WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil fields correlation

  1. Correlation of source rocks and oils in the Sespe oil field, Ventura County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillis, P.G. (Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States)); Clark, M.S. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States))

    1991-02-01

    The Sespe oil field in the central Ventura basin produces low sulfur (< 1%), intermediate gravity (23-32{degree} API) oil from Middle Eocene to Lower Miocene reservoirs in the upper plate of the San Cayetano thrust. Previous studies proposed the Eocene Cozy Dell, Matilija, and Juncal formations in the San Cayetano overthrust as the source rocks. Alternatively, the oils could be derived from the Miocene Monterey Formation in the subthrust. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data are used to characterize and correlate the Sespe oils from comparison with bitumen extracts of the possible source rocks. The oils have pristane/phytane ratios of 1.3-1.6, bisnorhopane/hopane ratios of about 0.2, and relatively low amounts of diasteranes, oleanane, and C{sub 29} steranes. These data indicate that all of the oils belong to the same family and that variations in the API gravity are due to the degree of biodegradation. In addition, the sterane and triterpane distributions imply that the source organic matter is derived from marine phytoplankton and bacteria with a minor contribution from land plants. The Sespe oils do not correlate with the upper plate Eocene source rocks but correlate fairly well with the upper plate Eocene source rocks. Thus, a subthrust source is proposed. However, the Sespe oils have higher gravity and lower sulfur content than typical Monterey oils. The low sulfur content may result from the higher iron content, due to terrigenous input, of the Sespe field source rocks relative to other Monterey source rocks. Alternatively, the Sespe oils were expelled from the Monterey Formation at relatively high levels of thermal maturity.

  2. Computer technology of quantitative interwell correlation of sediments on the oil and gas fields in the CIS countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barinova, O.I.; Kalinina, E.E.; Ovtchinnikova, M.I. (Oil and Gas Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1993-09-01

    In the course of studies of the oil and gas fields of the former USSR (including Romashkinskoye, Western Uzbekistan, Orenburg, Odoptu-more, and Karachaganak), methods have been developed to subdivide the rock sequences into sedimentation cycles and subcyles, and to identify washouts and breaks in the section. An IBM-PC program (MSLA) has been developed that enables subdivision and correlation of the well section to be made according to the multilevel hierarchy model of sequences devised by Guberman. With the help of the MSLA program, this model can be applied to well-correlation problems where there are no preliminary data available such as geological markers, cores, or ditch samples. The technique has been used in studies of the structure of oil and gas fields involving computer models and as an [open quotes]expert[close quotes] system.

  3. Correlations among hydrocarbon microseepage, soil chemistry, and uptake of micronutrients by plants, Bell Creek oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeming, S.S.; Donovan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Chelate-extractable iron and manganese concentrations in soils over and around the Bell Creek oil field suggest that compared to low average background values, there are moderate amounts of these elements directly over the production area and higher concentrations distributed in an aureole pattern around the periphery of the field. Adsorbed and organically bound iron and manganese appear to be readily taken up by plants resulting in anomalously high levels of these elements in leaves and needles over the oil field and suggesting correlation with corresponding low concentrations in soils. Iron and manganese appear to have bypassed the soil formation process where, under normal oxidizing conditions, they would have ultimately precipitated as insoluble oxides and hydroxides. ?? 1985.

  4. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  5. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  6. Viscosity-temperature correlation for crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, J.; Niazi, E. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad (Iraq)

    2004-12-01

    The kinematic viscosities of crude oils were measured over a temperature range 10-50 C and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to develop a method to predict the viscosity of crude oils, based upon API gravity, pour point and molecular weight. The proposed new correlation has been verified using data base of about twelve Middle East crude oils, showing significantly improved correlation, with an average absolute deviation of 5.3%. The correlation is also applicable to crude oils with a wide range of API gravities, pour points and molecular weights. (orig.)

  7. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Molecular correlation of free oil and inclusion oil of reservoir rocks in the Junggar Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changchun Pan; Jiamo Fu; Guoying Sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangdong (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry; Jianqiang Yang [Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Xinjiang (China)

    2003-03-01

    Free oils and inclusion oils (oil-bearing fluid inclusions) of 12 samples collected from the sandstone reservoir formations in the central, eastern and northern areas of the Junggar Basin, northwest China, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Analytical results indicate very similar biomarker distributions within each of the free oils and their associated inclusion oils in the two samples collected, respectively, from the northwestern and eastern border of the Junggar Basin. The free oil and inclusion oil of sample MD1-1, collected from the northwestern border, correlate well with the Permian source rock of the Fencheng Formation, while those of sample DN1-1 from the eastern border correlate with the Permian source rock of the Pingdiquan Formation. In contrast, in the central area, the free and inclusion oils vary significantly in most cases, which suggests variations of sources for oil charges during the filling process. These data, and the correlation between the free and inclusion oils, are consistent with the field and seismic data, which show that in areas where samples MD1-1 and DN1-1 are located, only one available source rock exists, while in the central area, multiple source rocks are present. (author)

  9. Geology of the Tambaredjo oil field, Suriname

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dronkert, H. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Wong, T.E. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

    1993-02-01

    After the initial discovery in the sixties of oil below the coastal plain of Suriname (S. America), the State Oil Company of Suriname started production of the unique Tambaredjo field in 1982. The heavy, biodegraded oil (14-16[degrees] API) is produced under compaction drive, from the Paleocene T-sand (average thickness 5 m) at a depth of about 300 m. More than 300 wells have been drilled in an area of about 200 km[sup 2]. High resolution seismics makes it possible to correlate units down to 2 m thick. This dense network of bore holes is very suitable for geological correlations and 3D modeling. The T-sand reservoir consists of angular, medium to coarse grained unconsolidated sands with interfingering clays and lignites. The sands are deposited on a well cemented erosional Cretaceous basement. The reservoir is sealed by locally continuous clays. The oil is trapped in structural highs created by syn-sedimentary rejuvenated basement faults. The depositional environment of the T-sand ranges from fluviatile to deltaic. Frequent avulsion and synsedimentary faulting created a highly compartmented reservoir. Although interconnectedness of the sand bodies is high, clay smears and silting out of the edges confine reservoir compartments. The best genetic sand units such as channel fills or mouth bar deposits hardly correlate over more than a few hundred meters. The Tambaredjo oil field offers an unique opportunity to study the detailed sedimentology and petroleum geology of a fluvio-deltaic transitional realm on the passive margin along the Guiana coast.

  10. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altunina, L K; Kuvshinov, V A [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  11. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  12. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  13. Optimization of Field Development Scheduling, East Unity Oil Field, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagwa A. Musa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reservoir performance in East Unity oil field Sudan, the studies focused on characterization, modeling and simulation of the actual performance and future development. A model was constructed using a three-phase, three dimensional, black oil simulator (ECLIPSE. In this study a data from East Unity oil field Sudan started production at July 1999 was used to perform the optimal oil rate and designing the best location of the new operating wells. Cumulative oil production, oil production rate, Water cut and recovery factor were used as key criteria to see if adding new wells in the area under study are economic risk.

  14. Oil and Gas Field Locations, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_fields_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS layer consists of oil and gas field approximate center point locations (approximately 1,800). Oil and gas fields not assigned a center point by the DNR...

  15. Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

    2008-01-01

    Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang (莫西庄) Oil Field in central Janggar (准噶尔) basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by graln-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis.The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay zones and water zones, and are classified as low-porosity, low oil saturation, and low resistivity reservoirs. Both the current low oil-saturation pay zones and the water zones above 4 365 m have high GOI values (up to 38%), suggesting high paleo-oil saturation. The significant difference between current oil saturation from both logging interpretation and core sample measurement and paleo-oil saturation indicated by GOI analysis suggests that this low oil-saturation field evolved from a high oil-saturation pool. Lateral re-migration and spill of formally trapped oil owing to changes in structural configuration since Neogene was the most plausible mechanism for oil loss in the Moxizhuang Oil Field.The combined effects of differential accumulation in the charge phase and the differential re-migration and spill of accumulated oil in Neogene are responsible for the complicated correlation between residual oil saturation and porosity/permeability of the reservoir sandstones and the distribution of low oil-saturation pay zones and paleo-oil zones (current water zones).

  16. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuels, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States); Jetter, S.M. [Mobil Oil R & D Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  17. Panorama of PetroChina Jidong Oil Field Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoLu

    2003-01-01

    As the old oil fields in East China are currently facing more and more pressure to keep their crude oil production stable in the past few years owing to the high water cut, PetroChina Jidong Oil Field has become a rising star in the country's oil and gas exploration and production sector. Jidong Oil Field

  18. Correlation Models for Temperature Fields

    KAUST Repository

    North, Gerald R.

    2011-05-16

    This paper presents derivations of some analytical forms for spatial correlations of evolving random fields governed by a white-noise-driven damped diffusion equation that is the analog of autoregressive order 1 in time and autoregressive order 2 in space. The study considers the two-dimensional plane and the surface of a sphere, both of which have been studied before, but here time is introduced to the problem. Such models have a finite characteristic length (roughly the separation at which the autocorrelation falls to 1/e) and a relaxation time scale. In particular, the characteristic length of a particular temporal Fourier component of the field increases to a finite value as the frequency of the particular component decreases. Some near-analytical formulas are provided for the results. A potential application is to the correlation structure of surface temperature fields and to the estimation of large area averages, depending on how the original datastream is filtered into a distribution of Fourier frequencies (e.g., moving average, low pass, or narrow band). The form of the governing equation is just that of the simple energy balance climate models, which have a long history in climate studies. The physical motivation provided by the derivation from a climate model provides some heuristic appeal to the approach and suggests extensions of the work to nonuniform cases.

  19. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  20. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  1. Geochemical correlation of oil from the Ayoluengo field to Liassic black shale units in the southwestern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Santiago; Robles, Sergio [University of the Basque Country, Stratigraphy and Paleontology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Dorronsoro, Carmen [University of the Basque Country, Geology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Chaler, Roser; Grimalt, Joan O. [C.I.D.-C.S.I.C., Environmental Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A study of the Liassic sequence in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin has shown the presence of organic-rich (TOC, HI and S{sub 2} up to 8.7%, 760 and 56.5 mg/g, respectively) Pliensbachian-early Toarcian black shales that constitute the only feasible source rock for Ayoluengo oil. The stratigraphical and sedimentological data show that these black shales developed into a major transgressive sequence of hemipelagic Lotharingian-Toarcian facies, which suggests the presence of anoxic or near anoxic bottom water conditions in troughs during their deposition. The {delta}{sup 13}C composition, and a detailed study of the linear, branched, isoprenoid, steroid and hopanoid aliphatic hydrocarbons in these shales, marls and the Ayoluengo oil confirms this hypothesis. Specifically, the {delta}{sup 13}C values of the total solvent extract of the thicker shale (No. 2) and the oil are -29.93 and -29.88``per mille``, respectively; also a close similarity in the relative compositions of steranes and hopanes is observed between these samples. The distributions of these compounds exhibit several distinct features. The steranes in this shale and crude oil are characterized by a depletion of C{sub 28} vs C{sub 27} and C{sub 29} homologues (24 vs 32 and 44%, respectively), which is consistent with the carbon number sterane distributions generally observed among Upper Paleozoic to Liassic rock-sourced oils. Furthermore, hopanes and steranes are characterized by their high relative content of rearranged molecules. Diasteranes (13{beta}(H),17{alpha}(H)- and 13{alpha}(H),17{beta}(H)- series) are the dominant compounds among the steranes and significant amounts of 18{alpha}(H)-17{alpha}methyl-28-norhopanes (C{sub 27}, C{sub 29} and C{sub 30} homologues) and 17{alpha}(H)-15{alpha}-methyl- 27 norhopanes (C{sub 30} homologue) are found in the hopanoid hydrocarbons. Conversely, the proportion of these rearranged molecules in other sediment samples from the same formation decrease with increasing

  2. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  3. Apparatus for performing oil field laser operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2017-01-03

    A system, apparatus and methods for delivering high power laser energy to perform laser operations in oil fields and to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. A laser downhole assembly for the delivery of high power laser energy to surfaces and areas in a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics and a fluid path.

  4. The Lennox oil and gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haig, D.B.; Pickering, S.C.; Probert, R. [BHP Petroleum Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The Lennox oil and gas field is located in Block 110/15 of the East Irish Sea, approximately 10 km west of Southport, Lancashire. The field was discovered in 1992 with well 110/15-6 drilled by the P791 BHP group. The Lennox structure is a rollover anticline in Permo-Triassic sediments formed in the hanging wall of the Formby Point Fault. The reservoir comprises the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group, and is characterized by excellent permeability aeolian and fluvial sandstones. The structure is sealed by the overlying shales and evaporites of the Mercia Mudstone Group. To date four wells have been drilled on the Lennox Field and have delineated a free gas cap in communication with a constant thickness oil rim. The hydrocarbons have been sourced from Namurian Holywell shales and reflect complex migration into the Lennox structure. Reservoir studies indicate likely hydrocarbons-in-place of 463 BCF of gas and 218 MMBO of oil. Development approval for the Lennox Field was granted in 1993 with production due to commence in late 1995 from a series of horizontal oil producers. (author)

  5. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration

  6. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  7. Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

  8. Venezuelan oil field revival bids won

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-29

    This paper reports that four private sector companies or combines will operate inactive oil fields in Venezuela under state owned Petroleos de Venezuela's marginal field reactivation program. The award of operating contract to winning bidders marks the first time private companies will be allowed to produce crude oil in Venezuela since nationalization of the industry in 1976. Winning bidders have committed a total of $720 million in investments to the program during the 1990s. Current plans call for drilling 670 appraisals and development wells, conducting 250 workovers and well repairs, and conducting about 2,9000 line km of seismic surveys. Venezuela's energy ministry is targeting a production level of 90,000 b/d by the end of the decade from the reactivated fields.

  9. Modelling conditional correlations for risk diversification in crude oil markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates univariate and multivariate conditional volatility and conditional correlation models of spot, forward and futures returns from three major benchmarks of international crude oil markets, namely Brent, WTI and Dubai, to aid in risk diversification. Conditional

  10. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  11. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    that oleophilicity of recycled palm oil is correlated with physicho-chemical properties of the recycled palm oil.

  12. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  13. Organism relics or kerogens in oils as oil-source rock correlation indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚素平; 张景荣; 金奎励

    1997-01-01

    Organism relies or kerogens in oils are first observed by a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The complexes of kerogens in oils are characterized by the presence of a great variety of microfossils or macerals. These kerogens in oils are mainly the residues of the original organic substances from which oil formed, and minor kerogens from enclosing rocks enter the oils, therefore, the components and types of the kerogens in crude oils can serve as an indirect indicator of oil-source rock correlation. This method was applied to Jurassic oils in the Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin, and there are two types of the kerogens in oils: one containing a lot of macerals from terrestrial plants may derive from coals, and the other, characterized by a high content of microscopic algae, fungus spores and Acritarch, may originate from Permian organic matter. In addition, the reflectance of the vitrodetrinites in oils can be used as an indicator of oil-source

  14. Properties Correlations and Characterization of Athabasca Oil Sands-derived Synthetic Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Zhao Suoqi; Xu Chunming; Chung Keng H.

    2007-01-01

    Narrow fractions of Athabasca oil sands-derived synthetic crude oil (SCO) from Canada were obtained by distillation at 20 ℃ to 500 ℃ and characterized. The yield and properties, such as density, refractive index, viscosity,freezing point, sulfur and nitrogen content and UOP K-index, were correlated as a function of boiling temperature (Tb).The properties of naphtha fractions, jet fuel and diesel fractions could be predicted accurately with the correlations, which are useful for process design considerations, such as optimizing operating conditions of refinery processing units. The other key properties and characteristics of naphtha fractions, jet fuel, diesel and vacuum gas oil were also determined.

  15. Field and intensity correlation in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbah; Pnini; Genack

    2000-11-01

    We have obtained the spectral and spatial field correlation functions, C(E)(Deltaomega) and C(E)(Deltax), respectively, from measurement of the microwave field spectrum at a series of points along a line on the output of a random dielectric medium. C(E)(Deltaomega) and C(E)(Deltax) are shown to be the Fourier transforms, respectively, of the time of flight distribution, obtained from pulsed measurements, and of the specific intensity. Unlike C(E)(Deltaomega), the imaginary part of C(E)(Deltax) is shown to vanish as a result of the isotropy of the correlation function in the output plane. The complex square of the field correlation function gives the short-range or C1 contribution to the intensity correlation function C. Longer-range contributions to the intensity correlation function are obtained directly by subtracting C1 from C and are in good agreement with theory.

  16. Accounting for the waterless period of oil production in calculations on oil field production design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, M.F.; Butorin, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    Formulae on the dynamics of oil and liquid from a methodology developed by the Tatar Scientific-Research and Design Institute for the Oil Industry are adjusted, accounting for the waterless period in oil production. It is demonstrated that the process of accounting for the waterless period in oil production leads to a more accurate prediction of the engineering parameters for mining and oil field.

  17. Correlating biodegradation to magnetization in oil bearing sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Stacey; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Sephton, Mark A.; Aldana, Milagrosa; Costanzo-Alvarez, Vincenzo; Bayona, German; Williams, Wyn

    2013-07-01

    A relationship between hydrocarbons and their magnetic signatures has previously been alluded to but this is the first study to combine extensive geochemical and magnetic data of hydrocarbon-associated samples. We report a detailed study that identifies a connection between magnetic mineralogy and oil biodegradation within oil-bearing sedimentary units from Colombia, Canada Indonesia and the UK. Geochemical data reveal that all the oil samples are derived from mature type-II kerogens deposited in oxygen-poor environments. Biodegradation is evident to some extent in all samples and leads to a decrease in oil quality through the bacterially mediated conversion of aliphatic hydrocarbons to polar constituents. The percentage of oil components and the biodegradation state of the samples were compared to the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic mineralogy. A distinct decrease in magnetic susceptibility is correlated to decreasing oil quality and the amount of extractable organic matter present. Further magnetic characterization revealed that the high quality oils are dominated by pseudo-single domain grains of magnetite and the lower quality oils by larger pseudo-single domain to multidomain grains of magnetite and hematite. Hence, with decreasing oil quality there is a progressive dominance of multidomain magnetite as well as the appearance of hematite. It is concluded that biodegradation is a dual process, firstly, aliphatic hydrocarbons are removed thereby reducing oil quality and secondly, magnetic signatures are both created and destroyed. This complex relationship may explain why controversy has plagued previous attempts to resolve the connection between magnetics and hydrocarbon deposits. These findings reinforce the importance of bacteria within petroleum systems as well as providing a platform for the use of magnetization as a possible exploration tool to identify subsurface reservoirs and a novel proxy of hydrocarbon migration.

  18. Models of optimal technology for removing oil by secondary methods of developing highly viscous oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents research on developing several methods of optimal technology for removing oil in highly viscous oil fields from the following wells: Lubno-3, Kharklova-Gvaretstvo 154 and Vetzhno (heavy oil). The problem connected with preparing the displacement fluids, with special emphasis on the authors patented technology for producing micellar solutions are discussed. The studies of dislocation fluids (including modified ones) were conducted at 3 temperatures: 293, 308, and 323/sup 0/K and with and without micellar solutions. The tests were used to idetify static regressive models of oil removal from oil fields. The model is satisfactorily accurate in predicting the amount of oil yield by using various secondary methods. Practical conclusions are reached based on an analysis of the studies. These conclusions provide the basis for industrial tests to increase the effectiveness of waterflooding highly viscous oil fields. They can also be used to develop old (gased) oil fields, an advantage considering the current fuel-energy situation.

  19. Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. Samples were extracted by stirring in dichloromethane at 40-50 degree for 10 hours. The saturated, aromatic and resin fractions of the extract were obtained using thin layer chromatograms. The relative abundance of normal alkane fraction of the samples is low except lowest interval, which is probably due to the biodegradation. The bio-marker assemblage of hopanoids and steranes has been characterized. According to the analysis of saturated hydrocarbons and bio-markers, the sedimentary environment of the Pohang core samples is marine and transitional zone except the terrestrial environment of the lowest samples such as 610.5 m from E core and 667.2 m from F core. The thermal maturity through the studied interval did not reach oil window even though slight increase in thermal maturity with depth, which coincide with Rock Eval pyrolysis data. In order to check the validation of analysis of the bio-markers, same samples were analyzed by the University of Louis Pasteur, France. The distribution and relative peak area of the bio-markers were identical with those by laboratory of KIGAM. For the 2 nd stage of the research, analysis of bio-markers other than hopanoids and steranes should be continued. (author). 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  1. The value of flexibility in offshore oil field development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Morten Wattengaard

    1997-12-31

    Offshore oil field development projects often face substantial uncertainties and the operator`s ability to take corrective actions is very important. The main objective of this thesis was to identify the value of flexibility in such projects. Estimates obtained from exploratory wells can be dependent through common information. The effect of stochastic dependence was illustrated by an analytical model, where the dependence was expressed in terms of correlation between estimate errors. It was found that a high degree of correlation might distort the benefit of additional exploration. A prototype that covered the major phases of the project was developed to study the value of flexibility. The prototype was a Markov decision process, solved by stochastic dynamic programming. Based on discussions with Norwegian oil companies, three uncertain variables were addressed: the reservoir volume, the well rate, and the oil price. Simple descriptions were used to mimic the uncertainty. The reservoir was thus depicted as a tank model, and the well rate and oil prices were assumed to follow Markov processes. Flexibility was restricted to managerial as opposed to financial flexibility. Application of the prototype to a case study, based on an ongoing field development, showed that flexibility might be of considerable value to the project. In particular, capacity flexibility and initiation flexibility were identified as important aspects of the development. The results also emphasized the importance of a joint assessment, as the values of different flexibility types are not additive. In conclusion, the proposed model motivates further development of the decision support system presently available. Future decision making should therefore be made within a framework that gives consideration to flexibility. 129 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  3. Modelling conditional correlations for risk diversification in crude oil markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates univariate and multivariate conditional volatility and conditional correlation models of spot, forward and futures returns from three major benchmarks of international crude oil markets, namely Brent, WTI and Dubai, to aid in risk diversification. Conditional correla

  4. Application of Lean Tools in the Oil Field Safety Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current safety management in oil fields is in low efficiency and data from DOE indicated that the injury rate in the oil and gas field was greater than those for all the other U.S. industries. The paperintroduced lean concepts and tools to the safety management in oil fields. In theresearch, a new safety management methodology has been set up. The study also compared the current safety management and the new safety management which was built up by lean concepts. In addition, several lean tools have been modified to make them fit and work better in oil fields.

  5. Inequalities for electron-field correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, T

    2000-01-01

    I show that there exists a class of inequalities between correlation functions of different orders of a chaotic electron field. These inequalities lead to the antibunching effect and are a consequence of the fact that electrons are fermions -- indistinguishable particles with antisymmetric states. The derivation of the inequalities is based on the known form of the correlation functions for the chaotic state and on the properties of matrices and determinants.

  6. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  7. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in laser gradient field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is capable of probing dynamic processes in living biological systems. From photon fluctuation of fluorescing particles which diffuse through a small detection volume, FCS reveals information on the concentration and the structure of the particles, as well as information on microscopic environment.In this note, we study the radiation forces experienced by Rayleigh particles in a laser field in details, and analyze the effects of gradient field on FCS measurements.

  8. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  9. Integrated field modelling[Oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Bamshad

    2002-07-01

    This research project studies the feasibility of developing and applying an integrated field simulator to simulate the production performance of an entire oil or gas field. It integrates the performance of the reservoir, the wells, the chokes, the gathering system, the surface processing facilities and whenever applicable, gas and water injection systems. The approach adopted for developing the integrated simulator is to couple existing commercial reservoir and process simulators using available linking technologies. The simulators are dynamically linked and customised into a single hybrid application that benefits from the concept of open software architecture. The integrated field simulator is linked to an optimisation routine developed based on the genetic algorithm search strategies. This enables optimisation of the system at field level, from the reservoir to the process. Modelling the wells and the gathering network is achieved by customising the process simulator. This study demonstrated that the integrated simulation improves current capabilities to simulate the performance of the entire field and optimise its design. This is achieved by evaluating design options including spread and layout of the wells and gathering system, processing alternatives, reservoir development schemes and production strategies. Effectiveness of the integrated simulator is demonstrated and tested through several field-level case studies that discuss and investigate technical problems relevant to offshore field development. The case studies cover topics such as process optimisation, optimum tie-in of satellite wells into existing process facilities, optimal well location and field layout assessment of a high pressure high temperature deepwater oil field. Case study results confirm the viability of the total field simulator by demonstrating that the field performance simulation and optimal design were obtained in an automated process with treasonable computation time. No significant

  10. Integrated field modelling[Oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Bamshad

    2002-07-01

    This research project studies the feasibility of developing and applying an integrated field simulator to simulate the production performance of an entire oil or gas field. It integrates the performance of the reservoir, the wells, the chokes, the gathering system, the surface processing facilities and whenever applicable, gas and water injection systems. The approach adopted for developing the integrated simulator is to couple existing commercial reservoir and process simulators using available linking technologies. The simulators are dynamically linked and customised into a single hybrid application that benefits from the concept of open software architecture. The integrated field simulator is linked to an optimisation routine developed based on the genetic algorithm search strategies. This enables optimisation of the system at field level, from the reservoir to the process. Modelling the wells and the gathering network is achieved by customising the process simulator. This study demonstrated that the integrated simulation improves current capabilities to simulate the performance of the entire field and optimise its design. This is achieved by evaluating design options including spread and layout of the wells and gathering system, processing alternatives, reservoir development schemes and production strategies. Effectiveness of the integrated simulator is demonstrated and tested through several field-level case studies that discuss and investigate technical problems relevant to offshore field development. The case studies cover topics such as process optimisation, optimum tie-in of satellite wells into existing process facilities, optimal well location and field layout assessment of a high pressure high temperature deepwater oil field. Case study results confirm the viability of the total field simulator by demonstrating that the field performance simulation and optimal design were obtained in an automated process with treasonable computation time. No significant

  11. Delineating Concealed Faults within Cogdell Oil Field via Earthquake Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, C.; Walter, J. I.; Brudzinski, M.; Skoumal, R.; Savvaidis, A.; Frohlich, C.; Borgfeldt, T.; Dotray, P.

    2016-12-01

    Cogdell oil field, located within the Permian Basin of western Texas, has experienced several earthquakes ranging from magnitude 1.7 to 4.6, most of which were recorded since 2006. Using the Earthscope USArray, Gan and Frohlich [2013] relocated some of these events and found a positive correlation in the timing of increased earthquake activity and increased CO2 injection volume. However, focal depths of these earthquakes are unknown due to 70 km station spacing of the USArray. Accurate focal depths as well as new detections can delineate subsurface faults and establish whether earthquakes are occurring in the shallow sediments or in the deeper basement. To delineate subsurface fault(s) in this region, we first detect earthquakes not currently listed in the USGS catalog by applying continuous waveform-template matching algorithms to multiple seismic data sets. We utilize seismic data spanning the time frame of 2006 to 2016 - which includes data from the U.S. Geological Survey Global Seismographic Network, the USArray, and the Sweetwater, TX broadband and nodal array located 20-40 km away. The catalog of earthquakes enhanced by template matching reveals events that were well recorded by the large-N Sweetwater array, so we are experimenting with strategies for optimizing template matching using different configurations of many stations. Since earthquake activity in the Cogdell oil field is on-going (a magnitude 2.6 occurred on May 29, 2016), a temporary deployment of TexNet seismometers has been planned for the immediate vicinity of Cogdell oil field in August 2016. Results on focal depths and detection of small magnitude events are pending this small local network deployment.

  12. Perturbative renormalization of the electric field correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, C

    2016-01-01

    The momentum diffusion coefficient of a heavy quark in a hot QCD plasma can be extracted as a transport coefficient related to the correlator of two colour-electric fields dressing a Polyakov loop. We determine the perturbative renormalization factor for a particular lattice discretization of this correlator within Wilson's SU(3) gauge theory, finding a ~12% NLO correction for values of the bare coupling used in the current generation of simulations. The impact of this result on existing lattice determinations is commented upon, and a possibility for non-perturbative renormalization through the gradient flow is pointed out.

  13. Perturbative renormalization of the electric field correlator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christensen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The momentum diffusion coefficient of a heavy quark in a hot QCD plasma can be extracted as a transport coefficient related to the correlator of two colour-electric fields dressing a Polyakov loop. We determine the perturbative renormalization factor for a particular lattice discretization of this correlator within Wilson's SU(3 gauge theory, finding a ∼12% NLO correction for values of the bare coupling used in the current generation of simulations. The impact of this result on existing lattice determinations is commented upon, and a possibility for non-perturbative renormalization through the gradient flow is pointed out.

  14. Perturbative renormalization of the electric field correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C.; Laine, M.

    2016-04-01

    The momentum diffusion coefficient of a heavy quark in a hot QCD plasma can be extracted as a transport coefficient related to the correlator of two colour-electric fields dressing a Polyakov loop. We determine the perturbative renormalization factor for a particular lattice discretization of this correlator within Wilson's SU(3) gauge theory, finding a ∼ 12% NLO correction for values of the bare coupling used in the current generation of simulations. The impact of this result on existing lattice determinations is commented upon, and a possibility for non-perturbative renormalization through the gradient flow is pointed out.

  15. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of operation and possible oil recovery from the sixth formation of Arlansk oil field. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viktorov, P.F.; Teterev, I.G.

    1970-01-01

    This field is characterized by complex geological variations, high viscosity oil (16 to 39 cp), and extreme heterogeneity. The field has been under a peripheral waterflood for 10 yr, however even at high water-cut (50 to 75%), only 40% of the reserve has been recovered. The high water-cut results from premature water breakthrough in high-permeability zones and from water coning. As cumulative oil recovery increases, water production increases exponentially. Oil recovery can be increased only 3 to 4%, by increasing the removal of fluids from wells. Consideration is being given to use of hot water and high-pressure gas to increase oil recovery.

  17. Phase Correlations in Non-Gaussian Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Matsubara, T

    2003-01-01

    A breakthrough in understanding the phase information of Fourier modes in non-Gaussian fields is presented, discovering the general relation between phase correlations and the hierarchy of polyspectra. Although the exact relations involve the expansions of infinite series, one can truncate these expansions in weakly non-Gaussian fields. The phase sum, $\\theta_{\\sbfm{k}_1} + >... + \\theta_{\\sbfm{k}_N}$, satisfying $\\bfm{k}_1 + ... + \\bfm{k}_N = 0$, is found to be non-uniformly distributed in non-Gaussian fields, and the non-uniformness is represented by the polyspectra. A numerical demonstration proves that the distribution of the phase sum is the robust estimator of the non-Gaussianity.

  18. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Oil dehydration using hydrodynamic effects and electrical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipin, V.S.; Cherepnin, V.V.; Didenko, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    This article examines the influence of hydrodynamic effects and electrical fields upon the water content of commercial oil. It is demonstrated that increasing the period of contact of the emulsion with a reagent and a unit for emulsive perturbation and reagent transfer, leads to a dosage reduction with a resulting high-quality of oil.

  20. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  1. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the State’s Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant...

  2. Rangely Oil Field Perch Survey, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data are the results of raptor perch surveys conducted monthly from August 2001 - July 2004 along a standardized survey route in the Rangely Oil Field (ROF),...

  3. Spatial variations of hydrocarbon contamination and soil properties in oil exploring fields across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Jian; Li, Guanghe

    2012-11-30

    Successful site remediation is critically based on a comprehensive understanding of distribution of contaminants, soil physico-chemical and microbial properties in oil contaminated sites. One hundred and ten topsoils were sampled from seven typical oil fields in different geoclimate regions across north to south China to investigate the spatial variances of oil contaminations and soil parameters. Oil concentrations and compositions, soil geochemical properties and microbial populations were analyzed and statistic analysis methods were used to analyze the spatial pattern of soil variables. The results indicated that oil contaminations were serious in most oil exploring areas in China, especially with high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic origin. Ordination analyses indicated a relatively distinct spatial pattern that all soil samples grouped mainly by geographic locations, instead of distributing along contamination or other geochemical variable gradient. Microbial populations were found to be statistically positively correlated with soil nitrogen, phosphorus and water content, and negatively correlated with salt pH and soluble salts (Phydrocarbon-contaminated fields across large spatial scales, which is important for the environmental protection and further remediation in oil contaminated sites according to local conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Microbial methane production associated with carbon steel corrosion in a Nigerian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet eMand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC.

  6. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC.

  7. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  8. Shengli Oil Fields: Today and Tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Renjie

    1996-01-01

    @@ Shengli oil area lies in the Yellow River Delta, in the north of Shandong Province bordering the Bohai Bay. The area is scattered over 28 counties, covering 37 000 square kilom eters. The main part of exploration and exploitation is located on both sides of the Yellow River estuary within the territory of Dongying City.

  9. Restructuring Raises Revenue of Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Qiuju

    2002-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau, as a Stateowned oil giant company in Northeast China's Liaoning Province, has made significant progress in the nationwide drive o restructure State-owned enterprises. Once plagued by excessive laborers and backward production equipment, the bureau has adopted a series of effective measures on human resource management, market expansion and technology renovation.

  10. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  11. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  12. Multivariate statisticalmethods applied to interpretation of saturated biomarkers (Velebit oil field, SE Pannonian Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA SOLEVIC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five crude oils originating from the Velebit oil field (SE Pannonian Basin, the most important oil field in Serbia, were investigated. Saturated biomarkers (n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes and triterpanes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Based on the distribution and abundance of these compounds, a large number of source and maturation parameters were calculated, particularly those most often used in correlation studies of oils. The examined samples were classified according to their origin and level of thermal maturity using factor, cluster and discriminant analyses. According to the source and maturation parameters, combined factor and cluster analyses using the Ward method enabled the categorization of the investigated oils into three groups. The cluster Ward analysis was shown to be of greater susceptibility and reliability. However, in addition to the two aforementioned methods, K-Means cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were shown to be necessary for a more precise and detailed categorization in the case of a large number of samples in one group. Consequently, it was concluded that factor and cluster K-Means andWard analyses can generally be used for the interpretation of saturated biomarkers in correlation studies of oils, but the observed results have to be checked, i.e., confirmed by discriminant analysis.

  13. Field study of heavy oil viscosity reduction for production transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, J.; Annichiariccom, G.; Montanez, M. [Ecopetrol S.A. (Venezuela); Faust, M.; Weathers, T. [Nalco Energy Services (Colombia); Parra, R. [Nalco de Colombia Ltda. (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, production and transportation are expensive processes requiring complex equipment and procedures. The main issue with heavy crude oil is its high viscosity. A method using naphtha injection was developed to dilute the fluids and aid in water separation, but this method is expensive and raises safety issues. To reduce naphtha consumption, Ecopetrol and Nalco Energy Services developed a new dispersion technology. This paper presents this technology and the results of its field trial in the Chichimene oil field. Key production indicators were monitored to determine how effective the emulsion method was in enhancing production. Results showed no negative effect on the separation facility or oil and water quality while reducing by 75% the injection of diluent. This paper presents a dispersion technology which successfully reduced the need for naphtha and thus reduced production costs.

  14. Experimental Research on the Reusing & Recycling Technology of Oil Extraction Wastewater Treatment in Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    How to use water resource effectively is an important problem in developing industry. Three combined processes which are composed of oil separator+de-emulsification flocculation+sand filtration (SDF), oil separator +hydrolytic acidification+SBR (SAS) and oil separator+de-emulsification flocculation +SBR (SDS) are conducted in laboratory-scale experiment to treat oil extraction wastewater for an oil-field. The experimental results show that the removal rate of COD(chemistry oxygen demand) and oil treated by SDF process are 85% and 95% respectively, the residual oil in effluent can meet the discharge standard, but the residual COD can not. The removal rate of COD and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of the SAS effluent are 85% and 90% respectively, the BOD can meet but the COD can not meet discharge standard. So the further treatment is required in the process. The SDS effluent with removal rate of 95% and 90% are obtained for COD and BOD respectively, which can completely meet the national standards of oil wastewater discharge and refilling (China). The experimental result shows that oil extraction wastewater has turned into water resource after being treated by SDS.

