeria’s olive oil value chain has great potential for future development and currently, the country has an important advantage in terms of current development policies, the use of technology, and the extension of olive tree acreage. Nevertheless, the following upgrading strategies are recommended to enhance sustainability: improvement in product and process; changing in functional position; access to market; supply; cross distribution chain; and intra-chain linkage

  15. The Development of Knowledge Management in the Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Una revisión de las experiencias en gestión del conocimiento de las compañías BP, Royal Dutch Shell, Chevron, ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips, Halliburton, Schlumberger, Paragon Engineering Services, BHP, Marathon Oil, y Murphy Oil identifica dos tipos de prácticas principales de gestión del conocimiento: aplicación de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones para la transferencia de conocimiento explícito y el uso de técnicas de gestión del conocimiento persona a persona para facili...

  16. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (MX)] (and others)

    2003-08-01

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measured at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO{sub 2}, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and

  17. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  18. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies. Th

  19. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies.

  20. Entrepreneurial orientation and corporate governance structures at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent B. Molokwu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Corporate governance systems (CGS have been observed as one of the most important structures and mechanisms that regulate the relationships between executives and shareholders. By having well-defined and established CGS, company board members and executives are able to shape company vision and increase managerial commitment towards formulating strategies that espouse an entrepreneurial orientation (EO. Firms with high levels of EO tend to be innovative and encourage creative initiatives in new products and technology developments.Research purpose: In an emerging economy such as South Africa, one of the primary goals of an organisation is growth and good governance, which can be achieved through wellgoverned structures and continuous innovation in the face of challenges. This study identified potential links between the multidimensional constructs of CGS and EO at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry.Motivation for the study: One of the greatest challenges faced by organisations when implementing CGS is to ensure compliance.Research design, approach and method: Board members and senior decision-makers were surveyed in the South African oil and gas industry, using a structured questionnaire. A series of correlational analyses were used to determine the strength of relationships between the dimensions of EO and CGS.Main findings: By drawing extensively on existing theory on EO, this study found that the different dimensions of CGS have a significant and positive relationship with each of the EO dimensions – innovation, risk-taking and proactiveness.Practical/managerial implications: Corporate boards supportive of entrepreneurship must provide appropriate reward systems, top management support, explicit goals and appropriate organisational values which signal to employees that entrepreneurial behaviour action is desirable. Practitioners should scrutinise their governance structures in their organisations to ensure

  1. Conversion of by-products from the vegetable oil industry into biodiesel and its use in internal combustion engines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piloto-Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from by-products and waste materials can be an economical way of reducing traditional oil consumption and environmental problems. The by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry such as soapstock, acid oil and fatty acid distillates are suitable for producing biodiesel. The present work is a survey related to the use of these by-products to obtain biodiesel, covering not only the traditional and most widely used acid/base catalysis, but also solid and enzymatic catalysis. Details of the techniques are presented and compared. The advantages and drawbacks of the different approaches are mentioned and analyzed. The synthesis and use of by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry are covered in this work. The use of the obtained biodiesel in diesel engines is also included, demonstrating the disparity between the number of papers related to biodiesel production and engine performance assessment.

  2. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN-2050-AE78 Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials..., Earthjustice, 21 Ocean Avenue, Marblehead, MA 01945. Dear Ms. Evans: This is in response to the petition for... slagging inorganic feed at temperatures above 2,000 degrees C. (Petition at pg. 10) (3) You assert that the...

  3. Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

  4. Potential of Agroindustrial Waste From Olive Oil Industry for Fuel Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Olive pulp (OP) is a highly polluting semi-solid residue generated from the two-stage extraction processing of olives and is a major environmental issue in Southern Europe, where 80% of the world olive oil is produced. At present, OP is either discarded to the environment or combusted with low...

  5. Future Roles of the State in Governing the Global Palm Oil Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.; Saragih, Bungaran; Choy, Er Ah; Hospes, O.; Padfield, Rory; Pramudya, Pantja; Schouten, A.M.; Hansen, Sune Balle

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an expert meeting that was organised on 26 and 27 of August 2015 in Singapore on ‘Future Roles of the State in Governing the Global Palm Oil Industry’. It is one of the activities conducted together with the INREF-SUSPENSE programme ‘Towards Environmentally Susta

  6. Scientific Research and Technological Development in Onshore Oil Industry Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fangyun; Wang Jialin; Lu Ronghu; Zhang Wei; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ A series of significant measures for environmental protection have been adopted by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) to cope with the problem of environmental pollution caused by waste gas, waste water, waste solid and noise in oil and gas field production, and some organizations responsible for environmental protection research have been set up.

  7. Renewable resources in the chemical industry--breaking away from oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Stefan; Höcker, Hans; Gebhardt, Henrike

    2007-12-01

    Rising prices for fossil-based raw materials suggest that sooner or later renewable raw materials will, in principle, become economically viable. This paper examines this widespread paradigm. Price linkages like those seen for decades particularly in connection with petrochemical raw materials are now increasingly affecting renewable raw materials. The main driving force is the competing utilisation as an energy source because both fossil-based and renewable raw materials are used primarily for heat, electrical power and mobility. As a result, prices are determined by energy utilisation. Simple observations show how prices for renewable carbon sources are becoming linked to the crude oil price. Whether the application calls for sugar, starch, virgin oils or lignocellulose, the price for the raw material rises with the oil price. Consequently, expectations regarding price trends for fossil-based energy sources can also be utilised for the valuation of alternative processes. However, this seriously calls into question the assumption that a rising crude oil price will favour the economic viability of alternative products and processes based on renewable raw materials. Conversely, it follows that these products and processes must demonstrate economic viability today. Especially in connection with new approaches in white biotechnology, it is evident that, under realistic assumptions, particularly in terms of achievable yields and the optimisation potential of the underlying processes, the route to utilisation is economically viable. This makes the paradigm mentioned at the outset at least very questionable.

  8. The serious effect of oil shale industry on air quality in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetsep, A.; Liblik, V. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Spain). North-East Estonian Dept. Inst. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is the most important mineral resource of Estonia and that is why the extremely serious environmental problems in north-eastern Estonia (Ida-Virumaa) during the last decades are frequently connected with mining, combustion and thermal processing of this resource. Estonian oil shale is unique due to its composition containing besides chemically complicated organic matter (24-30 %) many mineral components as Mg- and Ca-carbonates, clay minerals, quartz, orthoclase, gypsum, heavy metals etc. Organic matter (kerogene) contains in addition to carbon (77.5 %) and hydrogen (9.7 %, atomic ratio H/C=1.5), oxygen (10 %), sulphur (1.5-1.7 %), nitrogen (0.5 %) and chlorine (0.8%). Such complicated physico-chemical structure (organic-mineral high-molecular complex) decomposes during the processes of oil shale combustion and thermal processing (semi-coking) causing in different ways the volatilization of hundreds of toxic chemical compounds into atmospheric air. Dispersion of those in the atmosphere has influenced and influences seriously the chemical composition of the air in north-eastern region of Estonia. In this presentation the effect of aerotechnogenic influxes as dangerous environmental factors, connected immediately with utilization of oil shale, on the state of atmospheric air and on formation of concentration fields of pollutants in north-eastern Estonia is analyzed and discussed

  9. Mr. Wu Yaowen Answers Questions About Sino-Foreign Cooperation of Chinese Onshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pu

    1994-01-01

    @@ The reporter interviewed Mr. Wu Yaowen on June 21, 1994. Mr. Wu, former director of the Department of Energy of State Planning Commission, was transferred to CNPC two months ago to form the International Cooperation Bureau (ICB)and act as director of ICB and president of China National Oil & Gas Exploration and Development Corporation (CNODC).

  10. legal status of sections 10 and 12 of the nigerian oil and gas industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 The Nigerian Oil and Gas Content Development Act, Chapter P10 Laws of the ..... Report, adopted 10 January 2001) WT/DS161/AB/R, WT/DS169/AB/R [133]. ..... this Section, companies, as well as corporations in Nigeria are authorised to ...

  11. Manufacturing Improvement Program for the Oil and Gas Industry Supply Chain and Marketing Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robert [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2016-09-28

    This project supported upgrades for manufacturing companies in the oil and natural gas supply chain in Oklahoma. The goal is to provide assistance that will lead to the improved efficiency advancement of the manufacturing processes currently used by the existing manufacturing clients. The basis for the work is to improve the economic environment for the clients and the communities they serve.