  15. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  16. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Doty, Chris [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  17. Geochemical Specific Characters of the Oil and the Origin of the Oil and Gas Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottikh, Rimma; Pisotskiy, Bogdan; Plotnikova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    of the interaction of deep, reduced fluids. Oil, graphite of the Archaean crystalline complexes and hard bitumens are interrelated elements of the evolution of deep, high-enthalpy systems. These large-scale reduced palaeofluid phenomena are obviously related to geodynamic and tectonomagmatic processes. The source of these fluid systems, their impact on the geological environment and its consequences can be determined through additional integrated geochemical studies using the isotopes of heavy elements and through the correlation of the observed potential fields with the structure of the consolidated crust and the sedimentary cover for the identification of geodynamic processes in geophysically inhomogeneous zones of the geological medium.

  18. Laboratory and field observations of stress-wave induced changes in oil flow behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P. M. (Peter M.); Majer, Ernest Luther; Wooden, W. (William); Daley, T. M. (Thomas M.)

    2001-01-01

    We present recent results of laboratory and field experiments designed to validate and quantify the phenomenon of seismically enhanced oil production in marginal reservoirs. Controlled laboratory experiments were performed where mechanical stress oscillations at 100 Hz or less were applied to sandstone cores while flowing oil and/or brine at constant flow rates. Steady-state flow and simulated flooding experiments indicated that stress stimulation causes significant changes in the ability of one fluid to displace the other and on the preference that the rock has for trapping one fluid over the other. For Berea sandstone, which is highly water wet, stress stimulation caused oil production to be impeded during water floods and caused the bulk fluid pressure drop across the core to increase during steady-state simultaneous flow of oil and brine. A possible explanation of these observations is that stimulation caused the core to become more oil wet. Field stimulation tests on producing reservoirs at Lost Hills, California were performed using a downhole fluid pressure pulsation device. Stimulation was applied in one well for 50 days total during July - November 2000. Two groups of producing wells were monitored for changes in oil cut and oil production during the test. A control group of 26 wells displayed an oil-cut increase of 29% and an oil production increase of 26% which are clearly correlated with the stimulation treatment. A larger group of 60 wells showed 11% oil-cut and 17v0 production increases. Similar increases were observed during the October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, magnitude 7.1, in the Mojave Desert about 230 miles from Lost Hills. Downhole seismic monitoring of the stimulation wavefield is being used to help quantify the frequency range and energy threshold required for effective production enhancement.

  19. Tar mats and residual oil distribution in a giant oil field offshore Abu Dhabi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, Bernard [Institut Francais du Petrole and 4 Av. de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Arab, Hani [ZADCO P.O. Box 46808, Abu Dhabi(United Arab Emirates); Pluchery, Eric; Chautru, Jean-Marc [Beicip-Franlab 232, Av. Napoleon Bonaparte, BP 213, 92502 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    This paper describes how geochemical data (Rock Eval analysis, SARA composition) combined with wireline log interpretation allows for the recognition of the distribution and continuity of bitumens in a main reservoir of an offshore giant field in Abu Dhabi. The integration of new geochemical data with data and field information provided by the oil company ZADCO allows for the recognition of two types of bitumen rich levels in the main reservoir of the field: (a) one corresponding to bitumen rich main reservoir intervals associated with high resistivity and high oil saturation, these intervals can be called 'tar mats', (b) the other corresponding to low oil saturated intervals, and can be classified as 'heavy residual oil'. In terms of lateral and vertical distribution, the tar mats are found at the crestal area of the Present-day structure and are located at the base of the reservoir unit above a tight limestone which plays a role of being a vertical permeability barrier. The tar mats seem to be independent of the Present-day OWC and are not related to biodegradation processes. The heavy residual oil is mainly located in the Northeast and the Southeast parts of the field and close to the OWC but it is also present all around the field except (1) in the west, in the area of the spill point and (2) in the Northwest area where direct contact between mobile oil and water is detected. Study of the structural evolution demonstrates that a tilting of the field began at Dammam age time (Eocene). The tilting of the structure led to a reduction of the structural closure in the West followed by the leakage of part of the originally trapped oil. Numerical modeling of such a geological scenario leads to a distribution of fluids (water, movable oil and residual oil) very close to the one observed at Present-day time in the field. This modeling allows a prediction of the extension and distribution of the residual heavy oil within the studied reservoir and can

  20. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

  1. Deepwater oil and gas field development in South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dagang; Wybro Pieter; Kang Yongtian

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in South China Sea.A detailed study of current development models worldwide is performed through some examples of industry installed/ongoing projects and major technical issues encountered during these practice.Key technologies are discussed for the success of field development.Some of the technologies and field development experience can be used for South China Sea project.Several models are studied in field development for different scenarios,including marginal field,large oil field and gas field.With the massive investment activities,continued improved technologies,and rapidly growing pool of professionals,the offshore industry in China will soon encounter a golden period.

  2. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  3. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern alaskan landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A; Webber, P J; Binnian, E F; Everett, K R; Lederer, N D; Nordstrand, E A; Walker, M D

    1987-11-06

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  4. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  5. Composition and placement process for oil field chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu, L.A.; Yost, M.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for the continuous release of an oil field chemical within a subterranean hydrocarbon bearing formation or wellbore penetrating such formation. It comprises placing the oil field chemical in a polymeric microcapsule; dispersing such polymeric microcapsules; introducing the wellbore fluid containing the microcapsules into a well bore or subterranean formation through a wellbore; then allowing water and temperature at formation conditions to degrade; continuously releasing the chemical from the degraded microcapsules. This patent describes a composition comprising an oil field chemical incorporated in a polymeric microcapsule comprising the condensation product of hydroxyacetic acid monomer or hydroxyacetic acid co-condensed with up to 15 percent by weight of other hydroxy-, carboxylic acid-, or hydroxycarboxylic acid- containing moieties. The product has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 4000.

  6. Microbial response to nitrate treatment in offshore oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedtker, Gunhild

    2009-07-01

    North Sea oil reservoirs are often injected with deaerated sea water in order to enhance oil recovery. The high sulphate content of sea water combined with the anoxic conditions stimulates growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system and the reservoir. SRB produce the highly toxic and corrosive gas hydrogen sulphide (HZS) during anaerobic respiration with sulphate. Accumulation of HZS leads to corrosion and reservoir souring, which may result in reduced gas quality, separation problems and increased maintenance costs. Biocides have traditionally been used to prevent SRB activity in North Sea oil fields. During the last decade, however, the environmentally sound method of nitrate treatment has replaced biocides on several fields. The method is based on shifting the microbial activity from sulphate reduction to nitrate reduction by introducing nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. Results presented in the current thesis show that nitrate treatment has resulted in long-term inhibition of SRB activity and a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% in sea water injection systems at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil fields. Molecular analysis (PCR-DGGE) of pipeline biofilm from Veslefrikk showed that sulphide-oxidizing nitrate-reducing bacteria (NR-SOB) constituted the major metabolic group during nitrate treatment, and that the bacterial community composition remained stable during years. Reduction in sulphide produced from the Gullfaks field showed that nitrate treatment was effective also at reservoir level. Analysis of back flowed injection water from a nitrate-treated Statfjord reservoir showed that heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) constituted the major metabolic group, and that the in situ HZS level was 10 fold lower than experienced during biocides treatment and 100 fold lower than experienced during produced water reinjection (PWRI). At the Norne oil field oxic sea water is injected along with

  7. Measuring marine oil spill extent by Markov Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, Miguel; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Lopez Lopez, Ludwin

    2014-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of the Gulf of Mexico in the spring of 2010 was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. An immediate request, after the accident, was to detect the oil slick and to measure its extent: SAR images were the obvious tool to be employed for the task. This paper presents a processing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) theory. MRF theory describes the global information by probability terms involving local neighborhood representations of the SAR backscatter data. The random degradation introduced by speckle noise is dealt with a pre-processing stage which applies a nonlinear diffusion filter. Spatial context attributes are structured by the Bayes equation derived from a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation. The probability terms define an objective function of a MRF model whose goal is to detect contours and fine structures. The markovian segmentation problem is solved with a numerical optimization method. The scheme was applied to an Envisat/ASAR image over the Gulf of Mexico of May 9, 2010, when the oil spill was already fully developed. The final result was obtained with 51 recursion cycles, where, at each step, the segmentation consists of a 3-class label field (open sea and two oil slick thicknesses). Both the MRF model and the parameters of the stochastic optimization procedure will be provided, together with the area measurement of the two kinds of oil slick.

  8. PRESERVATION OF AVOCADO OIL WITH ELECTRIC FIELD TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Ariza-Ortega; E. Ramírez-Moreno; M.E. Ramos-Cassellis; J. Díaz-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of different conditions of electric field (voltage 3 kV cm-1, 60 Hz, 10 and 180 s; 720 Hz, 10 and 180 s) as method on preservation up to 365 days on oil extracted of the avocado pulp. Unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in crude avocado oil was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique in the mid infrared region and by quality parameters (acidity, peroxide and iodine). The electric field caused minimal changes on unsaturated fat...

  9. The Terra Nova oil field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, G.C. [Petro-Canada, Inc., St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Before expanding on the development of the Terra Nova oilfield, the author discussed the overall business strategy of Petro-Canada and identified where the Terra Nova and offshore Newfoundland oil have their place within this strategy. The principal basins and oilfields offshore Newfoundland were reviewed, then the emphasis shifted to rest on the Terra Nova development project. A whole range of topics were brought up, including the Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) facility, the modules layout, the FPSO located at Bull Arm, and the floating production systems. The physical environment of the Grand Banks was highlighted, and the next few sections were devoted to the Terra Nova FPSO, FPSO and drill centres, the Turret General Arrangement, and Spider buoy including the disconnect/reconnect. The last four sections dealt with the animation of riser movement, the wellhead protection animation, Henry Goodrich, and operations readiness.

  10. Intisar ''D'' Oil Field, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, T.J.; Campbell, N.D.J.; Maher, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Intisar D Reef Oil Field was discovered by Occidental in Oct. 1967; the discovery well tested 75,000 bpod. The prospect was based on reflection seismic data, which indicated the presence of an isolated reef. The Intisar D Reef is roughly circular in plan and approximately 5 km in diameter. Its maximum thickness is 1262 ft (385 m). The reef is coral and algal with grain- and mud-supported biomicrites. The reef was full to spill point with a maximum oil column of 955 ft (291 m). The 40 API gravity oil has a paraffinic base and is low in sulfur. Cumulative oil production as of Sept. 30, 1978, totaled 777 million bbl ultimate recovery efficiency is expected to appraoch 75%. No pressure support was expected. Supplemental recovery operations that were begun early include pressure maintenance by both water and gas injection. The reservoir pressure is now maintained at the 4000-psi level, high enough for miscible gas displacement.

  11. Effective strategies for development of thermal heavy oil field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ken; Lehnert-Thiel, Gunter [IMV Projects (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In thermal heavy oil, a significant part of the capital has to be invested in field facilities and therefore strategies have to be implemented to optimize these costs. Field facilities consist of pipelines, earthworks and production pads whose purpose is to connect an oilsands reservoir to a central processing facility. This paper, presented by IMV Projects, a leading company in the thermal heavy oil field, highlights strategies to manage field facility lifecycle cost. Upfront planning should be done and the development of field facilities should be thought of as a long term infrastructure program rather than a stand-alone project. In addition, templates should be developed to save money and repeatability should be implemented to obtain a better prediction of the program's costs. The strategies presented herein allow major savings over the program's life by implementing an improved schedule and allowing refinements all along the program's course.

  12. Oil Spill Field Trial at Sea: Measurements of Benzene Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesteland, Ingrid; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Daling, Per; Bråtveit, Magne

    2017-07-01

    Characterize personal exposure to airborne hydrocarbons, particularly carcinogenic benzene, during spill of two different fresh crude oils at sea. The study included 22 participants taking part in an «oil on water» field trial in the North Sea. Two types of fresh crude oils (light and heavy) were released six times over two consecutive days followed by different oil spill response methods. The participants were distributed on five boats; three open sampling boats (A, B, and C), one release ship (RS), and one oil recovery (OR) vessel. Assumed personal exposure was assessed a priori, assuming high exposure downwind and close to the oil slick (sampling boats), low exposure further downwind (100-200 m) and upwind from the oil slick (main deck of RS and OR vessel), and background exposure indoors (bridge of RS/OR vessel). Continuous measurements of total volatile organic compounds in isobutylene equivalents were performed with photoionization detectors placed in all five boats. Full-shift personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, and n-hexane was measured with passive thermal desorption tubes. Personal measurements of benzene, averaged over the respective sample duration, on Day 1 showed that participants in the sampling boats (A, B, and C) located downwind and close to the oil slick were highest exposed (0.14-0.59 ppm), followed by participants on the RS main deck (0.02-0.10 ppm) and on the bridge (0.004-0.03 ppm). On Day 2, participants in sampling boat A had high benzene exposure (0.87-1.52 ppm) compared to participants in sampling boat B (0.01-0.02 ppm), on the ships (0.06-0.10 ppm), and on the bridge (0.004-0.01 ppm). Overall, the participants in the sampling boats had the highest exposure to all of the compounds measured. The light crude oil yielded a five times higher concentration of total volatile organic compounds in air in the sampling boats (max 510 ppm) than the heavy crude oil (max 100 ppm) but rapidly declined to

  13. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

  14. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  15. Microbial ecology of oil fields : introduction to the symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voordouw, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2000-07-01

    A brief synopsis was presented of how and why microbiology has become a topic of large interest in the petroleum industry to increase the volume and reduce the costs of production. Organic acids are formed when organic material is buried and oil is being formed. Subsurface waters having high concentration of these acids contain sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) which cause problems such as anaerobic, microbially influenced corrosion and souring. New nucleic acid hybridization technologies are being used to identify the SRB and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) active in these processes. Oil fields can be injected with nitrate to overcome microbial souring. Some oil field bacteria use hydrocarbons as electron donors for their metabolism, but when oxygen is absent, either Fe{sup 3}, sulfate or nitrate is needed as an electron acceptor. Degradation of alkylbenzenes under iron-reducing, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing conditions has been established and the anaerobic respiration of alkanes has also been demonstrated. Sulfate-reducing, alkylbenzene or alkane oxidizers are the dominant organisms in storage tanks. Another important reason why microbiology has played a key role in fields where oil is produced by water injection, is the fact that resident or introduced bacteria can be successfully used for microbial enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by blocking the path of lease resistance.

  16. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, T.D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  17. Microbial diversity of a high salinity oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neria, I.; Gales, G.; Alazard, D.; Ollivier, B.; Borgomano, J.; Joulian, C.

    2009-07-01

    This work is a preliminary study to investigate the microbial diversity of an onshore oil field. It aim to compare results obtained from molecular methods, physicochemical analyses and cultivation. A core of 1150 m depth sediments ( in situ T=45 degree centigrade) was collected and immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen prior to further investigation. Macroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were performed. (Author)

  18. Seismic techniques of enhanced oil recovery: experimental and field results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, O.L.; Simkin, E.M.; Chilingar, G.V.; Gorfunkel, M.V.; Robertson, J.O. Jr.

    2002-09-15

    Application of secondary and tertiary oil recovery techniques during late field development stages usually yields poor results. The reasons are principally due to the low efficiency of these technologies, probably because the gravity and capillary forces are not properly considered. Improved efficiency for hydrocarbon recovery produced by seismic vibration is discussed. (author)

  19. Environmental Protection of Oil and Gas Fields 1997 Subscriptions Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ ENTIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF OIL AND GAS FIELDS is a scientific and technical periodical in Chinese with abstracts in English. jointly operated by China Petroleum Planning and Engineering Institute and Technical Supervision, Safety and Environmental Protection Bureau, CNPC and publicly distributed at home and abroad.

  20. Correlation functions in conformal Toda field theory II

    CERN Document Server

    Fateev, V A

    2009-01-01

    This is the second part of the paper 0709.3806v2. Here we show that three-point correlation function with one semi-degenerate field in Toda field theory as well as four-point correlation function with one completely degenerate and one semi-degenerate field can be represented by the finite dimensional integrals.

  1. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  2. An organic geochemical correlation study of some Drmno depresssion crude oils (southern part of the Pannonian Basin, Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. VITOROVIC

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of crude oils originating from the Sirakovo and Bradarac-Maljurevac localities (southern part of the Pannonian Basin are reported in this paper. The aim was to estimate the organic geochemical similarity of the crude oils from the Drmno (Kostolac depression oil fields. The nine selected samples originated from reservoir rocks of various depths. Reliable source and organic geochemical maturation parameters served as the basis for the correlation studies. The similar origin of the investigated Drmno depression crude oils was corroborated, characterized by a significant participation of terrestrial precursor biomass. They were shown to be of relatively low maturity and to have been formed during the earlier stages of the diagenet- ic-catagenetic sequence of processes leading to the formation of crude oils, most probably in source rocks ofTertiary age, corresponding to vitrinite reflectances between Ro = 0.70 % and Ro = 0.80 %. The crude oils from Bradarac-Maljurevac seemed to be somewhat less homogeneous with respect to organic geochemical parameters compared to Sirakovo crude oils.

  3. Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980’s. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

  4. Agroecological practices in oil palm plantations: examples from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessou Cécile

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is nowadays the first vegetable oil consumed worldwide. Given the world population growth and the increasing demand in fat for food and fuel, the increase in oil palm production is expected to continue. It is thus important to find ways of reducing the ecological impact of oil palm plantations at both the agroecosystem and the mill supply area levels, by improving agricultural practices and land uses. This is where agroecology can play a very critical role. The present article gathers short stories on agroecological practices currently taking place in oil palm plantations in South-East Asia. Such stories notably highlight the importance of the various palm co-products and how appropriate recycling strategies can allow for reducing external inputs to both the field and the mill. Besides limiting environmental impacts thanks to such savings, several co-products used as organic amendments can even help to maintain or enhance soil quality. Other stories explored agroecological practices developed for biological controls. Although integrated pest management has been applied in palm plantations for a long time, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully deciphered and practices still need to be improved. More knowledge is needed in order to better account for the holistic role of biodiversity and arbitrate trade-offs between practices and ecosystem services, at both plantation and landscape levels.

  5. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control.

  6. Cross-correlations between Baltic Dry Index and crude oil prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingsong; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xinsheng; Qin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the cross-correlation properties of Baltic Dry Index (BDI) and crude oil prices using cross-correlation statistics test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between BDI and crude oil prices are significantly multifractal. By introducing the concept of a "crossover", we find that the cross-correlations are strongly persistent in the short term and weakly anti-persistent in the long term. Moreover, cross-correlations of all kinds of fluctuations are persistent in the short time while cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent and those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent in the long term. We have also verified that the multifractality of the cross-correlations of BDI and crude oil prices is both attributable to the persistence of fluctuations of time series and fat-tailed distributions.

  7. Development and Prospects for Energy Saving Technology in Oil & Gas Fields, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Youwang; Yu Jiqing; Lin Ran; Zhu Yingru; Liu Feijun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Current state of energy saving technology in China's oil and gas fields System optimization To optimize the oil-gas field surface engineering system is critical to improve the efficiency of oil and gas field system.To adapt to the changes in development of old oil and gas fields, all oilfields are adjusted and reconstructed;a set of optimized and simplified modes and technical measures are developed.

  8. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  9. Clay-oil droplet suspensions in electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Kjerstad, Knut; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Castberg, Rene

    2012-02-01

    Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement and oil circulation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, dielectric and electrorheological properties as well as electrohydrodynamics determine the fluid flow and clay particle formation. In a presence of the DC electric fields the clay particles formed a ribbon-like structure onto the inner surface of the droplet. The structure consists of short chain-like clay elements orienting parallel to the electric field direction. It is suggested that a combination of two phenomena, namely the induced viscous flow (electrohydrodynamic effect) and the polarization of the clay particles (dielectric effect), contribute to the ribbon-like structure formation. -/abstract- References [1] G. Taylor, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences 291 (1966) 159--166. [2] J. R. Melcher and G. I. Taylor, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1 (1969) 111--146. [3] H. Sato, N. Kaji, T. Mochizuki, and Y. H. Mori, Physics of Fluids 18 (2006) 127101. [4] D. A. Saville, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 29 (1997) 27--64. [5] J. O. Fossum, Y. M'eheust, K. P. S. Parmar, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy, and D. M. Fonseca Europhysics Letters 74

  10. Dependence of the degree of paraxiality on field correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Gawhary, O.; Severini, S.

    2008-01-01

    A linearly polarized optical field can be obtained by filtering a stochastic field through an ideal linear polarizer. The produced field possesses a given degree of paraxiality that, as proved in the present Letter, can be affected by the correlations of the original stochastic field. An example wit

  11. Third One-million-ton Oil Field in Junggar Basin Will Come into Being

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jun; Li Songguo

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Xinjiang Oil FieldCompany is accelerating its efforts for construction of the third 1-million-ton oil field in Junggar basin - Luliang oil field located in the hinterland of the basin, which was found in 2000.

  12. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  13. An objective estimation of impurities in oil field stagnant waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.; Runets, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Studies and an analysis of published materials are used to establish the predominant role of the mechanical impurities of various origins covered by layers of the heavy components of petroleum products in reducing the injectivity of injection wells for injecting stagnant waters containing concretions. A method is proposed for determining the impurities in the oil field stagnant waters used for flooding; this method makes it possible to obtain more reliable results on the concentration of the concretions responsible in such conditions for the drop in the injectivity of the formation reservoirs. A comparative evaluation of the results from an analysis of the impurities determined by the existing method and the proposed method is given. This method is useful in oil field laboratories in the systematic quality control over injected waters.

  14. The Application of BP Neural Network In Oil-Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying ZHANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the situation that many techniques of production performance analysis acquire lots of data and are expensive considering the computational and human resources, and their applications are limited, this paper puts forward a new method to analyze the production performance of oil-field based on the BP neural network. It builds a dataset with some available measured data such as well logs and production history, then, builds a field-wide production model by neural network technique, a model will be used to predict. The technique is verified, which shows that the predicted results are consistent with the maximum error of rate of oil production lower than 7% and maximum error of rate of water production lower than 5%, having certain application and research value.  

  15. Using the biomarker bonded on the asphaltenes for biodegraded oil-source correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Ruthenium-ion-catalyzed oxidation (RICO) has been used to investigate asphaltenes from three oils with the same origin in the Juquan Basin and three oils with the same origin but with different degree of biodegradation in the Turpan Basin, Northwest China. The preliminary results showed that the biomarkers bonded on the asphaltenes with the same origin is similar and is correlated with the free biomarker in saturates. The bonded biomarkers have no relationship with the biodegradation. An application on the severely biodegraded oils is reported here. The biomarker and benzenecarboxylic methyl esters reflecting the structure of the asphaltenes after RICO should provide a new way for oil-source correlation and it should be specially useful for severely biodegraded oil-source correlation.

  16. Stable distribution and long-range correlation of Brent crude oil market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Jin, Xiu; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-11-01

    An empirical study of stable distribution and long-range correlation in Brent crude oil market was presented. First, it is found that the empirical distribution of Brent crude oil returns can be fitted well by a stable distribution, which is significantly different from a normal distribution. Second, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that there are long-range correlation in returns. It implies that there are patterns or trends in returns that persist over time. Third, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that after the financial crisis 2008, the Brent crude oil market becomes more persistence. It implies that the financial crisis 2008 could increase the frequency and strength of the interdependence and correlations between the financial time series. All of these findings may be used to improve the current fractal theories.

  17. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between crude oil market and Chinese ten sector stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.

  18. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  19. Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE,

  20. Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE,

  1. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  2. On the correlation analysis of electric field inside jet engine

    OpenAIRE

    A Krishna; Khattab, T.; Abdelaziz, A.F.; Guizani, M.

    2014-01-01

    A Simple channel modeling method based on correlation analysis of the electric field inside jet engine is presented. The analysis of the statistical propagation characteristics of electromagnetic field inside harsh jet engine environment is presented by using `Ansys® HFSS'. In this paper, we propose a method to locate the best position for receiving probes inside jet engine with minimum correlation between the receiver points which have strong average electric field. Moreover, a MIMO system c...

  3. Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Tjaša; Cigić, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

    2013-11-27

    Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law.

  4. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enpeng

    topic. Dr. Tao with his group at Temple University, using his electro or magnetic rheological viscosity theory has developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. After we successfully reduced the viscosity of crude oil with field and investigated the microstructure changing in various crude oil samples with SANS, we have continued to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude oil, bunker diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel and crude oil and ultra low temperature with electric field treatment. Our research group developed the viscosity electrorheology theory and investigated flow rate with laboratory and field pipeline. But we never visualize this aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering experiment has confirmed the theoretical prediction that a strong electric field induces the suspended nano-particles inside crude oil to aggregate into short chains along the field direction. This aggregation breaks the symmetry, making the viscosity anisotropic: along the field direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced. The experiment enables us to determine the induced chain size and shape, verifies that the electric field works for all kinds of crude oils, paraffin-based, asphalt-based, and mix-based. The basic physics of such field induced viscosity reduction is applicable to all kinds of suspensions.

  5. Organic geochemistry of heavy/extra heavy oils from sidewall cores, Lower Lagunillas Member, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venenzuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocco, R.; Alberdi, M. [PDVSA-Inteveo S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2002-10-01

    The study of 22 oils from sidewall cores taken at different depths in the Lower Lagunillas Member, well LSJ-AB, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Lake is presented, with the purpose of predicting the intervals that present the best crude oil quality. Differences were detected in the biodegradation levels of the studied samples, which are correlated with the depth at which the sidewall core was taken. The API gravity was considered for the oils from each sidewall core and it was found that toward the top of the sequence, the oils have an API gravity of 10.6-11.2{sup o}C, while toward the base part of the sequence, the well produces extra heavy oils with an API gravity that varies between 8.2 and 8.7{sup o}. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Developing High Water-cut Oil Fields Deeply to Enhance Their Oil Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Dakuang

    1994-01-01

    @@ There are 283 developed oil fields in China onshore area by the end of 1993. Most of them are in the later development stage with high water cut. The overall average water cut in these oilfields reaches 80.4%.Some old ones, such as Shengtuo, Gudao and Zhengdong,which have been put on production since 60's or 70's, have a water cut of higher than 90%and are in the extra high water-cut development stage. The recovery factors of these oilfields in terms of the recoverable reserves, which is 63.1%on average and even higher than 80% in some old fields, are also high. A lot of field data show that the distribution of oil and water in the reservoir exhibits new features differing from that in the earlier development stage. Because of the serious interlayer and intralayer heterogeneity of non--marine sandbodies both horizontally and vertically, and the complicated structural features due to the cross cutting of numerous faults, the distribution of the remaining oil in the case of such high recovery and high water cut is in a very dispersed state forming a very complex picture just like the stars in the sky. However some regularities and some relatively abundant regions still exist.

  7. Saudi Aramco: Oil to a Thirsty Market - International Cooperation Brings New Oil Field on Quickly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajmi, Ali

    2007-07-01

    In response to high oil demand in 2004, Saudi Aramco committed to build facilities for the 500,000 BOPD Khursaniyah Oil Field in only 34 months from the start of preliminary engineering to startup. The project schedule was six months faster than any previous project, in the most resource competitive market the oil business has ever seen. The execution of this project required a new contract strategy, novel engineering and construction methods, and international cooperation from EPC firms and manufacturers. The project is also building a new one billion SCF per day gas plant receiving gas from five different sources with varying pressure and H2S content, along with huge water supply and injection facilities, oil gathering lines, and product distribution lines. To execute the project in this short time frame, a temporary construction city for 30,000 men has been constructed in the desert. This city has workers from all over 30 countries, speaking more than 15 languages, all focused on achieving one goal - on time completion of the most complex project ever done in Saudi Arabia. The paper will focus on the unique challenges of managing a city of this size that lasts for only 24 months. (auth)

  8. Saudi Aramco: Oil to a Thirsty Market - International Cooperation Brings New Oil Field on Quickly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajmi, Ali

    2007-07-01

    In response to high oil demand in 2004, Saudi Aramco committed to build facilities for the 500,000 BOPD Khursaniyah Oil Field in only 34 months from the start of preliminary engineering to startup. The project schedule was six months faster than any previous project, in the most resource competitive market the oil business has ever seen. The execution of this project required a new contract strategy, novel engineering and construction methods, and international cooperation from EPC firms and manufacturers. The project is also building a new one billion SCF per day gas plant receiving gas from five different sources with varying pressure and H2S content, along with huge water supply and injection facilities, oil gathering lines, and product distribution lines. To execute the project in this short time frame, a temporary construction city for 30,000 men has been constructed in the desert. This city has workers from all over 30 countries, speaking more than 15 languages, all focused on achieving one goal - on time completion of the most complex project ever done in Saudi Arabia. The paper will focus on the unique challenges of managing a city of this size that lasts for only 24 months. (auth)

  9. Oil price and exchange rate co-movements in Asian countries: Detrended cross-correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney Figueira; Bashir, Usman; Donghong, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Most empirical literature investigates the relation between oil prices and exchange rate through different models. These models measure this relationship on two time scales (long and short terms), and often fail to observe the co-movement of these variables at different time scales. We apply a detrended cross-correlation approach (DCCA) to investigate the co-movements of the oil price and exchange rate in 12 Asian countries. This model determines the co-movements of oil price and exchange rate at different time scale. The exchange rate and oil price time series indicate unit root problem. Their correlation and cross-correlation are very difficult to measure. The result becomes spurious when periodic trend or unit root problem occurs in these time series. This approach measures the possible cross-correlation at different time scale and controlling the unit root problem. Our empirical results support the co-movements of oil prices and exchange rate. Our results support a weak negative cross-correlation between oil price and exchange rate for most Asian countries included in our sample. The results have important monetary, fiscal, inflationary, and trade policy implications for these countries.

  10. Comparison of the concentrations of phenolic compounds in olive oils and other plant oils: correlation with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; de Castro, Antonio; Romero, Concepcion; Brenes, Manuel

    2006-07-12

    The antimicrobial activity of different edible vegetable oils was studied. In vitro results revealed that the oils from olive fruits had a strong bactericidal action against a broad spectrum of microorganisms, this effect being higher in general against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, olive oils showed bactericidal activity not only against harmful bacteria of the intestinal microbiota (Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli) also against beneficial microorganisms such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Otherwise, most of the foodborne pathogens tested (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Yersinia sp., and Shigella sonnei) did not survive after 1 h of contact with olive oils. The dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein and ligstroside aglycons, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, were the phenolic compounds that statistically correlated with bacterial survival. These findings were confirmed by testing each individual phenolic compound, isolated by HPLC, against L. monocytogenes. In particular, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed a potent antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that not all oils classified as "olive oil" had similar bactericidal effects and that this bioactivity depended on their content of certain phenolic compounds.

  11. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of Europe including Turkey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of Europe. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series released on...

  12. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of South America. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series released...

  13. Subquantum nonlocal correlations induced by the background random field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-10-01

    We developed a purely field model of microphenomena—prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) including correlations for entangled systems, but also gives a possibility to go beyond QM, i.e. to make predictions of phenomena that could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper, we discuss one such prediction—the existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to all quantum systems. (And by PCSFT, quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are 'entangled', but in the sense of classical signal theory. On the one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random background. On the other hand, it demonstrates total generality of such correlations. They exist even for distinguishable quantum systems in factorizable states (by PCSFT terminology—for Gaussian random fields with covariance operators corresponding to factorizable quantum states).

  14. Correlation functions in a c=1 boundary conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kristjansson, K R; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2005-01-01

    We obtain exact results for correlation functions of primary operators in the two-dimensional conformal field theory of a scalar field interacting with a critical periodic boundary potential. Amplitudes involving arbitrary bulk discrete primary fields are given in terms of SU(2) rotation coefficients while boundary amplitudes involving discrete boundary fields are independent of the boundary interaction. Mixed amplitudes involving both bulk and boundary discrete fields can also be obtained explicitly. Two- and three-point boundary amplitudes involving fields at generic momentum are determined, up to multiplicative constants, by the band spectrum in the open-string sector of the theory.

  15. The Jurassic petroleum system north and west of Britain: a geochemical oil-source correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotchman, I.C. [Statoil Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Griffith, C.E.; Holmes, A.J. [Mobil North Sea Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Jones, D.M. [University of Newcastle (United Kingdom). Newcastle Research Group in Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry

    1998-12-31

    Recent significant oil discoveries have focused exploration attention on the Atlantic Margin areas north and west of Britain, in particular the West of Shetlands area. These discoveries, the Foinaven and Schiehallion fields, each have reserves of 250 to 500 million barrels (39.8 to 79.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}) of 24-27 {sup o} API oil while an earlier heavy oil discovery, the Clair Field, is the largest undeveloped oil discovery on the U.K. Continental Shelf with resources estimated in the range 3-5 billion barrels (477 to 795 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}). Other discoveries include Suilven, the very heavy oil in well 204/28-1 and the Quadrant 205 Strathmore and Solan fields. Potential source rocks in areas adjacent to the West of Shetlands include the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge CLay Formation equivalent, the Middle and Lower Jurassic and the Middle Devonian. The results of geochemical studies of the oils, reservoir core extracts and source rocks from released wells from these West of Shetlands discoveries show them to be genetically related to North Sea oils sourced from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation equivalent. Detailed geochemical analysis (biomarkers, source rock reaction kinetics, compound specific isotope analysis and fluid inclusion ``crush-leach`` analysis) of the Clair Field and ``Foinaven Complex`` oils showed that at least two episodes of charging from different source facies within the Kimmeridge Clay Formation took place, with an intervening biodegradation event. Oil charging from Middle Jurassic lacustrine source rocks is also indicated in the ``Foinaven Complex`` oils. The source rocks are shown to exhibit variations in organic facies, from very oil-prone to mixed oil and gas, with a corresponding range of kinetic parameters. This complex generation, migration and trapping scenario is directly linked with the tectonic evolution of the West of Shetlands with major oil generation from very oil-prone Kimmeridge Clay and Middle Jurassic lacustrine facies into

  16. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R. [Mobil Oil Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  17. Correlation of fluid properties and geochemical parameters with heavy oil viscosity and density on trans-regional scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehne, E.; Rojas, K.; McCarthy, K.; Taylor, S.D. [Schlumberger (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Heavy oils around the world are characterized by high specific gravity and high contents of heavy components but their viscosity differs from one reservoir to another. This research aimed at finding correlations of geochemical characteristics with oil viscosity for heavy oil from different basins. This study was conducted on 15 heavy oil samples from northern and southern America and from Asia; the samples were characterized using gas chromatography, capillarity viscometer, data from stable carbon isotopes, SARA analysis, GC-FID and freezing point depression. Results showed that the degradation-viscosity correlation observed on a regional scale cannot be applied to the worldwide scale, and determined that, at that scale, oil viscosity depends on the original oil maturity and organofacies characteristics. In addition, biomarkers were found to help limit potential oil viscosity although they did not show a direct correlation. This study showed that original oil maturity and organofacies characteristics have to be taken into account in predictive models of oil viscosity.

  18. Correlators of Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz fields in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertl, Daniel

    2011-07-15

    In this thesis we provide calculational tools in order to calculate scattering amplitudes in string theory at tree- and loop-level. In particular, we discuss the calculation of correlation functions consisting of Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz fields in four, six, eight and ten space-time dimensions and calculate the amplitude involving two gauge fields and four gauginos at tree-level. Multi-parton superstring amplitudes are of considerable theoretical interest in the frame-work of a full-fledged superstring theory and of phenomenological interest in describing corrections to four-dimensional scattering processes. The Neveu-Schwarz fermions and Ramond spin fields enter the scattering amplitudes through vertex operators of bosonic and fermionic string states and determine the Lorentz structure of the total amplitude. Due to their interacting nature their correlators cannot be evaluated using Wick's theorem but must be calculated from first principles. At tree-level such correlation functions can be determined by analyzing their Lorentz and singularity structure. In four space-time dimensions we show how to calculate Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz correlators with any number of fields. This method is based on factorizing the expressions into correlators involving only left- or right-handed spin fields and calculating these functions. This factorization property does not hold in higher dimensions. Nevertheless, we are able to calculate certain classes of correlators with arbitrary many fields. Additionally, in eight dimensions we can profit from SO(8) triality to derive further tree-level correlation functions. Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz correlators at loop-level can be evaluated by re-expressing the fermions and spin fields in terms of SO(2) spin system operators. Using this method we present expressions for all correlators up to six-point level and show in addition results for certain classes of correlators with any number of fields. Our findings hold for string scattering at arbitrary

  19. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas.