  12. The semi-wild oil palm and its industry in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1967-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) is of great importance to the people of West Tropical and Equatorial Africa. This palm is there a major food crop under semi-wild conditions and since the end of the 18th century a principal commercial crop. In the first chapters the centres of

  13. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. Question of development of industrial chemistry of combustible minerals (from a conference on problems in development of oil chemistry and chemical engineering)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, L.V.

    1986-04-01

    In conjunction with other scientific associations, the Department of General and Industrial Chemistry in the Soviet Academy of Sciences organized a conference in Zvenigorod in October 1985 which was devoted to the chemistry of coal, shale and oil. A series of papers were presented on the future of hydrogenation catalysis as an cost-effective method of processing coking products, coals, shaley resin, fuel oil and bituminous oil to produce synthetic liquids. Subjects included: the prospects of non-traditional methods of processing solid combustible minerals; heavy catalysis of oil residue and bituminous oils; the current state of coal chemistry in Kuzbass, new methods of coal classification and the production of liquid and chemical products from combustible shale.

  15. Alberta 1905-2005 turning on the taps : the 100 year boom and bust saga of Alberta and its oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This commemorative Alberta centennial edition presents a series of articles exploring the history of the oil and gas industry in Alberta. The infancy of the oil and gas business was highlighted, with reference to the Turner Valley Conservation Act, which helped to build the framework for the creation of the Alberta Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board, the predecessor of today's Energy and Utilities Board. A timeline of events linking world history with industry events was presented throughout the edition. Articles included: stories about oil and gas booms; exploration; the effects of World War 1 and 2; the first oil sands refineries; and the Great Depression. Political figures and business figures were also featured, as well as the early successes of businesses such as the Lloydminster Gas Company. Events of historic importance to the oil and gas industry, such as the Leduc discovery were also highlighted. The National Energy Program, low prices and economic recession were examined. Policy and regional reaction to Federal directives were also featured. Some companies advertised their services in this document, namely: Precision Drilling Corp; Halliburton; Wellco Energy Services Inc.; Gibson Energy Ltd.; National Oilwell; Lufkin; Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Rigstar; Safety Boss Inc.; and Esso. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. The use of solvents for purifying industrial naphthalene from coal tar distilled oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azpiroz, Gonzalez; Blanco, C. Gutierrez; Banciella, Casal [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC c/Francisco Pintado Fe, 26, 33011 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    The organic chemistry industry is based on organic compounds derived from coal, petroleum and gas. Coal tars derived from the carbonisation process are complex mixtures, of which the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are the main component. One of the most important PAH's is naphthalene, which represents between 10 to 12% of the sample. In recent years, new applications for industrial naphthalene have been developed. However, the naphthalene required for high level industry must be extremely pure. New routes in the purification process are being studied to reduce the economic cost and environmental impact resulting from the increase in demand for pure naphthalene. Any alternative method to that of sublimation for purification in the distillation process and/or catalytic hydrogenation must improve the quality of industrial naphthalene, to make it suitable for the new applications. In the present work, an alternative method for purifying industrial naphthalene has been investigated. A new process based on extraction with solvents such as phosphoric acid and acetic acid is reported and discussed. Industrial naphthalene was purified by means of a new technique and the stability and good properties of the product were verified. (author)

  17. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Postalli Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa and mammal (HTC cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  18. Integrating experiences from operations into engineering design: modelling knowledge transfer in the offshore oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Paravizo, Esdras

    2017-01-01

    and workwise distance between operations and engineering design teams, integrating human factors and transferring knowledge are key aspects when designing for better performance systems. Research Objective: Based on an in-depth empirical investigation in an offshore oil company, this study aims to provide......Summative Statement: Integrating human factors and users’ experiences in design projects is a well-known challenge. This study focus on the specific challenges for transferring these experiences and how using a knowledge transfer model can help this integration on the design of high-risk productive...... a framework for the knowledge transfer process from operations into engineering design that helps identifying and facing the challenges for such a transfer process. Methodology: The study was carried out as a case study in an offshore oil company. We used the empirical data collected through interviews...

  19. Inward Processing Regime Promotion System in Vegetable Oil Industry: A Case Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Duru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine applicability of the Inward Processing Regime (IPR in enterprises which are vegetable oil producers and exporters. The data was obtained from 26 vegetable oil producer and exporter enterprises by using survey method. Frequency tables, indices, and percentage calculating were used to analyse Data. Also, SWOT analysis was used to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the sector, and relationship among some variables were examined with correlation coefficient. According to research findings, 25 of the enterprises (96% utilised the IPR. Since the enterprises started to use that system; availability of cheap raw material, rate of capacity utilisation, market share, and export value all have increased. In addition, raw material was found as an important expense item, and the most important problems were qualified as raw material inadequacy and high input prices.

  20. Fuel-oil cogeneration plant for textile Industry. Central de cogeneracion a fueloleo para industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Larrauri, M.; Diez Hernandez, J.; Villasante Diaz, A. (IDOM, Ingenieria y Consultoria, S.A. (Spain))

    1993-10-01

    Aznar S.A. is a textile factory especially sensitive to electricity distribution failures. They produce the subsequent shut down at the manufacturing process and several hours of maintenance tasks. A cogeneration plant has been installed to provide electricity and thermal energy to the process. Since the location is far from Natural Gas pipelines the system includes fuel-oil as energy source. Annual electricity production will be 23.300 MWh and 6.400 MWh of them will be exported into the grid. Fuel-oil consumption at the heat exchanger is reduced by 47%, but the whole factory consumption increases a 247% due to the high consumption of the engine. This increase is compensated by revenues from selling electricity and electricity savings. These facts, together with maintenance cost saving leads to a pay back time of 3.3. years. (Author)

  1. RECENT TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE ARGENTINE OIL INDUSTRY: THE YPF CASE, 1989-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Serrani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyze the path of the state oil company YPF, from privatization to its expropriation (1989-2012. In this process, it has a special emphasis on the identification and analysis of national peculiarities that explain why in the ‘90s YPF, one of the nation’s premier companies in history, was fully privatized (counter to the regional experience in Mexico, Venezuela and Brazil; and how, just twenty years later, the same company was again in state control, with an expropriation which was widely popular and parliamentary support. It also reviews the main consequences of deregulation and the opening in the Argentine oil sector, especially in the performance of --- since acquired all shares of YPF in 1999, to explain this path.

  2. Lipid technology: Property prediction and process design/analysis in the edible oil and biodiesel industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Gani, Rafiqul; Sarup, Bent

    2011-01-01

    temperature or the critical pressure) as well as temperature dependent properties (for example, vapor pressure, liquid density, and liquid viscosity). Whenever enough data was not available, the PC-SAFT EoS was used to generate pseudo-experimental data for the temperature dependent properties for regression......In this work some of the property related issues in lipid processing technology employed in edible oil and biodiesel production are highlighted. This includes the identification of the most representative chemical species (acylglycerides, free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, carotenes, and fatty...... of the GC-based model parameters. The filled database and property models have been employed through a process simulation to analyze the design issues of typical edible oil processes....

  3. Technological acceleration and organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry; Acceleration technologique et transformations organisationnelles dans l'industrie d'exploration-production d'hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabelle, M

    2000-12-15

    The upstream oil and gas industry experienced a dramatic technological acceleration in the early 1970's. The relationships between the agents in this industry have themselves undergone deep changes since that date. This thesis shows that a tight link exists between the technological acceleration and the organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry. In a first part, it focuses on the economic theory's developments concerning industrial organization. In a second part, it applies these developments to three types of relations: those between the owner-states of hydrocarbon resources and the international petroleum companies; those between the international petroleum companies and their subcontractors; and finally those between the international petroleum companies themselves. (author)

  4. [Evaluation of health status among workers in the oil mining industry and problems of primary prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimranova, G G

    2002-01-01

    Thorough medical examination covered 1,400 individuals who work with oil and gas extraction devices, are aged 20 to 58 and have length of service 5 to 30 years. Findings are high prevalence of locomotory disorders, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, signs of ear exposure to noise. The authors justified complex of primary prophylactic measures including work optimization, meticulous occupational selection, qualified medical control and sanative measures.

  5. Experimental research on the quality of electricity in the oil industries of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmin, A.A.; Kudriashov, A.R.; Nissenbaum, I.A.; Novoselov, U.B.; Tsknov, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Research is conducted on the quality indicators of electricity and the oil installations of the SAMOTLORSK, UST-BALYKSK and YUZHNO-SURGUTSK fields. It is assumed that the quantitative indicators are time functions of random and non-random components. These experimental data are processed using probability theory methods based on an analysis of statistical characteristics. The research demonstrated that virtually all the qualitative indicators were in accord with current GOST indicators.

  6. Souring control in fluid samples of oil industry using a multiple ligand simultaneous docking (MLSD) strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Elias Silva; de Souza, Leila Cristiane Virgens; de Assis, Patrícia Nascimento; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Ramos-de-Souza, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We have used docking techniques in order to propose potential inhibitors to the enzymes adenosine phosphosulfate reductase and adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase that are responsible, among other deleterious effects, for causing souring of oil and gas reservoirs. Three candidates selected through molecular docking revealed new and improved polar and hydrophobic interactions with the above-mentioned enzymes. Microbiological laboratory assays performed subsequently corroborated the results of computer modelling that the three compounds can efficiently control the biogenic sulfide production.

  7. Firm Size, Ownership and Performance in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Ramasamy; Darry Ong; Yeung, Matthew C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the effects of market structure components and other performance measures to better understand the dynamics and determinants of performance within the Malaysian palm oil sector. In particular, we consider the effects of firm size and firm ownership on the level of profitability in this sector. Our findings suggest that size is negatively related to performance while privately owned plantation companies are more profitably managed. These results suppor...

  8. A systematic quality assessment of Environmental Impact Statements in the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anifowose, B; Lawler, D M; van der Horst, D; Chapman, L

    2016-12-01

    The global economy relies heavily on oil and gas resources. However, hydrocarbon exploitation projects can cause significant impacts on the environment. But despite the production of numerous Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) to identify/mitigate such impacts, no study has specifically assessed the quality of EISs for both onshore and offshore oil and gas projects, with tested hypotheses. To address this research gap, our paper, for the first time, develops a modified Lee and Colley evaluation model to assess the quality of 19 sampled oil and gas project EISs produced from 1998 to 2008 in Nigeria. Our findings show that Project Description and Communication of Results are the main areas of strength. However, Environmental Impact Prediction, and Project Decommissioning, were among the key areas requiring attention. A key finding, though, is that Mann-Whitney tests suggest that there is no evidence that the quality of EISs for the latter period (2004-2008) is higher than that of the earlier period (1998-2004). We suggest that periodic systematic review of the quality of submitted/approved EISs (c. every 3-5years) should be established to monitor trends in EIS quality and identify strong and weak areas. This would help to drive continual improvement in both the EIA processes and the resultant EISs of technical engineering projects. Such reviews have the potential to illuminate some of the underlying problems of, and solutions to, oil and gas exploration, production and transportation, and their related environmental impacts. This suggested change would also be useful internationally, including for the burgeoning exploration and production of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Future Roles of the State in Governing the Global Palm Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Klaver, D.C.; Saragih, Bungaran; Choy, Er Ah; Hospes, O.; Padfield, Rory; Pramudya, Pantja; Schouten, A.M.; Hansen, Sune Balle

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an expert meeting that was organised on 26 and 27 of August 2015 in Singapore on ‘Future Roles of the State in Governing the Global Palm Oil Industry’. It is one of the activities conducted together with the INREF-SUSPENSE programme ‘Towards Environmentally Sustainable and Equitable Palm Oil’. This research programme is being implemented by Wageningen University and the Centre for Development Innovation. The objectives of the expert meeting were to identif...

  10. Structural health monitoring of localized internal corrosion in high temperature piping for oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Thomas J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lozev, Mark G.

    2015-03-01

    Crude oil is becoming more corrosive with higher sulfur concentration, chloride concentration, and acidity. The increasing presence of naphthenic acids in oils with various environmental conditions at temperatures between 150°C and 400°C can lead to different internal degradation morphologies in refineries that are uniform, non-uniform, or localized pitting. Improved corrosion measurement technology is needed to better quantify the integrity risk associated with refining crude oils of higher acid concentration. This paper first reports a consolidated review of corrosion inspection technology to establish the foundation for structural health monitoring of localized internal corrosion in high temperature piping. An approach under investigation is to employ flexible ultrasonic thin-film piezoelectric transducer arrays fabricated by the sol-gel manufacturing process for monitoring localized internal corrosion at temperatures up to 400°C. A statistical analysis of sol-gel transducer measurement accuracy using various time of flight thickness calculation algorithms on a flat calibration block is demonstrated.

  11. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  12. 加拿大油砂行业的发展现状与挑战%Status and challenges of Canadian oil sands industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科; 熊苡; William X.Wei; Michael Henry; 冯连勇

    2015-01-01

    油砂作为世界非常规石油资源中的重要组成部分 ,近年来正在受到越来越多的关注.由于加拿大油砂行业形势变化速度很快 ,我们有必要清楚地了解其行业的最新动态.本文以油砂行业最新的信息和数据为基础 ,介绍了加拿大油砂资源的开发现状和油砂行业生产商现状 ;通过对加拿大油砂行业绩效的定量分析 ,发现了虽然加拿大油砂产量和收入近年来呈逐年上升趋势,其财务绩效和股市绩效却双双呈现下滑趋势;结合以上分析和相关机构的评价结果总结了加拿大油砂行业发展面临的五大挑战 ,分别是油砂实现价格处于劣势、行业成本居高不下、外输通道严重受限、原住民问题困难重重、行业监管日益严苛.%Oil sand ,as an important type of unconventional oil resource in the world ,is attracting more and more attentions in recent years .Since the Canadian oil sands industry is changing fast ,it is necessary to know the latest dynamics of it .Based on the latest information and data ,this paper introduces the status of Canadian oil sands development and the status of major Canadian oil sands producers .Through quantitative analysis of the Canadian oil sands industry performance ,the author find that although the production and sales revenue of Canadian oil sands industry are growing ,the financial performance and stock market performance are both declining in recent years .Furthermore ,this paper summarizes five major challenges that Canadian oil sands industry faces based on both the analysis above and evaluation results of related agencies .The five challenges are:weak oil sands price ,high industry cost ,limited export channels ,objection of aborigines and the stricter and stricter industry regulations .

  13. Influence of foreign dumping to Chinese oil industry%倾销对我国油料产业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新华; 刘洁; 方凯

    2012-01-01

    With the background of the foreign oil product dumping in China, Chinese oil industry had been affected as analyzed in this paper, in order to provide adequate theoretical basis to overcome the foreign dumping. Generalized matrix method of estimation (GMM) was adopted to estimatie the causal rela-tionship simultaneous equations between the dumping and simplified system of industrial injury indicators. The results showed that the foreign of dumping oil products was the major harmful reason to the Chinese oil industry. The appropriate anti-dumping measures should be strengthen to supported the domestic oil industry, with which protect the security of oil industry.%在国外油料产品倾销和我国油料产业遭受损害已成事实的背景下,文章着重分析了主要油料出口国的倾销行为与我国油料产业损害的因果关系,旨在为我国脆弱的油料产业反倾销措施的实施提供理论依据.通过运用广义矩阵估计法(Generalized matrix method of estimation, GMM),对倾销与损害之间因果关系的联立方程组进行模拟,实证分析结果显示,国外油料产品的倾销行为是造成我国油料产业受损的主要原因.同时提出了我国应积极采取适当的反倾销措施,加强对国内油料产业发展的支持力度,以维护国家油料供给安全.

  14. Increased susceptibility to the innovative energy-saving technologies in the oil and fat industry by improving regulatory and institutional framework

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Dyuzhev; Popov, N A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to increase the susceptibility to innovative energy saving technologies in oil and fat industry basing on the formation of organizational and economic section of the regulatory framework of energy efficiency programs. The results of the analysis. Angle susceptibility innovative energy conservation program in the oilseed industry is analyzed in this article. Stages of formation of the organizational and economic section sectoral energy savin...