  20. Research on the Correlation Between Oil Menitoring and Vibration Monitoring in Information Collecting and Processing Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin-ze; YAN Xin-ping; ZHAO Chun-hong; GAO Xiao-hong; XIAO Han-liang

    2004-01-01

    Oil monitoriug and vibration monitoring are two principal techniques for mechanical fault diagnosis and condition monitoring at present. They monitor the mechanical condition by different approaches, neverthelcss, oil and vibration monitoring are related in information collecting and processing. In the same mechanical system, the information obtained from the same information source can be described with the same expression form. The expressions are constituted of a structure matrix, a relative matrix and a system matrix. For oil and vibration monitoring, the information source is correlation and the collection is independent and complementary. And oil monitoring and vibration monitoring have the same process method when they yield their information. This rcsearch has provided a reasonable and useful approach to combine oil monitoring and vibration monitoring.

  1. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  2. Electrospinning chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) solutions with essential oils: Correlating solution rheology to nanofiber formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Katrina A; Birch, Nathan P; Schiffman, Jessica D

    2016-03-30

    Electrospinning hydrophilic nanofiber mats that deliver hydrophobic agents would enable the development of new therapeutic wound dressings. However, the correlation between precursor solution properties and nanofiber morphology for polymer solutions electrospun with or without hydrophobic oils has not yet been demonstrated. Here, cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and hydrocinnamic alcohol (H-CIN) were electrospun in chitosan (CS)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofiber mats as a function of CS molecular weight and degree of acetylation (DA). Viscosity stress sweeps determined how the oils affected solution viscosity and chain entanglement (Ce) concentration. Experimentally, the maximum polymer:oil mass ratio electrospun was 1:3 and 1:6 for CS/PEO:CIN and:H-CIN, respectively; a higher chitosan DA increased the incorporation of H-CIN only. The correlations determined for electrospinning plant-derived oils could potentially be applied to other hydrophobic molecules, thus broadening the delivery of therapeutics from electrospun nanofiber mats.

  3. Field-strength correlators for QCD in a magnetic background

    CERN Document Server

    Meggiolaro, Enrico; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of an exploratory study (by means of Monte Carlo simulations on the lattice) of the properties of the gauge-invariant two-point correlation functions of the gauge-field strengths for $N_f=2$ QCD at zero temperature and in the presence of a magnetic background field: the analysis provides evidence for the emergence of anisotropies in the nonperturbative part of the correlators and for an increase of the gluon condensate as a function of the external magnetic field.

  4. Planning the sampling of a condensed-gas field with an oil fringe at the Benoi field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuniaev, Y.K.; Trubaev, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain data for determining gas, condensate and oil reserves, planning field development, and monitoring the operation of condensed gas wells in fields, a system of gas-hydrodynamic and specialized studies is developed.

  5. Molecular fossils and oil-source rock correlations in Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of "molecular fossils" (biomarkers) of steroid compounds in extracts from some specific geologic age in the Tarim Basin have been analyzed and are used as the fingerprints for the oil-source rock correlation. Having been affected by maturation, migration, phase fractionation and biodegradation, not any molecular fossils related to source and environment can be used as the fingerprints for oil-source rock correlation. Some special biomarkers widely existed in the extracts from Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the Tarim Basin and showed obvious difference in each stratum, including dinosteranes (C30), 4-methyl-24-ethyl-cholestanes (C30) and their aromatized steroids, C24-norcholestanes and C28 steranes originated from dinoflagellates and diatom. Few oils such as the heavy oil drilled in the Cambrian reservoir from Tadong 2 well (TD2) correlated well with the extracts from the Cambrian. The amazing similarity of the relative contents of these compounds between the marine oils produced in Tazhong and Tabei uplifts and the extracts from the Upper Ordovician suggests that the Middle-Upper Ordovician is the very likely main source for the marine oils.

  6. Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaTorraca, G A; Dunn, K J; Webber, P R; Carlson, R M

    1998-01-01

    Low-field (magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements on stable, water-in-oil emulsions. High-density, high-viscosity oils have components that relax faster than can be measured by nuclear magnetic resonance logging tools. This requires corrections to T2 logging measurements for accurate estimates of oil saturation and porosity.

  7. Estimation of Reserves of Tula Horizon Oil Deposits of Severo-Yurmanskoye Field, Perm Kray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Nabiullin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an estimation of reserves of the Tula horizon oil-bearing layers Tl2-a and Tl2-b at the Severo-Yurmanskoye oil field. Research was carried out in order to prospect the unestimated oil reserves at the previously drilled but not commercially producing areas of Perm kray. The opportunity of reserve calculation for this oil field was provided by the sufficient oil encroachment rate achieved during testing of Tula horizon layers in the borehole 174, reliable mapping of oil-bearing horizons using seismic and borehole data, existence of updated stratigraphic information, results of study of uniformity of oil-bearing layers throughout the area of the Severo-Yurmanskoye oil field, reliable estimate of the position of water-oil contact, defining the effective oil-bearing thickness of oil-bearing layers using results of borehole geophysical survey, study of lithological composition and reservoir  properties, study of physical and chemical properties of oil in borehole and in laboratory, and reliability of statistical evaluation of oil recovery factor.

  8. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  9. Characteristics of Abnormal Pressure Systems and Their Responses of Fluid in Huatugou Oil Field, Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaozhi; XU Hao; TANG Dazhen; ZHANG Junfeng; HU Xiaolan; TAO Shu; CAI Yidong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive study of core samples, well testing data, and reservoir fluid properties, the construction and the distribution of the abnormal pressure systems of the Huatugou oil field in Qaidam Basin are discussed. The correlation between the pressure systems and hydrocarbon accumulation is addressed by analyzing the corresponding fluid characteristics. The results show that the Huatugou oil field as a whole has low formation pressure and low fluid energy; therefore, the hydrocarbons are hard to migrate, which facilitates the forming of primary reservoirs. The study reservoirs, located at the Xiayoushashan Formation (N_2~1) and the Shangganchaigou Formation (N_1) are relatively shallow and have medium porosity and low permeability. They are abnormal low-pressure reservoirs with an average formation pressure coefficient of 0.61 and 0.72 respectively. According to the pressure coefficient and geothermal anomaly, the N_1 and N_2~1 Formations belong to two independent temperature-pressure systems, and the former has slightly higher energy. The low-pressure compartments consist of a distal bar as the main body, prodeita mud as the top boundary, and shore and shallow lake mud or algal mound as the bottom boundary. They are vertically overlapped and horizontally paralleled. The formation water is abundant in the Cl~- ion and can be categorized as CaCl_2 type with high salinity, which indicates that the abnormal low-pressure compartments are in good sealing condition and beneficial for oil and gas accumulation and preservation.

  10. Improved minimum miscibility pressure correlation for CO2 flooding using various oil components and their effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fengpeng; Li, Zhiping; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2017-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding is an effective method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that has become one of the most important EOR processes. One of the key factors in the design of a CO2 injection project is the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP), whereas local sweeping efficiency during gas injection is dependent on the MMP. There are many empirical correlation analyses for the MMP calculation. However, these analyses focus on the molecular weight of the C5+ or C7+ fraction, and do not emphasize the effects of various components on MMP. Our study aims to develop an improved CO2-oil MMP correlation analysis that includes parameters such as reservoir temperature and various oil mole fractions. Here, correlation analysis was performed to define the influence of various components on the MMP using various data from 45 oilfields which have experimental CO2-oil MMP and oil compositions readily available. Thirty of the data sets were used to develop an improved correlation, and the other 15 data sets were used to verify the correlation. It was found that the mole fraction of C3 and C6 were the main factors that affected MMP. There was a good quadratic polynomial relationship between the mole fraction of C3 and MMP, and the relationship also existed between the mole fraction of C6 and MMP. The results do not include the molecular weight of the C5+ or C7+ fraction like other common correlations. Nine popular correlations were then used to also predict the MMP, and the comparison showed that the improved CO2-oil MMP correlation defined here was a better estimate. The correlation was then used in Dongshisi and Fuyu oilfields to assess EOR potential, the results also indicated that MMP increased over the course of the CO2 flooding process. This increase shows that it would be more difficult to achieve a mixed phase between crude oil and CO2, therefore the oil recovery would be difficult to further improve towards the end of injection.

  11. The Modulus of the Complex Correlation Coefficient Between Co-Polarized Channels for Oil Spill Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenouchi, H.; Smara, Y.; Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.; Buono, A.

    2016-08-01

    Sea oil pollution is a matter of great concern since it affects both the environment and human health. Recent studies demonstrated that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) polarimetry is able to provide additional information useful for environmental applications, i. e., oil spill observation. In this context, different approaches based on polarimetric SARs were developed. In this study, a dual-polarimetric feature, namely the modulus of the complex correlation coefficient between the co-polarized channels, is used to discriminate between sea oil spill and weak-damping look-alikes.The proposed approach relies on the fact that high correlation between co-polarized channels is expected over sea surface and weak-damping look- alikes due to the dominant Bragg scattering, while significantly lower correlation is expected over strong-damping oil spills since they are characterized by a no-Bragg scattering behaviour. Experimental results show that the modulus of the complex correlation between the co-polarized chan- nels can be successfully exploited for both the observation of sea oil slicks and their discrimination from weak-damping look-alikes.

  12. Quantum correlations in nuclear mean field theory through source terms

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S J

    1996-01-01

    Starting from full quantum field theory, various mean field approaches are derived systematically. With a full consideration of external source dependence, the stationary phase approximation of an action gives a nuclear mean field theory which includes quantum correlation effects (such as particle-hole or ladder diagram) in a simpler way than the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. Implementing further approximation, the result can be reduced to Hartree-Fock or Hartree approximation. The role of the source dependence in a mean field theory is examined.

  13. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  14. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils.

  15. Correlation theory of crystal field and anisotropic exchange effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1985-01-01

    A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds. The the......A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds....... The theory gives explicitly a temperature dependent renormalization of both the crystal field and the interactions, and a damping of the excitations and in addition a central park component. The general theory is illustrated by a discussion of the singlet-doublet system. The correlation effects...... on the susceptibility, the first and second moment frequencies and the line shape are calculated self-consistently....

  16. Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using mu-distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganc, Jonathan; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    \\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\\langle B^2\\zeta\\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$; knowing the $\\langle B^2\\zeta\\rangle$ correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since......_\\mu\\gtrsim 1$ nG, one would have to consider the specifics of the inflationary magnetogenesis model. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\\langle B^2\\zeta\\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response...... the perturbations which produce the $\\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\\langle B^2\\zeta\\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f...

  17. Quantum statistical correlations in thermal field theories: boundary effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bessa, A; de Carvalho, C A A; Fraga, E S

    2010-01-01

    We show that the one-loop effective action at finite temperature for a scalar field with quartic interaction has the same renormalized expression as at zero temperature if written in terms of a certain classical field $\\phi_c$, and if we trade free propagators at zero temperature for their finite-temperature counterparts. The result follows if we write the partition function as an integral over field eigenstates (boundary fields) of the density matrix element in the functional Schr\\"{o}dinger field-representation, and perform a semiclassical expansion in two steps: first, we integrate around the saddle-point for fixed boundary fields, which is the classical field $\\phi_c$, a functional of the boundary fields; then, we perform a saddle-point integration over the boundary fields, whose correlations characterize the thermal properties of the system. This procedure provides a dimensionally-reduced effective theory for the thermal system. We calculate the two-point correlation as an example.

  18. Field correlations and effective two level atom-cavity systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rebic, S; Tan, S M

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the properties of the second order correlation functions of the electromagnetic field in atom-cavity systems that approximate two-level systems. It is shown that a recently-developed polariton formalism can be used to account for all the properties of the correlations, if the analysis is extended to include two manifolds - corresponding to the ground state and the states excited by a single photon - rather than just two levels.

  19. Radio-Optical Galaxy Shape Correlations in the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Tunbridge, Ben; Brown, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the correlations in galaxy shapes between optical and radio wavelengths using archival observations of the COSMOS field. Cross-correlation studies between different wavebands will become increasingly important for precision cosmology as future large surveys may be dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors. In the case of weak lensing, galaxy shapes must be measured to extraordinary accuracy (shear systematics of $ 0.212\\pi$ radians (or $38.2^{\\circ}$) at a $95\\%$ confidence level.

  20. Geometric Seismic Attributes of Boca de Jaruco Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamicela Tamayo López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses in determining the Geometric Seismic Attributes in the central block of Mouth ofJaruco oil field to decrease the uncertainty in the structural design. The three dimensions seismic datacollected and depth migration processing results were used and was defined that the surface isassociated to the main reserve. A Geometric Attributes maps elaboration (Azimuth, Dip, Curvature andRoughness work flow was developed; and was able to determine structural elements, where traditionalseismic data were not always able to demonstrate a confinable image of the geological structure. Thisstructure includes three structures between 1122 and 1200 m in depth. The Azimuth Attribute differentiatesthe southern flank from the northern flank; and defined accurately the top of the structure. The DipAttribute indicates values of layers inclination between 5 and 30º, the structure top with lowers valuesand the flanks with higher values, mainly to the south. Curvature and Roughness attributes reveal theareas of faults or channels.

  1. Scalings of field correlations and heat transport in turbulent convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K; Mishra, Pankaj K; Pandey, Ambrish; Paul, Supriyo

    2012-01-01

    Using direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection under free-slip boundary condition, we show that the normalized correlation function between the vertical velocity field and the temperature field, as well as the normalized viscous dissipation rate, scales as Ra-0.22 for moderately large Rayleigh number Ra. This scaling accounts for the Nusselt number Nu exponent of approximately 0.3, as observed in experiments. Numerical simulations also reveal that the aforementioned normalized correlation functions are constants for the convection simulation under periodic boundary conditions.

  2. Detailed Study of Seismic Wave Attenuation in Carbonate Rocks: Application on Abu Dhabi Oil Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M. Y.; Matsushima, J.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave attenuation is a promising attribute for the petroleum exploration, thanks to its high sensitivity to physical properties of subsurface. It can be used to enhance the seismic imaging and improve the geophysical interpretation which is crucial for reservoir characterization. However getting an accurate attenuation profile is not an easy task, this is due to complex mechanism of this parameter, although that many studies were carried out to understand it. The degree of difficulty increases for the media composed of carbonate rocks, known to be highly heterogeneous and with complex lithology. That is why few attenuation studies were done successfully in carbonate rocks. The main objectives of this study are, Getting an accurate and high resolution attenuation profiles from several oil fields. The resolution is very important target for us, because many reservoirs in Abu Dhabi oil fields are tight.Separation between different modes of wave attenuation (scattering and intrinsic attenuations).Correlation between the attenuation profiles and other logs (Porosity, resistivity, oil saturation…), in order to establish a relationship which can be used to detect the reservoir properties from the attenuation profiles.Comparison of attenuation estimated from VSP and sonic waveforms. Provide spatial distribution of attenuation in Abu Dhabi oil fields.To reach these objectives we implemented a robust processing flow and new methodology to estimate the attenuation from the downgoing waves of the compressional VSP data and waveforms acquired from several wells drilled in Abu Dhabi. The subsurface geology of this area is primarily composed of carbonate rocks and it is known to be highly fractured which complicates more the situation, then we separated successfully the intrinsic attenuation from the scattering. The results show that the scattering is significant and cannot be ignored. We found also a very interesting correlation between the attenuation profiles and the

  3. Conformal Field Theory Correlators from Classical Field Theory on Anti-de Sitter Space; 2, Vector and Spinor Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mück, W

    1998-01-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to calculate CFT correlation functions of vector and spinor fields. The connection between the AdS and boundary fields is properly treated via a Dirichlet boundary value problem.

  4. Calculation of oil production performance of the large giant oil fields in the world: based upon oil fields depletion model; Yuden gentai model ni yoru sekai no ogata kyodai yuden no seisan kyodo ni kansuru ichishisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, S. [Japan Oil Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Data for large giant oil fields with minable reserves of one billion barrels or more were accumulated to structure a new oil field depletion model and estimate production in each oil field. As a result of analyzing events recognized in large giant oil fields, necessity was made clear to correct the conventional oil depletion model. The newly proposed model changes definitions on the depletion period of time, depletion rate, build-up production (during a time period in which production rate increases) and production in a plateau (a time period in which production becomes constant). Two hundred and twenty-five large giant oil fields were classified into those in a depletion period, an initial development phase, and a plateau period. The following findings were obtained as a result of trial calculations using the new model: under an assumption of demand growth rate of 1.5%, oil field groups in the initial development phase will reach the plateau production in the year 2002, and oil fields in the depletion period will continue production decline, hence the production amount after that year will slow down. Because the oil field groups in the plateau period will shift into decline in 2014, the overall production will decrease. The year 2014 is about ten years later than the estimation given recently by Campbell. Undiscovered resources are outside these discussions. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging.

  6. Dynamic Correlation between Stock Market Returns and Crude Oil Prices: Evidence from a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike O. Kalu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Modeling the correlation of assets returns volatilities across different markets or segments of a market has practical value for portfolio selection and diversification, market regulation, and risk management. This paper therefore evaluates the nature of time-varying correlation between volatilities of stock market and crude oil returns in Nigeria using Dynamic Conditional Correlation-Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (DCC-GARCH model. Results from DCC-GARCH (1,1 model show evidence of volatility clustering and persistence in Nigeria stock market and crude oil returns. The results also show that there is no dynamic conditional correlation in ARCH effects between stock market returns and crude oil prices in Nigeria. The results further show that there is strong evidence of time-varying volatility correlation between stock market and crude oil returns volatility. The findings will help shape policy-making in risk management and market regulation in Nigeria.

  7. SWD experiment at Southwest Andrews oil field; Nansei Andrews yuden ni okeru SWD jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, T.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    Seismic while drilling (SWD) is an accurate drilling method by which time-to-depth (T-D) information for determining the accurate bit location and information of bedding boundaries below the bit can be obtained. However, the signal level is rather low compared with the noise generated from the rig during drilling. It is required for improving the S/N ratio to calculate a correlation using reference signals simultaneously acquired using a pilot sensor which is a geophone attached to the rig. Some experiments were conducted in the Southwest Andrews Oil Field. Deterioration of data quality due to the noise particular to the SWD in this oil field could be reduced by proper data acquisition geometry including the minimum offset distance using a geophone array. In order to correct the time, a velocity of P-wave propagating the drill pipe was estimated using auto-correlation of the pilot traces. The S/N ratio was improved by the VSP deconvolution and the stacking effect during VSP-CDP conversion. Thus, could be obtained the accurate T-D information and reflection wave information below the bit. 12 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Changqing Becomes China's Second Largest Oil and Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xufeng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Realizing great-leap-forward growth of oil and gas reserves,production Changqing Oilfield has created miracles from rapid growth to great-leap-forward development when China's oil and gas output increased slowly.

  9. Argentina Hopes for A Big Payoff in Its Shale Oil Field Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Just east of Argentina's Andean foothills, an oil field called the Vaca Muerta, "dead cow" in English, has finally come to life.In May, the Argentine oil company YPF announced that it had found 150 million barrels of oil in the Patagonian field, and President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner rushed onto national television to praise the discovery as something that could give new impetus to the country's long-stagnant economy.

  10. Cleaning method of the oil field wastewater treatment by UF process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces experiments and researches of polysulphone ultrafiltration membrane' s effect on oil field polluted water and approaches renewing oil field polluted water and approaches renewing of membrane' s flux by different detergents and cleaning method. Good result has been achieved by doing experiments and the renewal rate of membrane is over 90%.

  11. Isothermal thermogravimetric analysis of soybean oil oxidation correlated to thin film micro-oxidation test methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method of correlation between the Thin Film Micro-Oxidation (TFMO) test with isothermal thermogravimetric analysis is reported utilizing a soybean oil system. Utilizing a kinetic model, pseudo-rate constants and “activation energy” can be calculated from weight loss data. This model accounts for o...

  12. Full-field digital image correlation with Kriging regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dezhi; DiazDelaO, F. A.; Wang, Weizhuo; Mottershead, John E.

    2015-04-01

    A full-field Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method with integrated Kriging regression is presented in this article. The displacement field is formulated as a best linear unbiased model that includes the correlations between all the locations in the Region of Interest (RoI). A global error factor is employed to extend conventional Kriging interpolation to quantify displacement errors of the control points. An updating strategy for the self-adaptive control grid is developed on the basis of the Mean Squared Error (MSE) determined from the Kriging model. Kriging DIC is shown to outperform several other full-field DIC methods when using open-access experimental data. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the robustness of Kriging DIC to different choices of initial control points and to speckle pattern variability. Finally Kriging DIC is tested on an experimental example.

  13. The Linguado, Carapeba, Vermelho, and Marimba giant oil fields, Campos basin, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stank, C.V.; Esteves, F.R.; Martins, C.C.; Cruz, W.M.; Da Silva Barroso, A.; Horschutz, P.M.C. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1990-09-01

    About 40 hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in the Campos basin in the period 1978-1984, including four giant fields in shallow to moderate water depths. The Linguado oil field is located on the extreme south of the producing area of the Campos basin. The pool was discovered in May 1978. The reservoir rocks occur between 1,700 and 3,000 m, and are constituted by fractured Neocomian basalts, Barremian pelecypod coquinas, Albian oolitic calcarenites, and, secondarily, by some Cretaceous turbidite sandstones. The main reservoir is formed by coquinas, which contain 76% of the total recoverable oil volume estimated at 104.6 million bbl. The field is located on a regional high and the accumulation is strongly controlled by stratigraphic and diagenetic factors. High-quality oil is produced through a floating producing system (FPS), and the cumulative oil production amounts to 63.8 million bbl. The Carapeba and Vermelho oil fields are situated in the northern limit of the Campos basin producing area and, together with the smaller Pargo field, make up the so-called Northeast Pole of Campos basin. Carapeba field was discovered in February 1982, and has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 127.8 million bbl. Production comes mainly from two Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstone reservoirs. The Vermelho field in December 1982, and its main reservoir is formed by a massive Eocene turbidite sandstone. The estimated recoverable oil volume amounts to 119.7 million bbl. Both Carapeba and Vermelho fields are structural traps associated with the development of subtle anticlines caused by salt movements. The fields are gradually being put on stream through five fixed platforms installed in water depths ranging from 70 to 90 m. The Marimba field, discovered in March 1984, drilled in a water depth of 383 m, is considered the first deep-water oil strike in the Campos basin. The field has an estimated recoverable oil volume of 115 million bbl of good-quality oil.

  14. Water scaling in the North Sea oil and gas fields and scale prediction: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, M.

    1996-12-31

    Water-scaling is a common and major production chemistry problem in the North Sea oil and gas fields and scale prediction has been an important means to assess the potential and extent of scale deposition. This paper presents an overview of sulphate and carbonate scaling problems in the North Sea and a review of several widely used and commercially available scale prediction software. In the paper, the water chemistries and scale types and severities are discussed relative of the geographical distribution of the fields in the North Sea. The theories behind scale prediction are then briefly described. Five scale or geochemical models are presented and various definitions of saturation index are compared and correlated. Views are the expressed on how to predict scale precipitation under some extreme conditions such as that encountered in HPHT reservoirs. 15 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  16. Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using μ-distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganc, Jonathan; Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: ganc@cp3.dias.sdu.dk, E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk [CP" 3-Origins, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2014-08-01

    The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called μ-distortion. We can calculate the correlation (μ T) of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy T of the CMB to search for a correlation ( B{sup 2}ζ) between the magnetic field B and the curvature perturbation ζ; knowing the ( B{sup 2}ζ) correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since the perturbations which produce the μ-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of ( B{sup 2}ζ), which is naturally parameterized by b{sub NL} (a parameter defined analogously to f{sub NL}). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise S/N≈ 1.0 × b{sub NL} ( B-tilde {sub μ}/10nG){sup 2}, where B-tilde {sub μ} is the magnetic field's strength on μ-distortion scales normalized to today's redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with b{sub NL}=O(1). However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum (ζ{sup 3}) induced by the magnetic field. For sufficiently small magnetic fields, the signal ( B{sup 2} ζ) will dominate, but for B-tilde {sub μ}∼> 1 nG, one would have to consider the specifics of the inflationary magnetogenesis model. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a ( B{sup 2}ζ) correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

  17. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR). Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated ne...

  18. Auto-correlated behavior of WTI crude oil volatilities: A multiscale perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yudong; Wei, Yu; Wu, Chongfeng

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the long-range auto-correlated behavior of WTI crude oil volatility series employing multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Our findings show that the for small time scales, the auto-correlations of volatilities were multifractal while for large time scales, the auto-correlations were nearly monofractal. Based on multiscale analysis, we also investigate the dynamics of auto-correlations for different intervals of time scales and find that several shocks could make significant effects on the auto-correlated behaviors for small time scales. Analyzing the dynamics of multifractality degrees of auto-correlations for small time scales, we find that the stronger auto-correlations were always related to the lower degrees of multifractality. At last, we have discussions on the determination factors of price behavior, the predictive implications of scaling behavior in volatilities for oil markets and the reasons why long-range auto-correlations of volatility were always strong for both small time scales and large time scales. Our results are very important theoretically and practically.

  19. Cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cross-correlation properties between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC. We use not only the qualitative analysis of the cross-correlation test, but also take the quantitative analysis of the MF-DXA, confirming the cross-correlation relationship between West Texas Intermediate crude oil and the stock markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) respectively, which have strongly multifractal features, and the cross-correlations are more strongly multifractal in the short term than in the long term. Furthermore, based on the multifractal spectrum, we also find the multifractality strength between the crude oil WTI and Chinese stock market is stronger than the multifractality strength of other pairs. Based on the Iraq war (Mar 20, 2003) and the Financial crisis in 2008, we divide sample period into four segments to research the degree of the multifractal (ΔH) and the market efficiency (and the risk). Finally, we employ the technique of the rolling window to calculate the time-varying EI (efficiency index) and dependent on the EI, we can easily observe the change of stock markets. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between bivariate cross-correlation exponents (Hxy(q)) and the generalized Hurst exponents.

  20. Cross-correlations between the US monetary policy, US dollar index and crude oil market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinxin; Lu, Xinsheng; Yue, Gongzheng; Li, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the cross-correlations between the US monetary policy, US dollar index and WTI crude oil market, using a dataset covering a period from February 4, 1994 to February 29, 2016. Our study contributes to the literature by examining the effect of the US monetary policy on US dollar index and WTI crude oil through the MF-DCCA approach. The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between the three sets of time series exhibit strong multifractal features with the strength of multifractality increasing over the sample period. Employing a rolling window analysis, our empirical results show that the US monetary policy operations have clear influences on the cross-correlated behavior of the three time series covered by this study.

  1. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaganova, N. A., E-mail: vna@imm.uran.ru [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Filimonov, M. Yu., E-mail: fmy@imm.uran.ru [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia and Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  2. Liouville field theory and log-correlated Random Energy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Xiangyu; Rosso, Alberto; Santachiara, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    An exact mapping is established between the $c\\geq25$ Liouville field theory (LFT) and the Gibbs measure statistics of a thermal particle in a 2D Gaussian Free Field plus a logarithmic confining potential. The probability distribution of the position of the minimum of the energy landscape is obtained exactly by combining the conformal bootstrap and one-step replica symmetry breaking methods. Operator product expansions in LFT allow to unveil novel universal behaviours of the log-correlated Random Energy class. High precision numerical tests are given.

  3. Intelligent systems in oil field development under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Marco A.C.; Vellasco, Marley M.B.R. (eds.) [PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Intelligent Systems use a range of methodologies for analysis, pre-processing, storage, organization, enhancing and mining of operational data, turning it into useful information and knowledge for decision makers in business enterprises. These intelligent technologies for decision support have been used with success by companies and organizations that are looking for competitive advantages whenever the issues on forecast, optimization, risks analysis, fraud detection, and decision under uncertainties are presented. Intelligent Systems (IS) offer to managers and decision makers the best solutions for complex applications, normally considered difficult, very restrictive or even impossible. The use of such techniques leads to a revolutionary process which has a significant impact in the business management strategy, by providing on time, correct information, ready to use. Computational intelligence techniques, especially genetic algorithms, genetic programming, neural networks, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy as well as modern finance theories, such as real options theory, are here presented and exemplified in oil and gas exploitation and production. This book is addressed to executives and students, directly involved or interested in intelligent management in different fields. (orig.)

  4. Biodesulphurization Within Natural Gas in Oil and Gas Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur compounds in natural gas can interfere to the quality of natural gas. The decline of combustion gas capacity, metal instrument corrosion in gas piping, and the environmental pollution from gas emission can affect by their presence. Bio-filter is one of the methods  that selected to reduce sulphur content in natural gas. A lab scale study of hydrogen sulphide reduction in natural gas had conducted in oil and gas field using bio-filter method. The bio-filter system (±1 L volume contains an active carbon and thiosulphide medium as a substrate, Thiobacillus thioparus as a single culture of sulphur bacteria, and Thiobacillus thioparus with sludge as a mixed culture of sulphur bacteria. The study of hydrogen sulphide reduction was conducted with continuous flow line process. The gas flow rate approximately 1.5 L/min with a fluctuate presence of Hydrogen sulphide (approximately 40 - 70 mg/L. The bio-filter system contains active carbon, thiosulphide medium, and single culture of T. thioparus appear as a good filter for hydrogen sulphide reduction. During 24 hours, the hydrogen sulphide reduction obtains 93% to 16%. When  culture media added, the hydrogen sulphide reduction will increase almost 60% and then the reduction decrease to 4% after 20 hours. It is concluded that the bio-filter have potential to develop for sulphur reduction in natural gas.

  5. Stereoselective biodegradation of tricyclic terpanes in heavy oils from the Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela); Moldowan, J.M.; Dahl, J.E. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; Peters, K.E. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS-MS analyses of heavy oils from Bolivar Coastal Fields (Lagunillas Field) show a complete set of demethylated tricyclic terpanes. As is the case for the 25-norhopanes, the demethylated tricyclics are probably formed in reservoirs by microbially-mediated removal of the methyl group from the C-10 position, generating putative 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes. Diastereomeric pairs of tricyclic terpanes are resolved above C{sub 24} due to resolution of 22S and 22R epimers, but the elution order of the 22S and 22R epimers is unknown. Early-eluting diastereomers (EE) predominate over late-eluting diastereomers (LE) (C{sub 25}-C{sub 29}) in the heavily degraded oils, indicating a stereoselective preference for the LE stereoisomers during biodegradation. Conversely, the LE diastereomers predominate over the EE diastereomers in the 17-nor tricyclic series (C{sub 24}-C{sub 28}), indicating that tricyclic terpanes and 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes are directly linked as precursors and products, respectively. A good correlation exists between the destruction of steranes and the demethylation of hopanes and tricyclic terpanes. This suggests that terpane demethylation occurs during sterane destruction and hopane demethylation, although the rate is slower, indicating that tricyclic terpanes are more resistant to biodegradation. (Author)

  6. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  7. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  8. Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using $\\mu$-distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Ganc, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\\langle\\mu T\\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\\langle B^2\\zeta\\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$. Since the perturbations which produce the $\\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\\langle B^2\\zeta\\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\\approx 1.0 \\times b_{\\text{NL}} (\\tilde B_\\mu/10\\text{ nG})^2$, where $\\tilde B_\\mu$ is the magnetic field's strength on $\\mu$-disto...

  9. Wettability testing of unconsolidated oil sands using low field NMR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, X.; Kantzas, A.; Bryan, J. [University of Calgary/TIPM Laboratory (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In an oil field it is important to understand wettability within the reservoir as it has an important impact on several parameters. However it is difficult to measure wettability in oil sands since conventional Amott/USBM testing cannot be applied. The aim of this paper is to develop protocols to assess wettability from NMR spectra in heavy oil reservoirs. Research was conducted on water wet and oil wet conditions; 3 sets of experiments were carried out with oil phases of different viscosity. Results showed that the signal from oil is insensitive to the location of the oil when viscosity increases but that water relaxation times are linked to the presence of water so water peak shifts can be used to determine different wettability states. This study determined that using water phase NMR relaxation presents several advantages to extract wettability information in unconsolidated sand systems and a technique was developed to interpret wettability.

  10. On a Correlation between the Ionospheric Electric Field and the Time Derivative of the Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Ilma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A correlation of the ionospheric electric field and the time derivative of the magnetic field was noticed over thirty years ago and has yet to be explained. Here we report on another set of examples during the superstorm of November 2004. The electric field in the equatorial ionosphere, measured with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar, exhibited a 3 mV/m electric field pulse that was not seen in the interplanetary medium. It was, however, accompanied by a correlation with the time derivative of the magnetic field measured at two points in Peru. Our inclination was to assume that the field was inductive. However, the time scale of the pulse was too short for the magnetic field to penetrate the crust of the Earth. This means that the area threaded by ∂B/∂t was too small to create the observed electric field by induction. We suggest that the effect was caused by a modulation of the ring current location relative to the Earth due to the electric field. This electric field is required, as the magnetic field lines are considered frozen into the plasma in the magnetosphere. The closer location of the ring current to the Earth in turn increased the magnetic field at the surface.

  11. Dynamics of Coulomb correlations in semiconductors in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromer, Neil Alan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Current theories have been successful in explaining many nonlinear optical experiments in undoped semiconductors. However, these theories require a ground state which is assumed to be uncorrelated. Strongly correlated systems of current interest, such as a two dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field, cannot be explained in this manner because the correlations in the ground state and the low energy collective excitations cause a breakdown of the conventional techniques. We perform ultrafast time-resolved four-wave mixing on $n$-modulation doped quantum wells, which contain a quasi-two dimensional electron gas, in a large magnetic field, when only a single Landau level is excited and also when two levels are excited together. We find evidence for memory effects and as strong coupling between the Landau levels induced by the electron gas. We compare our results with simulations based on a new microscopic approach capable of treating the collective effects and correlations of the doped electrons, and find a good qualitative agreement. By looking at the individual contributions to the model, we determine that the unusual correlation effects seen in the experiments are caused by the scattering of photo-excited electron-hole pairs with the electron gas, leading to new excited states which are not present in undoped semiconductors, and also by exciton-exciton interactions mediated by the long-lived collective excitations of the electron gas, inter-Landau level magnetoplasmons.

  12. Dynamics of Coulomb correlations in semiconductors in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromer, Neil Alan

    2002-05-01

    Current theories have been successful in explaining many nonlinear optical experiments in undoped semiconductors. However, these theories require a ground state which is assumed to be uncorrelated. Strongly correlated systems of current interest, such as a two dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field, cannot be explained in this manner because the correlations in the ground state and the low energy collective excitations cause a breakdown of the conventional techniques. We perform ultrafast time-resolved four-wave mixing on $n$-modulation doped quantum wells, which contain a quasi-two dimensional electron gas, in a large magnetic field, when only a single Landau level is excited and also when two levels are excited together. We find evidence for memory effects and as strong coupling between the Landau levels induced by the electron gas. We compare our results with simulations based on a new microscopic approach capable of treating the collective effects and correlations of the doped electrons, and find a good qualitative agreement. By looking at the individual contributions to the model, we determine that the unusual correlation effects seen in the experiments are caused by the scattering of photo-excited electron-hole pairs with the electron gas, leading to new excited states which are not present in undoped semiconductors, and also by exciton-exciton interactions mediated by the long-lived collective excitations of the electron gas, inter-Landau level magnetoplasmons.

  13. PetroChina Licensed for Nation's Offshore Oil Fields Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the approval by the State Council - the Chinese Government, the Ministry of State and Resources formally authorized PetroChina, China's largest oil and gas producer, with the rights for oil and gas exploration and development in South China Sea on July 6.

  14. Basic results of oil field experiments which justify the development of oil and gas formations using CO2 in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, E.

    1984-01-01

    An oil field experiment begun in 1969 and conducted in the 1970s in the K-2 collector of the Budafa deposit is the basis for developing the deposits of oil and gas of Budafa and Lovasi by secondary and tertiary methods using CO2. The condition of the formation at the onset of pumping in the carbon dioxide is briefly described. The results of the experiment are confirmed by the substantial increase and improvement in the daily flow rates of wells and the oil extraction factor. The mechanism of displacement is analyzed, along with the factors which effect the results, and their value. The question about the role of clay minerals in the CO2, oil, water and rock system is examined along with methods for regulating the rate of pumping gas and the withdrawal rate.