  15. Recent Warming, Rather than Industrial Emissions of Bioavailable Nutrients, Is the Dominant Driver of Lake Primary Production Shifts across the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C Summers

    Full Text Available Freshwaters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR are vulnerable to the atmospheric emissions and land disturbances caused by the local oil sands industry; however, they are also affected by climate change. Recent observations of increases in aquatic primary production near the main development area have prompted questions about the principal drivers of these limnological changes. Is the enhanced primary production due to deposition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus from local industry or from recent climatic changes? Here, we use downcore, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll-a (VRS-chla profiles (including diagenetic products from 23 limnologically-diverse lakes with undisturbed catchments to characterize the pattern of primary production increases in the AOSR. Our aim is to better understand the relative roles of the local oil sands industry versus climate change in driving aquatic primary production trends. Nutrient deposition maps, generated using geostatistical interpolations of spring-time snowpack measurements from a grid pattern across the AOSR, demonstrate patterns of elevated total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and bioavailable nitrogen deposition around the main area of industrial activity. However, this pattern is not observed for bioavailable phosphorus. Our paleolimnological findings demonstrate consistently greater VRS-chla concentrations compared to pre-oil sands development levels, regardless of morphological and limnological characteristics, landscape position, bioavailable nutrient deposition, and dibenzothiophene (DBT-inferred industrial impacts. Furthermore, breakpoint analyses on VRS-chla concentrations across a gradient of DBT-inferred industrial impact show limited evidence of a contemporaneous change among lakes. Despite the contribution of bioavailable nitrogen to the landscape from industrial activities, we find no consistency in the spatial pattern and timing of VRS-chla shifts with an industrial fertilizing signal

  16. A conceptual framework and practical guide for assessing fitness-to-operate in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Mark A; Hodkiewicz, Melinda R; Dunster, Jeremy; Kanse, Lisette; Parkes, Katharine R; Finnerty, Dannielle; Cordery, John L; Unsworth, Kerrie L

    2014-07-01

    The paper outlines a systemic approach to understanding and assessing safety capability in the offshore oil and gas industry. We present a conceptual framework and assessment guide for understanding fitness-to-operate (FTO) that builds a more comprehensive picture of safety capability for regulators and operators of offshore facilities. The FTO framework defines three enabling capitals that create safety capability: organizational capital, social capital, and human capital. For each type of capital we identify more specific dimensions based on current theories of safety, management, and organizational processes. The assessment guide matches specific characteristics to each element of the framework to support assessment of safety capability. The content and scope of the FTO framework enable a more comprehensive coverage of factors that influence short-term and long-term safety outcomes.

  17. Finite element analysis of the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes applications to the oil industry

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorkin, Eduardo N

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of the models that were developed to simulate the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes. The finite element method offers to engineers the possibility of developing models to simulate the collapse behavior of casings inside oil wells and the collapse behavior of deepwater pipelines. However, if technological decisions are going to be reached from these model results, with implications for the economic success of industrial operations, for the occupational safety and health and for the environment, the engineering models need to be highly reliable. Using these models engineers can quantify the effect of manufacturing tolerances, wear, corrosion, etc. This book describes in great details the experimental programs that are developed to validate the numerical results.

  18. The Oil Industry in Macaé: characteristics and socioeconomic impacts under the perspective of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Luiz de Mello Loureiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and discuss the main socioeconomic aspects of the evolutionary process of local development, after the arrival of the oil industry in Macaé. The methodology consisted of an exploratory and documentary research to base the study on the concepts of sustainability and local development. Results show the existing social externalities, the exploratory and centralized model of the undertaking, its impacts on local enterprises and society, and the absence of a better planning and management shared among the social, business and political actors involved. These findings are supported by experiences reported worldwide, and are associated with distributive environmental conflicts. Therefore, one can consider as indicative, the need for a more useful discussion about the spatial, cultural, political and social problems of the regions as a tool able to provide planned actions towards sustainability.

  19. Modernisation of the mineral oil industry in the new Laender; Modernisierung der Mineraloelindustrie in den neuen Bundeslaendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, P. [Mineraloelwirtschaftsverband e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The structural differences between the energy economies of the two Germanies on the advent of reunification could hardly have been greater. The centralist, planned economy was oriented to autarky and therefore relied heavily on its domestic energy source of brown coal. In 1989 brown coal accounted for 68.4%, hence more than two thirds, of the Democratic Republic`s total primary energy consumption of 128 million t of coal equivalent. Its corresponding share in the old Laender was only 23.5%. In the old Laender mineral oil with a share of 40% represented the prime energy source, whereas in the new Laender it accounted for only 14% of primary energy consumption. However, this small proportion in no way reflects the true significance of the mineral oil industry in the former GDR. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die strukturelle Ausgangslage zum Zeitpunkt der Wiedervereinigung im Energieversorgungsbereich zwischen beiden Teilen Deutschlands konnte unterschiedlicher nicht sein. Die auf Autarkie ausgerichtete Zentralverwaltungswirtschaft setzte auf den einheimischen Energietraeger Braunkohle, der 1989 mit 68,4% am gesamten Primaerenergieverbrauch in Hoehe von 128 Mio. t Steinkohleeinheiten (SKE) mehr als zwei Drittel des Energieverbrauchs stellte, gegenueber 23,5 v. H. in den alten Bundeslaendern. Das Mineraloel, in den alten Bundeslaendern mit 40% Anteil wichtigster Energietraeger, war in den neuen Bundeslaendern lediglich mit knapp 14% am Primaerenergieverbrauch beteiligt. Dieser niedrige Anteil wird der Bedeutung der Mineraloelindustrie in der ehemaligen DDR aber keineswegs gerecht. (orig.)

  20. Investigating Effect of Development of Agricutural, Industrial, Service and Oil Revenue to ICOR ofAgricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyeh Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, considering the importance of incremental capital output ratio (ICOR in agriculture Investment capital and self-sufficiency in this sector in order to grow and being influenced by the past and previous relationships strong agricultural sector productivity growth in other sectors of the economy, especially the effect of oil revenues, was trying to, long-term relationships as well as their adjustment process described by the Autoregressive-Distributed Lag model (ARDL to investigate.The results also confirm the long-run relationship between the variables of the model show that oil revenues in appropriate path to growth agricultural productivity have beentoo much attention to the industry and imports of agricultural products decreased investment in agricultural productivity. However, the service sector growth by improving marketing activities and financing farmers to improve venture capital productivity in the agricultural sector operates. In the long run, adjusting the intersection, the model indicates improved productivity in the agricultural sector is of capital. Shown the necessary support to the agricultural sector in the short term.

  1. Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Kabbashi, Nassereldeen A; Hussin, S Nahdatul I S

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was found to be the mixed culture that yielded the highest ethanol production (4% v/v or 31.6 g/l). Statistical optimization was carried out to determine the operating conditions of the stirred-tank bioreactor for maximum bioethanol production by a two-level fractional factorial design with a single central point. The factors involved were oxygen saturation level (pO(2)%), temperature, and pH. A polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum ethanol production of 4.6% (v/v) or 36.3 g/l was achieved at a temperature of 32 degrees C, pH of 6, and pO(2) of 30%. The results of the model validation test under the developed optimum process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 4.6% (v/v) to 6.5% (v/v) or 51.3 g/l with 89.1% chemical-oxygen-demand removal.

  2. The Reality of Project Management Office for Construction Organization in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Izadpanah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the Project Management Office (PMO has become a prominent feature in many organizations. Despite the proliferation of PMO in practice, our understanding of this phenomenon remains sketchy at best. The objective of this study is describing the reality of PMOs for Construction Organization in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry of Iran at 2010 year. Nine major Iranian oil, gas and petrochemical organizations were participated in this survey. The study examines the reality of PMOs, the age of PMOs, the reason for their implementation and challenges during their implementation. Research concludes that PMO are a new concept and nearly 60% of PMOs have been in existence for 3 years. Monitoring project performance, supporting project management software tools and preparing project management methodology are the most used functions. Organizations are using PMOs to achieve the golden triangle project objectives (cost/time/quality. The study found that the most significant challenges in PMO implementation are the risk of changing organizational culture and the lack of professional staff.

  3. Users’ acceptance and attitude in regarding electronic medical record at central polyclinic of oil industry in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Nahid; Shahin, Arash; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Mokhtari, Habibollah; Rafiei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Simultaneous with the rapid changes in the technology and information systems, hospitals interest in using them. One of the most common systems in hospitals is electronic medical record (EMR) whose one of uses is providing better health care quality via health information technology. Prior to its use, attempts should be put to identifying factors affecting the acceptance, attitude and utilizing of this technology. The current article aimed to study the effective factors of EMR acceptance by technology acceptance model (TAM) at central polyclinic of Oil Industry in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This was a practical, descriptive and regression study. The population research were all EMR users at polyclinic of Oil Industry in 2012 and its sampling was simple random with 62 users. The tool of data collection was a research-made questionnaire based on TAM. The validity of questionnaire has been assigned through the strategy of content validity and health information technology experts’ views and its reliability by test-retest. Findings: The system users have positive attitude toward using EMR (56.6%). Also, users are not very satisfied with effective external (38.14%) and behavioral factors (47.8%) upon using the system. Perceived ease-of-use (PEU) and perceived usefulness (PU) were at a good level. Conclusion: Lack of relative satisfaction with using of EMR derives from factors such as appearance, screen, data and information quality and terminology. In this study, it is suggested to improve the system and the efficiency of the users through software’ external factors development. So that PEU and users’ attitude to be changed and moved in positive manner. PMID:24524089

  4. Evolution of the quality of the oil and the product in semi-industrial frying

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz, M.; de Oliveira, P. P.; Ferreira,Margarida A.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the quality of two commercial brands of cooking oil were studied under the frying conditions traditionally used in the Portuguese hospitality trade. Three hundred rissoles were fried at a temperature of 160-170°C for 1 hour. Values of peroxide, p-anisidine, Totox, acidity and total polar compounds were determined. Isomeric cis and trans fatty acids were quantified using CP-Sil 88-packed capillary column via gas chromatography.

    La evolución de la calidad de dos ma...

  5. New Method to Produce an Industrial Lubrication Fluid from Vegetable Oil-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The projected demand for industrial and automotive lubricants in the U.S. is ~2.6 billion gallons by 2017, where bio-based lubricants will play an increasing role, from a share of 0.6% today to a possible 1.2% by 2017. This is accompanied by the expected price increase to >$7.00/gallon which will g...

  6. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  7. A review of epidemiological injury studies in the oil- and gas offshore industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Laursen, Lise Hedegaard

    2014-01-01

    papers in PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases that were published on or before January 1st 2000. Results: i) The fatal injury incidence rates in the USA are significantly higher than for all other industries; ii) The incidence rates of lost time injuries have been...

  8. Solvation phenomena in association theories with applications to oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2008-01-01

    Association theories e.g. those belonging to the SAFT family account explicitly for self- and cross-association (solvation) phenomena. Such phenomena are of great practical importance as they affect, often dramatically, the phase behaviour of many mixtures of industrial relevance. From the scient...

  9. Least cost energy planning in Thailand:A case of biogas upgrading in palm oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artite Pattanapongchai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is currently the world’s fourth largest producer of crude palm oil. The palm oil mill effluent is proposed to beused for biogas production. A value added option is then proposed by increasing thermal efficiency of the biogas by removingCO2 content and increasing the percentage of methane, consequently turning the biogas in to green gas. In this study, thebiogas and upgrading process for electricity generation with the subsidy or adder in the long term planning is presented. Thisanalysis uses the MARKAL-based least-cost energy system as an analytical tool. The objective of this study is to investigateupgrading biogas with a selected water scrubbing technique featuring least-cost energy planning. The co-benefit aspect ofbiogas and biogas upgrading project is analyzed by given an adder of 0.3 Baht/kWh. The target of total electricity generationfrom biogas is 60 MW in 2012. The result shows that green gas will account for approximately 44.91 million m3 in 2012 andincrease to 238.89 million m3 in 2030. The cumulative CO2 emission during 2012-2030 is 2,354.92 thousand tonnes of CO2.Results show that under the given adders the upgrading project is competitive with the conventional technologies in electricitygeneration planning.

  10. HACCP在食用油加工行业中的应用探讨%Discussion about Application of HACCP to Edible Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦; 聂作明; 王兴国

    2009-01-01

    探讨HAcCP(危害分析与关键控制点)体系在食用油行业中的应用,指出食用油行业安全问题是一个全程的质量控制问题.为了使HACCP体系更好地应用于食用油行业,不仅要注重加工中的安全操作,而且更要加强食用油在流通领域及食用过程中安全问题的关注力度,提高HACcP在实际推广过程中所提出的问题的研究广度和深度,并对食用油产品进行有效分类.%The application of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) to edible oil industry was further discussed, indicating that the safety problem of edible oil area is a problem of quality control in overall process. To ensure that HACCP could be carry out better in edible oil industry, we should not only focus on safe operations in the process of oilproducing, but also strengthen the attention on safety problems appeared in edible oil circulation stage and consumption,enhance the depth and extent of studies on edible oil safety problems generated in the process of HACCP practice, and clas-sify the edible oil product effectively.

  11. [Comparative analysis of occupational health services practice of international companies of oil and gas industry and ILO Convention "Occupational Health Services"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, É V; Spiridonov, V L; Shatokhin, A S; Ékgardt, E V; Avdokhin, A V; Iakovlev, A P

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of current work practices of occupational health services of international companies of Russian oil & gas industry and provisions of ILO Convention 161 and Recommendation 171 "Occupational Health Services" has been carried out. Proposals for improvement and harmonization of labor legislation related to this problem have been formulated.

  12. 我国木本粮油产业发展战略研究%Industrialization development strategy of woody grain and oil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓风; 马履一; 李芳东; 姚小华; 裴东; 苏淑钗; 毛永民; 李建安; 袁德义

    2012-01-01

    Woody grain and oil industry is an industry category of cultivation and utilization of woody starch and woody oil plants. Development of woody grain and oil in China is the inevitable choice to alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand of grain and oil and protect the safety of cereal, oil and foodstuffs, it is an important way of developing green economy and increasing farmers' income, it is the actual need of optimizing food structure and improving people's living standards, and it is the effective way of speeding up greening and improving ecological environment. There are abundant resources of woody grain and oil tree species, innumerable mountain areas which is suitable for developing woody grain and oil, broad consumer market both at home and abroad. Development of woody grain and oil industry should be included in the new development track of the national food security, cooking oil and energy security. Some suggestions and strategies were put forward, including strengthening the government support,increasing science and technology support, making scientific planning for woody grain and oil industry, implementing intensive cultivation of woody grain and oil industry, extending industry chain, improving comprehensive benefit, promoting industrialization technical level of woody grain and oil, strengthening personnel training, and ensuring technical force of industry development.%木本粮油产业是以栽培利用木本淀粉类和木本油料类经济树种的产业门类.阐述了我国发展木本粮油产业的战略意义——发展木本粮油产业是缓解我国粮油供需矛盾、维护国家粮油安全的必然选择,是发展绿色经济、促进农民增收的重要途径,是优化食物结构、提高人民生活水平的现实需要,是加快国土绿化、改善生态环境的有效方式;分析了我国发展木本粮油产业的有利条件——我国有非常丰富的木本粮油树种资源,有适宜发展木本粮油的大

  13. Business process modeling of industrial maintenance at TRANSPETRO: integrating oil pipeline and marine terminals activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO in remodeling industrial maintenance activities focusing on: preparing for business process modeling (BPM); mapping and analyzing 'As-Is' process; designing 'To-Be' process; implementing remodeled process; improving process continuously. The conceptual model and results achieved will contribute to several areas within the company as: reliability engineering; human resources, including employees' selective processes, training and development, and certifications; standardization process encompassing standard and operational procedures adoption according to up-dating external normative references and legal requirements; health, safety and environment (HSE) performance improvement. These are some of potential benefits from BPM focusing on TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance area in the search of operational excellence. (author)

  14. PROMINP (Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas): synergy in the national industry; PROMINP (Programa de Mobilizacao da Industria Nacional de Petroleo e Gas Natural): sinergia na industria nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jose Renato Ferreira de; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Lopesm Ronaldo Rangel; Lisboa, Vitor Manuel dos Santos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Federal Government identified, from the forecast of massive investments in the sector of oil and natural gas in the next years, that it was establishing a favorable environment to foment the participation of the national industry of goods and services, in competitive and sustainable bases, in the implantation of projects of oil and gas in Brazil. Thus, in 2003, it was born the Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas - PROMINP. From an ample diagnosis of the necessary critical resources, throughout the time, for the implementation of the planned projects, the PROMINP identifies the gaps related to the professional qualification, industrial infrastructure and supply of materials and equipment, and, to surpass these challenges, it has lead, in these five years of existence, an expressive set of action for each one of the cited sources, of form to assure the competitiveness of the Industry of Supply of Goods and services and the support of this process. Such actions are elaborated and developed of joint form it enters all the participants of the chain. Since the creation of the PROMINP, the participation of the national industry (Local Content) in the investments of the sector increased of 57% in 2003 for 75% in 2007, what it means a US$ addition 8,3 billion orders of goods and services in the national market and generated more than 390 thousand new jobs. (author)

  15. Development of a process maturity model for engineering, construction and maintenance projects in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldman, J.; Klingenberg, W. [Faculty of Management and Organization, University of Groningen, PO BOX 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Process improvement is a topic gaining considerable attention in literature. For the processes of Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Maintenance (i.e. EPCM) projects in the oil and gas industry, no frameworks exist that can guide these firms in the management of these processes. Using a detailed gap analysis we map the typical processes of EPCM-organisations onto the Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI), a stepwise process improvement model that is widely used in the software industry. Our main contribution is the conclusion that CMMI can benefit the management of EPCM-processes to a large degree, since it gives direction to the improvement of a considerable set of processes within EPCM-projects. Additional insight is given into the scientifically neglected area of learning between projects and the relationship between an organisation's goals and targeted areas of process improvement. These issues are absent in CMMI so further research is needed to develop framework support for, amongst others, downstream processes (construction and maintenance), learning between projects and goal driven process improvement.