  15. GWDC Solves World-class Drilling Bottleneck in Kenkijak Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The news that Greatwall Drilling Company Limited (GWDC) has drilled a well with the daily oil production of more than one thousand tons spread quickly when the Well H8010 of CNPC Aktobin Oil and Gas Shareholding Company (CNPC Aktobin) in Kenkijak Oil Field in Kazakhstan produced 1,170 tons on July 1, 2004; both the employees of GWDC and CNPC Aktobin could not hold their excited feeling and cheered at such encouraging news.

  16. Design and Operation of Laboratory Combustion Cell for Air Injection into Light Oil Reservoirs: Potential Application in Sindh Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Haque Tunio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical experimental work on the combustion oil recovery processes consists of both laboratory and field studies. Although field experiments are the ultimate test of any oil recovery process, they are costly, time consuming and difficult to analyze quantitatively. Laboratory CC (Combustion Cell experiments are cost effective and less time consuming, but are subject to scaling and interpretation challenges. Experimental set up has been developed to understand air injection process for improving oil recovery from light oil reservoirs taking into account the sand pack petro physical and fluid properties. Some important design problems; operational criteria and considerations important to interpretation of results are pointed out. To replicate subsurface reservoir conditions or pressure and temperature, experiments up to 6895 KPa, at non-isothermal conditions with 5oC/min ramp-up are performed on unconsolidated cores with reservoir oil samples. Correlations were obtained for low temperature oxidation rate of oil, the fuel deposition rate and the rate of burning fuel as a fuel concentration. Various parameters such as (sand pack, pressure, oil saturation and flow rate/air flux were changed to investigate their impact on reaction and chemical nature of the fuel burned. To determine the importance of distribution and pyrolysis on these reactions, the hydrogen-carbon ratio and m-ratio was calculated. For further confirmation Arrhenius graphs were drawn by assuming 1.0 order of reaction with carbon concentration which is also confirmed.This research will contribute to the overall understanding of air injection process;help to determine the most appropriate

  17. Evaluation of cross correlation technique to measure flow in pipes of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilan, Eddie J., E-mail: eddieavilan@gmail.com [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Reis, Verginia, E-mail: verginia@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Barreira, Luis E.; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Radiofarmacos

    2013-07-01

    The present work is concerned with the use of the cross correlation technique to measure delay time between two simulated signals displaced with respect to time, in order to develop a cross correlator system that will be used to measure the water and oil pipes flowrate in which the detection system is composed by two external low intensity radiation sources located along the tube and two NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detectors. The final purpose of the correlator system is to use the natural disturbances, as the turbulence in the own flow rather than to inject radioactive tracers to the fluid flow as usually is carried out. In the design of this correlator is evaluated the point-by-point calculation method for the cross correlation function in order to produce a system accurate and fast. This method is divided at the same time in three modes of operation: direct, relay and polarity. (author)

  18. Canonical Correlation Between Partial Discharges and Gas Formation in Transformer Oil Paper Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gas analysis (DGA has been widely applied to diagnose internal faults in transformer insulation systems. However, the accuracy of DGA technique is limited because of the lack of positive correlation of the fault-identifying gases with faults found in power transformers. This paper presents a laboratory study on the correlation between oil dissolved gas formation and partial discharge (PD statistical parameters. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA is employed to explore the underlying correlation and to extract principal feature parameters and gases in the development of different PD defects. This study is aimed to provide more information in assisting the separation, classification and identification of PD defects, which might improve the existing transformer dissolved gas analysis (DGA schemes. An application of a novel ratio method for discharge diagnosis is proposed. The evaluation of DGA data both in laboratory and actual transformers proves the effectiveness of the method and the correlation investigation.

  19. Foamy oil flow : a laboratory curiosity or a real drive mechanism in field operations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maini, B.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The exceptional performance of primary depletion in many Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil reservoirs can be attributed to the mechanism of foamy oil flow. It is has been speculated that the solution gas released during depletion remains dispersed in the oil and flows towards the production well in the form of gas-in-oil dispersion. However, most laboratory studies of foamy-oil-flow reveal that the depletion rates required for generating dispersed flow are completely unrealistic in field operations. This study examined whether foamy oil flow is merely a laboratory aberration. The paper defines foamy oil flow and explains how it evolved. A brief review of Canadian field practices was presented along with observations from cold production of heavy oil. The pore-scale mechanisms involved and the interplay between capillary and viscous forces were also discussed along with the conditions under which dispersed flow is generated in field operations. The strengths and weaknesses of several mathematical models proposed for numerical simulation of foamy oil flow were described.

  20. Chemical composition of asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Klyavina, O.A.; Kolyabina, N.A. [L.N. Tolstoi Tula State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-10

    Asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba have been studied by physical and physicochemical methods. Dynamics of distribution of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen and also various functional groups in asphaltenes has been described. These data can be used for the proper deasphalting of crude oil and further treatment of asphaltenes.

  1. Non-local correlations within dynamical mean field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang

    2009-03-15

    The contributions from the non-local fluctuations to the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) were studied using the recently proposed dual fermion approach. Straight forward cluster extensions of DMFT need the solution of a small cluster, where all the short-range correlations are fully taken into account. All the correlations beyond the cluster scope are treated in the mean-field level. In the dual fermion method, only a single impurity problem needs to be solved. Both the short and long-range correlations could be considered on equal footing in this method. The weak-coupling nature of the dual fermion ensures the validity of the finite order diagram expansion. The one and two particle Green's functions calculated from the dual fermion approach agree well with the Quantum Monte Carlo solutions, and the computation time is considerably less than with the latter method. The access of the long-range order allows us to investigate the collective behavior of the electron system, e.g. spin wave excitations. (orig.)

  2. Market potential of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery-a techno-economic model for Issaran oil field in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunay; Guédez, Rafael; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (S-EOR) is an advanced technique of using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology to generate steam and recover oil from maturing oil reservoirs. The generated steam is injected at high pressure and temperature into the reservoir wells to facilitate oil production. There are three common methods of steam injection in enhanced oil recovery - continuous steam injection, cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Conventionally, this steam is generated through natural gas (NG) fired boilers with associated greenhouse gas emissions. However, pilot projects in the USA (Coalinga, California) and Oman (Miraah, Amal) demonstrated the use of S-EOR to meet their steam requirements despite the intermittent nature of solar irradiation. Hence, conventional steam based EOR projects under the Sunbelt region can benefit from S-EOR with reduced operational expenditure (OPEX) and increased profitability in the long term, even with the initial investment required for solar equipment. S-EOR can be realized as an opportunity for countries not owning any natural gas resources to make them less energy dependent and less sensible to gas price fluctuations, and for countries owning natural gas resources to reduce their gas consumption and export it for a higher margin. In this study, firstly, the market potential of S-EOR was investigated worldwide by covering some of the major ongoing steam based EOR projects as well as future projects in pipeline. A multi-criteria analysis was performed to compare local conditions and requirements of all the oil fields based on a defined set of parameters. Secondly, a modelling approach for S-EOR was designed to identify cost reduction opportunities and optimum solar integration techniques, and the Issaran oil field in Egypt was selected for a case study to substantiate the approach. This modelling approach can be consulted to develop S-EOR projects for any steam flooding based oil

  3. Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-31

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of polyphenols in 55 extra virgin olive oils by HPLC-ECD and their correlation with antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Banu; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Schulze, Nicole; Ozcelik, Beraat; Frank, Jan; Rimbach, Gerald

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed eight phenolic compounds (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, pinoresinol, and caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid) in 55 mono- and multivarietal extra virgin olive oil samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a coulometric electrochemical array detector (ECD). The phenolic profile of olive oil samples differed depending on the geographical origin and olive variety. The total reducing capacity (total phenolics) of olive oils ranged from about 40 to 530 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg oil. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol were the most abundant phenolic compounds in olive oils. The antioxidant capacity of the olive oil extracts was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total reducing capacity was significatly correlated with FRAP (R² = 0.91, p polyphenols in olive oils from 9 different countries and four continents.

  5. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work.

  6. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  7. Analysis of oil content and oil quality in oilseeds by low-field NMR; Analise do teor e da qualidade dos lipideos presentes em sementes de oleaginosas por RMN de baixo campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantino, Andre F.; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar; Santos, Reginaldo B. dos; Greco, Sandro J.; Silva, Renzo C.; Neto, Alvaro C.; Barbosa, Lucio L.; Castro, Eustaquio V.R. de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Freitas, Jair C.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    To choose among the variety of oleaginous plants for biodiesel production, the oil content of several matrices was determined through different low-field {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with varied pulse sequences, namely single-pulse, spin-echo, CPMG, and CWFP. The experiments that involved the first three sequences showed high correlation with each other and with the solvent extraction method. The quality of the vegetable oils was also evaluated on the basis of the existing correlation between the T{sub 2} values of the oils and their properties, such as viscosity, iodine index, and cetane index. These analyses were performed using HCA and PCA chemometric tools. The results were sufficiently significant to allow separation of the oleaginous matrices according to their quality. Thus, the low-field {sup 1}H NMR technique was confirmed as an important tool to aid in the selection of oleaginous matrices for biodiesel production. (author)

  8. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geological Provinces of the Former Soviet Union

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, center points of oil and gas fields, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Former Soviet Union. This compilation is...

  9. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of the Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  10. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of Africa with some of these components extended into geographically...

  11. Radio-geochemical methods at surface expiotation of oil and gas fields

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolev, I. S.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the situation with radio-geochemical methods of searching oil and gas fields is presented. Potential reasons of radio-geochemical anomalies formation are considered, some approaches to interpretation of radio-geochemical datum are listed

  12. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  13. A wave field synthesis approach to reproduction of spatially correlated sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alain; Dia, Rokhiya; Robin, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    This article discusses an open-loop wave field synthesis (WFS) approach for the reproduction of spatially correlated sound fields. The main application concerns laboratory reproduction of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure on aircraft fuselages and measurement of their sound transmission loss. The problem configuration involves reconstruction of random sound pressure distributions on a planar reproduction surface using a planar array of reproduction monopoles parallel to the reproduction plane. In this paper, the WFS formulation is extended to sound fields with imposed time and spatial correlation properties (or equivalently imposed cross-spectral density in the frequency and wave number domains). Numerical examples are presented for the reproduction of a propagating plane wave, diffuse acoustic field and wall pressure in subsonic or supersonic turbulent boundary layers. The reproduction accuracy is examined in terms of the size of the source plane and reproduction plane, their separation, and the number of reproduction sources required per acoustic wavelength. While the reproduction approach cannot reconstruct sub-wavelength correlation scales of subsonic turbulent boundary layers, it effectively reconstructs correlation scales larger than the acoustic wavelength, making it appropriate for diffuse acoustic field and supersonic turbulent layers.

  14. The Multiscale Fluctuations of the Correlation between Oil Price and Wind Energy Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupei Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is considered a clear and sustainable substitution for fossil fuel, and the stock index of the wind energy industry is closely related to the oil price fluctuation. Their relationship is characterized by multiscale and time-varying features based on a variety of stakeholders who have different objectives within various time horizons, which makes it difficult to identify the factor in which time scale could be the most influential one in the market. Aiming to explore the correlation between oil price and the wind energy stock index from the time–frequency domain in a dynamic perspective, we propose an algorithm combining the wavelet transform, complex network, and gray correlation analyses and choose the Brent oil price and the international securities exchange (ISE global wind energy index from January 2006 to October 2015 in daily frequency as data sample. First, we define the multiscale conformation by a set of fluctuation information with different time horizons to represent the fluctuation status of the correlation of the oil–wind nexus rather than by a single original correlation value. Then, we transform the multiscale conformation evolution into a network model, and only 270 multiscale conformations and 710 transmissions could characterize 2451 data points. We find that only 30% of conformations and transmissions work as a backbone of the entire correlation series; through these major conformations, we identify that the main factor that could influence the oil–wind nexus are long-term components, such as policies, the status of the global economy and demand–supply issues. In addition, there is a clustering effect and transmissions among conformations that mainly happen inside clusters and rarely among clusters, which means the interaction of the oil–wind nexus is stable over a short period of time.

  15. Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids.

  16. The analysis of repeated failures of pipelines in Kal'chinskoe oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlov, E. N.; Brusnik, O. V.; Lukjanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the chemical analysis of oilfield water and hydraulic analysis of the liquid flow in Kal'chinskoe oil field pipeline that allow detecting the causes of the internal corrosion processes. The inhibitor protection is suggested to reduce the corrosion rate in the pipelines of Kal'chinskoe oil field. Based on the analysis of the pipeline failures, it is suggested to replace steel pipes by fiberglass pipes.

  17. Technical and economic feasibility study of flue gas injection in an Iranian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to investigate various gas injection methods (N2, CO2, produced reservoir gas, and flue gas in one of the northern Persian gulf oil fields by a numerical simulation method. Moreover, for each scenario of gas injection technical and economical considerations are took into account. Finally, an economic analysis is implemented to compare the net present value (NPV of the different gas injection scenarios in the aforementioned oil field.

  18. THE EFFECT OF OIL CAVITY DEPTH ON TEMPERATURE FIELD IN HEAVY HYDROSTATIC THRUST BEARING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jun-peng; DAI Chun-xi; ZHANG Yan-qin; YU Xiao-dong; XU Xiao-qiu; WANG Yun-fei

    2011-01-01

    For a heavy hydrostatic bearing with a high linear velocity,the results of numerical calculations often differ from practical conditions if the viscosity is considered as constant.In this article,the influence of the oil cavity depth on the temperature field in the heavy hydrostatic bearing is discussed in the context of variable viscosity.The viscosity-temperature relations for the gap oil film are first established by fitting B-Spline curves,then,numerical calculations for the temperature field in the heavy hydrostatic bearing of different oil cavity depths are carried out based on Finite Volume Method (FVM) under the same rotating speed,and the influence of the oil cavity depth on the temperature distribution in the gap oil film of the hydrostatic bearing is discussed.The results of numerical calculations provide the temperature distribution state inside the hydrostatic bearing,which would help the selection and the design of hydrostatic bearings in engineering practice.

  19. Drilling horizontal wells from the coast to reach offshore heavy oil pool, Puerto Escondido field, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puentes, G.E.; Alvarez, R.R. [Cubapetroleo, Havana, (Cuba); Marrero, F.M. [Ministry of Basic Industry, Havana, (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    A series of vertical oil wells were drilled in the Puerto Escondido field in Cuba as part of an oil exploration program in the 1970s. The drilling of well PE-3 in 1992 revealed that the field contained one of the most significant oil finds in the western region of Cuba. Due to the fractured nature of the reservoir, it was determined that future wells should be drilled using horizontal drilling technology to increase hydrocarbon recoveries, and to maintain high production rates. The first horizontal well was successfully drilled in April, 1997. Four other wells were drilled by September 1998. This paper briefly described the drilling techniques used.

  20. De-convoluting mixed crude oil in Prudhoe Bay Field, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Scott, Ramos L.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Bird, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-four crude oil samples from the Barrow arch on the North Slope of Alaska were studied to assess the relative volumetric contributions from different source rocks to the giant Prudhoe Bay Field. We applied alternating least squares to concentration data (ALS-C) for 46 biomarkers in the range C19-C35 to de-convolute mixtures of oil generated from carbonate rich Triassic Shublik Formation and clay rich Jurassic Kingak Shale and Cretaceous Hue Shale-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ) source rocks. ALS-C results for 23 oil samples from the prolific Ivishak Formation reservoir of the Prudhoe Bay Field indicate approximately equal contributions from Shublik Formation and Hue-GRZ source rocks (37% each), less from the Kingak Shale (26%), and little or no contribution from other source rocks. These results differ from published interpretations that most oil in the Prudhoe Bay Field originated from the Shublik Formation source rock. With few exceptions, the relative contribution of oil from the Shublik Formation decreases, while that from the Hue-GRZ increases in reservoirs along the Barrow arch from Point Barrow in the northwest to Point Thomson in the southeast (???250 miles or 400 km). The Shublik contribution also decreases to a lesser degree between fault blocks within the Ivishak pool from west to east across the Prudhoe Bay Field. ALS-C provides a robust means to calculate the relative amounts of two or more oil types in a mixture. Furthermore, ALS-C does not require that pure end member oils be identified prior to analysis or that laboratory mixtures of these oils be prepared to evaluate mixing. ALS-C of biomarkers reliably de-convolutes mixtures because the concentrations of compounds in mixtures vary as linear functions of the amount of each oil type. ALS of biomarker ratios (ALS-R) cannot be used to de-convolute mixtures because compound ratios vary as nonlinear functions of the amount of each oil type.

  1. Strong light-field effects in correlated oraganic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yohei; Naitoh, Yota; Itoh, Hirotake; Ishihara, Sumio; Yonemitsu, Kenji

    Optical responses of organic conductors have attracted much attentions, because they exhibit ultrafast solid-state phase transitions in the conducting and/or dielectric natures upon photo-excitations. In this decade, photoinduced melting of correlated insulators with clear charge gap have been extensively investigated. On the other hand, optical rsponses of correlated metal has not been studied well. Here, we describe a charge localization induced by the 9.3 MV/cm instantaneous electric field of a 1.5 cycle (7 fs) infrared pulse in an organic conductor alpha- (bis[ethylenedithio]-tetrathiafulvelene)2I3. A large reflectivity change of 30 percent and a coherent charge oscillation along the time axis reflect the opening of the charge ordering gap in the metallic phase. This optical freezing of charges, which is the reverse of the photoinduced melting of electronic orders, is attributed to the 10 percent reduction of t driven by the strong, high-frequency electric field. Furthermore, the contribution of Coulomb repulsion will be discussed on the basis of the polarization dependence of the pump light and the theory.

  2. Correlators in integrable quantum field theory: the scaling RSOS models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, G. E-mail: aldo@lpthe.jussieu.fr

    2000-09-11

    The study of the scaling limit of two-dimensional models of statistical mechanics within the framework of integrable field theory is illustrated through the example of the RSOS models. Starting from the exact description of regime III in terms of colliding particles, we compute the correlation functions of the thermal, phi (cursive,open) Greek{sub 1,2} and (for some cases) spin operators in the two-particle approximation. The accuracy obtained for the moments of these correlators is analysed by computing the central charge and the scaling dimensions and comparing with the exact results. We further consider the (generally non-integrable) perturbation of the critical points with both the operators phi (cursive,open) Greek{sub 1,3} and phi (cursive,open) Greek{sub 1,2} and locate the branches solved on the lattice within the associated two-dimensional phase diagram. Finally we discuss the fact that the RSOS models, the dilute q-state Potts model at and the O(n) vector model are all described by the same perturbed conformal field theory.

  3. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  4. Magnetic Susceptibility Analysis of Soil Affected by Hydrocarbon in Wonocolo Traditional Oil Field, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, Melianna; Wijatmoko, Bambang; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of soil affected by hydrocarbon was studied through cored soil samples in two zones (Zone One and Zone Two) of an oil field in Wonocolo Village, East Java. We also collected soil samples as the background from a residential area near the oil field (Zone Three). The Zone One, consisted two cores near producing well; the Zone Two consisted two cores obtained from near a dry hole well and a discontinued well; and the Zone Three consisted two cores to validate the initial soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. The hydrocarbon content measurement was also done for the upper part of each cores using distillation method to identify the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and hydrocarbon content. From magnetic susceptibility measurement in dual frequency, samples from the Zone One and Zone Two have magnetic susceptibility range from 6,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 160 × 10-8 m3kg-1 and 15,7 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 417,9 × 10-8 m3kg-1, respectively. Whereas background samples from Zone Three have magnetic susceptibility range from 4,8 × 10-8 m3kg-1 to 81,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1. We found low χfd (%) in samples with high magnetic susceptibility values, shown that there was no indication of superparamagnetic minerals in the samples. The hydrocarbon content measurement shows the value range of 8% - 14% only exists in the upper part of all cores in Zone One and one core in Zone Two. From this analysis, we assume that other than the volume of the hydrocarbon content in soil, the period of petroleum hydrocarbon deposition in soil and the fossil fuel combustion generated in the study site could differently increase the soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. Positive correlation between the two parameters hopefully could contribute to develop environmental magnetic methods for detecting oil spills in soil, especially to remediate former hydrocarbon exploration and production area.

  5. The discovery and development of the El Dorado (Kansas) oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    Pioneers named El Dorado, Kansas, in 1857 for the beauty of the site and the promise of future riches but not until 58 years later was black rather than mythical yellow gold discovered when the Stapleton No. 1 oil well came in on October 5, 1915. El Dorado's leaders were envious when nearby towns found huge gas fields and thrived. John Donley, an El Dorado barber, had tried to find either gas or oil in 1878 at a nearby site selected by a spiritualist. He staked out a townsite, spudded a well and drilled 200 feet before running out of money. Wells in 1879 and 1882 produced only brine. In June, 1914, chafed over discovery of oil in nearby Augusta, El Dorado city fathers contracted with Erasmus Haworth, soon to retire from his position as State Geologist, to perform a geological study of the area. His field work outlined the El Dorado Anticline, which unsuccessfully was drilled first in August, 1915. On abandonment, the Wichita Natural Gas Company purchased the lease and drilled the Stapleton No. 1 oil well. More success followed and by 1918, the El Dorado produced 29 million barrels, almost 9% of the nation's oil. Entrepreneurs came and prospered: the Cities Service Oil Company, A.L. Derby, Jack Vickers, and Bill Skelly all became familiar names in Midcontinent oil marketing. Earlier giant fields had hurt the price of crude oil but the El Dorado came in as both World War I and the rapid popularization of motor transport made a market for both light and heavy ends of the refinery stream. The giant gas field never materialized as hoped but in late 1995, the El Dorado Field produced its 300 millionth barrel of oil.

  6. Sulfate-reducing bacteria release barium and radium from naturally occurring radioactive material in oil-field barite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Kraemer, T.; Zielinski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release 226 Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., Str LZKI, isolated from an oil-field brine pond. However, Ba release was not stoichiometric with sulfide production in oil-field samples, and material.

  7. Index to names of oil and gas fields in Oklahoma, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacina, J.L.

    1979-05-01

    This index contains the current and discontinued names of the oil and gas fields in Oklahoma. They are listed according to assignments made by the Oklahoma Nomenclature Committee of the Kansas-Oklahoma Division, Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association. Also listed are some names which have been used locally or unofficially for certain areas. Included also are: (1) the date when the field was named; (2) the description of location by county, township, and section; and (3) a statement as to the disposition of a field when it was combined with other fields.

  8. Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-07-01

    The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

  9. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A. [INTEVEP S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  10. Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-11-01

    The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  11. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  12. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  13. Polymer composite coatings to protect parts of oil field equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislyy, P.S.; Alekseyenko, A.A.; Dzyadykevich, Yu.V.; Kalba, Ye.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the possibility of using polymer composite coating for protection from corrosion and wear of working wheels of oil pumping pumps. A study was made of the physicomechanical properties of the polymer matrix. Technology was developed for applying the coating based on a polymer matrix and refractory filler which was introduced at the UMN ''Druzhba.''

  14. A genome probe survey of the microbial community in oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voordouw, G.; Telang, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2000-07-01

    Reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) was conducted in water injected oil fields in Western Canada in order to analyze the microbial community in the fields to identify different bacteria responsible for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) or souring. Oil fields of moderate temperature and salinity have an anaerobic microbial community consisting of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and heterotrophic bacteria. The RSGP revealed that selected SRB are enhanced at metal surfaces and can therefore contribute to corrosion. Some of the SRB were found to be insensitive to biocides that are used in the field. RSGP also showed that injection of nitrate, instead of sulfate, leads to a marked increase of Campylobacter sp., which gets its energy from the oxidation of sulfide by nitrate. It was concluded that RSGP is a useful tool to monitor the effects of chemical stresses on the oil field microbial community. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Seismic Wave Attenuation in Fractured Reservoir: Application on Abu Dhabi Oil Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M.; Matsushima, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a close link between fractures network and fluids circulation so information about nature and geometry of fractures in the reservoir zone is benificial for the petroleum industry. However the immaturity of the methodology and the complication of fractures network in some reservoirs like those of Abu Dhabi oil fields, make getting such information challenging. Since several studies showed the close link between physical properties of the subsurface and seismic wave attenuation (eg. Müller et al. 2010), we use this parameter in this study to assess its potentiality on fractures detection and characterization, even though its use is not common for reservoir characterization and even less for fractures characterization. To get an accurate attenuation profiles, we use a robust methods recently developed to estimate accurately attenuation from Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) (Matsushima et al. 2016) and sonic waveforms (Suziki and Matsushima 2013) in the reservoir zones. The data were acquired from many wells located in offshore and onshore oil fields of Abu Dhabi region. The subsurface of this region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks, such media are known to be highly heterogeneous. Scattering and intrinsic attenuation profiles were compared to interpreted fractures by using Formation Micro-imager (FMI). The comparison shows a correlation between these two parameters and fractures characteristic, such as their density and dipping. We also performed Alford rotation on dipole data to estimate the attenuation from fast and slow shear waveforms. The anisotropy is proportional to the dispersion of the points plotted from the ratio between the intrinsic attenuation of fast and slow shear over the depth, from the line (Qslow /Qfast=1), which corresponds to the isotropic case. We noticed that the zones with low fractures density display less dispersion than those of high density. Even though our results show potentiality of the attenuation for fractured

  16. Lithological and petrophysical evaluation of the caprock keybeds, Asmari Reservoir of Pazanan Oil Field, Zagros, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Soleimani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pazanan oil field is located 150 km SE of ahvaz city in SW of Iran and measures 60 km long, 4-6 km wide. The caprock of this oil field were evaluated using well logs (gamma-ray and sonic logs SEM and petrographical microscopy data. The cap rock consist of mudstone, interlayers of anhydrite and bitumens shale. Therefore, it can be classified as mudstone type. On the basis of our investigations, the Caprock can be divided in to 6 keybeds: A(Anhydrite, B(Bitumenshale & some times bitumen marls, C (mudstone with interlayers of shale & anhydrite, D (mudstone & anhydrite, E (mudstone& F(mudstone & packstone, almost all of these units coverd by salt. Anhydrite beds show the following textures: microlitic, spherolite, porphyroblast, and granular. Anhydrite crystals indicate the occurrence of processes such as emplacement and calcitization. Sonic and gamma-ray well logs were used to determine lithological changes. The highest peak is correlated with mudstone units. Caprock depth varies from 2580m(min-2717m(max [northern part], 1704(min. - 2444(max. [central part],And 2050 (min.- 2490 (max. [southern part] using well drilling data. It seems that that the thickness in the southern part is less than is other part. Comparing the thicknesses of different keybeds. The maximum occurs in the c-keybeds. The sedimentar : sequence of Caprock started by mudstone, packstone and interlayers of anhydrite, followed by mudstone, anhydrite, shale-marl, as well as bitumen shale, mudstone and anhydrite and finally was overlaid by salt. Lithological variation indicate a sabkha-lacustrine environment. Therefore, the hot-wet and hot-dry climate was dominated. In some cases, Caprock thickness decreases to 6m without any gap. This thinning is related to structural deformation. Unfavorable lithologyconditions resulted is well collaps.

  17. Normalized Stokes operators for polarization correlations of entangled optical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Stokes parameters are a standard tool in quantum optics. They involve averaged intensities at exits of polarizers. If the overall measured intensity fluctuates, as, e.g., for states with undefined photon numbers, the instances of its increased value contribute more to the parameters. One can introduce normalized quantum Stokes operators. Operationally, for a given single run of the experiment, their values are differences of measured intensities (or photon numbers) at the two exits of a polarizer divided by their sum. Effects of intensity fluctuations are removed. Switching to normalized Stokes operators results in more sensitive entanglement conditions. We also show a general method of deriving an entanglement indicator for optical fields which use polarization correlations, which starts with any two-qubit entanglement witness. This allows one to vastly expand the family of such indicators.

  18. Hybrid star structure with the Field Correlator Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgio, G.F.; Zappala, D. [INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We explore the relevance of the color-flavor locking phase in the equation of state (EoS) built with the Field Correlator Method (FCM) for the description of the quark matter core of hybrid stars. For the hadronic phase, we use the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) many-body theory, and its relativistic counterpart, i.e. the Dirac-Brueckner (DBHF). We find that the main features of the phase transition are directly related to the values of the quark-antiquark potential V{sub 1}, the gluon condensate G{sub 2} and the color-flavor superconducting gap Δ. We confirm that the mapping between the FCM and the CSS (constant speed of sound) parameterization holds true even in the case of paired quark matter. The inclusion of hyperons in the hadronic phase and its effect on the mass-radius relation of hybrid stars is also investigated. (orig.)

  19. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  20. Direct correlation of diffusion and pore size distributions with low field NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent diffusion coefficient (D) is a powerful tool to probe microstructure in porous media, and can be obtained by the NMR method. In a real porous sample, molecular diffusion is very complex. Here we present a new method which directly measures the relationship between effective diffusion coefficients and pore size distributions without knowing surface relaxivity. This method is used to extract structural information and explore the relationship between D and a in porous media having broad pore size distributions. The diffusion information is encoded by the Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) method and the pore size distributions are acquired by the Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF) method. Two model samples were measured to verify this method. Restricted diffusion was analyzed, and shows that most fluid molecules experience pore wall. The D(a) curves obtained from correlation maps were fitted to the Padé approximant equation and a good agreement was found between the fitting lines and the measured data. Then a sandstone sample with unknown structure was measured. The state of confined fluids was analyzed and structural information, such as pore size distributions, were extracted. The D - T1 correlation maps were also obtained using the same method, which yielded surface relaxivities for different samples. All the experiments were conducted on 2 MHz NMR equipment to obtain accurate diffusion information, where internal gradients can be neglected. This method is expected to have useful applications in the oil industry, particularly for NMR logging in the future.

  1. Evolution of Hydrodynamic Field, Oil-Gas Migration and Accumulation in Songliao Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼章华; 朱蓉; 金爱民; 孙毛明; 蔡希源; 迟元林

    2004-01-01

    The oil-gas migration and accumulation in the Songliao Basin were analyzed in the view of fluid dynamics by the authors. The key point of fluid dynamics is hydrodynamics. Oil-gas migration and accumulation are related closely with formation and evolution of hydrodynamic field. Based on abundant data, initial formation pressure and other parameters, such as water head were studied. They can be used to understand the present distribution of hydrodynamic field and its hydrochemical features. Generally, the hydrodynamic field in the basin is obviously asymmetrical. In its north and east part, there are the areas of centripetal flow caused by topographic relief when meteoric water permeate downwards. Its south part is an evaporation-concentration area. The central depression is an area of centrifugal flow driven by sediment compaction and its cross-formational flow area. Only at the basin margin and in the local uplifted and denudated area are the meteoric water permeating downwards areas. The centrifugal flow driven by sediment compaction is the main dynamic factor that induces oil-gas migration and accumulation and its formation period corresponding to the main stage of oil-gas migration and accumulation. Moreover, the evolution of hydrodynamic field has the cyclic property, which results in phased oil-gas migration by stages, and further dominates the terraced annular oil and gas distribution, concentric with their corresponding sags.

  2. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  3. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Progress report for the quarter ending December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Six tasks are reported on: geological and engineering study of the DOE-Kewanee polymer-augmented waterflood, review of polymer injection program in this field, evaluation of results of polymer-augmented waterflood in this field, review of geological and engineering characteristics of oil fields now in waterflood as candidates for polymer augmentation, review of fields currently under primary production, and determination of ranges of future increased oil production from the polymer-water process in the project area.

  4. Rock mechanics related to Jurassic underburden at Valdemar oil field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The presented study is a part of the Danish Energy Research project PRIORITY - Imroved Oil Recovery and Productivity from Lower Cretaceous Carbonates.It considers a multi-disciplinary study of the Jurassic shale underlying the Valdemar structure and gives a status of the on-going research work.......It has been initiated as a feasibility study of the North Jens-1 core 12 taken in the top Jurassic clay shale as a test specimens for integrated petrological, mineralogical and rock mechanical studies. Following topics are studied:(1) Pore pressure generation due to conversion of organic matter...... and deformation properties of the clay shale using the actual core material or outcrop equivalents.(3) Flushing mechanisms for oil and gas from source rocks due to possibly very high pore water pressure creating unstable conditions in deeply burried sedimentsThere seems to be a need for integrating the knowledge...

  5. Intelligent fiber sensing system for the oil field area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenju; Ma, Linping

    2010-08-01

    Optical Fiber strain sensor using fiber Bragg grating are poised to play a major role in structural health from military to civil engineering. Fiber Bragg Grating sensor is a practical type of fiber optic sensors. Its measurement is encoded with the wavelength of the optical signal reflected from fiber Bragg grating. The method of measuring the absolute optical wavelength is a critical component of the fiber optic sensing system. To reliably detect very small changes in the environment at the sensor, the interrogation system must provide accurate and repeatable wavelength measurements. Energy sources are increasingly scarce in the world. Getting oil from the oil-wells has become more and more difficult. Therefore, new technology to monitor the oil-well condition has become extremely important. The traditional electrical sensor system is no longer useful because of the down-hole's high temperature and high pressure environment. The optical fiber sensing system is the first choice to monitor this condition. This system will reduce the cost and increase the productivity. In the high pressure and high temperature environment, the traditional packed fiber grating pressure-temperature sensor will be no longer reliability. We have to find a new fiber grating temperature-pressure sensor element and the interrogation system. In this work we use the very narrow bandwidth birefringent fiber grating as the sensing element. We obtain the interrogation system has 0.1 pm resolution.

  6. Clear well physical water treatment technology for the oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso y Troncoso, Joao Ricardo [Weatherford Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rzeznik, Lawrence; Parker, Wiley L. [Weatherford International, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Deposits of various types are common problems associated with oil and gas production. Deposits of scale, paraffin can block tubing, cause pumps to stick and clog valves and chokes. The expense and widespread occurrence of deposition problems have resulted in the development of a variety of treatment options which have been marginally successful at best. This paper discusses a new and novel approach for controlling scale, paraffin using an electronic physical water treating device and results that have been achieved. This physical water treatment technology has been applied to oil and gas production wells which incorporate all forms of product lift. Units are now also being installed in several South American locations. This paper will discuss the results obtained from the use of these physical water treatment devices and discuss the criteria which are used to ascertain whether a particular well site's problems can be eased by use of these devices. These criteria will be discussed for both land based and offshore oil wells. (author)

  7. Mixed Finite Element Formulation for Magnetic Fluid Oil Flow in Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Phey Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure depletion and high viscosity of crude oil in oil reservoir are the main challenges in oil recovery process. A potential solution is to employ electromagnetic heating coupled with magnetic fluid injection. The present work delivers a fundamental study on the interaction between magnetic fluid flow with electromagnetic field. The two-dimensional, incompressible flow is solved numerically using mixed finite element method. The velocity fields, temperature and pressure are the variables of interest, to be obtained by solving mass, momentum and energy equations coupled with Maxwell’ equations. The fluid stress arises simultaneously with the external magnetic force which mobilises and increases the temperature of the oil flow. Verification is made against available data obtained from different numerical method reported in literature. The results justify feasibility of the mixed finite element formulation as an alternative for the modelling of the magnetic fluid flow.

  8. Oil palm and the emission of greenhouse gasses- from field measurements in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Niharika; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Giller, Ken E.; Magid, Jakob; van de Ven, Gerrie; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil from the oil palm (Elaeis guianensis) has in recent years become the world's most important vegetable oil. The increasing demand for palm oil has led to expansion of oil palm plantations, which has caused environmental controversies associated with carbon losses and the use of large amounts of mineral fertilizers. Efforts to increase sustainability of oil palm cultivation, include recycling of oil-mill residues and pruning's, but with this comes increased potential for methane emission from the plantations. Until now no field-based data on greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations have been reported. Here for the first time we present data from a long term (360 days) field trial in Bah Lias Research Station, North Sumatra, Indonesia on greenhouse gas emissions from an oil palm plantation with various treatments of recycled oil palm waste products, fertilizers and simulated rainfall. The first experiment was conducted over a full year (dry + wet season) with mineral fertilizer treatments including urea and ammonium sulphate, and organic fertilizer treatments constituting: empty fruit bunches (EFB), enriched mulch (EFB + palm oil mill effluent (POME) ) and pruned oil palm fronds (OPF). Treatment doses represent the current management in Indonesian plantations and the higher doses that are expected in the imminent future. For the organic treatments several methods of application (applied in inter-rows, piles, patches or bands) were evaluated. The second experiment investigated effects of soil water saturation on GHG emissions through adding 25 mm simulated rainfall per day for 21 days. Each palm tree received 1 kg of N fertilizer as urea or ammonium sulphate and enriched mulch. The gas fluxes in the fields was measured by a large static-chamber (1.8 m x 1.2 m) method and CH4 and N2O concentrations were determined using gas chromatographs. We found that emissions were significantly affected by the type and dose of mineral fertilizers. Application of

  9. The intellectual information system for management of geological and technical arrangements during oil field exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, N. G.; Vasilyeva, E. E.; Evsyutkin, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The intellectual information system for management of geological and technical arrangements during oil fields exploitation is developed. Service-oriented architecture of its software is a distinctive feature of the system. The results of the cluster analysis of real field data received by means of this system are shown.