  16. The use tracer radioactive in the station of treatment residual of in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damera, A.; Ramos, K. [Center of Attention to the Nuclear Activity, City of Camaguey (Cuba); Ferreira, A.; Magalhaes, A. [Centro of Development of Nuclear Technology, Mines Gerais (Brazil); Derivet, M. [Cuban Institute of Sugar Investigations, Havana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The industry of the petroleum comes being in you finish them decades, an user of the Nuclear Techniques, overalls starting from the II World War, when sources radioactive and new techniques passed the investigators' disposition and technicians of the civil sector. Due to the amplification of activities in some of the technical and economic characteristics of this industry the possibilities of application of the nuclear techniques are proportionally bigger and more important than in many other sectors of the economy. This work was carried out in the Station of Treatment of Residual Industrial (ETDI) in PETROBRAS (Brazil). The ETDI has the function of receiving, to store and to try the you discard liquids and gassy coming from diverse points of the refinery avoiding this way the contamination of the environment. The work consisted on the determination of the time of residence inside the flocculators and the floats, for it was used it the nuclear technique of radioactive radiotracer, concretely the Technetium 99 m. This has a great economic and environmental importance, because when obtaining the time of real.. residence experimentally in the flocculators and the floats, you can compare with those obtained theoretically and to influence on the system, optimizing their operation. (authors)

  17. Recent developments in wear- and corrosion-resistant alloys for the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghu, D. [Deloro Stellite Inc., Goshen, IN (United States). Stellite Coatings Div.; Wu, J.B.C. [Stoody Deloro Stellite, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Oil production and refining pose very severe wear and corrosion environments. Material designers are challenged with the need to design and develop materials that combine high corrosion resistance with good wear resistance. Coupled with that is the need for these materials to meet requirements such as fracture toughness and resistance to sulfide and chloride stress corrosion cracking. Often, increasing wear resistance compromises the corrosion and welding characteristics. This article covers a variety of material developments that address the problems of wear and corrosion, including alloy design fundamentals and pertinent wear properties and general corrosion resistance compared to traditional wear-resistant materials. Proven applications, with particular reference to petroleum and petrochemical areas, are discussed. Potential applications are also cited.

  18. Geopolitical connections problems of oil and gas industry; Interdipendenza e geopolitica del petrolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreatta, F. [Bologna Univ. (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    The connections between diplomatic alignments and economic policy and the strategic nature of energy resources affect the foreign policies of major powers. The discovery of vast oil and gas deposits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus represents an important alternative source other than the Middle East. However, it also presents serious geopolitical problems given the persistence of multiple regional conflicts. [Italiano] L`intreccio tra allineamenti diplomatici e politica economica e la natura strategica delle risorse di energia influenza l apolitica estera dei maggiori Paesi. In quest`ottica, la scopertadi vasti giacimenti di petrolio e gas nell`Asia centrale e nel transcaucaso rappresenta un`importante diversificazione dal Medio Oriente, ma pone anche difficili problemi geopolitici vista la presenza di numerosi conflitti nella regione.

  19. Radioactivity in the oil industry - how much is it and is it of any concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thingvoll, J.T. [Norske Stats Oljeselskap A.S., Stavanger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Oil producing countries around the North Sea generate annually around 200 tons of naturally occurring radioactive waste materials. This paper deals with the health risk from radiation doses received by workers and the public from handling and processing LSA (Low Specific Activity) scale. The values of specific activity (Bq/g) and the total becquerel (Bq) activity of the scale exceeds the exemption levels suggested in the EU (European Union) directive on ionizing radiation (1994 revision). If the proposed EU directive comes into force the consequences will be large and mostly negative in terms of public image and cost. The improvements in radiological protection for the workers and public in general are anticipated to be minor. A few recommendations to address these problems have been suggested. 19 refs., 8 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of cross correlation technique to measure flow in pipes of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilan, Eddie J., E-mail: eddieavilan@gmail.com [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Reis, Verginia, E-mail: verginia@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Barreira, Luis E.; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Radiofarmacos

    2013-07-01

    The present work is concerned with the use of the cross correlation technique to measure delay time between two simulated signals displaced with respect to time, in order to develop a cross correlator system that will be used to measure the water and oil pipes flowrate in which the detection system is composed by two external low intensity radiation sources located along the tube and two NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detectors. The final purpose of the correlator system is to use the natural disturbances, as the turbulence in the own flow rather than to inject radioactive tracers to the fluid flow as usually is carried out. In the design of this correlator is evaluated the point-by-point calculation method for the cross correlation function in order to produce a system accurate and fast. This method is divided at the same time in three modes of operation: direct, relay and polarity. (author)

  1. Outsourcing Maintenance Activities or Increasing Risks? Case Study in Oil Industry of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this Research are to identify the the Potential risks and Expected outsourcing benefits influencing the decision making to outsource maintenance Activities in Aghajari Oil and Gas Production Company (Aj.O.G.P.C, and to investigate the relative importance of each of the identified factors based on the expressed opinions of the mangers and head employee in the Aj.O.G.P.C.The authors conducted a comprehensive review of the literature in the fields of maintenance management and outsourcing practices to achieve a thorough understanding of the issues involved, and identifying the crucial factors and the Potential risks and Expected outsourcing benefits affecting the outsourcing decision of maintenance Activities. A questionnaire survey was developed to assess each the Potential risks and expected outsourcing benefits influencing the decision to outsource maintenance services between 182 managers and head employee of the Aj.O.G.P.C.

  2. Investigation of the geothermal state of sedimentary basins using oil industry thermal data: case study from Northern Alberta exhibiting the need to systematically remove biased data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D. Allan; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2012-10-01

    Subsurface temperature data from industrial sources may contain significant biases that greatly reduce their overall quality. However, if these biases can be identified and removed, the data can provide a good preliminary source of information for further studies. In this paper, industrial thermal data from three sources: bottom hole temperatures, annual pool pressure tests and drill stem tests are evaluated to provide an updated view of the subsurface temperatures below the oil sand regions of Northern Alberta. The study highlights some of the potentially large systematic biases inherent in industrial temperature data which affect estimates of geothermal gradient and regional mapping of the geothermal field.

  3. Economics of coal use for heavy oil recovery: An industry/government study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the economic feasibility of using Alberta's extensive subbituminous coal reserves for the in-situ recovery of its extensive heavy oil reserves. The capital and operating cost differential of burning coal rather than natural gas for generating steam for in-situ thermal recovery was evaluated. The economic analysis was performed using Lotus 1-2-3 software and the economic model used in the analysis included two scenarios: a single in-line configuration of 6 steam generators, and a 3-cluster arrangement each consisting of 6 steam generators. Generic locations selected for the heavy oil sites are the Cold Lake and Peace River areas. The economic model includes unit train transportation rates for delivery of coal from the Highvale, Obed, or Camrose-Riley mines to Peace River and trucking costs from the mines to Cold Lake. The rate of return in the base case model using Highvale coal was calculated to be 17.5% and 15.27% for Peace River and Cold Lake respectively in the single in-line steam generation scenario. For the 3-cluster scenario, the corresponding rates of return were 24.73% and 23.57%. The rates of return for the 3-cluster case is significantly higher due to the reduced per-unit coal transportation costs due to the higher coal volumes. Sensitivity analyses show that the economics for using coal instead of natural gas are most dependent on natural gas price projections and coal plant capital. The cost of boilers comprises a major part of the capital costs for the coal plants. 3 refs., 18 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Human and ecotoxicological impacts assessment from the Mexican oil industry in the Coatzacoalcos region, as revealed by the USEtox model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Mora, M A; Rodríguez-Pérez, B; Martínez-Delgadillo, S A; Rosa-Domínguez, E; Nolasco-Hipólito, C

    2014-01-01

    Human and ecotoxicological impacts were analyzed in the lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos River (Veracruz, State in Mexico). High pollution levels of contaminants from the oil industry have been reported in natural streams and the Coatzacoalcos River and in their sediments. USEtox model was employed to evaluate environmental fate, exposure, and effect of nine organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and one of which was in the group of polychlorinated biphenyls), a heavy metal (lead), and the effect of the industrial wastewater emitted into the river, on the Coatzacoalcos region. Most of these compounds are highly toxic; they bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, mainly in the fatty tissues and can damage different organs and systemic targets such as the liver, kidney, hormonal system, nervous system, etc., of both humans and wildlife. The model estimates that 96% (3,247 kg/day) of organic compounds is transferred from the water into air, whereas only 4% (151 kg/day) remains in the water. In addition, it predicts that humans are mainly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners (28 and 153) by eating contaminated fish, due to PCBs accumulating in the fish fat tissue. The number of cases of cancer and noncancer (1 in 862 habitants per additional kilogram) is expected to have an increment due to the higher PCBs exposure of human population. Genetic damages in fishes, earthworms, and toads have been observed and related to higher exposure to organic compounds. The relationship between the field reported data and those one predicted by the USEtox model have been confirmed empirically by using the nonparametric correlation analysis (Spearman's rho). Based on the USEtox model, the environmental stress in the Coatzacoalcos industrial zone is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude over geometric mean of acute aquatic EC₅₀s. We think that USEtox model can be used to expand the number of substances that have the current water quality guidelines to

  5. A new optical pressure sensor interrogated by speckles pattern for oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Vinicius M.; Pontes, Maria J.; Neto, Anselmo F.; Webster, Lucas G.