  10. Simulation of phase separation with large component ratio for oil-in-water emulsion in ultrasound field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heping; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Yanggui; Geng, Xingguo

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an exploration for separation of oil-in-water and coalescence of oil droplets in ultrasound field via lattice Boltzmann method. Simulations were conducted by the ultrasound traveling and standing waves to enhance oil separation and trap oil droplets. The focus was to the effect of ultrasound irradiation on oil-in-water emulsion properties in the standing wave field, such as oil drop radius, morphology and growth kinetics of phase separation. Ultrasound fields were applied to irradiate the oil-in-water emulsion for getting flocculation of the oil droplets in 420kHz case, and larger dispersed oil droplets and continuous phases in 2MHz and 10MHz cases, respectively. The separated phases started to rise along the direction of sound propagation after several periods. The rising rate of the flocks was significantly greater in ultrasound case than that of oil droplets in the original emulsion, indicating that ultrasound irradiation caused a rapid increase of oil droplet quantity in the progress of the separation. The separation degree was also significantly improved with increasing frequency or irradiation time. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of ultrasonic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of oil and emulsion phases. The analyses recovered the two different temporal regimes: the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages, which further quantified the morphology results. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the separation of oil-in-water emulsion in the ultrasound field.

  11. The effect of thermotropic oil-displacing compound thickened Ninka on reservoir microflora and the composition of oil in Usinskoe oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Shcherbakova, A. G.; Guseva, Y. Z.; Altunina, L. K.; Chuykina, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    The work presents results of the study of the impact of thermotropic sol-forming compound thickened NINKA on enhanced oil recovery, stimulation of oil production, on the composition of crude oil, and on oil reservoir microflora sampled from reservoir fluids in the testing and reference areas of Usinskoe field. In vitro, the compound in the concentrations of 0.1-0.5% has a stimulating effect on the microflora, which is more pronounced in a low-mineralized environment. In reservoir conditions, after the injection of the compound, along with the appearance of nitrogen-containing components of the compound and products of its hydrolysis in the wellstream, some wells showed a significant increase in the number of heterotrophic and denitrifying microflora, which is indicative of a stimulating effect of the compound. The change in the composition of oil from these producing wells is due to the desorption of polar and high-molecular components and, to a lesser extent, to the redistribution of filtration flows.

  12. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  13. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends.

  14. Economic assessment of environmental impact in the course of oil field development and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Kupriyanova, O. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers the variety of impacts that oil exploration and production operations have on the environment at different stages of the process. To provide accurate economic assessment, an oil field development project was designed, with various development options. These options being analyzed, the strategy with the minimal environmental impact was identified. This has allowed preparation of a guideline on how to prevent deterioration of the environment and to reduce the negative environmental impact

  15. In-situ combustion test on outcrops in Kramai oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, S.

    1982-01-01

    An in-situ combustion test was performed in Kramai oil field, located in the northwestern border of the Zhungerer Basin, China. The main objectives of the test were to investigate directly the reservoir geology, the petrophysical properties of the reservoir rock, and the flow properties of oil, gas and water within the reservoir. The paper describes the test procedure, including the well pattern, the test pit, operation and inspection techniques, etc., and presents a general discussion of the results obtained.

  16. Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca strain degrading crude oil from a Tunisian off-shore oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamkha, Mohamed; Trabelsi, Yosra; Mnif, Sami; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-12-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, mesophilic, moderately halotolerant, non-motile, and non-sporulated bacterium, designated strain BSC5 was isolated from an off-shore "Sercina" oil field, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia. Yeast extract was not required for growth. Phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain BSC5 revealed that it was related to members of the genus Klebsiella, being most closely related to the type strain of K. oxytoca (99% sequence similarity). Strain BSC5 was capable of using aerobically the crude oil as substrate growth. The growth of strain BSC5 on crude oil was followed by measuring the OD(600 nm) and by enumeration of viable cells at different culture's time. GC-MS analysis showed that strain BSC5 was capable of degrading a wide range of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C(13) to C(30) . The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 44% and 75%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Addition of the synthetic surfactant, Tween 80, accelerated the crude oil degradation. The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 61% and 98%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Moreover, three aromatic compounds, p -hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate and gentisate, were metabolized completely by strain BSC5 after 24 h, under aerobic conditions.

  17. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  18. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Pilcher

    Full Text Available To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼ 10-fold lower than the high concentration was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA.

  19. Emergent Gauge Fields and Their Nonperturbative Effects in Correlated Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Tanaka, Akihiro

    The history of modern condensed matter physics may be regarded as the competition and reconciliation between Stoner's and Anderson's physical pictures, where the former is based on momentum-space descriptions focusing on long wave-length fluctuations while the latter is based on real-space physics emphasizing emergent localized excitations. In particular, these two view points compete with each other in various nonperturbative phenomena, which range from the problem of high Tc superconductivity, quantum spin liquids in organic materials and frustrated spin systems, heavy-fermion quantum criticality, metal-insulator transitions in correlated electron systems such as doped silicons and two-dimensional electron systems, the fractional quantum Hall effect, to the recently discussed Fe-based superconductors. An approach to reconcile these competing frameworks is to introduce topologically nontrivial excitations into the Stoner's description, which appear to be localized in either space or time and sometimes both, where scattering between itinerant electrons and topological excitations such as skyrmions, vortices, various forms of instantons, emergent magnetic monopoles, and etc. may catch nonperturbative local physics beyond the Stoner's paradigm. In this review article we discuss nonperturbative effects of topological excitations on dynamics of correlated electrons. First, we focus on the problem of scattering between itinerant fermions and topological excitations in antiferromagnetic doped Mott insulators, expected to be relevant for the pseudogap phase of high Tc cuprates. We propose that nonperturbative effects of topological excitations can be incorporated within the perturbative framework, where an enhanced global symmetry with a topological term plays an essential role. In the second part, we go on to discuss the subject of symmetry protected topological states in a largely similar light. While we do not introduce itinerant fermions here, the nonperturbative

  20. Oil and reservoir core extracts compositional variations in the Kerkennah Ouest fields, Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenma, R. [ETAP, Belvedere (Tunisia); LaFargue, E. [IFP, Malmaison (France)

    1995-08-01

    A suite of oils and reservoir core extracts from the Kerkennah oil fields in Tunisia has been analyzed by various geochemical techniques to elucidate the geological processes which cause variations in oil and extracts composition and their resulting fingerprinting in the different reservoirs of the field. The results obtained greatly helped in the understanding of filling directions which is valuable for future exploration of satellite fields. The oil pools studied are parts of a large geologic province ({open_quotes}the pelagienne plateforme{close_quotes}) where the main oil fields are limited by NW-SE major faults. The two main reservoirs we encountered in the carbonate series of Turonian and Eocene ages and the best reservoir qualities are found in the packstone and grainstone Nummulites facies. Numerous fractures we observed through the fields and we could demonstrate their influence on the filling history of the different fields as well as on the present oil production. Detailed analysis of the light hydrocarbons (C{sub 20-}) as well as the complete study of the C{sub 15+} hydrocarbons indicate compositional variations between the hydrocarbons stored in the Eocene and Turonian reservoirs. The core extracts from the two reservoirs also shows some variations with in particular maturity differences. Apparently the only possible source rock in the area is represented by the Bahloul formation of Turonian age. Within this scenario, we proposed the hypothesis of different behaviours of the main faults over geological time: a first period where the faults acted as conduits for hydrocarbon migration towards both Turonian and Eocene reservoirs and a second period where the faults became impervious to the hydrocarbons moving towards the Eocene reservoirs thus resulting in the storage of more mature hydrocarbons in the Turonian reservoirs only. Also of interest is the observation of different levels of homogenization in the Turonian reservoirs from one field to another.

  1. The economics of field abandonment in the UKCS. [Oil and gas fields in the United Kingdom continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1989-08-01

    The abandonment of oil and natural gas fields in the North Sea raises a number of economic issues. These are principally (a) the costs incurred in the abandonment operations, (b) the criteria to be employed in determining the timing of field abandonment, (c) the fiscal reliefs available for the abandonment expenditures, and (d) the (financial) security aspects of the operation. These topics are briefly discussed in this paper. (author).

  2. Novel empirical correlations for estimation of bubble point pressure, saturated viscosity and gas solubility of crude oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan Khamehchi; Fariborz Rashidi; Hanieh Rasouli; Amir Ebrahi-mian

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of petroleum fluid properties is crucial for the study of reservoirs and their development. Estimation of reserves in an oil reservoir or determination of its performance and economics requires a good knowledge of the fluid physical properties. Bubble point pressure, gas solubility and viscosity of oils are the most important parameters in use for petroleum and chemical engineers. In this study a simple-to-use, straight-forward mathematical model was correlated on a set of 94 crude oil data. Three correlations were achieved based on an exponential regression, which were different from conventional empirical correlations, and were evaluated against 12 laboratory data other than those used for the regression. It is concluded that the new exponential equation is of higher precision and accuracy than the conventional correlations and is a more convenient mathematical formulation.

  3. Investigations of Flare Gas Emissions in Taq Taq Oil Field on the Surrounding Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar A. Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by oil takes many different forms; one of the most damaging sources is simply the combustion of oil products, such as a well flare burn-off. This paper presents the results of a survey of the agriculture lands around the Taq Taq Oil Production Company. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential contamination caused by the gas emissions from the well flares. Taq Taq field is located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, 60 km north of the giant Kirkuk oil field, 85 km south-east of Erbil and 120 km north-west of Suleimani. Samples of soil were collected from several locations around the site and analyzed to determine the content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAH present. A gas chromatography linked to a mass spectrometry (GCMS machine was used for these measurements. The PAH contamination at each location of soil was determined and the 16-PAHs, as listed in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA documentation were investigated. The average content of total PAH in all samples of the agricultural soil was 0.654 mg·kg-1 with the concentrations ranging from 0.310 to 0.869 mg·kg-1. It was found that the PAH concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the TTOPCO oil field, indicating that pollution was evident, the area close to the field being more affected by the gas pollution.

  4. Integrated, multidisciplinary reservoir characterization, modeling and engineering leading to enhanced oil recovery from the Midway-Sunset field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, S.; Forster, C.; Deo, M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    The Pru Fee property is developed in a heavy oil, Class III (slope and basin clastic sand), reservoir of the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin Basin, California. Wells on the property were shut-in with an estimated 85% of the original oil remaining in place because the reservoir failed to respond to conventional cyclic steaming. Producibility problems are attributed to the close proximity of the property to the margin of the field. Specific problems include complex reservoir geometry, thinning pay, bottom water, and dipping beds. These problems are likely common at the margins of the Midway-Sunset and other Class III reservoirs. This project forms the first step in returning the property to production and explores strategies that might be applied elsewhere. Reservoir characterization, modeling, and engineering methods are integrated to design, simulate, and implement a pilot steam flood. A new drillhole provides good quality, core through the pay zone and a full suite of geophysical logs. Correlations between geological and petrophysical data are used to extrapolate reservoir conditions from older logs and yield a 3-dimensional petrophysical model. Numerical results illustrate how each producibility problem might influence production and provide a framework for designing the pilot steam flood. This first phase illustrates how a multidisciplinary team can use established technologies in developing the detailed petrophysical, geological, and numerical models needed to enhance oil recovery from marginal areas of Class III reservoirs.

  5. Integrated, multidisciplinary reservoir characterization, modeling and engineering leading to enhanced oil recovery from the Midway-Sunset field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, S.; Forster, C.; Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Pru Fee property is developed in a heavy oil, Class III (slope and basin clastic sand), reservoir of the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin Basin, California. Wells on the property were shut-in with an estimated 85% of the original oil remaining in place because the reservoir failed to respond to conventional cyclic steaming. Producibility problems are attributed to the close proximity of the property to the margin of the field. Specific problems include complex reservoir geometry, thinning pay, bottom water, and dipping beds. These problems are likely common at the margins of the Midway-Sunset and other Class III reservoirs. This project forms the first step in returning the property to production and explores strategies that might be applied elsewhere. Reservoir characterization, modeling, and engineering methods are integrated to design, simulate, and implement a pilot steam flood. A new drillhole provides good quality, core through the pay zone and a full suite of geophysical logs. Correlations between geological and petrophysical data are used to extrapolate reservoir conditions from older logs and yield a 3-dimensional petrophysical model. Numerical results illustrate how each producibility problem might influence production and provide a framework for designing the pilot steam flood. This first phase illustrates how a multidisciplinary team can use established technologies in developing the detailed petrophysical, geological, and numerical models needed to enhance oil recovery from marginal areas of Class III reservoirs.

  6. The angular correlations of galaxies in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    McCracken, H J; Guzzo, L; Capak, P; Porciani, C; Scoville, N; Aussel, H; Finoguenov, A; James, J B; Kitzbichler, M G; Koekemoer, A; Leauthaud, A; Le Fèvre, O; Massey, R; Mellier, Y; Mobasher, B; Norberg, P; Rhodes, J; Sanders, D B; Sasaki, S S; Taniguchi, Y; Thompson, D J; White, S D M; El-Zant, A

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the two-point galaxy angular correlation function w(\\theta) in the COSMOS field. Independent determinations of w(\\theta) as a function of magnitude limit are presented for both the HST ACS catalog and also for the ground-based data from Subaru and the CFHT. Despite having significantly different masks, these three determinations agree well. At bright magnitudes (IAB 10 arcmin, which we attribute to a particularly rich structure known to exist at z~0.8. For fainter samples, however, the level of clustering is somewhat higher than reported by some previous studies: in all three catalogues we find w(\\theta=1')~0.014 at a median IAB magnitude of 24. At these very faintest magnitudes, our measurements agree well with the latest determinations from the Canada-France Legacy Survey. This level of clustering is approximately double what is predicted by the semi-analytic catalogs (at all angles). The semi-analytic results allow an estimate of cosmic variance, which is too small to account for...

  7. Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  8. Programed oil generation of the Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq oil fields: Results from Petromod software modeling and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ameri, T. K.; Pitman, J.; Naser, M.E.; Zumberge, J.; Al-Haydari, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    1D petroleum system modeling was performed on wells in each of four oil fields in South Iraq, Zubair (well Zb-47), Nahr Umr (well NR-9), West Qurna (well WQ-15 and 23), and Majnoon (well Mj-8). In each of these fields, deposition of the Zubair Formation was followed by continuous burial, reaching maximum temperatures of 100??C (equivalent to 0. 70%Ro) at depths of 3,344-3,750 m of well Zb-47 and 3,081. 5-3,420 m of well WQ-15, 120??C (equivalent to 0. 78%Ro) at depths of 3,353-3,645 m of well NR-9, and 3,391-3,691. 5 m of well Mj-8. Generation of petroleum in the Zubair Formation began in the late Tertiary, 10 million years ago. At present day, modeled transformation ratios (TR) indicate that 65% TR of its generation potential has been reached in well Zb-47, 75% TR in well NR-9 and 55-85% TR in West Qurna oil field (wells WQ-15 and WQ-23) and up to 95% TR in well Mj-8, In contrast, younger source rocks are immature to early mature (environment and consists of interbedded shales and porous and permeable sandstones. In Basrah region, the shales have total organic carbon of 0. 5-7. 0 wt%, Tmax 430-470??C and hydrogen indices of up to 466 with S2 = 0. 4-9. 4 of kerogen type II & III and petroleum potential of 0. 4-9. 98 of good hydrocarbon generation, which is consistent with 55-95% hydrocarbon efficiency. These generated hydrocarbons had charged (in part) the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Zubair Formation itself, in the traps formed by Alpine collision that closed the Tethys Ocean between Arabian and Euracian Plates and developed folds in Mesopotamian Basin 15-10 million years ago. These traps are mainly stratigraphic facies of sandstones with the shale that formed during the deposition of the Zubair Formation in transgression and regression phases within the main structural folds of the Zubair, Nahr Umr, West Qurna and Majnoon Oil fields. Oil biomarkers of the Zubair Formation Reservoirs are showing source affinity with mixed oil from the Upper

  9. The Goldsmith/Lakeshore Field : a case history of an Ontario Trenton oil pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, S.; Waugh, G. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The development of the Goldsmith/Lakeshore oil and gas field located in Mersea and Romney Townships in southwestern Ontario was described with reference to the geological, geophysical and engineering aspects of the field. It was discovered in 1985 and has since produced 5 MMSTB oil and 3 Bcf gas from the Middle Ordovician carbonates of the Trenton Group. A total of 40 wells currently produce about 700 bopd and 1 MMcfg/d. The field is expected to continue to make a significant contribution to Ontario's total oil production for many years. The remaining reserves are estimated at 2 MMSTB oil and 1 Bcf gas. The development history over the 17 year period can be sub-divided into 4 distinct phases: (1) the early years from 1985-1989, (2), the development phase from 1990-1993, (3) the mature phase from 1994-1997, and (4) the horizontal drilling phase from 1998-2002. This paper describes the heterogeneous nature of the reservoir and the changes in drilling and completion practices over the years. In particular, it describes in detail how Talisman Energy Ltd. used horizontal drilling to develop an extension of the field beneath Lake Erie. Talisman is currently evaluating options for future field development including field extensions along the trend, in-fill drilling, and stimulation work on existing wells to increase production and reserves. 6 refs., 34 figs.

  10. Identification, characterization and application of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, G.E. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research and Development Dept; Gevertz, D. [Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The efforts being made to identify and characterize sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in oil fields were described. The role of SOB in the cycling of sulfur in shallow oil reservoirs in Western Canada and Western Texas was also explained. Field tests from reservoirs where anaerobic sulfide oxidation can be potentially applied were also included in this presentation. Sulfides are not desirable in oil fields because they are toxic, corrosive and form insoluble metal sulfides. Nitrate has been found to stimulate the activity of indigenous, anaerobic SOB when amended to sulfide-laden sewage sludges and pond sediments. In this study sulfide-laden, produced brine was collected from a field and dispensed into sterile, anaerobic bottles and amended with potassium nitrate and sodium phosphate. Oxidation of the sulfide was monitored using colour as a means by which to detect oxidation. Results showed that sulfide-oxidizing activity in brines from the Coleville field in Western Canada is a result of autotrophic SOB. Sulfide-oxidizing activity in produced brines collected from Western Texas oil fields needed the addition of organic acids and yeast extract, suggesting oxidation by heterotrophic SOB.19 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  11. Computational Flow Dynamic Simulation of Micro Flow Field Characteristics Drainage Device Used in the Process of Oil-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous crude oil often contains large amounts of produced water and heavy sediment, which seriously threats the safety of crude oil storage and transportation. Therefore, the proper design of crude oil tank drainage device is prerequisite for efficient purification of aqueous crude oil. In this work, the composition and physicochemical properties of crude oil samples were tested under the actual conditions encountered. Based on these data, an appropriate crude oil tank drainage device was developed using the principle of floating ball and multiphase flow. In addition, the flow field characteristics in the device were simulated and the contours and streamtraces of velocity magnitude at different nine moments were obtained. Meanwhile, the improvement of flow field characteristics after the addition of grids in crude oil tank drainage device was validated. These findings provide insights into the development of effective selection methods and serve as important references for oil-water separation process.

  12. Performance of Surfactant Methyl Ester Sulphonate solution for Oil Well Stimulation in reservoir sandstone TJ Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, F. R.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Permadi, P.

    2017-05-01

    Asphaltene, paraffin, wax and sludge deposition, emulsion and water blocking are kinds ofprocess that results in a reduction of the fluid flow from the reservoir into formation which causes a decrease of oil wells productivity. Oil well Stimulation can be used as an alternative to solve oil well problems. Oil well stimulation technique requires applying of surfactant. Sodium Methyl Ester Sulphonate (SMES) of palm oil is an anionic surfactant derived from renewable natural resource that environmental friendly is one of potential surfactant types that can be used in oil well stimulation. This study was aimed at formulation SMES as well stimulation agent that can identify phase transitions to phase behavior in a brine-surfactant-oil system and altered the wettability of rock sandstone and limestone. Performance of SMES solution tested by thermal stability test, phase behavioral examination and rocks wettability test. The results showed that SMES solution (SMES 5% + xylene 5% in the diesel with addition of 1% NaCl at TJformation water and SMES 5% + xylene 5% in methyl ester with the addition of NaCl 1% in the TJ formation water) are surfactant that can maintain thermal stability, can mostly altered the wettability toward water-wet in sandstone reservoir, TJ Field.

  13. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  14. Multifractal cross-correlations between crude oil and tanker freight rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feier; Miao, Yuqi; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Li, Tingyi

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of crude oil price and tanker freight rate volatility attract more attention as the mechanism is not only the basis of industrialization but also a vital role in economics, especially after the year 2008 when financial crisis notably blew the maritime transportation. In this paper, we studied the cross-correlations between the West Texas International crude oil (WTI) and Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) employing the Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA). Empirical results show that the degree of short-term cross-correlation is higher than that in the long term and that the strength of multifractality after financial crisis is larger than that before. Moreover, the components of multifractal spectrum are quantified with the finite-size effect taken into consideration and an improved method in terms of constructing the surrogated time series provided. Numerical results show that the multifractality is generated mostly from the nonlinear and the fat-tailed probability distribution (PDF) part. Also, it is apparent that the PDF part changes a lot after the financial crisis. The research is contributory to risk management by providing various instructions for participants in shipping markets. Our main contribution is that we investigated both the multifractal features and the origin of multifractality and provided confirming evidence of multifractality through numerical results while applying quantitative analysis based on MF-DCCA; furthermore, the research is contributory to risk management since it provides instructions in both economic market and stock market simultaneously. However, constructing the surrogated series in order to obtain consistence seems less convincing which requires further discussion and attempts.

  15. Field development planning for an offshore extra heavy oil in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G.; Anguiano-Rojas, J. [PEMEX Exploration and Production, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a phased development strategy for an offshore extra-heavy oil development located in the Gulf of Mexico. The Ayatsil-1 oil field is located in an upper Cretaceous brecciated formation. One of the primary concerns of the project is the infrastructure that is needed to handle low reservoir temperatures and high viscosity, low gravity API oil. A delineation well was drilled in order to confirm the areal extension of the reservoir. The field contains an estimated 3.1 billion barrels of oil-in-place. The project will involve the installation of fixed platforms and production platforms. Electric submersible pumps (ESPs) and multiphase pumps will be used to transport the oil from between 17 to 25 wells. Analyses were conducted to determine transport mechanisms as well as gathering networks in both stationary and transitory regimes. The viscosity of live and dead oil in the reservoirs must be accurately measured in relation to temperature in order to define the artificial systems that will be used to reduce viscosity. Results from several studies will be used to determine the feasibility of various chemical, thermal, and diluent applications. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  16. NAFTA opportunities: Oil and gas field drilling machinery and services sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) significantly improves market access in Mexico and Canada for U.S. exports of oil and gas field equipment. Foreign markets account for more than 80 percent of U.S. shipments of oil and gas field machinery. Foreign markets are expected to continue their importance to this industry, in the long term. Mexico and Canada are moderate-sized markets for U.S. exports of oilfield products. In 1992, U.S. exports of this equipment amounted to about $113 million to Mexico and $11 million to Canada.

  17. Cryogels for oil and gas field construction under the conditions of arctic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Manzhay, V. N.; Fufaeva, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    The results of investigation of elastic and thermal properties of cryogels filled with used mineral oil are presented. A new chemical-biological method for oil and gas field construction in the northern regions is proposed and tested. The field experiments carried out in the territory of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District are described. The formation of cryotropic polymer systems occurring at shallow freezing from 0 to -3°C and the impact of crystructured soil on the viability, enzymatic activity of native soil microflora and growth of perennial herbs have been investigated. Cryogels are harmless to humans and safe for the environment.

  18. Optimizing the power of transformer substations in electric supply to the oil fields of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Kudryashov, R.A.; Novoselov, Yu.B.; Sud, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The problems which come up in designing substations for electricity supply grids for the oil fields in Western Siberia in determining their capacity are examined. A technique is proposed for technical and economic selection of the capacity of substations with consideration of the specifications for design documentation. The issues of rating loads on transformer substations and their prediction are examined. A technique for considering the overloading capability of transformers and their wear at the design load is presented. An example of power drop of an oil field, 35/6 kilovolt voltage substation is cited.

  19. Rock mechanics related to Jurassic underburden at Valdemar oil field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels

    1999-01-01

    .It has been initiated as a feasibility study of the North Jens-1 core 12 taken in the top Jurassic clay shale as a test specimens for integrated petrological, mineralogical and rock mechanical studies. Following topics are studied:(1) Pore pressure generation due to conversion of organic matter...... and deformation properties of the clay shale using the actual core material or outcrop equivalents.(3) Flushing mechanisms for oil and gas from source rocks due to possibly very high pore water pressure creating unstable conditions in deeply burried sedimentsThere seems to be a need for integrating the knowledge...... in a number of geosciences to the benefit of common understanding of important reservoir mechanisms. Rock mechanics and geotechnical modelling might be key points for this understanding of reservoir geology and these may constitute a platform for future research in the maturing and migration from the Jurassic...

  20. Role of interfacial rheological properties in oil field chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Lakatos, I.; Kosztin, B.

    1996-12-31

    Interfacial rheological properties of different Hungarian crude oil/water systems were determined in wide temperature and shear rate range and in presence of inorganic electrolytes, tensides, alkaline materials and polymers. The detailed laboratory study definitely proved that the interfacial rheological properties are extremely sensitive parameters towards the chemical composition of inmiscible formation liquids. Comparison and interpretation of the interfacial rheological properties may contribute significantly to extension of the weaponry of the reservoir characterization, better understanding of the displacement mechanism, development of the more profitable EOR/IOR methods, intensification of the surface technologies, optimization of the pipeline transportation and improvement of the refinery operations. It was evidenced that the interfacial rheology is an efficient and powerful detection technique, which may enhance the knowledge on formation, structure, properties and behaviour of interfacial layers. 17 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrik, J. [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  2. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  3. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯泉; 陈红汉; 李思田; 张希明; 陈汉林

    2004-01-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was characterized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematic analysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions under UV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoir indicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings occurred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya,respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian.

  4. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯泉; 陈红汉; 李思田; 张希明; 陈汉林

    2004-01-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was charac-terized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematicanalysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions underUV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoirindicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings oc-curred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya,respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian.

  5. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  6. Methodology for oil field development; Metodologia para o desenvolvimento de campos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeano, Yadira Diaz

    1998-07-01

    The main scope of this work is to study and develop a methodology which allows the elaboration of project for oil field development. There fore it is necessary to consider to consider the integration of the human, technological and economical issues that are important parameters in the engineering project. The spiral concept was applied for the project in order to coordinate, in a reasonable and logical way, the activities involved in the field development, as well as the hierarchical analysis method for the decision making process. The development of an oil field is divided in viability study, preliminary project, final project, project implementation, production and field abandonment cycles. The main components for each cycle are external aspects, environmental criteria, reservoir management, and drilling, completion and well workover, production systems, exportation systems, and risk and economical analysis. The proposed methodology establishes a general scheme for planning and it presents applicable procedures for any field. (author)

  7. Dibenzofuran Series in Terrestrial Source Rocks and Crude Oils and Applications to Oil-Source Rock Correlations in the Kuche Depression of Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景贵; 李梅; 王兆云

    2004-01-01

    Ten series of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, retene, chrysene, benzoanthracene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, dibenzothiophene) isolated from seven Triassic and Jurassic lacustrine mudstone samples and three swamp coal samples, as well as five crude oil samples collected in the Kuche depression of the Tarim Basin, NW China, have been analysed by GC-MS techniques. It is found that the relative abundances of dibenzofuran series are higher in the three swamp coal samples than those in the lacustrine mudstone samples. Based on the similar relative abundances of dibenzofuran series, especially dibenzofuran compound, in the TICs of aromatic hydrocarbons, crude oils from wells SA3 (K), YTK5 (E, K) and QL1 (E) are thought to have been derived predominantly from the coals of the Lower Jurassic Yangxia Formation or Middle Jurassic Kezilenuer Formation, whereas those from wells YM7 (O) and YH1 (E) were derived mainly from Triassic and Jurassic lacustrine mudstones in the Kuche depression. This is the first report about how to distinguish coal-generated oils from lacustrine mudstone-generated oils in the Kuche depression in terms of the dibenzofuran series. The present paper has enlightening and directive significance for further oil-source rock correlations and oil and/or gas exploration in the Kuche depression of the Tarim Basin.

  8. Recent developments in reservoir engineering and their impact on oil and gas field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.H.; Niko, H. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    With much of the reservoir engineering development activities prior to 1986 being directed to new processes such as EOR, reservoir engineering of today has, like the other petroleum engineering disciplines, become part of an integrated effort to extract the maximum amount of oil from a reservoir. We will discuss some of the new developments in reservoir engineering which had a real impact on oil field operations in Shell and on the working practices of the individual reservoir engineers. Examples of recent advances in reservoir engineering are: (1) progress in the field of measuring residual oil saturations to water under representative conditions which will enable a more realistic assessment of trapped/bypassed oil in water floods such as those in large North Sea fields; (2) improved understanding of the production behaviour of horizontal wells based on analytical and numerical modelling which led to successful applications in Gabon and Oman; (3) advances in our understanding of production in naturally fractured reservoirs which provided the basis for a unique field experiment in the Natih Field in Oman; (4) understanding of the mechanism of fracturing in water injection wells, a process which has large cost-saving potential. The one factor largely responsible for the change in working practices of individual reservoir engineers is the availability of modern integrated IT technology. (author)

  9. Ruthenium-ion-catalyzed oxidation of asphaltenes and oil-source correlation of heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields in the Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Anlai; ZHANG Shuichang; ZHANG Dajiang; JIN Zhijun; MA Xiaojuan; CHEN Qingtang

    2005-01-01

    The identification of marine source rocks in the Tarim Basin is debated vigorously. The intention of this paper is to investigate the asphaltenes in heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields and Well TD2 with ruthenium-ions-catalyzed oxidation technique (RICO), in order to explore its role in oil-oil and oil-source correlations. The RICO products included n-alkanoic acids, α, ω-di-n-alkanoic acids, branched alkanoic acids, tricyclic terpanoic acids, hopanoic acids, gammacerane carboxylic acid , regular sterane carboxylic acids and 4-methylsterane carboxylic acids. The n-alkyl chains and biomarkers bounded on the asphaltenes were of unsusceptibility to biodegradation. The distribution and absolute concentrations of n-alkanoic acids in the RICO products of heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields are different from those of Well TD2. The biomarkers bounded on the asphaltenes, especially steranes, have a distribution trend similar to that of the counterparts in saturates. The sterane carboxylic acids and 4-methylsterane carboxylic acids in the RICO products of heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields, dominated by C30 sterane and C31 4-methylsterane carboxylic acids, respectively, are significantly different from those of the heavy oils of Well TD2, whose dominating sterane and 4-methylsterane carboxylic acids are C2s sterane and C29 4-methylsterane acids, respectively. The RICO products of the asphaltenes further indicate that the Middle-Upper Ordovician may be the main source rocks for heavy oils from the Lunnan and Tahe oilfields.

  10. Characteristics of Chang 21 Low Permeability Sandstone Reservoir in Shunning Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min; YU Liu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of Chang 21 low permeability sandstone reservoir of Shunning oil field are analyzed and evaluated based on the data of well logging and experiment. The result shows that 1) the Chang 21 low permeability reservoir belongs to the classification of middle-to-fine sized feldspar sandstone, with its components being low in maturity, deposited in distributary rivers in the front of the delta; 2) the reservoir is obviously dominated by a low or a very low permeability with a linear variation tendency different from that of the ultra-low permeability reservoir; 3) the spatial variation in lithology and physical properties of the reservoir are controlled by the sedimentary facies zones, and 4)the physical property of the reservoir is significantly influenced by clastic constituents and their structure, and the constituent of cement materials and their content. The result also shows that the diagenesis action of the reservoir is quite strong in which dissolution greatly modified the reservoir In addition, the inter-granular dissolved pores are the mainly developed ones and the micro-structure is dominated by the combination of middle-to-large sized pores with fine-to-coarse throats. Finally, the radius of the throats is in good exponential correlation with permeability and the seepage capacity comes from those large sized throats.

  11. Biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from different oil-contaminated fields in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yuting; Li, Guanghe [School of Environment, Tsinghua University (China); Zhou, Ji zhong [Institute for Environmental Genomics, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma (United States)], email: jzhou@ou.edu

    2011-07-01

    Some striking biological challenges of the 21st century include linking biodiversity to ecosystem functions, information scaling, and linking genomics to ecology. This paper discusses the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from various oil-contaminated fields in China. Two kinds of high throughput approaches are used, open format and closed format. Key differences between them are outlined. The GeoChip, or functional gene array (FGA) approach is presented. This is a high throughput tool for linking community structure to functions. Its main advantages are its high resolution and detecting functions. This approach was applied to soils, bioreactors and ground waters, among others. Issues related to specificity, sensitivity and quantification are listed. An overview of the microarray analysis is given. This is applied to the BP oil spill. 100 samples were chosen from representative oil fields to study the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities in China. The complete study is presented with the results.

  12. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  13. Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

    2006-03-15

    Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

  14. IMPACT OF OIL FIELD EXPLOITATION ON ECO-ENVIRONMENT OF THE DAQING LAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shao-peng; LU Jin-fu; SUN Guang-you

    2003-01-01

    The Daqing lakes are located in the region with sub-humid continental monsoon climate. Through histori-cal comparison of the environment before and after oil field exploitation in the area, the paper analyses the impact of oilfield exploitation on the eco-environment of the lakes, including the impact of diversion works, drainage works, exploita-tion and utilization of groundwater, dropped crude oil and petrochemical wastewater on the lakes water body. The analy-sis shows that oil field exploitation caused serious pollution to soil in the lakes area and deterioration of the e-co-environment. The impact became more evident with passage of time, and the intensity varied with areas, gettingmore serious from west to east, which meant that the eastern part of the lakes were influenced much more seriously by thehuman activities. To improve the eco-environment of the Daqing lakes and make them sustainable utilization, the effec-tive protection measures should be taken.

  15. EOR-technology gives Dutch oil field in Schoonebeek a second life; EOR-technologie geeft olieveld Schoonebeek tweede leven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, P.

    2010-05-15

    One appealing example of new oil recovery techniques can be found in Schoonebeek, the Netherlands. At first only half of the oil in this field could be extracted until the field was closed in 1996. Thanks to the modern EOR(Enhanced Oil Recovery) steam injection the field is now given a second life. [Dutch] Een aansprekend voorbeeld van de nieuwe oliewinningstechnieken is te vinden in Schoonebeek. Aanvankelijk kon slechts de helft van de aanwezige olie uit het veld worden geproduceerd tot het veld in 1996 gesloten werd. Met moderne EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) stoominjectie krijgt het veld nu een tweede leven.

  16. The controlling factors of oil and gas charging and accumulation of Puguang gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Combined with oil and gas transport and accumulation, structure-Iithology evolution history, and with geochemistry and synthesizing geology methods, this paper studies the oil and gas discharge history of Puguang large scale gas field and the main controlling factors of oil accumulation. The natural gas in Puguang gas field is mainly coal-derived gas and oil-racked gas. The main hydrocarbon is Upper Permian coal mudstone and Lower Silurian mud shale with organic material. Puguang gas field has gone through discharge and adjustment 3 times, and it has favorable palaeostructure location, high quality dredge and effectively conserving conditions.