    2015-09-01

    A new optical pressure control concept in petroleum industry based on laser speckle analysis, with inherent safety light, is investigated in this work. A plastic optical fiber (POF) utilized to instrument a conventional manometer enabled pressure monitoring of a system that is interrogated by speckle photography technique. Specklegrams were imaged on a CCD camera and then analyzed, after Mathematical Morphology Filter, regarding its movement. Tests demonstrated that the speckle pattern movement is radial towards the center of pressure and accordingly reverse during depressurization within 5% maximum error.

  6. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    -alcohol (glycol)-alkanes and certain acid and amine-containing mixtures. Recent results include glycol-aromatic hydrocarbons including multiphase, multicomponent equilibria and gas hydrate calculations in combination with the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. This article will outline some new applications...... of the model of relevance to the petroleum and chemical industries: high pressure vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibrium in alcohol-containing mixtures, mixtures with gas hydrate inhibitors and mixtures with polar and hydrogen bonding chemicals including organic acids. Some comparisons with conventional...

  7. The Strategy of Voluntary Certification in Italian Olive Oil Industry: Who and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganelli, Chiara; Marchini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of asymmetric information is central in the agri-food sector, in which often there is not full information transparency about product quality. This condition is particularly complex considering the high-end products. In particular, there are specific attributes (credence attributes) that are not assessable by consumers. For these reasons, a clear information about certification can give to consumers the possibility to make a rational choice. A company can choose voluntarily to participate in certification programs that can be viewed also as a simplification of some organization issues. Often the incentives to participate in voluntary programs arise from the need to have a positive economic performance of the firm. On the one hand, the firm may have benefits from the technical assistance of the certification, which allows it to reduce costs of controlling particular sensible steps of the process. On the other hand, the firm may provide a new certification label, in order to ensure a greater transparency of its processes. The research aims to understand the characteristics of firms oriented to use voluntary certifications as a tool to reduce information asymmetries between producers and final consumers. In particular, we want to consider two contexts of analysis: a structural one, considering some specific internal aspects and investment choices of the firms (typology, size, extraction system, storage system, material investments, immaterial investments); a second one that takes into account some decisions related to market relationships (sale to consumers, sale to HoReCa, sale to wholesalers, sale to purchasing groups, sale to GDO, export activity). The study concerns small and medium olive oil company of Southern Italy. We apply two logit models in order to show the determinants in the choice to introduce a voluntary certification. The results show significant values in both the two dimensions considered. Among the first one, there are significances

  8. Oil industry first field trial of inter-well reservoir nanoagent tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanj, Mazen Y.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.

    2015-05-01

    This short manuscript highlights the industry's first proven reservoir nanoagents' design and demonstrates a successful multi-well field trial using these agents. Our fundamental nanoparticles tracer template, A-Dots or Arab-D Dots, is intentionally geared towards the harsh but prolific Arab-D carbonate reservoir environment of 100+°C temperature, 150,000+ppm salinity, and an abundant presence of divalent ions in the connate water. Preliminary analyses confirmed nanoparticles' breakthrough at a producer nearly 500m from the injector at the reservoir level; thus, proving the tracer nanoparticles' mobility and transport capability. This is considered industry-first and a breakthrough achievement complementing earlier accomplishments in regard to the nanoagents' reservoir stability with the first successful single well test and ease of scale up with the synthesis of one metric ton of this material. The importance of this accomplishment is not in how sophisticated is the sensing functionalities of this design but rather in its stability, mobility, scalability, and field application potentials. This renders the concept of having active, reactive, and even communicative, in-situ reservoir nanoagents for underground sensing and intervention a well anticipated near-future reality.

  9. Evolution of the quality of the oil and the product in semi-industrial frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz, M.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the quality of two commercial brands of cooking oil were studied under the frying conditions traditionally used in the Portuguese hospitality trade. Three hundred rissoles were fried at a temperature of 160-170°C for 1 hour. Values of peroxide, p-anisidine, Totox, acidity and total polar compounds were determined. Isomeric cis and trans fatty acids were quantified using CP-Sil 88-packed capillary column via gas chromatography.

    La evolución de la calidad de dos marcas comerciales de aceite comestible fue estudiada según la forma tradicional de fritura usada en el mercado portugués, por el cual trescientas empanadillas rellenas fueron fritas a temperatura de 160-170°C durante un período de una hora. Se determinaron los índices de peróxido , p-anisidina, Totox, acidez y compuestos polares totales. Los ácidos grasos isoméricos cis y trans fueron cuantificados por cromatografía gaseosa en columna capilar rellena con CP-Sil 88.

  10. Monitoring and Protection of Oil and Gas Condition in Industrial Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chalapathi Rao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are one of the fastest growing and emerging technologies in the field of Wireless networking today. WSNs have a vast amount of applications including environmental monitoring, military, ecology, agriculture, inventory control, robotics and health care. This paper focuses on monitoring and protection of oil and gas operations using WSNs that are optimized to decrease installation, and maintenance cost, energy requirements, increase reliability and improve communication efficiency. In addition, simulation experiments using the proposed model are presented. Such models could provide new tools for research in predictive maintenance and condition-based monitoring of factory machinery in general and for open architecture machining systems in particular. Wireless sensing no longer needs to be relegated to locations where access is difficult or where cabling is not practical. Wireless condition monitoring systems can be cost effectively implemented in extensive applications that were historically handled by running routes with data collectors. The result would be a lower cost program with more frequent data collection, increased safety, and lower spare parts inventories. Facilities would be able to run leaner because they will have more confidence in their ability to avoid downtime

  11. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries. A business analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pau, F. [Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus Research Institute of Management ERIM, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oremus, M.H.P. [Rolls Royce (BMW) Germany, Dahlewitz (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    While you refuel for gas, why not refuel for information or download vehicle data? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage, service offering, and full business models from WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional, public) around gas stations. Also analyzed are the parties which play a role in such service authorization, provisioning and delivery, with all the dependencies modelled by attributed digraphs. Service planning is included as to WLAN base station capabilities. Five year financial models (CAPEX,OPEX), and data pertain to two possible service suppliers: multi-service oil companies, and mobile service operators (or MVNO). Model optimization on the return-on-investment (ROI) is carried out for different deployment scenarios, geographical coverage assumptions, as well as tariff structures. Comparison is also being made with public GPRS data services, as precursors for 3G services, and the effect of WLAN roaming is analyzed. Analysis shows that due to manpower costs and marketing costs, suitable ROI will not be achieved unless externalities are accounted for and innovative tariff structures are introduced. Open issues and further research are outlined. Further work is carried out, also with automotive electronics sector, wireless systems providers, wireless terminals platform suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers.

  12. How confident is Fort McKay that industry can reclaim oil sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, C. [Fort McKay First Nations, AB (Canada)

    2004-02-05

    This presentation described how traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) can provide valuable information for both the reclamation design and assessment of oil sand development in Fort McKay. Conservation is valued by the Fort McKay First Nations communities who claim that current reclamation methods are too slow, and that the land is not being brought back to its original use with the uniqueness of the boreal landscape. Elders have noted that each year the water level in the Athabasca River is lower. The blowing tailings and coke dust are causing trees to dye and driving animals away. There is concern that the animals that remain may not be safe to eat. The Fort McKay First Nation community has stated that it will view reclamation as a success only when it functions with proof over many generations. The major concerns include: salt in the water draining from reclaimed areas; salt in the soils of reclaimed area; muskeg cannot be recreated; and, the issue of whether cranberry, blueberry and streambank forest areas can be recreated, along with traditional medicinal plants. Other concerns include the loss of rivers such as the Beaver Creek and Tar River, and that the water in reclaimed areas may not be suitable for animals to live in or to drink. tabs., figs.