  17. Casing and tubing design for sour oil and gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan (China). Drilling and Completion Research and Design Center; State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Lin, Y.; Shi, T.; Zhu, D. [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Wang, Z.; You, X.; Zhang, G.; Liu, H. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan (China). Drilling and Completion Research and Design Center

    2009-07-01

    Environmental fractures are the main cause of casing and tubing yield failures in sour gas and oil wells. This paper discussed casing and tubing designs for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments containing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water wells. A fracture mechanics methods was used to establish yield design criterion for a conventional sulfur resistance casing T95 and a quasi-resistance casing C110. Sulfide stress corrosion (SSC) tests, A-uniaxial tensile tests, and double cantilever beam tests were conducted to determine the potential for failures caused by the unstable propagation of a pre-existing crack and failures caused by the initiation and stable growth of cracks. Elasto-plastic equations were developed to calculate the pressure at which a pipe will fail due to the propagation of a pre-existing sharp crack. Results of the tests indicated that the predictive fracture pressures for the C110 casing and tubing samples were lower than those observed for the T95 sample. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  18. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  19. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  20. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  1. Analytical Thermal Field Theory Applicable to Oil Hydraulic Fluid Film Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical thermal field theory is derived by a perturbation series expansion solution to the energy conservation equation. The theory is valid for small values of the Brinkman number and the modified Peclet number. This condition is sufficiently satisfied for hydraulic oils, whereby the analy...

  2. Special ESP configurations designed to test and produce Yemen oil field. [Electric-Submersible Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, D.I. (Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1993-09-27

    Innovative electric-submersible-pump (ESP) configurations were used in the exploration phase of a Yemen oil field discovered by Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Because of subnormal reservoir pressure, CanOxy developed the field with ESPs and had to install surface components that could operate at the high, 130 F., ambient temperatures common in Yemen. The field is in a remote area that has seen very little development. The reservoirs produce a medium-to-heavy crude with a low gas/oil ratio, typically less than 20 scf/bbl. Problems faced in evaluating the field included drilling through unconsolidated sands with high flow capacity and subnormal reservoir pressure. CanOxy had to develop the technology to test the wells during the exploration phase, and intends to use new, or at least uncommon technology, for producing the wells. The paper describes testing the wells, the electric generators and variable speed drives, and the use of these pumps on production wells.

  3. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  4. Evaluation of miscible and immiscible CO2 injection in one of the Iranian oil fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Hashemi Fath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 flooding is one of the most important methods for enhanced oil recovery (EOR because it not only increases oil recovery efficiency but also causes a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It is a very complex system, involving phase behavior that could increase the recovery of oil by means of swelling, evaporation and decreasing viscosity of the oil. In this study, a reservoir modeling approach was used to evaluate immiscible and miscible CO2 flooding in a fractured oil field. To reduce simulation time, we grouped fluid components into 10 pseudo-components. The 3-parameter, Peng–Robinson Equation of State (EOS was used to match PVT experimental data by using the PVTi software. A one-dimensional slim-tube model was defined using ECLIPSE 300 software to determine the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP for injection of CO2. We used FloGrid software for making a reservoir static model and the reservoir model was calibrated using manual and assisted history matching methods. Then various scenarios of natural depletion, immiscible and miscible CO2 injection have been simulated by ECLIPSE 300 software and then the simulation results of scenarios have been compared. Investigation of simulation results shows that the oil recovery factor in miscible CO2 injection scenario is more than other methods.

  5. Correlation of fluid inclusions and reservoired oils to infer trap fill history in the South Viking Graben, North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksen, G.H.; Pottorf, R.J. [Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas (United States); Jenssen, A.I. [Esson Norge a.s., Forus (Norway)

    1998-02-01

    Organic geochemical correlations between fluid inclusions and associated oils and oil-shows in Mesozoic reservoirs in the Sleipner area demonstrate generation from the same source rock organic facies (type II) for inclusions in wells 15/9-1 and 15/9-19. For well 15/9-9 the oil show is from a mixed type II/III source rock, whereas the fluid inclusion is from a type II source. all fluid inclusions are less thermally mature than the associated free oils and are thought to represent the earliest hydrocarbon yield from the source rocks. GC/MS/MS analyses of the fluid inclusions proved essential for resolving biomarker compounds and correlating them to reservoired fluids. Among the biomarkers, bisnorhopane contents in the fluid inclusions are consistently lower than the associated reservoired oil. The expected dilution effect of bisnorhopane as progressively more hydrocarbons are generated from kerogen maturation is not observed. The difference in bisnorhopane amounts in fluid inclusions and oils is primarily due to varying hydrocarbon yields, through time, from different source rocks.

  6. Horizontal well performance in Hassi-Messaoud oil field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzouguen, A.; Mazouzi, A.; Delhomme, A.; Deghmoum, A. [Sonatrach Inc., Hydra, (Algeria)

    2000-11-01

    The performance of non-conventional wells drilled in Hassi-Messaoud field in Algeria was analyzed using a pressure transient analysis technique called Tiab's direct synthesis (TDS). This technique makes it possible to determine the permeability tensor and the effective length of horizontal wells. Transient tests were analyzed using the TDS method for 33 non-conventional wells. For the first time it was possible to obtain the permeability tensor and the vertical permeability anisotropy. Future horizontal well drilling can now be optimized through sensitivity studies. The performance of slanted horizontal and multilateral wells was also compared. It was determined that because of their low risk, slanted wells are more appropriate for the Hassi-Messaoud field. Besides improving productivity, horizontal wells have the added advantage of providing substantial information regarding the geology of the field. It was determined that the two parameters that control production are the length and the vertical permeability. Several recommendations were presented regarding the well spacing. The recommendations were based on different geological models. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Second-order spatial correlation in the far-field: Comparing entangled and classical light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erfeng; Liu, Weitao; Lin, Huizu; Chen, Pingxing

    2016-02-01

    We consider second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light in the far-field. The quantum theory of second-order spatial correlation is analyzed, and the role of photon statistics and detection mode in the second-order spatial correlation are discussed. Meanwhile, the difference of second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light sources is deduced.

  8. Quantification of Gas Emissions from Refinieries, Gas Stations, Oil Wells and Agriculture using Optical Solar Occultation Flux and Tracer Correlation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellqvist, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Marianne, E.; Brohede, S.; Andersson, P.; Johansson, J.; Isoz, O.; Tisopulos, L.; Polidori, A.; Pikelnaya, O.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions may contribute significantly to ozone formation. In order to investigate how much small sources contribute to the VOC concentrations in the Los Angeles metropolitan area a comprehensive emission study has been carried out on behalf of the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). VOC emissions from major sources such as refineries, oil wells, petrol stations oil depots and oil platforms were measured during September and October 2015 using several unique optical methods, including the Solar Occultation Flux method (SOF) and tracer correlation technique based on extractive FTIR and DOAS combined with an open path multi reflection cell. In addition, measurements of ammonia emissions from farming in Chino were demonstrated. The measurements in this study were quality assured by carrying out a controlled source gas release study and side by side measurements with several other techniques. The results from the field campaign show that the emissions from the above mentioned sources are largely underestimated in inventories with potential impact on the air quality in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The results show that oil and gas production is a very significant VOC emission source. In this presentation the techniques will be discussed together with the main results from the campaign including the quality assurance work.

  9. Correlation between atmospheric electric fields and cloud cover using a field mill and cloud observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Kota; Suzuki, Yasuki; Ohya, Hiroyo; Takano, Toshiaki; Kawamura, Yohei; Nakata, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kozo

    2017-04-01

    It is known that lightning and precipitations of rain droplets generated from thunderclouds are a generator of global atmospheric electric circuit. In the fair weather, the atmospheric electric fields (AEF) are downward (positive), while they are upward (negative) during lightning and precipitations. However, the correlations between the AEF, and the cloud parameters such as cloud cover, weather phenomenon, have been not revealed quantitatively yet. In this study, we investigate the correlations between the AEF and the cloud parameters, weather phenomenon using a field mill, the 95 GHz-FALCON (FMCW Radar for Cloud Observations)-I and all-sky camera observations. In this study, we installed a Boltek field mill on the roof of our building in Chiba University, Japan, (Geographic coordinate: 35.63 degree N, 140.10 degree E, the sea level: 55 m) on the first June, 2016. The sampling time of the AEF is 0.5 s. On the other hand, the FALCON-I has observed the cloud parameters far from about 76 m of the field mill throughout 24 hours every day. The vertical cloud profiles and the Doppler velocity of cloud particles can be derived by the FALCON-I with high distance resolutions (48.8 m) (Takano et al., 2010). In addition, the images of the clouds and precipitations are recorded with 30-s sampling by an all-sky camera using a CCD camera on the same roof during 05:00-22:00 LT every day. The distance between the field mill and the all-sky camera is 3.75 m. During 08:30 UT - 10:30 UT, on 4 July, 2016, we found the variation of the AEF due to the approach of thundercloud. The variation consisted of two patterns. One was slow variation due to the movement of thunderclouds, and the other was rapid variation associated with lightning discharges. As for the movement of thunderclouds, the AEF increased when the anvil was located over the field mill, which was opposite direction of the previous studies. This change might be due to the positive charges in the upper anvil more than 14 km

  10. Selection of chemical products for oil field applications in arctic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.E.; VanderWende, E. [ARCO, Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Kuparuk Oil Field is located on the North Slope of Alaska, well above the Arctic Circle. Kuparuk uses chemicals for a variety of different oil production needs, including corrosion inhibition, emulsion breaking, defoaming, biofouling control, and scale inhibition. The North Slope`s isolated location demands unique logistical support, but it is otherwise accessible by unpaved road and has extensive air service. The Arctic climate provides difficult challenges and requirements for any chemical selection. This paper describes some criteria and practical experiences related to selecting the proper chemical products to be used in the Arctic environment.

  11. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  12. Electric field dependent dielectric response of alumina/silicone oil colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallon, Louis; Tsui, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the dielectric response of a mixture of alumina nanopowder and silicone oil. Frequency and electric field dependent measurements of another insulating colloid, i.e., urea-coated Ba0.8Rb0.4TiO(C2O4)2 nanoparticles immersed in silicone oil, revealed universal dielectric response (UDR) characteristics and, with the application of high voltage, a negative capacitance. Alumina in silicone oil represents a simpler system in which to perform similar dielectric investigation. This colloid is sandwiched in a parallel plate capacitor cell, and the complex impedance is measured via lock-in amplifier at various frequencies and applied dc biases. Furthermore, we will compare and discuss the dielectric behaviors of different sized suspended alumina particles.

  13. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mukhametshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, which means that the targeted area can be heated up more effectively and with lower heat losses than with other thermal methods. Electromagnetic heating is still relatively new and is not widely used as an alternate or addition to traditional thermal recovery methods. However, studies are being conducted and new technologies proposed that could help increase its use. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs by electromagnetic heating through the review of existing laboratory studies and field trials.

  14. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Liqiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR. Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated neutron log, NMR makes use of the different relaxation mechanisms of light oil and natural gas in large pores, while mud logging makes use of star chart of gas components established based on available charts and mathematical statistics. In terms of the quantitative calculation of GOR, the area ratio of the star chart of gas components was first used in GOR calculation. The study shows that: (1 conventional logging data has a modest performance in distinguishing oil layers from gas layers due to the impacts of formation pressure, hydrogen index (HI, shale content, borehole conditions and invasion of drilling mud; (2 NMR is quite effective in telling oil layers from gas layers, but cannot be widely used due to its high cost; (3 by contrast, the star chart of gas components is the most effective in differentiating oil layers from gas layers; and (4 the GOR calculated by using the area ratio of star chart has been verified by various data such as formation testing data, production data and liquid production profile.

  15. Third oil field just on stream in Dutch sector of North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Three oil-producing fields are now onstream in the Dutch sector of the North Sea, an area which until about three years ago produced only natural gas. Union Oil Company of The Netherlands and Nedlloyd Energy B.V. are partners in the three fields, located in Block Q/1. Union is operator. Oil was first discovered in 1979 in an exploratory well about 40 km west of Den Helder. Confirmation drilling established the Helm field. About a year later, Helder field was discovered 6 km northwest of Helm. Production licenses for the two fields were granted in mid-1981 and production began from both fields in late September 1982. A third field in the Q/1 block, Hoorn, was discovered in 1980 and went onstream at the end of July 1983. In late summer 1983, Helm and Helder were producing a total of about 15,000 b/d, and Hoorn output was up to about 20,000 b/d one month after coming onstream. Development of the finds moved fast; for example, Hoorn field was put onstream 37 days ahead of schedule, according to a Union spokesman. Several factors were responsible for meeting--or beating--construction and development schedules, including: Cooperation of the Dutch government made permitting and other procedures move quickly. An integrated deck concept was used for platform design, reducing fabrication time and offshore construction time. Platforms for all three fields were identical, with only minor modifications made to handle different throughputs. Full approval to proceed with the development of Helm and Helder was obtained in July 1981, jackets and deck were delivered 1 year later and installed in August 1982. The Hoorn platform deck was delivered in June 1983, and started up at the end of July.

  16. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2 T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2∗, π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging.

  17. Effect of flaring of natural gas in oil fields of Assam on rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K K; Hazarika, S; Kalita, B; Sharma, B

    2011-07-01

    Assam (India) is endowed with natural resources like oil, coal and natural gas. The crude oil, one of the most precious natural resources, is found in the districts of upper Assam. During the process of extraction of crude oil, low-pressure natural gas is burnt in the air. Most of the oil wells in upper Assam are located near rice fields and therefore, rice crop grown near the oil wells is exposed to light uninterruptedly causing grain sterility resulting significant loss in grain yield. To identify promising varieties for these areas, we studied the effect of flare on rice varieties with different photoperiod sensitivity. The high light intensity and increased light hours were the factors responsible for substantial loss in grain yield near the flare resulting from delay in flower initiation, reduction of panicle length, having less number of grains per panicle and more grain sterility. To prevent significant loss in yield, photoperiod-sensitive traditional and improved rice varieties should not be grown up to the distance of 80 and 100 m, respectively from the boundary wall of the flare pit. Modern weakly-photoperiod sensitive varieties like Ranjti and Mahsuri can be grown 40 m away from the wall while modern photoperiod insensitive variety like Jaya, can be cultivated 20 m away from the wall without significant loss in yield.

  18. Estimating relic magnetic fields from CMB temperature correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The temperature and polarization inhomogeneities of the Cosmic Microwave Background might bear the mark of pre-decoupling magnetism. The parameters of a putative magnetized background are hereby estimated from the observed temperature autocorrelation as well as from the measured temperature-polarization cross-correlation.

  19. Correlation between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty acid composition in soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups IV, V, VI or VII were grown in 1995/96 at the Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA of Manfredi and Marcos Juárez, Argentina. The aim of this research was to determine possible associations between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty composition. Seed size varied between 13.9-21.0 g/100 seeds. Protein and oil contents ranged from 331 to 448 and from 198 to 267 g kg-1, respectively, and showed no significant correlation with seed size. There were significant correlations between seed size and individual fatty adds: positive with stearic and oleic and negative with linoleic. The results obtained suggest that seed size and its relationship with individual fatty acids must be considered in soybean breeding programs.

    Se analizaron 18 genotipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez IV, V, VI o VIl, cultivados en 1995/96 en la Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA de Manfredi y Marcos Juárez, Argentina. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar posibles asociaciones entre el tamaño del grano, los contenidos de proteínas y aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos del mismo. El tamaño del grano varió entre 13.9-21.0 g/100 granos. Los porcentajes de proteínas y aceite estuvieron comprendidos entre 331-448 y entre 198-267 g kg-1 respectivamente, y no mostraron correlaciones significativas con el tamaño del grano. Se observaron correlaciones significativas entre el tamaño del grano y determinados ácidos grasos: positivas con esteárico y oleico y negativa con linoleico. Las asociaciones encontradas podrían ser de utilidad en programas de mejoramiento de soja.

  20. Effect of Magnetic Field on Tribological Properties of Lubri-cating Oils with and without Tricresyl Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zeqi; Fang Jianhua; Chen Boshui; Zheng Zhe; Li Hao; Xu Lai

    2016-01-01

    Tribological properties of neat 150 SN mineral base oil and the oils doped with different contents of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) under magnetic field or non-magnetic field were evaluated on a four-ball tribotester, on which an external magnetic field was applied. Furthermore, the morphology and the tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an X-ray photoelectron spectrograph (XPS). The tribological test results showed that the magnetic field improved anti-wear properties but impaired the friction-reducing properties of neat base oil and the TCP-doped oils. The worn surfaces tested in magnetic field were characterized by a slighter wear than those tested in normal condition, especially for the surfaces lubricated with the TCP-doped oils. Furthermore, the results of XPS analysis indicated that tribochemical films on the surfaces tested with TCP-doped oils were mainly composed of ferric-containing compounds such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and FePO4. Under the influence of a magnetic field, the atomic concentrations of oxygen and phosphorous in the frictional sub-surfaces were higher than those without magnetic impact. Thus it can be in-ferred that the improved anti-wear properties and impaired friction-reducing capabilities of lubricating oils with TCP under a magnetic field were related to the diffusion of phosphorus and oxygen into the substrate induced by magnetism.

  1. Multiclass optical correlation filters for alphanumeric field recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Gopalaswamy, Srinivasan; Iyer, Anand K.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the use of new distortion-invariant optical correlation filters for machine-printed OCR. Our work is unique in its treatment of a large set of different fonts, printer types, plus rotations and scale (point size) variations, and various practical issues such as printing artifacts and background noise. We detail their use in the locations and recognition of alphanumeric fluids (digits) in destination address blocks (DABs).

  2. Holographic description of strongly correlated electrons in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J

    2013-01-01

    We study the Fermi level structure of (2+1)-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. We compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators. As expecte...

  3. On the non-Gaussian correlation of the primordial curvature perturbation with vector fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Jain, Rajeev; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2013-01-01

    We compute the three-point cross-correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with two powers of a vector field in a model where conformal invariance is broken by a direct coupling of the vector field with the inflaton. If the vector field is identified...... with the electromagnetic field, this correlation would be a non-Gaussian signature of primordial magnetic fields generated during inflation. We find that the signal is maximized for the flattened configuration where the wave number of the curvature perturbation is twice that of the vector field and in this limit...

  4. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  5. Field guide on reduction and disposal of waste from oil refineries and marketing installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dando, D.A.J.; Bossand, B.; Lilie, R.H.; Ooms, A.C.; Sutherland, H.

    1990-07-01

    The field guide has been written primarily for those in the oil refining and marketing industry who have responsibility for the management of waste and its disposal. It should also provide useful information to the authorities who exercise legal control over these activities. It lists the types of wastes commonly encountered in the industry and highlights techniques for minimizing the quantities generated. Guidance is given on the methods of pre-treatment and disposal, together with information on how to select and monitor waste facilities and contractors, to ensure a high quality and safe disposal operation. Information is also provided on documentation and labelling of waste cargoes, and reference is made to legislation and sources of additional information. While use of the field guide cannot guarantee a problem-free operation, it will minimize the risks involved in disposal of waste materials from oil industry installations.

  6. Use of the truncated shifted Pareto distribution in assessing size distribution of oil and gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The truncated shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution, a variant of the two-parameter Pareto distribution, in which one parameter is added to shift the distribution right and left and the right-hand side is truncated, is used to model size distributions of oil and gas fields for resource assessment. Assumptions about limits to the left-hand and right-hand side reduce the number of parameters to two. The TSP distribution has advantages over the more customary lognormal distribution because it has a simple analytic expression, allowing exact computation of several statistics of interest, has a "J-shape," and has more flexibility in the thickness of the right-hand tail. Oil field sizes from the Minnelusa play in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, are used as a case study. Probability plotting procedures allow easy visualization of the fit and help the assessment. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  7. Ground state correlations and mean field in 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Jochen H.; Mihaila, Bogdan

    1999-03-01

    We use the coupled cluster expansion [exp(S) method] to generate the complete ground state correlations due to the NN interaction. Part of this procedure is the calculation of the two-body G matrix inside the nucleus in which it is being used. This formalism is being applied to 16O in a configuration space of 50ħω. The resulting ground state wave function is used to calculate the binding energy and one- and two-body densities for the ground state of 16O.

  8. Ground state correlations and mean-field in $^{16}$O

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, J H; Heisenberg, Jochen H.; Mihaila, Bogdan.

    1999-01-01

    We use the coupled cluster expansion ($\\exp(S)$ method) to generate the complete ground state correlations due to the $NN$ interaction. Part of this procedure is the calculation of the two-body ${\\mathbf G}$ matrix inside the nucleus in which it is being used. This formalism is being applied to $^{16}$O in a configuration space of 35 $\\hbar\\omega$. The resulting ground state wave function is used to calculate the binding energy and one- and two-body densities for the ground state of~$^{16}$O.

  9. The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  11. Short chain aliphatic acid anions in oil field waters and their contribution to the measured alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, L.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Presser, T.S.; Rapp, J.B.; Barnes, I.

    1975-01-01

    High alkalinity values found in some formation waters from Kettleman North Dome oil field are due chiefly to acetate and propionate ions, with some contribution from higher molecular weight organic acid ions. Some of these waters contain no detectable bicarbonate alkalinity. For waters such as these, high supersaturation with respect to calcite will be incorrectly indicated by thermodynamic calculations based upon carbonate concentrations inferred from traditional alkalinity measurements. ?? 1975.

  12. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  13. Static Electric Field Mapping Using a Mosquito Racket and Baby Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediansyah, Herfien; Khairurrijal; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to design a simple experimental device to see electric field force lines using common components which are readily available in everyday life. A solution of baby oil was placed in a plastic container, 4.5 × 4.5 × 1 inches, with both ends of the electrodes (metal wire) immersed in the solution at a depth of 0.2 inches.…

  14. Static Electric Field Mapping Using a Mosquito Racket and Baby Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediansyah, Herfien; Khairurrijal; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to design a simple experimental device to see electric field force lines using common components which are readily available in everyday life. A solution of baby oil was placed in a plastic container, 4.5 × 4.5 × 1 inches, with both ends of the electrodes (metal wire) immersed in the solution at a depth of 0.2 inches.…

  15. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil

  16. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  17. GRACE gravity field modeling with an investigation on correlation between nuisance parameters and gravity field coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan; Cai, Hua; Liu, Xianglin

    2011-05-01

    The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) monthly gravity models have been independently produced and published by several research institutions, such as Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS). According to their processing standards, above institutions use the traditional variational approach except that the DEOS exploits the acceleration approach. The background force models employed are rather similar. The produced gravity field models generally agree with one another in the spatial pattern. However, there are some discrepancies in the gravity signal amplitude between solutions produced by different institutions. In particular, 10%-30% signal amplitude differences in some river basins can be observed. In this paper, we implemented a variant of the traditional variational approach and computed two sets of monthly gravity field solutions using the data from January 2005 to December 2006. The input data are K-band range-rates (KBRR) and kinematic orbits of GRACE satellites. The main difference in the production of our two types of models is how to deal with nuisance parameters. This type of parameters is necessary to absorb low-frequency errors in the data, which are mainly the aliasing and instrument errors. One way is to remove the nuisance parameters before estimating the geopotential coefficients, called NPARB approach in the paper. The other way is to estimate the nuisance parameters and geopotential coefficients simultaneously, called NPESS approach. These two types of solutions mainly differ in geopotential coefficients from degree 2 to 5. This can be explained by the fact that the nuisance parameters and the gravity field coefficients are highly correlated, particularly at low degrees. We compare these solutions with the official and published ones by means of spectral analysis. It is

  18. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided.

  19. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  20. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  1. Effects of Source Correlations on the Spectrum of Radiated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    directivltv Chapter 2 68 12 K. Kim and E. Wolf, "Non-radiating monochromatic sources and their fields", Opt. Commun. 59, 1-6 (1986). 13 The Jacobian of...Amer. 68 , 1597-1605 (1978). 15 R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), Chap. 6. 16 The method of...Ghatak and C.L. Metha, "Propagation of a partially coherent beam through selfoc fibers", Opt. Commun. 12, 333-337(1974). D. Marcuse , Light Transmission

  2. GHz measurements of correlated electron systems in high magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, R S

    2002-01-01

    This Thesis presents experiments performed on the high-frequency conductivity of materials in high magnetic fields. The angle dependence of resonances measured in the millimetre-wave absorption is studied using a rotating resonant cavity system, and the frequency dependence is measured using transmission techniques and a tuneable resonant cavity. Chapter 1 introduces the materials. These include the crystalline organic metals, the layered superconductor Sr sub 2 RUO sub 4 and the quantum Ising ferromagnet LiHoF sub 4. In Chapters 2 and 3, the necessary physics and experimental techniques for their investigation are outlined. Chapters 4 to 6 present measurements of cyclotron resonance in layered materials. Chapter 4 describes several models for the origin of cyclotron resonance harmonics, and describes the first definite measurement of the harmonics of a cyclotron resonance in an organic molecular metal, namely beta sup - (BEDT-TTF) sub 2 SF sub 5 CH sub 2 CF sub 2 SO sub 3. The angle dependence of the field p...

  3. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  4. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  5. Preliminary hydrocarbon analysis of crude oils from Umutu/Bomu fields, south west Niger Delta Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Onojake

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven different crude oil samples were collected from two oil fields in the Niger Delta Nigeria. The bulk properties of these crude oils which include API gravity, reid vapour pressure; kinematic viscosity, dynamic viscosity, moisture, gum content and cloud point were analysed. Aliphatic biomarkers were used as supporting tool to deduce the geochemical characteristics such as thermal maturity, depositional environments, source of organic matter and extent of biodegradation. Results show that API° gravity ranged from 29.00° to 85.00°, specific gravity 0.65 to 0.88, 3.00 to 9.00, reid vapour pressure 3.00 to 9.00 kPa, kinematic viscosity 0.90 to 10.10 cSt, dynamic viscosity 0.70 to 8.90 cP, moisture content 0.13% to 26.00%, gum content 6.27 to 45.84 mg/L, cloud point 3.00 to 12.00 °C, pour point −7.00 to 4.00 °C and flash point <30.00 °C. Distribution of n-alkanes (Pr/Ph, and isoprenoide/n-alkanes ratios reflects that the oil samples originated mainly from terrestrial organic sources deposited in an oxic paleoenvironment.

  6. Structure of pre-Caspian depression and major oil and gas fields of the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, N.A. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Avrov, V.P. (Igirgi, Moscow (USSR)); Lisovsky, N.N.

    1991-03-01

    As a single unified depression, the pre-Caspian basin has been formed from Paleozoic to Cenozoic time. The basin is superimposed on two large pre-Permian depressions. On the Astrakhan-Aktyubinsk zone of uplifts between them is found sharply reduced Carboniferous and Devonian sections. Modern structural plan clearly displays two major structural stages: Subsalt (Paleozoic) and post (post-Kungurian). The post-salt stage is characterized by wide development of salt dome tectonics. It corresponds with its own petroliferous stage containing numerous, mostly small oil accumulations in terrigenous Mesozoic reservoirs. Large recent discoveries-Astrakhan condensate, Karachaganak and Kanazhol-Sinelnikov oil/condensate, Tengiz oil, and other fields-are associated with the Subsalt Paleozoic complex ranging from Lower Permian to the top of Upper Devonian. The Subsalt stage has its own regularities in hydrocarbon phase differentiation; large reserves concentration; dominantly productive carbonates with various reservoirs; and presence of structural, depositional, and erosional factors controlling formation of oil and gas traps. The paper describes major distributional features of the various arc-and-type Permian and Carboniferous formations, which in conjunction with Subsalt paleotemperature data and geochemistry of organic matter represents a basis for the forecast of new discoveries.

  7. On Storks and Babies: Correlation, Causality and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrecht Anja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of available data has created much excitement among marketing practitioners about their ability to better understand the impact of marketing investments. Big data allows for detecting patterns and often it seems plausible to interpret them as causal. While it is quite obvious that storks do not bring babies, marketing relationships are usually less clear. Apparent “causalities” often fail to hold up under examination. If marketers want to be sure not to walk into a causality trap, they need to conduct field experiments to detect true causal relationships. In the present digital environment, experiments are easier than ever to execute. However, they need to be prepared and interpreted with great care in order to deliver meaningful and genuinely causal results that help improve marketing decisions.

  8. Structure and viscosity of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, M.; Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Paulovicova, K.; Tothova, J.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Cimbala, R.; Avdeev, M. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Feoktystov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Various structural changes of ferrofluids have been intensively studied under external magnetic fields. In this work we present an experimental evidence of similar changes induced by an electric field. In the context of the electric field effect on ferrofluids structure, we studied a simple ferrofluid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and dispersed in transformer oil. The structural changes have been observed both on macroscopic and microscopic scale. We also demonstrate a remarkable impact of the electric field on the ferrofluid viscosity in relation to the reported structural changes. It was found that the electric field induced viscosity changes are analogous to the magnetoviscous effect. These changes and the electroviscous effect are believed to stem from the dielectric permittivity contrast between the iron oxide nanoparticles and transformer oil, giving rise to the effective electric polarization of the nanoparticles. It is highlighted that this electrorheological effect should be considered in studies of ferrofluids for high voltage engineering applications, as it can have impact on the thermomagnetic convection or the dielectric breakdown performance.

  9. Dynamical Mean-Field Theory of Electronic Correlations in Models and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, Dieter

    2010-11-01

    The concept of electronic correlations plays an important role in modern condensed matter physics. It refers to interaction effects which cannot be explained within a static mean-field picture as provided by Hartree-Fock theory. Electronic correlations can have a very strong influence on the properties of materials. For example, they may turn a metal into an insulator (Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition). In these lecture notes I (i) introduce basic notions of the physics of correlated electronic systems, (ii) discuss the construction of mean-field theories by taking the limit of high lattice dimensions, (iii) explain the simplifications of the many-body perturbation theory in this limit which provide the basis for the formulation of a comprehensive mean-field theory for correlated fermions, the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), (v) derive the DMFT self-consistency equations, and (vi) apply the DMFT to investigate electronic correlations in models and materials.

  10. Correlation functions of small-scale fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Németh, Z; Lucek, E A

    2010-01-01

    The Interplanetary Magnetic Field shows complex spatial and temporal variations. Single spacecraft measurements reveal only a one dimensional section of this rich four dimensional phenomenon. Multi-point measurements of the four Cluster spacecraft provide a unique tool to study the spatiotemporal structure of the field. Using Cluster data we determined three dimensional correlation functions of the fluctuations. By means of the correlation function one can describe and measure field variations. Our results can be used to verify theoretical predictions, to understand the formation and nature of solar wind turbulence. We found that the correlation length varies over almost six orders of magnitude. The IMF turbulence shows significant anisotropy with two distinct populations. In certain time intervals the ratio of the three axes of the correlation ellipse is 1/2.2/6 while in the remaining time we found extremely high correlation along one axis. We found favoured directions in the orientation of the correlation e...

  11. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  12. Scale-up considerations for surface collecting agent assisted in-situ burn crude oil spill response experiments in the Arctic: Laboratory to field-scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Robin J; Aggarwal, Srijan; Perkins, Robert A; Schnabel, William

    2017-04-01

    In the event of a marine oil spill in the Arctic, government agencies, industry, and the public have a stake in the successful implementation of oil spill response. Because large spills are rare events, oil spill response techniques are often evaluated with laboratory and meso-scale experiments. The experiments must yield scalable information sufficient to understand the operability and effectiveness of a response technique under actual field conditions. Since in-situ burning augmented with surface collecting agents ("herders") is one of the few viable response options in ice infested waters, a series of oil spill response experiments were conducted in Fairbanks, Alaska, in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the use of herders to assist in-situ burning and the role of experimental scale. This study compares burn efficiency and herder application for three experimental designs for in-situ burning of Alaska North Slope crude oil in cold, fresh waters with ∼10% ice cover. The experiments were conducted in three project-specific constructed venues with varying scales (surface areas of approximately 0.09 square meters, 9 square meters and 8100 square meters). The results from the herder assisted in-situ burn experiments performed at these three different scales showed good experimental scale correlation and no negative impact due to the presence of ice cover on burn efficiency. Experimental conclusions are predominantly associated with application of the herder material and usability for a given experiment scale to make response decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lithologic Framework Modeling of the Fruitvale Oil Field Investigating Interaction Between Wastewater Injection Wells and Usable Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguboff, E. W.; Crandall-Bear, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Fruitvale Oil Field lies in a populated area where oil production, water disposal injection wells, and drinking water wells lie in close proximity. The purpose of this project is to build a lithological framework of the area that can then be used to determine if water disposal from petroleum production has a chance of reaching usable groundwater aquifers. Using the DOGGR database, data were collected from well logs. Lithologic data from drilling logs and cores were coded and entered into a relational database, where it was combined with the surface elevation and location coordinates of each well. Elevation data was acquired through ArcGIS using a USGS 24k 10 m DEM. Drillers logs that started at the surface, and were continuous, were sorted by the density of intervals recorded, in order to select high quality drillers logs for use in creating a model. About 900 wells were coded and approximately 150 wells were used in the model. These wells were entered into the modeling program (Rockworks), which allowed the wells to be visualized as strip logs and also as cross sections, and 2D fence models were created to represent subsurface conditions. The data were interpolated into 3D models of the subsurface. Water disposal wells, with the depths of the perforation intervals as well as injection volume, were added to the model, and analyzed. Techniques of interpolation used in this project included kriging, which requires statistical analysis of the data collected. This allowed correlation between widely-spaced wells. Up scaling the data to a coarse or fine texture was also been found to be effective with the kriging technique. The methods developed on this field can be used to build framework models of other fields in the Central Valley to explore the relationship between water disposal injection and usable groundwater.

  14. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modified version of the Millikan oil drop experiment to test the probable existence of a new electrodynamic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cure, J.C. (Universidad Francisco de Miranda, Coro (Venezuela). Area de Tecnologia)

    1982-10-07

    The probable existence of a new electrodynamic field is obtained by analogy with the general theory of relativity. The new field is derived from a scalar electrodynamic potential which is similar to the Edwards potential discovered experimentally in recent years. A modification of the Millikan oil drop experiment is also suggested to empirically verify the new field avoiding misinterpretations of Edwards' results.

  16. A modified version of the Millikan oil drop experiment to test the probable existence of a new electrodynamic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curé, Jorge C.

    1982-10-01

    The probable existence of a new electrodynamic field is obtained by analogy with the general theory of relativity. The new field is derived from a scalar electrodynamic potential which is similar to the Edwards potential discovered experimentally in recent years. A modification of the Millikan oil drop experiment is also suggested to empirically verify the new field avoiding misinterpretations of Edwards' results.

  17. Weathering of field-collected floating and stranded Macondo oils during and shortly after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Baker, Gregory

    2016-04-15

    Chemical analysis of large populations of floating (n=62) and stranded (n=1174) Macondo oils collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico sea surface and shorelines during or within seven weeks of the end of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill demonstrates the range, rates, and processes affecting surface oil weathering. Oil collected immediately upon reaching the sea surface had already lost most mass below n-C8 from dissolution of soluble aliphatics, monoaromatics, and naphthalenes during the oil's ascent with further reductions extending up to n-C13 due to the onset of evaporation. With additional time, weathering of the floating and stranded oils advanced with total PAH (TPAH50) depletions averaging 69±23% for floating oils and 94±3% for stranded oils caused by the combined effects of evaporation, dissolution, and photo-oxidation, the latter of which also reduced triaromatic steroid biomarkers. Biodegradation was not evident among the coalesced floating oils studied, but had commenced in some stranded oils.

  18. Establishing structure-property correlations and classification of base oils using statistical techniques and artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, G.S.; Sastry, M.I.S.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Sarpal, A.S

    2004-03-17

    The present paper describes various classification techniques like cluster analysis, principal component (PC)/factor analysis to classify different types of base stocks. The API classification of base oils (Group I-III) has been compared to a more detailed NMR derived chemical compositional and molecular structural parameters based classification in order to point out the similarities of the base oils in the same group and the differences between the oils placed in different groups. The detailed compositional parameters have been generated using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods. Further, oxidation stability, measured in terms of rotating bomb oxidation test (RBOT) life, of non-conventional base stocks and their blends with conventional base stocks, has been quantitatively correlated with their {sup 1}H NMR and elemental (sulphur and nitrogen) data with the help of multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) techniques. The MLR based model developed using NMR and elemental data showed a high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for both training (R=0.859) and validation (R=0.880) data sets. The ANN based model, developed using fewer number of input variables (only {sup 1}H NMR data) also showed high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for training (R=0.881), validation (R=0.860) and test (R=0.955) data sets.

  19. Second-order spatial correlation in the far-field: Comparing entangled and classical light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Erfeng, E-mail: efzhang@163.com; Liu, Weitao; Lin, Huizu; Chen, Pingxing

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light in the far-field is investigated. • The role of photon statistics and detection mode in the second-order spatial correlation are discussed. • The difference of second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light sources is deduced. - Abstract: We consider second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light in the far-field. The quantum theory of second-order spatial correlation is analyzed, and the role of photon statistics and detection mode in the second-order spatial correlation are discussed. Meanwhile, the difference of second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light sources is deduced.

  20. Preliminary study on the application of an electric field as a method of preservation for virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ariza-Ortega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of an electric field treatment (voltage: 3 kV cm-1, frequency: 60 Hz and time: of 5 and 25 min on the stability of unsaturated fatty acids in virgin olive oil. Unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in the virgin olive oil was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid infrared region, and by quality parameters (acidity, peroxide and iodine. The electric field is a suitable method to preserve this oil composition with minimal modifications without the synthetic antioxidant addition.

  1. Case History of 3D Seismic Survey in Aershan Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yousheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ Aershan Oil Field is located at the eastern end of the Manite depression .in the northeastern part of Erlian basin of North China (Fig. 1). Three oilfields -Anan, Abei and Hanan - were discovered in the Erlian basin in the early 1980s using 2D seismic survey with a very dense 0.5 km ×0.5 km grid. However. difficulties were encountered in structural delineation and lateral reservoir prediction.partly due to low signal to noise ratio and resolution of 2D section, partly due to extensive lateral variations. In order to solve these problems, large- area 3D seismic survey was conducted in the late 1980s. 3D survey area is 80 km2.This survey accurately identified the details of reservoir structures, as well as located low-relief structures. Good results were also obtained in predicting lateral reservoir variations and ascertaining oil/water contacts and oilbearing areas.

  2. CNPC Beefs up Cooperative Development for Onshore Oil and Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yaonan; Wang Kefu

    1996-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has made remarkable progress in cooperation with foreign firms for joint develoment of China's onshore oil and gas fields. A total of more than 30blocks from China's nine oil areas such as Daqing, Shengli,Liaohe, Xinjiang, Dagang, Zhongyuan, Tairm, Sichuan and Qinghai are now put up for cooperative development with foreign firms in various forms. By the end of August 1996, CNPC has signed eight development contracts with foreign firms, of which four contracts are for development of proven non-producing reserves (namely: Contract for Block Min-114 and Contract for Block Qian-130 in Jilin,Contract for Block Zhao-13 in Daqing, and Contract for West Chengdao Development in Shengli); one contract is for EOR ( contract for heavy crude in Xinjiang ) and three contracts are for well workover service and productionsharing ( in Shengli, Liaohe and Dagang ).

  3. Modeling porous structure of oil-pressboard interface and its effect on electric field distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马文霞; 姜赤龙; 毛文奇; 唐信

    2015-01-01

    The oil−pressboard insulation is a typical composite insulation system widely used in the design and manufactory of large power apparatus. The implement of oil−pressboard insulation may lead to surface electrification and discharge at the interface under certain condition. It is of significant importance to take an insight into the phenomenon occurring at the interface. Through experiment, the pressboard is found as a porous material. The interface changes abruptly from bulk pressboard to the bulk oil as a result of the porous structure. A new model is proposed which divides the interface into bulk oil region, transition region, and bulk pressboard region. The width of the transition region is decided according to the microtome figure. The effective permittivity of the transition region is calculated using a new model based on fractal theory. The model is validated and compared with previous calculation model. The effect of the existence of transition region on the electric field distribution is discussed.

  4. Integral anomalous effect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostyshevskiy, M.B.; Nabokov, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The basic precepts of an elaborated version of a procedure for forecasting (direct exploration) of oil and gas deposits according to seismic prospecting data MOV are examined. This procedure was previously called the procedure of analysis of the integral affect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field (MIIEZ-VP). The procedure is implemented in the form of an automated system ASOM-VP for the BESM-4 computer in a standard configuration equipped with standard input-output devices for seismic information (''Potok'', MVU, ''Atlas''). The entire procedure of processing from input of data into the computer to output of resulting maps and graphs on graph plotter ''Atlas'' is automated. Results of testing of procedure MIIEZ-VP and system ASOM-VP on drilled areas of Kazakhstan, Azerbaydzhan and Uzbekistan are cited.

  5. Horizontal drilling pilot in a shallow heavy oil reservoir in the Suplac Field in Northwestern Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavelle, J.; Yaghoobi, A. [OMV Petrom S.A. (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    The Suplac field situated in north-western Romania is a shallow and heavy oil deposit lying at depths of between 40 and 200 meters. The deposit has been exploited since 1964 using different techniques but some areas of the reservoir located beneath villages and steep hills were never reached. The aim of this paper is to describe a project using horizontal alternating steam drive (HASD) to harvest oil from these areas by turning from vertical to horizontal. A pilot test was conducted over 4 months in 2010 with 3 parallel horizontal wells. The rig equipment, the well path designs and the directional difficulties are discussed herein. Results showed that horizontals could be drilled using a vertical mast rig and all the expectations were met. The success of this pilot project was highlighted herein and the company is now planning on continuing with a horizontal development program; however wellbore clean out is a remaining challenge.

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Synthetically Produced Oil Field Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The life of offshore steel structure in the oil production units is decided by the huge corrosive degradation due to SO42-, S2−, and Cl−, which normally present in the oil field seawater. Variation in pH and temperature further adds to the rate of degradation on steel. Corrosion behavior of mild steel is investigated through polarization, EIS, XRD, and optical and SEM microscopy. The effect of all 3 species is huge material degradation with FeSx and FeCl3 and their complex as corrosion products. EIS data match the model of Randle circuit with Warburg resistance. Addition of more corrosion species decreases impedance and increases capacitance values of the Randle circuit at the interface. The attack is found to be at the grain boundary as well as grain body with very prominent sulphide corrosion crack.

  7. Reservoir engineering optimized techniques and applications research in initial development stage of a super shallow sea marginal oil field : Development case of Chengdao Oil Field in Bohai Bay, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, D.; Ren, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, D. [Shengli Oil field Inc. (China). SINOPEC Corp.

    2002-06-01

    One of the greatest Chinese neritic marginal oil fields is the Chengdao oil field, located north of Dongying City, Shandong Province, China in the southern part of Bohai Bay. The depth of the seawater is less than 15 metres, even though the field lies 5 kilometres from shore. It falls in the category of super shallow sea marginal oil field, due to a number of reasons: peculiar geographical location, abominable environment and climate, complex reservoir characteristics and high economic risk of exploration and development. The major oil-bearing series of the Chengdao oil field is upper Guantao sandstones. The establishment of a three-dimensional conceptual model and static model in initial development stage were completed using Log-Constrained Seismic Inversion technique combined with three-dimensional visual geological model establishment technique. The optimization and determination of reservoir engineering technical limits, namely development scheme, well pattern and spacing, timing of water injection, water injection scheme and injection-to-production ratio was accomplished with the application of geostatistics, numerical simulation and economic evaluation techniques. For the period 1996-2001, the cumulative oil productivity of upper Guantao reservoir in pure natural energy development increased substantially. The results were presented in this paper. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs.

  8. Mercury concentrations in urine of amerindian populations near oil fields in the peruvian and ecuadorian amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Ross, Nancy; Mergler, Donna

    2016-11-01

    Mercury is a global contaminant with toxic, persistent effects on human health. Petroleum extraction is an important source of elemental mercury; little is known about human exposure levels near oil fields in the Amazon basin. To characterize mercury levels in people living near oil production sites in the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon, controlling for fish consumption, occupation, source of water and socio-demographic characteristics. Analyze mercury levels in urine samples using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry from 76 indigenous men and women in eight riverine communities situated near oil wells or pipelines. Subjects answered a questionnaire soliciting socio-demographic, occupational and dietary information. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling. The mean value of U-Hg was 2.61μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 2.14-3.08), with 7% of the sample recording values above the global background standard suggested by The World Health Organization (5μg/g creatinine). Women who used water from a surface source had two and a half times the amount of mercury in their urine (mean=3.70μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 2.26-5.15) compared with women who used other water sources (mean =1.39μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 0.51-2.25). Men who were involved in an oil clean-up operation had twice as much mercury in their urine (mean =3.07μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.97-4.16) as did those who worked on other tasks (mean =1.56μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.48-2.65). Mercury levels were not associated with the number of fish meals per week. Indigenous peoples of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon living near oil production sites generally had urine mercury levels within the global background standard suggested by the World Health Organization. Increased levels of mercury in urine were detected for men involved in oil spill remediation and for women who relied on surface water for household needs. These findings signal the need for strict safety measures to limit the amount

  9. Conformal Field Theory Correlators from Classical Scalar Field Theory on $AdS_{d+1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Mück, W; Mueck, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    We use the correspondence between scalar field theory on $AdS_{d+1}$ and a conformal field theory on $R^d$ to calculate the 3- and 4-point functions of the latter. The classical scalar field theory action is evaluated at tree level.

  10. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  11. Helichrysum gymnocephalum Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic, Antimalarial and Antioxidant Activities, Attribution of the Activity Origin by Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Couderc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Helichrysum gymnocephalum essential oil (EO was prepared by hydrodistillation of its leaves and characterized by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID. Twenty three compounds were identified. 1,8-Cineole (47.4%, bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5.6%, γ-curcumene (5.6%, α-amorphene (5.1% and bicyclogermacrene (5% were the main components. Our results confirmed the important chemical variability of H. gymnocephalum. The essential oil was tested in vitro for cytotoxic (on human breast cancer cells MCF-7, antimalarial (Plasmodium falciparum: FcB1-Columbia strain, chloroquine-resistant and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH assays activities. H. gymnocephalum EO was found to be active against MCF-7 cells, with an IC50 of 16 ± 2 mg/L. The essential oil was active against P. falciparum (IC50 = 25 ± 1 mg/L. However, the essential oil exhibited a poor antioxidant activity in the DPPH (IC50 value > 1,000 mg/L and ABTS (IC50 value = 1,487.67 ± 47.70 mg/L assays. We have reviewed the existing results on the anticancer activity of essential oils on MCF-7 cell line and on their antiplasmodial activity against the P. falciparum. The aim was to establish correlations between the identified compounds and their biological activities (antiplasmodial and anticancer. β-Selinene (R² = 0.76, α-terpinolene (R² = 0.88 and aromadendrene (R² = 0.90 presented a higher relationship with the anti-cancer activity. However, only calamenene (R² = 0.70 showed a significant correlation for the antiplasmodial activity.

  12. Spatial correlations and partial polarization in electromagnetic optical fields : effects of evanescent waves

    OpenAIRE

    Setälä, Tero

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, partial polarization and spatial correlation properties of electromagnetic optical fields are investigated. The emphasis is on near fields which exist only within the distance of the light wavelength from the emitting or scattering object. In the near-field region, the contribution of the evanescent (non-radiating) waves is overwhelming compared to the propagating waves that can be observed far from the source. Certain fundamental issues related to the optical near-fields ...

  13. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface.

  14. Oil-source correlation for the paleo-reservoir in the Majiang area and remnant reservoir in the Kaili area, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yunxin; Liao, Yuhong; Wu, Liangliang; Geng, Ansong

    2011-05-01

    There are different viewpoints on the oil-source correlation of the Majiang paleo-reservoir and the neighbouring Kaili remnant reservoir in the Southern Guizhou Depression of China. Three potential source rocks in this depression could be inferred: the Lower-Cambrian marine mudstone, Lower-Silurian shale and Lower-Permian mudstone. Most of the potential source rocks are of high maturity. The solid bitumens and oil seepages in the Southern Guizhou Depression suffered severe secondary alterations, such as thermal degradation and biodegradation. The solid bitumens of the Majiang paleo-reservoir are also of high maturity. The oil seepages and soft bitumen of the Kaili remnant reservoir were severely biodegraded. All these secondary alterations may obscure oil-source correlations by routine biomarkers. Thus, it is very important to select appropriate biomarker parameters for the oil-source correlation. In this work, biomarkers resistant to thermal degradation and biodegradation and the data of organic carbon isotopic compositions were used for the correlation. The δ 13C values of n-alkanes in asphaltene pyrolysates were also used to make oil-oil and oil-source correlations between severely biodegraded oils. The results indicate that the Lower-Cambrian marine mudstones are the main source for the Ordovician-Silurian (O-S) solid bitumens of the Majiang area and the Ordovician-Silurian oil seepages and soft bitumens of the Kaili area. Remnant reservoir in the eastern Kaili area might have been charged at least twice by the oil generated from the Lower-Cambrian marine source rocks.

  15. Geology and habitat of oil in Ras Budran field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhary, L.R.; Taha, S.

    1987-05-01

    Deminex discovered the Ras Budran oil field in 1978. Discovery well EE 85-1 was drilled in about 140 ft of water, 4 km off the Sinai coast of the Gulf of Suez. Appraisal drilling (EE 85-2, 3, and 4 wells) confirmed the presence of a major field with an estimated 700 million bbl oil in place. The field, developed from three wellhead platforms, went on production in April 1983. To date, 20 development wells have been drilled. The Ras Budran structure at the deepest mappable seismic reflector, top Kareem (middle Miocene), is a broad northeast-southwest-trending anticlinal feature striking nearly at right angles to the main Gulf of Suez trend. At pre-Miocene producing horizons, the structure is complex and consists of a northeast-dipping flank (14-15) broken into several blocks by faults and limited to the south and west by major bounding faults. Oil is produced from three units of Nubian sandstone at a depth of 11,000 to 12,000 ft. The lower unit of Paleozoic age averages 10% porosity and up to 200 md in -situ permeability. The wells completed in this unit produce up to 2000 BOPD. In contrast, the sands of the upper two units of Lower Cretaceous age have a 15-20% porosity and up to 700 md permeability. The wells completed in these units produce 6000-8000 BOPD. The Ras Budran structure was primarily formed during the intra-Rudeis tectonic phase (lower Miocene). Migration of oil for accumulation in Ras Budran started late in the upper Miocene or Pliocene when the Santonian Brown Limestone and the Eocene Thebes Formation, the main source beds in the Gulf, reached the threshold of oil generation at a burial depth of about 10,000 ft (3000 m). At these depths, the organic matter in the source beds have a transformation ratio (0.10 to 0.15), increased yields of C15 + soluble organic matter and C15 + saturated hydrocarbons, a vitrinite reflectance of 0.62%, and a TTI value of 15.

  16. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  17. Field methods to measure surface displacement and strain with the Video Image Correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Horton, Charles M.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop methods and application procedures to measure displacement and strain fields during the structural testing of aerospace components using paint speckle in conjunction with the Video Image Correlation (VIC) system.

  18. ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF TALC POWDER/SILICONE OIL SUSPENSIONS UNDER DC FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasim Yilmaza; Ummihan Yilmazb

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the electrorheological (ER) behavior of suspensions prepared from d50 = 2.4 μm talc powder,dispersed in insulating silicone oil (SO) medium was investigated. Sedimentation stabilities of suspensions (c = 5 wt%)prepared using these talc powder powders were determined to be 78 days. The ER activity of all the suspensions was observed to increase with increasing electric field strength, concentration and decreasing shear rate. The shear stress of talc powder suspensions increased linearly with increasing concentrations of the particles and with the applied electric field strength. Electric field viscosity of all the suspensions decreased sharply with increasing shear rate and showed a typical shear thinning non-Newtonian visco-elastic behavior. Effects of frequency on the ER activity of talc powder/SO system were also investigated.

  19. ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DIATOMITE/SILICONE OIL SUSPENSIONS UNDER DC FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasim Yilmaz

    2006-01-01

    In this study, electrorheological (ER) behavior of suspensions prepared from 3.0 and 9.0 μm diatomite particulate,dispersed in insulating silicone oil (SO) medium was investigated. Sedimentation stabilities of suspensions (c = 5 wt%)prepared using these diatomite powders were determined to be 32 days (d = 3 μm) and 24 days (d = 9 μm), respectively. ER activity of all the suspensions was observed to increase with increasing electric field strength, concentration and decreasing shear rate. Shear stress of diatomite suspensions increased linearly with increasing concentrations of the particles and with the applied electric field strength. Electric field viscosity of all the suspensions decreased sharply with increasing shear rate and particle size, showing a typical shear thinning non-Newtonian visco-elastic behavior. Effects of high temperature and polar promoter onto ER activity of diatomite/SO system were also investigated.

  20. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  1. Exploiting speckle correlations to improve the resolution of wide-field fluorescence microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Lagendijk, Ad; Vos, Willem L; Mosk, Allard P

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is indispensable in nanoscience and biological sciences. The versatility of labeling target structures with fluorescent dyes permits to visualize structure and function at a subcellular resolution with a wide field of view. Due to the diffraction limit, conventional optical microscopes are limited to resolving structures larger than 200 nm. The resolution can be enhanced by near-field and far-field super-resolution microscopy methods. Near-field methods typically have a limited field of view and far-field methods are limited by the involved conventional optics. Here, we introduce a combined high-resolution and wide-field fluorescence microscopy method that improves the resolution of a conventional optical microscope by exploiting correlations in speckle illumination through a randomly scattering high-index medium: Speckle correlation resolution enhancement (SCORE). As a test, we collect two-dimensional fluorescence images of 100-nm diameter dye-doped nanospheres. We demonstrate a decon...

  2. Field-Correlation Effects on Rayleigh-Enhanced Nondegenerate Four-Wave Mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延帮; 姜谦; 米辛; 俞祖和; 傅盘铭

    2002-01-01

    We study Rayleigh-enhanced nondegenerate four-wave mixing (NFWM) with time-delayed, correlated fluctuating fields. The importance of the field correlation is revealed in the Rayleigh-enhanced NFWM spectrum when the time delay is varied. The Rayleigh-enhanced NFWM is employed to study the ultrafast processes in the frequency domain. A relaxation time as short as 220 fs was deduced in the Rayleigh-enhanced NFWM experiments in carbon disulphide.

  3. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umekwe, Pascal, E-mail: wpascals@gmail.com [Baker Hughes (United States); Mongrain, Joanna, E-mail: Joanna.Mongrain@shell.com [Shell International Exploration and Production Co (United States); Ahmadi, Mohabbat, E-mail: mahmadi@alaska.edu [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Petroleum Engineering Department (United States); Hanks, Catherine, E-mail: chanks@gi.alaska.edu [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  4. Metal PCP field trial pushes up pumping window for heavy oil hot production : Joslyn field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauquin, J.L.; Ndinemenu, F. [Total SA, Paris (France); Chalier, G. [Total E and P Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemay, L.; Seince, L. [PCM, Verves (France); Jahn, S. [Kudu Industries Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented details of field trials conducted for a novel all-metal progressive cavity pump (PCP) system at a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facility in Canada's Joslyn field. The fully metallic helical profile was produced by hydro-forming processes. The pump's stator was comprised of 3 elements welded together and coated for high temperature and wear resistance. During the field trials, the well pads were equipped with metal PCPs as well as topside and down hole instrumentation in order to obtain real time well data and pump performance data. Results of the study showed that initial volumetric efficiencies were 55 per cent. When pressure communication between injector and producer wells increased, pump intake pressure and speed also increased. Performance data from the field trial were then compared with results from high temperature electric submersible pumps (ESPs). It was concluded that the metal PCP is a promising artificial lift technology for SAGD processes. The pump design is now being modified to minimize vibrations and improve run life. 1 ref., 11 figs.

  5. Development Strategies for Achieving High Production with Fewer Wells in Conventional Offshore Heavy Oil Fields in Bohai Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiang; Li Xiangfang; Kang Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    Development strategy for heavy-oil reservoirs is one of the important research interests in China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC) that plans a highly effective development for heavy oil fields in multilayered fluvial reservoirs because of their significant influence on marine oil and even on China's petroleum production. The characteristics analysis of multilayered fluvial reservoirs in the heavy oil fields in Bohai Bay indicates that large amounts of oil were trapped in the channel, point bar and channel bar sands. The reserves distribution of 8 oilfields illustrates that the reserves trapped in the main sands, which is 20%-40% of all of the sand bodies, account for 70%-90% of total reserves of the heavy oil fields. The cumulative production from high productivity wells (50% of the total wells) was 75%-90% of the production of the overall oilfield, while only 3%-10% of the total production was from the low productivity wells (30% of the total wells). And the high productivity wells were drilled in the sands with high reserves abundance. Based on the above information the development strategy was proposed, which includes reserves production planning, selection of well configuration, productivity design, and development modification at different stages.

  6. Playa Del Rey oil field, Los Angeles County, California-- natural gas storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnds, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    The Playa del Rey oil field is on Santa Monica Bay, about 15 miles SW. of Los Angeles. The sedimentary rocks of the field were deposited on the flanks and over the ridge of an erosional surface of Franciscan schist. A NW.-trending anticline resulted from deposition and compaction over the ridge. An apron of schistose clastic material was deposited in the littoral zone at the base of the ridge and in embayments formed by the lateral channels. Conformably overlying the basal conglomerate (productive lower zone) and unconformably overlying the schist is a dark brown, compact shale with abundant small lenticular streaks and nodules of calcium phosphate. The rest of the Miocene rock column is composed of about 500 ft of hard, compact black shale and sandy shale, which is conformably overlain by the typical Los Angeles-basin Pliocene and Pleistocene rocks. The upper oil zone is in the lower Pliocene. The Playa del Rey Field is productive from both the lower zone and from sedimentary rocks of the anticline. There are widely varied porosity and permeability values throughout the Del Rey Hills area. That part chosen for the gas-storage project is where the basal conglomerate overlying the Franciscan schist is overlain by the nodular shale.

  7. Application of new geological modeling technology in secondary development in Daqing oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. L.; Zhang, J. H.; Li, H. K.; Liu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The reconfiguration on underground geology system is one of the key techniques for secondary development in Daqing oil field. The geological modeling is the unique method to characterize new knowledge system of reservoir. The development history of maturing field is long. The structure of maturing field is complex and the distribution of oil remaining is highly scattered. The difficulty of adjustment and potential tapping is great. In viewing of demand for secondary development, the strategies and methods of geological modeling are proposed. According to the characteristics that many faults crosscut each other, the clue of fractional simulation—key horizon controlling—overall structural modeling is carried out to accurately and effectively build fine structural models. In order to approximate the real microfacies simulation effect, microfacies modeling technology of multiple iterations and geology tendency under vertical and lateral geology tendency constraint is used. And the attribute models could approximate the real parametric distribution. Moreover, in viewing of the key and potential reservoir sand, the countermeasure on configuration modeling by different stochastic simulation methods and step simulation is proposed to rapidly build geologic models. The geologic models are scientific and feasible. The above-mentioned countermeasures and methods have been used in secondary development of Daqing oilfield and the effect was well. This new technology presents directive sense.

  8. Enhanced biodegradation of transformer oil in soils with cyclodextrin--from the laboratory to the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Mónika; Leitgib, Laura; Gruiz, Katalin; Fenyvesi, Eva; Szaniszló, Nikoletta; Szejtli, József; Fava, Fabio

    2005-03-01

    The use cyclodextrins for the intensification of bioremediation by improving the mobility and bioavailability of contaminants has recently been studied. In this work, the role of randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with transformer oil was studied both in bench scale bioreactors and through field experiments. The aims of this research were to (a) establish the scientific background of a cyclodextrin-based soil bioremediation technology, (b) demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness in the field, and (c) develop an integrated methodology, consisting of a combination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological analytical methods, for efficiently monitoring the technology performances. The stepwise increasing scale of the experiments and the application of the integrated analytical methodology supported the development of a scientifically established new technology and the identification of the advantages and the limitations of its application in the field. At each phase of the study, randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin was found to significantly enhance the bioremediation and detoxification of the transformer oil-contaminated soils employed by increasing the bioavailability of the pollutants and the activity of indigenous microorganisms.

  9. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-11-19

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change.

  10. Long range correlations generated by phase separation. Exact results from field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, Gesualdo [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN - sezione di Trieste (Italy); Squarcini, Alessio [Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme,Heisenbergstr. 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); IV. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart,Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-11-21

    We consider near-critical planar systems with boundary conditions inducing phase separation. While order parameter correlations decay exponentially in pure phases, we show by direct field theoretical derivation how phase separation generates long range correlations in the direction parallel to the interface, and determine their exact analytic form. The latter leads to specific contributions to the structure factor of the interface.

  11. The boomerang area: An example of oil and gas fields related to a transfer zone development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. (Institut Francais de petrole, Ruiel-Malmaison (France)); Baby, P. (ORSTOM, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Oller, J.; Montemuro, G. (YPFB, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Guillier, B. (IFEA, Santa Cruz (Bolivia))

    1993-02-01

    We present results of a study realized from petroleum data of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos of the most important transfer zone of the Bolivian Andean belt: the Santa Cruz transfer zone. Frontal part of the Bolivian Andean belt consists of a thick series (6 to 8 km) of paleozoic to cenozoic sedimentary rocks thrusted eastwards on a sole thrust located in paleozoic series. The frontal part of the belt, globally N-S oriented, undergoes an important deviation East of Santa Cruz with a left lateral offset of 100 Km. Taking into account the E-W shortening direction, this transfer zone can be interpreted as a lateral ramp. The Santa Cruz transfer zone coincide with a set of small oil and gas fields whereas frontal structures lack hydrocarbon occurrences. We are then faced with a two-fold problem: (1) what is the origin of the transfer zone (2) why are the oil and gas concentrated in the transfer zone Our synthesis shows that the transfer zone is superimposed on the limit of a detached Paleozoic basin whose border direction is oblique to the regional shortening direction. We then interpret the oil and gas formation in two steps: (1) source rock maturation and hydrocarbon migration towards the top of the Paleozoic sedimentary wedge before Andean deformation. (2) hydrocarbon dismigration towards anticlinal structures developed during the lateral ramp propagation. In order to test our interpretation we performed a set of analog model experiments whose 3D visualization was analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography.

  12. Integration of geological, geochemical, and geophysical spatial data of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termain, Patricia A.; Donovan, Terrence J.; Chavez, Pat S.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement pertaining to geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site were collected employing both airborne sensors and ground-based data collection. The measurements include: (1) airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (supplying bismuth 214, thalium 208, and potassium 40 gamma-ray intensities); (2) aeromagnetic survey data; (3) multi-frequency airborne resistivity survey data (supplying apparent electrical resistivity of near surface materials); (4) gravity data; (5) geological and topographic maps; and (6) image data from Landsat MSS and U-2 photography.

  13. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-05-07

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.

  14. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    San, S.; Armstrong, B; Cordoba, J.; Stephens, C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.
METHODS—Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population.
RESULTS—Water analysis showe...

  16. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of silicone oil flow over magnetic fluid under applied magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruoyu Hong; Zhiqiang Ren; Shizhong Zhang; Jianmin Ding; Hongzhong Li

    2007-01-01

    Two-layer flow of magnetic fluid and non-magnetic silicone oil was simulated numerically. The continuity equation, momentum equations,kinematic equation, and magnetic potential equation were solved in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate. PLIC (piecewise linear integration calculation) VOF (volume of fluid) scheme was employed to track the free interface. Surface tension was treated via a continuous surface force(CSF) model that ensures robustness and accuracy. The influences of applied magnetic field, inlet velocity profile, initial surface disturbance of interface and surface tension were analyzed. The computed interface shapes at different conditions were compared with experimental observation.

  17. Aplication of AVO Technique to Gas Exploration in Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changqing; Zhou Faping

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) technique uses prestack seismic data to predict reservoirs and detect hydrocarbon. We used AVO to find gas for the first time in Liaohe Oil Fields. Both real and synthetic data show that the typical AVO characteristics of gas reservoirs in Liaohe Basin appears dominantly as dim spots and occasionally bright spots. But the bright spot reservoirs are only restricted at depths less than 1 000 m These features can function as detection criteria for the application of AVO to gas exploration in Damintun Depression. which have been proved by real data to be right and reliable.

  18. Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery for fields in decline. Export trade information (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 4 of 4, concerns the feasibility of enhancing the oil or condensate recovery from a chosen group of fields (Yapacani, Humberto Suarez Roca, Vibora, La Pena, San Roque, and Camiri).

  19. Dynamical mean field theory-based electronic structure calculations for correlated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Silke

    2014-01-01

    We give an introduction to dynamical mean field approaches to correlated materials. Starting from the concept of electronic correlation, we explain why a theoretical description of correlations in spectroscopic properties needs to go beyond the single-particle picture of band theory.We discuss the main ideas of dynamical mean field theory and its use within realistic electronic structure calculations, illustrated by examples of transition metals, transition metal oxides, and rare-earth compounds. Finally, we summarise recent progress on the calculation of effective Hubbard interactions and the description of dynamical screening effects in solids.

  20. On the non-Gaussian correlation of the primordial curvature perturbation with vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We compute the three-point cross-correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with two powers of a vector field in a model where conformal invariance is broken by a direct coupling of the vector field with the inflaton. If the vector field is identified with the electromagnetic field, this correlation would be a non-Gaussian signature of primordial magnetic fields generated during inflation. We find that the signal is maximized for the flattened configuration where the wave number of the curvature perturbation is twice that of the vector field and in this limit, the magnetic non-linear parameter becomes as large as |b_{NL}| ~ 10^3. In the squeezed limit where the wave number of the curvature perturbation vanishes, our results agree with the magnetic consistency relation derived in arXiv:1207.4187.

  1. On the non-Gaussian correlation of the primordial curvature perturbation with vector fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, 24, Quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: rajeev.jain@unige.ch, E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk [CP3-Origins, Centre for Cosmology and Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2013-02-01

    We compute the three-point cross-correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with two powers of a vector field in a model where conformal invariance is broken by a direct coupling of the vector field with the inflaton. If the vector field is identified with the electromagnetic field, this correlation would be a non-Gaussian signature of primordial magnetic fields generated during inflation. We find that the signal is maximized for the flattened configuration where the wave number of the curvature perturbation is twice that of the vector field and in this limit, the magnetic non-linear parameter becomes as large as |b{sub NL}| ∼ O(10{sup 3}). In the squeezed limit where the wave number of the curvature perturbation vanishes, our results agree with the magnetic consistency relation derived in arXiv:1207.4187.

  2. Measuring cosmic magnetic fields by rotation measure-galaxy cross-correlations in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Stasyszyn, F; Dolag, K; Beck, R; Donnert, J

    2010-01-01

    Using cosmological MHD simulations of the magnetic field in galaxy clusters and filaments we evaluate the possibility to infer the magnetic field strength in filaments by measuring cross-correlation functions between Faraday Rotation Measures (RM) and the galaxy density field. We also test the reliability of recent estimates considering the problem of data quality and Galactic foreground (GF) removal in current datasets. Besides the two self-consistent simulations of cosmological magnetic fields based on primordial seed fields and galactic outflows analyzed here, we also explore a larger range of models scaling up the resulting magnetic fields of one of the simulations. We find that, if an unnormalized estimator for the cross-correlation functions and a GF removal procedure is used, the detectability of the cosmological signal is only possible for future instruments (e.g. SKA and ASKAP). However, mapping of the observed RM signal to the underlying magnetization of the Universe (both in space and time) is an e...

  3. Study of cross correlation coefficients of temperature fluctuations in a longitudinal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, L.G.; Manchkha, S.P.; Sviridov, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the effect that a longitudinal magnetic field has on correlation coefficients of temperature fluctuations in a transverse direction. This effect on those fluctuations was shown to be small in comparison to its effect on the coefficients of longitudinal correlation. This indicates that the structure of the temperature field becomes more anisotropic so that there is an increase in the scale of turbulent disturbances in the direction of the magnetic field's force lines. 1 figure, 2 references.

  4. Organic geochemical study of the ''W'' oil-gas field in the Yugoslav part of the Pannonian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, M.M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Chemistry Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Jovancicevic, B.S.; Glumicic, T. (Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Saracevic, S. (Nafta-gas, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    The naphthenic crude oil from the ''W'' oil-gas field differs from almost all other, paraffinic base oils discovered until now in the Yugoslav part of the Pannonian basin. In order to explain this difference, some geological and organic geochemical investigations were carried out. On the basis of the bulk and biomarker parameters, determined in oil samples taken from 13 producing wells located at different parts of the field, it is concluded that the crude oil throughout the field has an almost uniform composition. (author)

  5. The spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of the implied market information and characteristics of the correlation coefficient matrix of the international crude oil price returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Lixin [Jiangsu University, Energy Development and Environmental Protection Strategy Research Center, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing Normal University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Ding, Zhenqi; Zhen, Zaili [Jiangsu University, Energy Development and Environmental Protection Strategy Research Center, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Minggang [Nanjing Normal University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-08-15

    The international crude oil market plays a crucial role in economies, and the studies of the correlation, risk and synchronization of the international crude oil market have important implications for the security and stability of the country, avoidance of business risk and people's daily lives. We investigate the information and characteristics of the international crude oil market (1999-2015) based on the random matrix theory (RMT). Firstly, we identify richer information in the largest eigenvalues deviating from RMT predictions for the international crude oil market; the international crude oil market can be roughly divided into ten different periods by the methods of eigenvectors and characteristic combination, and the implied market information of the correlation coefficient matrix is advanced. Secondly, we study the characteristics of the international crude oil market by the methods of system risk entropy, dynamic synchronous ratio, dynamic non-synchronous ratio and dynamic clustering algorithm. The results show that the international crude oil market is full of risk. The synchronization of the international crude oil market is very strong, and WTI and Brent occupy a very important position in the international crude oil market. (orig.)

  6. The field development of the extra heavy oil Orinoco Belt in Morichal : a joint Chinese-Venezuelan effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivodo, E. [Grupo KC, Caracas (Venezuela); Li, G.; Lu, F. [Orifuels Sinoven S.A., Barcelona, Anzoategui (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    Proper planning and a systemic approach along with a continual evaluation are important foundations to the development of an extra heavy oil field. This paper discussed a joint effort between China and Venezuela in the field development of extra heavy oil in the Orinoco Belt in Morichal. Background information on the Morichal Oilfield was first presented. The paper discussed the field development approach for pre-operations, including project execution plan; procedures/documents development and review; procurement and services contracts; commissioning and startup; and operations stabilization. The paper also addressed cultural recognition as a judicious approach as well as considerations and recommendations. It was concluded that extra heavy oil field development during the pre-operation stage is a continuous process from planning to startup and stable operations. In addition, a cultural recognition is recommended as a judicious approach to efficient personnel and community affairs management. 9 refs, 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  8. Linear Correlations between Peak Frequency of Gyrosynchrotron Spectrum and Photosphere Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The gyrosynchrotron spectra are computed in a nonuniform magnetic field case,taking into account the self- and gyroresonance absorption. It is found that the peak frequency vp of the gyrosynchrotron spectrum systematically increases with the increasing photosphere magnetic field strength B0 and increasing viewing angle θ. It is also found for the first time that there are good positive linear correlations between vp and B0, and between log vp and log θ, with linear correlation coefficient 0.99 between vp and B0 and 0.95 between log vp and log θ. We apply the correlations to analyze two burst events observed with OVSA and find that the evolution tendencies of the photosphere magnetic field strength B0 estimated from the above expression are comparable with the observational results of SOHO/MDI. We also give a comparison of the diagnostic results of coronal magnetic field strength in both uniform and nonuniform source models.

  9. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes.

  10. Application of seismic attributes in structural study and fracture analysis of DQ oil field, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahoo Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the most unstable areas in oil fields is critical for addressing engineering problems of wellbore and sand production as well as geologic problems such as understanding dynamic constraints on hydrocarbon migration and fracture permeability. In this research work, coherency seismic attribute has been used for the determination of the most critical areas in terms of drilling stabilities in the DQ oil field, Iran. The results obtained have shown that the (1 predominant features are the SSE–NNW and N–S trends (2 the central part of the DQ structure shows the highest concentration of segment bundles, (3 the segment bundles seem to be aligned along some lineaments oriented SE–NW and SSE–NNW, and (4 on the eastern and western margins of the map there is an anomalous concentration of segments oriented E–W. It can be concluded that coherency attribute is a valuable tool for structural analysis highlighting those areas containing unstable features.