  13. Different strokes: regulatory styles and environmental strategy in the North-American oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The environmental management and policy literature presents competing arguments for and against different styles of environmental regulations - command-and-control versus flexible regulations that enable voluntary actions. On the one hand, it is argued that firms will not adopt minimum environmental standards without command-and-control regulations and that such regulations may actually result in competitive benefits for first movers. On the other hand, the literature argues that command-and-control regulations stifle innovation and that flexible regulations encourage proactive environmental strategies that lead to competitive benefits for organizations. This study compared the environmental strategies and competitiveness of oil and gas firms in two different regulatory contexts - the command-and-control based US environmental regulations and the flexible collaborative Canadian context. The study found no significant differences in the degree to which firms within the two contexts were more or less proactive in their environmental strategies or in the extent of competitiveness associated with corporate environmental strategies. Follow-up interviews with 12 Canadian and US companies indicated that regulations appeared to be more important drivers of corporate environmental practices at initial stages and eventually other external and internal drivers became more important influences on corporate environmental strategies. (Author)

  14. Recycling of palm oil industrial wastes using vermicomposting technology: its kinetics study and environmental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupani, Parveen Fatemeh; Embrandiri, Asha; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Shahadat, Mohammad; Hansen, Sune Balle; Ismail, Sultan Ahmed; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2017-05-01

    The present paper reports management of palm oil mill effluent (POME) mixed with palm-pressed fibre (PPF) POME-PPF mixture using eco-friendly, cost-effective vermicomposting technology. Vermicomposting of POME-PPF was performed to examine the optimal POME-PPF ratio with respect to the criteria of earthworm biomass and to evaluate the decomposition of carbon and nitrogen in different percentages of POME-PPF mixtures. Chemical parameters such as TOC, N, P and K contents were determined to achieve optimal decomposition of POME-PPF. On this basis, the obtained data of 50% POME-PPF mixture demonstrated more significant results throughout the experiment after addition of the earthworms. However, 60 and 70% mixtures found significant only in the last stages of the vermicomposting process. The decomposition rate in terms of -ln (CNt/CNo) showed that the 50% mixture has higher decomposition rate as compared to the 60 and 70% (k50% = 0.0498 day(-1)). The vermicomposting extracts (50, 60 and 70%) of POME-PPF mixtures were also tested to examine the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). It was found that among different extract dilutions, 50% POME-PPF vermicompost extract provided longer root and shoot length of mung bean. The present study concluded that the 50% mixture of POME-PPF could be chosen as the optimal mixture for vermicomposting in terms of both decomposition rate and fertilizer value of the final compost. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  15. Crises Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: The Niger Delta Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemene, Glory C.

    The Niger Delta crises escalated beyond the borders of the Nigerian nation to become an issue that affected individuals and corporations around the world. This study led to the discovery of how the local crises escalated with international implications. This discovery was accomplished by addressing how the Niger Delta crises escalated from villages to international scenes, with notable impacts on the environment, health, safety, security, and financial segments of local, international, private, and corporate entities. Using Sweeny's crisis decision theory and Lazarus and Folkman's coping theory, the study considered the coping strategies of community members, the decisions, and actions they took in response to the management approaches of the government and the oil and gas companies (OGCs). This qualitative study utilized historical narrative to collect data by interviewing 4 participants who lived and worked in the region during the crises. NVivo was used for manual and automatic coding of data, as well as for categorization and connection of codes. Content analysis of identified codes and categories revealed the themes and trends in the experiences narrated by participants. Findings include the root causes, trend of escalation, and management strategies of the government and the OGCs that influenced the crises. These findings will help to influence policies and practices in the region and enhance effective management of current and emerging conflicts, with possibilities of restoring stability and security in the areas and in the nation at large.

  16. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon.

  17. A data envelopment analysis model for rank ordering suppliers in the oil industry

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    Rocha Rafael Brandão

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of integration companies-suppliers top the strategic agendas of managers. Developing a system showing which suppliers merit continuing and deepening the partnership is difficult because of the large quantity of variables to be analyzed. The internationalized petroleum industry, requiring a large variety of materials, is no different. In this context, the Brazilian company PETROBRAS S.A. has a system to evaluate its suppliers based on a consensus panel formed by its managers. This paper shows a two phase methodology for classifying and awarding suppliers using the DEA model. Firstly, the suppliers are classified according to their efficiency based on commercial transactions realized. Secondly they are classified according to the opinions of the managers, using a DEA model for calculating votes, with the assurance regions and superefficiency defining the best suppliers. The paper presents a case study in the E&P segment of PETROBRAS and the results obtained with the methodology.

  18. Knowledge-intensive work in the oil and gas industry: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelle, Torstein Elias Loeland

    2012-07-01

    This thesis examines collaborative work practices within a large international oil and gas company (OGC). The work is founded on the introduction of a new standardised and integrated collaboration infrastructure based on Microsoft SharePoint technology, which was intended to improve knowledge sharing across both disciplinary and geographical boundaries within the company and with external partners. Using a longitudinal case study, the thesis investigates how the introduction of this new solution has been received in different organisational contexts. The work is inspired by social studies of information systems (IS) and seeks to explain the role of the new collaboration infrastructure in an enterprise context with actors and stakeholders that have different interests, experiences and expectations. The focus of the thesis was to investigate how the collaboration infrastructure has been received and has become an integral part of the users' daily work. Previous research has shown that the introduction of different information systems does not adequately account for local, established practices and thus results in systems that are not used optimally. In many cases, users have to establish informal practices to work around the limitations of the system. In this research, we investigate this potential divergence between the intended and actual usage of these large information systems. Based on our empirical findings, we argue that in knowledge-intensive, interdisciplinary work such as oil and gas production, an integrated collaboration solution does not ensure knowledge sharing and a collaborative work environment. In fact, such a system plays a surprisingly small role in supporting the daily work. Other factors, such as a strong community, an open and inclusive atmosphere, work locations and expert tools, play significantly stronger roles. The thesis does not exclusively focus on the new collaboration solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. Rather, it

  19. WiFi Hot Spot Service Business for the Automotive and Oil Industries: A Competitive Analysis

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    Louis-Francois PAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While you refuel for gas, why not refuel for information or upload vehicle data, using a cheap wireless technology as WiFi? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage, service offering, and full business models from WiFi hot spot services delivered to and from vehicles (private, professional, public around gas stations. Are also analyzed the parties which play a role in such services: authorization, provisioning and delivery, with all the dependencies modelled by attributed digraphs. Account is made of WiFi base station technical capabilities and costs. Five year financial models (CAPEX, OPEX, and data pertain to two possible service suppliers: multi-service oil companies, and mobile service operators (or MVNOs. Model optimization on the return-on-investment (R.O.I. is carried out for different deployment scenarios, geographical coverage assumptions, as well as tariff structures. Comparison is also being made with public GPRS and 3G data services, as precursors to HSPA/LTE, and the effect of WiFi roaming is analyzed. Regulatory implications, including those dealing with public safety, are addressed. Analysis shows that due to manpower costs and marketing costs, suitable R.O.I. will not be achieved unless externalities are accounted for and innovative tariff structures are introduced. Open issues and further research are outlined. Further work is currently carried out with automotive electronics sector, wireless systems providers, wireless terminals platform suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers. Future relevance of this work is also discussed for the emerging electrical reloading grids for electrical vehicles.

  20. Examining the Effect of Company’s Size and Resources on the Relationship between Stakeholders’ Pressure and Environmental Strategies in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

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    Mohd Rafi Yaacob

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important commodity exports for Malaysia. This industry contributes billions of ringgit to the country. In terms on number of employment half a million people involved in the industry. Due to its contribution, oil palm is known as a golden crop of Malaysia. Over the last four decades more and more plantation areas have been developed in the country. But nevertheless, the disproportionate expansion of this monoculture crops contributes to environmental degradations in the country. The excessive usage of insecticides and pesticides, soil erosion, air and water pollution and depletion of flora and fauna are closely related with this industry. As a result, various stakeholders including department of environment, environmental non-governmental organizations, medias and the public have exerted influenced on the industry to be environmentally responsible. Coping with these pressures, players the industry could not help but be environmentally responsible in their activities. In other words environmental strategies of players in the industry are determined by magnitude of pressures from their stakeholders. While it is well established in the literature that the extent of pressure would determine a business environmental strategies, but not many researchers measure the impact of company size and resources on the relationship between these two variables. This study seeks to examine the effect of a company’s size on the relationship between stakeholders’ pressure and environmental strategy in the Malaysian Palm Oil industry. The results of the study clearly show a company’s size and resources influence the relationship of stakeholders’ pressure and environmental strategy.