  11. A Case Control Study of Lung Cancer Among Workers in Dagang Oil Field, Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaguang FAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective To investigate the risk factors of lung cancer among the employees who had worked in Dagang oil field, Tianjin, China. Methods A matched case control study was conducted to analyse the association between some exposures and lung cancer risk by univariate and multiple Logistic regression method. ResultsAccording to the results from univariate and multiple analysis, smoking and previous lung disease increase lung cancer risk with adjusted OR of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.18-1.94 and 3.37 (95%CI: 1.88-7.16 respectively, while the adjusted OR for occupational chemical toxic substance and dust exposure is 0.73 (95%CI: 0.69-1.30 and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.62-1.15 respectively, and there is no significant association between family history of cancer and lung cancer risk in this study.Conclusion Smoking and previous lung disease are the independent risk factors for lung cancer among workers in Dagang oil field, yet due to some potential epidemiological bias, the association between occupational exposure and lung cancer needs further investigation.

  12. Water-in-oil emulsification in a non-uniform alternating electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhwan; Saveliev, Alexei

    2015-11-01

    The emulsification of a water microdroplet placed in castor oil was performed using a non-uniform alternating electric field formed in the pin-to-plate geometry. A non-uniform electric field of ~40 kV/mm alternating with a frequency of 6.7 kHz was generated near the pin electrode. The applied frequency exceeded charge relaxation frequency of castor oil (0.3 Hz) and was below charge relaxation frequency of deionized water (7.8 kHz) used in the experiments. The emulsification process was captured with a CCD camera. The emulsification process started with entrainment of the water droplet in the high electric filed region near the pin electrode under the dielectrophoretic force. Upon touching the pin, the microdroplet was disintegrated in numerous channels and secondary droplets. The process continued by entrainment of secondary droplets and continuous size reduction. Three droplet breakup mechanisms were identified: drop elongation and capillary breakup, ac electrospraying of individual droplets, chain and bridge formation and decay. The quasi-steady narrow size distribution of emulsified water droplets with diameters close to 1 μm was formed after a few minutes. The generated emulsion was confined near the needle electrode due to the dielectrophoretic force. The emulsion had a well-defined boundary with a shape resembling a pendant drop suspended on the pin electrode.

  13. Degradation and remediation of soils polluted with oil-field wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleymanov, R. R.; Garipov, T. T.

    2013-02-01

    The changes in the properties of gray forest soils and leached chernozems under the impact of contamination with highly saline oil-field wastewater were studied in a model experiment. It was shown that the soil contamination results in the development of technogenic salinization and alkalization leading to worsening of the major soil properties. The salinization of the soils with oil-field wastewater transformed the soil exchange complex: the cation exchange capacity decreased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage increased to up to 25% of the CEC upon the wastewater infiltration and up to 60% of the CEC upon the continuous soil saturation with the wastewater independently of the soil type. The content of exchangeable magnesium also increased due to the phenomenon of super-equivalent exchange. Despite the saturation of the soil adsorption complex with sodium, no development of the soil alkalization took place in the presence of the high concentration of soluble salts. However, the soil alkalization was observed upon the soil washing from soluble salts. The gypsum application to the washed soils lowered the exchangeable sodium concentration to acceptable values and normalized the soil reaction. The gypsum application without the preliminary washing of the soils from soluble salts was of low efficiency; even after six months, the content of exchangeable sodium remained very high. The subsequent soil washing resulted in the removal of the soluble salts but did not affect the degree of the soil alkalization.

  14. CONVENTIONAL OIL LOGGING FOR INTERPRETATION OF OIL FIELD IN YAN' AN REGION%浅谈石油测井常规方法在延安地区井场解释中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦长春; 韩要记; 宋晓蛟

    2012-01-01

    延安地区蕴藏着丰富的油藏,用石油测井常规方法对储集层含油性的判断,可以对油井进行有效的井场解释。%Yan' an region is abundant in oll reservoir. Conventional oil logging can be used for oil bearing evaluation of oil reservoirs and effective interpretation of oil well fields in this area.

  15. Modeling winter ozone episodes near oil and natural gas fields in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuling; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Field, Robert A.; Soltis, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Wintertime ozone episodes have been reported in the oil and natural gas (O&NG) producing fields in Uintah Basin, Utah and the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming in recent years. High concentrations of ozone precursors facilitated by favorable meteorological conditions, including low wind and shallow boundary layer (BL), were found in these episodes, although the exact roles of these precursor species in different O&NG fields are to be determined. Meanwhile, snow cover is also found to play an important role in these winter ozone episodes as the cold snow covered surface enhances the inversion, further limits the BL and the high snow albedo greatly boosts photolysis reactions that are closely related to ozone chemistry. In this study, we utilize model simulation to explore the role of chemical compositions, in terms of different VOC groups and NOx, and that of the enhanced photolysis due to snow cover in the UGRB ozone episodes in the late winter of 2011.

  16. The economics of incremental investments in mature oil fields in the U. K. continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.G.; Reading, D.

    1991-09-01

    North Sea oil production commenced in the mid 1970s. Many fields have now passed their plateau years of production and are now in their mature phase. From a national viewpoint it is important to ensure that maximum economic benefit is obtained from these fields. This requires sound housekeeping, refurbishment and investment in incremental projects. The economic aspects of such projects are examined in this paper. The purpose is two-fold. Firstly, the study investigates, from an economic viewpoint, the characteristics of such projects in the conditions typically currently to be found in the North Sea. Secondly, the study elucidates the impact of the complex fiscal system in the projects. The issue of possible modification to the tax system is also discussed. (author).

  17. Effect of injecting cold water on oil-output of the beds of the Uzen' field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Yu.P.; Kil' dibekova, L.I.; Rozenberg, M.D.; Safronov, S.V.; Teslyuk, Ye.V.

    1979-01-01

    At the Uzen' field, 254 million m/sup 3/ of cold water were injected into the oil area with average temperature 15-16/sup 0/C. This resulted in cooling of the rock-collectors on the order of 538.4 million m/sup 3/ and decrease in oil output by 9.4% as compared to injection of only hot water.

  18. Oil-material fractionation in Gulf deep water horizontal intrusion layer: Field data analysis with chemodynamic fate model for Macondo 252 oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A T; Thibodeaux, L J; Parsons, A R; Overton, E; Valsaraj, K T; Nandakumar, K

    2016-04-15

    Among the discoveries of the Deepwater Horizon blowout was the so-called "sub-surface plume"; herein termed the "oil-trapping layer". Hydrocarbons were found positioned at ~1100-1300m with thickness ~100-150m and moving horizontally to the SW in a vertically stratified layer at the junction of the cold abyssal water and the permanent thermocline. This study focuses on its formation process and fate of the hydrocarbons within. The originality of this work to the field is two-fold, first it provides a conceptual framework which places layer origin in the context of a horizontal "intrusion" from the near-field, vertical, blow-out plume and second, it offers a theoretical model for the hydrocarbon chemicals within the horizontal layer as it moves far-afield. The model quantifies the oil-material fractionation process for the soluble and fine particle. The classical Box model, retrofitted with an internal gradient, the "G-Box", allows an approach that includes turbulent eddy diffusion coupled with droplet rise velocity and reactive decay to produce a simple, explicit, transparent, algebraic model with few parameters for the fate of the individual fractions. Computations show the soluble and smallest liquid droplets moving very slowly vertically through the layer appearing within the trapping layer at low concentration with high persistence. The larger droplets move-through this trapping zone quickly, attain high concentrations, and eventually form the sea surface slick. It impacts the field of oil spill engineering science by providing the conceptual idea and the algorithms for projecting the quantities and fractions of oil-material in a deep water, horizontal marine current being dispersed and moving far afield. In the field of oil spill modeling this work extends the current generation near-field plume source models to the far-field. The theory portrays the layer as an efficient oil-material trap. The model-forecasted concentration profiles for alkanes and aromatics

  19. Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bacopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-up trends. Archives of the electronic data, including GPS locations and other informational tags, and collected samples are presented, as are the physical and chemical analyses of the collected samples. The thrust of the physical and chemical analyses is to differentiate the collected samples into highly suspect oil tar balls versus false/non-oil tar ball samples. The numerical modeling involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of astronomic tides. Results from the numerical modeling include velocity residuals that show ebb-dominated residual currents exiting the inlet via an offshore, counter-rotating dual-eddy system. The tidally derived residual currents are used as one explanation for the observed transport trends. The study concludes that the port activity in the St. Johns River is not majorly contributing to the baseline conditions of oil tar ball wash-up on Florida’s First Coast beaches.

  20. Measuring Collisionless Damping in Heliospheric Plasmas using Field-Particle Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Kristopher G

    2016-01-01

    An innovative field-particle correlation technique is proposed that uses single-point measurements of the electromagnetic fields and particle velocity distribution functions to investigate the net transfer of energy from fields to particles associated with the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in weakly collisional plasmas, such as the solar wind. In addition to providing a direct estimate of the local rate of energy transfer between fields and particles, it provides vital new information about the distribution of that energy transfer in velocity space. This velocity-space signature can potentially be used to identify the dominant collisionless mechanism responsible for the damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind. The application of this novel field-particle correlation technique is illustrated using the simplified case of the Landau damping of Langmuir waves in an electrostatic 1D-1V Vlasov-Poisson plasma, showing that the procedure both estimates the local rate of energy transfer f...

  1. Correlated electric field and low-energy electron measurements in the low-altitude polar cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, P. M.; Ackerson, K. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Frank, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    Correlated electric field and low-energy electron measurements are presented for two passes of Hawkeye 1 through the south polar cusp at 2000-km altitude during local morning. In one case the electric field reversal coincides with the boundary of detectable 5.2keV electron intensities and the equatorward boundary of the cusp. In the other case the electric field reversal and the 5.2 keV electron trapping boundary coincide, but the equatorward edge of the cusp as determined from the presence of 180 eV electron intensities is 5 degrees invariant latitude equatorward of the electric field reversal. It is concluded that in the second case, electron intensities associated with the polar cusp populate closed dayside field lines, and hence the corresponding equatorward edge of these electron intensities is not always an indicator of the boundary between closed dayside field lines and polar cap field lines.

  2. Field ionization of free helium atoms: Correlation between the kinetic energy of ionized atoms and probability of their field ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskur, J.; Borg, L. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Stupnik, A.; Leisch, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Ernst, W.E. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Holst, B. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: bodil@cantab.net

    2008-05-15

    In this paper the correlation between the kinetic energy of helium atoms and the probability of field ionization is investigated by exploiting the narrow velocity distribution of supersonic molecular beams. Field ionization measurements were carried out on supersonic helium beams at 298 K and 95 K corresponding to energies of about 65 meV and 20 meV, respectively, for the individual atoms. The field ionization was performed with a tungsten tip, radius of curvature 12 nm, kept at room temperature. The ionization probability was found to increase by about a factor 10 when the beam was cooled from 298 K to 95 K. The results presented in this paper are of importance for improving the understanding of field ionization and for the development of a new detector for helium and other molecular beams.

  3. Field ionization of free helium atoms: Correlation between the kinetic energy of ionized atoms and probability of their field ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskur, J.; Borg, L.; Stupnik, A.; Leisch, M.; Ernst, W. E.; Holst, B.

    2008-05-01

    In this paper the correlation between the kinetic energy of helium atoms and the probability of field ionization is investigated by exploiting the narrow velocity distribution of supersonic molecular beams. Field ionization measurements were carried out on supersonic helium beams at 298 K and 95 K corresponding to energies of about 65 meV and 20 meV, respectively, for the individual atoms. The field ionization was performed with a tungsten tip, radius of curvature 12 nm, kept at room temperature. The ionization probability was found to increase by about a factor 10 when the beam was cooled from 298 K to 95 K. The results presented in this paper are of importance for improving the understanding of field ionization and for the development of a new detector for helium and other molecular beams.

  4. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  5. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  6. Some insights in the structure of correlation functions in Liouville and Toda field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Parikshit

    2014-01-01

    We discuss some aspects of Liouville field theory, starting from operator equation of motion in presence of two screening charges and re-derive the dual zero mode Schwinger Dyson equations for the two screening charges from the path integral. Using functional methods we show the familiar pole structure of Liouville correlation function using the partition function. Next we discuss a generalized structure of the correlation functions obtained from the zero mode functional equations. From this structure we infer the use of the Barnes double Gamma functions to construct a part of the denominator of the correlators and also use Weyl symmetry of the theory to deduce more information about the rest. We similarly extend these arguments in the case of Toda field theories where we make a general statement about the denominator of the three point function and Sine-Liouvile field theory where we only obtain an infinite product structure.

  7. Influence of lattice vibrations on the field driven electronic transport in chains with correlated disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L. D.; Sales, M. O.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; Lyra, M. L.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate electronic transport in a one-dimensional model with four different types of atoms and long-ranged correlated disorder. The latter was attained by choosing an adequate distribution of on-site energies. The wave-packet dynamics is followed by taking into account effects due to a static electric field and electron-phonon coupling. In the absence of electron-phonon coupling, the competition between correlated disorder and the static electric field promotes the occurrence of wave-packet oscillations in the regime of strong correlations. When the electron-lattice coupling is switched on, phonon scattering degrades the Bloch oscillations. For weak electron-phonon couplings, a coherent oscillatory-like dynamics of the wave-packet centroid persists for short periods of time. For strong couplings the wave-packet acquires a diffusive-like displacement and spreading. A slower sub-diffusive spreading takes place in the regime of weak correlations.

  8. Correlation functions of the one-dimensional random field Ising model at zero temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, E; Farhi, Edward; Gutmann, Sam

    1993-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional random field Ising model, where the spin-spin coupling, $J$, is ferromagnetic and the external field is chosen to be $+h$ with probability $p$ and $-h$ with probability $1-p$. At zero temperature, we calculate an exact expression for the correlation length of the quenched average of the correlation function $\\langle s_0 s_n \\rangle - \\langle s_0 \\rangle \\langle s_n \\rangle$ in the case that $2J/h$ is not an integer. The result is a discontinuous function of $2J/h$. When $p = {1 \\over 2}$, we also place a bound on the correlation length of the quenched average of the correlation function $\\langle s_0 s_n \\rangle$.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery - nitrogen. Large fractures, water drive make Andector field a prime target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wash, R.

    1982-03-01

    An immiscible nitrogen displacement project is expected to recover 973,928 bbl of tertiary oil from the Andector (Ellenburger) field in NW Ector County, Texas. Operated by Phillips Petroleum Co., the project began November 30, 1981, on the 1293-acre Embar lease in the south fault block of the Andector field, the highest of all Ellenburger fields in W. Texas in terms of cumulative production. (Total production as of January 1, 1981 was 151.2 million bbl). The nitrogen technique was chosen by Phillips due to the type of rock and the active water drive in this area. The aquifer is shared by several other Ellenburger fields in a 3-county area. The formation of interest is a highly fractured, vulgar, medium-to-fine-grained crystalline dolomite, fairly typical for the Ellenburger in W. Texas. It occurs between 7782 ft and 8835 ft. Overall porosity is 3.8%. Permeability is in the 2000-md range. At least 40% of the porosity is in solution cavities or vugs. The way in which nitrogen is used in the Ellenburger is discussed, along with the advantages and disadvantages of its use.

  10. Research and field trials with a blend of ethanol in diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission K-E E Consultant, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this report is to summarize the experiences acquired and data generated during the project named `The mixed fuel project` which was carried out during the years 1993 to 1997. The project was initiated after that some information had been collected in Australia, where a similar project was underway. The Australian project showed some interesting data and within that project an emulsifier had been developed - an emulsifier which has also been used in the Swedish project. In order to avoid a costly development of a method for blending ethanol in diesel oil, a form of co-operation was established between the people involved in Australia and those involved in Sweden. The content of ethanol in diesel oil used in Australia was 15 % and the investigations in Sweden reported further down in this report the ratio 15 % ethanol in MK 1 (an environmentally classified diesel fuel in Sweden) was the best alternative to be used also in Sweden. Twelve reports have been studied and used as references in order to summarize the results and experiences from the project. In order to fulfil the obligations of the project many institutions, private and community companies, consultants and universities in Sweden were involved. In the report presents the main results from the different investigations and field trials with ethanol-diesel fueled vehicles. It can be said that there are no technical problems connected to the use of ethanol-diesel fuel but the most serious drawback is the cost of the fuel. There is also a need for further development of the technology of making a homogenous emulsion of ethanol in diesel oil at a reasonable cost. The main advantage of using the mixed fuel is that the emission of particles is considerably reduced. The emission of CO{sub 2} is also reduced when the ethanol is produced from biomass using an environmentally friendly method 17 refs, 22 figs, 22 tabs

  11. Extracting flat-field images from scene-based image sequences using phase correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, James N.; Montes, Marcos J.; Obermark, Jerome L.

    2016-06-01

    Flat-field image processing is an essential step in producing high-quality and radiometrically calibrated images. Flat-fielding corrects for variations in the gain of focal plane array electronics and unequal illumination from the system optics. Typically, a flat-field image is captured by imaging a radiometrically uniform surface. The flat-field image is normalized and removed from the images. There are circumstances, such as with remote sensing, where a flat-field image cannot be acquired in this manner. For these cases, we developed a phase-correlation method that allows the extraction of an effective flat-field image from a sequence of scene-based displaced images. The method uses sub-pixel phase correlation image registration to align the sequence to estimate the static scene. The scene is removed from sequence producing a sequence of misaligned flat-field images. An average flat-field image is derived from the realigned flat-field sequence.

  12. Correlation between dielectric property by dielectrophoretic levitation and growth activity of cells exposed to electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Masaru; Hirota, Yusuke

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a system analyzing cell activity by the dielectrophoresis method. Our previous studies revealed a correlation between the growth activity and dielectric property (Re[K(ω)]) of mouse hybridoma 3-2H3 cells using dielectrophoretic levitation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the differentiation activity of many stem cells could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)] without differentiation induction. In this paper, 3-2H3 cells exposed to an alternating current (AC) electric field or a direct current (DC) electric field were cultivated, and the influence of damage by the electric field on the growth activity of the cells was examined. To evaluate the activity of the cells by measuring the Re[K(ω)], the correlation between the growth activity and the Re[K(ω)] of the cells exposed to the electric field was examined. The relations between the cell viability, growth activity, and Re[K(ω)] in the cells exposed to the AC electric field were obtained. The growth activity of the cells exposed to the AC electric field could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)]. Furthermore, it was found that the adverse effects of the electric field on the cell viability and the growth activity were smaller in the AC electric field than the DC electric field.

  13. Oil palm water use: calibration of a sap flux method and a field measurement scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Furong; Röll, Alexander; Hardanto, Afik; Meijide, Ana; Köhler, Michael; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) water use was assessed by sap flux density measurements with the aim to establish the method and derive water-use characteristics. Thermal dissipation probes were inserted into leaf petioles of mature oil palms. In the laboratory, we tested our set-up against gravimetric measurements and derived new parameters for the original calibration equation that are specific to oil palm petioles. In the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia, in a 12-year-old monoculture plantation, 56 leaves on 10 palms were equipped with one sensor per leaf. A 10-fold variation in individual leaf water use among leaves was observed, but we did not find significant correlations to the variables trunk height and diameter, leaf azimuthal orientation, leaf inclination or estimated horizontal leaf shading. We thus took an un-stratified approach to determine an appropriate sampling design to estimate stand transpiration (Es, mm day(-1)) rates of oil palm. We used the relative standard error of the mean (SEn, %) as a measure for the potential estimation error of Es associated with sample size. It was 14% for a sample size of 13 leaves to determine the average leaf water use and four palms to determine the average number of leaves per palm. Increasing these sample sizes only led to minor further decreases of the SEn of Es. The observed 90-day average of Es was 1.1 mm day(-1) (error margin ± 0.2 mm day(-1)), which seems relatively low, but does not contradict Penman-Monteith-derived estimates of evapotranspiration. Examining the environmental drivers of Es on an intra-daily scale indicates an early, pre-noon maximum of Es rates (11 am) due to a very sensitive reaction of Es to increasing vapor pressure deficit in the morning. This early peak is followed by a steady decline of Es rates for the rest of the day, despite further rising levels of vapor pressure deficit and radiation; this results in pronounced hysteresis, particularly between Es and vapor pressure deficit.

  14. Comparison between micro-emulsion and surfactant solution flooding efficiency for enhanced oil recovery in TinFouye Oil Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouabboune, M.; Benhadid, S. [Applied and Theoretical Fluid Mechanical Laboratory, Algiers (Algeria). Faculty of Physics; Hammouch, N. [Sonatrach, Hydra, Algiers (Algeria). Forage Division

    2006-07-01

    The TinFouye (TFY) reservoir is among the largest oil reservoirs discovered in Algeria. The reservoir has been extensively gas lifted for many years, but gas lift is now reaching its economic limits. Therefore, a tertiary enhancement method is needed. This report investigated the technical feasibility of applying a microemulsion flood to TFY reservoir. The purpose of the study was to optimize the concentration of surfactant, in order to obtain a lower interfacial tension between oil and microemulsion phases, and a high viscosity of the microemulsion compared to that of the oil phase. Another objective was to test the effectiveness of the obtained optimum chemical system for the displacement of residual oil saturation after waterflooding (secondary recovery). TinFouye reservoir conditions and samples were used in this study. Geomechanical equipment was used for the displacement experiments in porous media. Two optimum microemulsion compositions were determined through phase behavior studies: 4 wt per cent anionic surfactant, 2.5 wt per cent pentanol, total salinity of 0.5 g/l. Two surfactant solutions were prepared with the same anionic and alcohol concentration as those of the optimized microemulsions. This made it possible to compare the efficiency of displacing residual oil saturation. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Three-field noise correlation via third-order nonlinear optical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaibin; Khadka, Utsab; Song, Jianping; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2011-07-01

    We report experimental observation of three-field noise correlation between two coexisting four-wave mixing (FWM) signals and the probe signal in a coherently-prepared rubidium vapor system. The two FWM signals in a double-Λ type quasi-four-level atomic system are obtained in different directions via their respective phase-matching conditions and can be detected individually. These signals and the probe beam are found to be strongly correlated or anticorrelated with each other.

  16. New device for corrosion monitoring and flow effect evaluation in oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigual, Yobiris; Hernandez, Samuel; Biomorgi, Jose [PDVSA-INTEVEP. Departamento de Tecnologia de Infraestructura, Apartado 76343, Caracas 1070A (Venezuela)

    2004-07-01

    The monitoring and control of corrosion represent high interest in oil industry to keep the physical installations and prevent future corrosion-related failures. Efficiency and efficacy of the action assigned to reduce these problems are supported by an exhaustive evaluation of corrosion processes. In the Venezuelan oil industry, different techniques of corrosion monitoring have been used as for example weight loss coupons, electrochemical techniques, etc, with the purpose of estimate the useful lifetime of numerous components used in the industry. At the same time, laboratory techniques have been used at static or dynamic conditions, to evaluate the corrosiveness of the different fluids. Because of these techniques have shown certain limitations for field studies, where the flow patterns play an important role; it is necessary to develop new methodologies that allow to take into the account of the fluid dynamics. influence The objective of this work is to show a device, which permit to evaluate the internal corrosion under field operational conditions. This monitoring device consists in a spool placed between pipelines. The inner diameter of the spool is larger compare with the inner diameter of the line. Several teflon rings can be used to allowed the use of different kinds of corrosion specimens and keep the inner diameter of the pipe connected before and after the spool. The specimens (weight loss coupons that permit to carry out further pitting studies) are placed inside the teflon rings in order to evaluate the corrosion process and flow dynamics effect on the material of interest. The utilization of the Online Corrosion Evaluation System (SECLI by the spanish initials) allowed a deep evaluation of the fluid corrosiveness and the corrosion mechanism characterization. In fact, a comparison between two different inner diameter device (4 inches and 6 inches) permits to establish a flow effect on some Venezuelan crude oil corrosiveness, which form a pitting

  17. Multifractality, efficiency analysis of Chinese stock market and its cross-correlation with WTI crude oil price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoyang; Wei, Yu; Ma, Feng

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the multifractality and efficiency degrees of ten important Chinese sectoral indices are evaluated using the methods of MF-DFA and generalized Hurst exponents. The study also scrutinizes the dynamics of the efficiency of Chinese sectoral stock market by the rolling window approach. The overall empirical findings revealed that all the sectoral indices of Chinese stock market exist different degrees of multifractality. The results of different efficiency measures have agreed on that the 300 Materials index is the least efficient index. However, they have a slight diffidence on the most efficient one. The 300 Information Technology, 300 Telecommunication Services and 300 Health Care indices are comparatively efficient. We also investigate the cross-correlations between the ten sectoral indices and WTI crude oil price based on Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis. At last, some relevant discussions and implications of the empirical results are presented.

  18. Experimental and computational studies of water drops falling through model oil with surfactant and subjected to an electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Ervik, Åsmund; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of a single sub-millimetre-size water drop falling through a viscous oil while subjected to an electric field is of fundamental importance to industrial applications such as crude oil electrocoalescers. Detailed studies, both experimental and computational, have been performed previously, but an often challenging issue has been the characterization of the fluids. As numerous authors have noted, it is very difficult to have a perfectly clean water-oil system even for very pure model oils, and the presence of trace chemicals may significantly alter the interface behaviour. In this work, we consider a well- characterized water-oil system where controlled amounts of a surface active agent (Span 80) have been added to the oil. This addition dominates any trace contaminants in the oil, such that the interface behaviour can also be well-characterized. We present the results of experiments and corresponding two-phase- flow simulations of a falling water drop covered in surfactant and subjected to a mono...

  19. Effect of nitrogen form for the amendment of crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, H.; Hiwatari, T.; Kohata, K.; Watanabe, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Miyazaki, H.; Yamasaki, F.; Tanimoto, T. [Hyogo Perfectural Inst. of Environmental Science, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Some small-scale field experiments have been conducted regarding the bioremediation of oil at a rocky beach in the Sea of Japan. During the 4 month experiment, artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand were wrapped in teflon net envelopes which were placed in perforated vessels to facilitate exchange with seawater in the intertidal area. Two inorganic and two organic slow release nitrogen fertilizers were added to the oil and sand mixtures which were then periodically sampled and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual petroleum compounds degraded at a quicker rate when fertilizer was added. In addition, fertilizer helped to remove the oil from the sand. After 4 months, the oil content in the sands fertilized with ammonium sulfate, urea and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) was one third that of the control sand. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers did not work as well at removing the oil from the sand. It was concluded that organic nitrogen fertilizers such as urea and IBDU have significant potential to stimulate microbial degradation and physical removal of oil rather than organic nitrogen fertilizers. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Imaging in scattering media via the second-order correlation of light field

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Wenlin; Shen, Xia; Han, Shensheng

    2009-01-01

    Imaging with the second-order correlation of two light fields is a method to image an object by two-photon interference involving a joint detection of two photons at distant space-time points. We demonstrate for the first time that an image with high quality can still be obtained in the scattering media by applying the second-order correlation of illuminating light field. The scattering effect on the visibility of images is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. Potential applications and the methods to further improve the visibility of the images in scattering media are also discussed.

  1. Iran: review of petroleum developments and assessments of the oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shammas, P. [APS Energy Group, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2001-07-01

    In this review the author comments on the likelihood of a significant improvement in the relationship between Iran and the US, with vital implications for the Middle East, during US President George Bush's term of office. From an American perspective, normalising relations with Iran will provide critical geopolitical advantages related to its energy security from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea as well as increased strategic options in dealing with Iraq and with an unstable Afghanistan. From the Iranian perspective, a breakthrough in relations with Washington will mean increased strategic leverage as a major transit route for oil and gas exports from Central Asia and an enhanced status in the region. Tehran will also be in a better position to balance its relations with the US, Russia and China to its own benefit. There are obstacles in the way, including deep mistrust among conservation factions in Tehran and Washington, but the road to normalisation has been paved gradually since President Mohammed Khatami took office in August 1997. The author also comments on the Iranian energy base; their geology and petroleum, oil and gas fields; refining sector; and their gas processing and export projects. (author)

  2. Environmental safety of underground injection of oil field brines in Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    Louisiana contains almost 4000 brine injection wells that dispose an estimated 1 billion bbl of brine each year, making underground injection that state's most widely practiced method of oil field brine disposal. Louisiana has had no known contamination of a public water supply from underground brine injection; however, the magnitude of this activity presents a potential for contamination if proper disposal practices are not followed. Following the earliest discovery of oil, the petroleum industry has been improving methods to protect ground-water aquifers from underground injection. Although economic incentives spurred the earliest use of underground injection, the technology has progressed to become a method providing environmental safety to ground-water aquifers. Complex reservoir modeling, developed for use in secondary and enhanced recovery techniques, has been applied to simulate pressure effects and vertical migration potential for underground injection reservoirs. Conventional well designs that allow monitoring of well conditions have replaced older, unreliable designs. Improvements in wireline logging make it possible to test the isolation of injected brines from vertical movement along the well bore.

  3. Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastián, M; Armstrong, B; Córdoba, J A; Stephens, C

    2001-08-01

    To examine environmental exposure and incidence and mortality of cancer in the village of San Carlos surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Water samples of the local streams were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). A preliminary list of potential cancer cases from 1989 to 1998 was prepared. Cases were compared with expected numbers of cancer morbidity and mortality registrations from a Quito reference population. Water analysis showed severe exposure to TPHs by the residents. Ten patients with cancer were diagnosed while resident in the village of San Carlos. An overall excess for all types of cancer was found in the male population (8 observed v 3.5 expected) with a risk 2.26 times higher than expected (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.97 to 4.46). There was an overall excess of deaths for all types of cancer (6 v 1.6 expected) among the male population 3.6 times higher than the reference population (95% CI 1.31 to 7.81). The observed excess of cancer might be associated with the pollution of the environment by toxic contaminants coming from the oil production.

  4. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenessary, Dinara; Kenessary, Almas; Kenessariyev, Ussen Ismailovich; Juszkiewicz, Konrad; Amrin, Meiram Kazievich; Erzhanova, Aya Eralovna

    2017-06-08

    Introduction and objective. The Karachaganak oil and gas condensate field (KOGCF), one of the largest in the world, located in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RoK) in Central Asia, is surrounded by 10 settlements with a total population of 9,000 people. Approximately73% of this population constantly mention a specific odour of rotten eggs in the air, typical for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, and the occurrence of low-level concentrations of hydrogen sulfide around certain industrial installations (esp. oil refineries) is a well known fact. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the impact on human health and the economic damage to the country due to H2S emissions. Materials and method. Dose-response dependency between H2S concentrations in the air and cardiovascular morbidity using multiple regression analysis was applied. Economic damage from morbidity was derived with a newly-developed method, with Kazakhstani peculiarities taken into account. Results.Hydrogen sulfide air pollution due to the KOGCF activity costs the state almost $60,000 per year. Moreover, this is the reason for a more than 40% rise incardiovascular morbidity in the region. Conclusion. The reduction of hydrogen sulfide emissions into the air is recommended, as well as successive constant ambient air monitoring in future. Economic damage evaluation should be made mandatory, on a legal basis, whenever an industrial facility operation results in associated air pollution.

  5. Laboratory development and field application of novel cement system for cementing high-temperature oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, X.; Zhang, H.; Li, Y.; Yang, Y. [SINOPEC, Beijing (China); Shan, H.; Xiao, Z. [OPT, Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    The challenges that oil and gas well engineers face when cementing mid-to-high temperature exploration oil and gas wells were discussed. A newly developed cement system with an effective laminar-flow spacer was presented along with case histories that document the system's effectiveness for cementing high temperature exploration wells. The problems associated with cementing high temperature exploration wells include high bottom hole static temperature; very low pump rates; and very long job times. These challenges contribute to the operational risks during cement slurry placement in the wellbore as well as during cement sheath setting during the life of the well. The new cement formulation presented in this paper addresses these challenges. Eight jobs have been completed in the field with much success. The combination of a new retarder and fluid loss control additive improves the system performance considerably in terms of low fluid loss rate, minimal free water, proper rheology, predictable thickening time, high resistance to salt contaminations and no adverse effect on set cement strength. The drilling muds are effectively displaced by the laminar flow spacer, thus improving the cementing bond. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. The experience of arranging a back-up oil well group using the seventh bed at the Zhetybai field as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, V.D.; Ermekov, A.K.; Leibin, E.L.; Savvin, K.F.; Vaslavskii, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A method is proposed for arranging a back-up series of oil wells using the oil pool of the eighth bed located at the Zhetybai field, which has an underlying layer of water, as an example. Using a record of tapped and remaining oil reserves together with maps of existing isopachs, which were drafted accounting for the rising velocities of the water-oil contact at various sections in the bed, the placement of oil wells at one section or another of the bed is calculated. The number of oil wells is substantiated using a record of the remaining oil reserves together with a proposed oil yield standard for a single oil well.

  7. A study of correlations between crude oil spot and futures markets: A rolling sample test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wan, Jieqiu

    2011-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the asymmetries of exceedance correlations and cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot and futures markets. First, employing the test statistic proposed by Hong et al. [Asymmetries in stock returns: statistical tests and economic evaluation, Review of Financial Studies 20 (2007) 1547-1581], we find that the exceedance correlations were overall symmetric. However, the results from rolling windows show that some occasional events could induce the significant asymmetries of the exceedance correlations. Second, employing the test statistic proposed by Podobnik et al. [Quantifying cross-correlations using local and global detrending approaches, European Physics Journal B 71 (2009) 243-250], we find that the cross-correlations were significant even for large lagged orders. Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis proposed by Podobnik and Stanley [Detrended cross-correlation analysis: a new method for analyzing two nonstationary time series, Physics Review Letters 100 (2008) 084102], we find that the cross-correlations were weakly persistent and were stronger between spot and futures contract with larger maturity. Our results from rolling sample test also show the apparent effects of the exogenous events. Additionally, we have some relevant discussions on the obtained evidence.

  8. Intra-field CDU map correlation between SEMs and aerial image characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Meusemann, Stefan; Thaler, Thomas; Schulz, Kristian; Tschinkl, Martin; Ackmann, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Reticle critical dimension uniformity (CDU) is one of the major sources of wafer CD variations which include both inter-field variations and intra-field variations. Generally, wafer critical dimension (CD) measurement sample size interfield is much less than intra-field. Intra-field CDU correction requires time-consumption of metrology. In order to improve wafer intra-field CDU, several methods can be applied such as intra-field dose correction to improve wafer intra-field CDU. Corrections can be based on CD(SEM) or aerial image metrology data from the reticle. Reticle CDU and wafer CDU maps are based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) metrology, while reticle inspection intensity mapping (NuFLare 6000) and wafer level critical dimension (WLCD) utilize aerial images or optical techniques. Reticle inspecton tools such as those from KLA and NuFlare, offer the ability to collect optical measurement data to produce an optical CDU map. WLCD of Zeiss has the advantage of using the same illumination condition as the scanner to measure the aerial images or optical CD. In this study, the intra-field wafer CDU map correlation between SEMs and aerial images are characterized. The layout of metrology structures is very important for the correlation between wafer intra-field CDU, measured by SEM, and the CDU determined by aerial images. The selection of metrology structures effects on the correlation to SEM CD to wafer is also demonstrated. Both reticle CDU, intensity CDU and WLCD are candidates for intra-field wafer CDU characterization and the advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed.

  9. Electron correlation dynamics of strong-field double ionization of atoms below recollision threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yunquan; Gong Qihuang [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ye Difa; Liu Jie [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100084 Beijing (China); Rudenko, A; Tschuch, S; Duerr, M; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Siegel, M; Morgner, U, E-mail: yunquan.liu@pku.edu.cn [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    In recent combined experimental and theoretical study we have explored nonsequential double ionization of neon and argon atoms in the infrared light field (800nm) below the recollision threshold. We find that the two-electron correlation dynamics depends on atomic structure- 'side-by-side emission' (correlation) for Ne and 'back-to-back emission' (anticorrelation) for argon atoms. This can be explained theoretically within our three dimensional classical model calculation including tunnelling effect. The multiple recollisions as well as recollision-induced-excitation-tunnelling (RIET) effect dominate the anticorrelation of argon, whereas the laser-assisted instantaneous recollision dominates the correlation of neon.

  10. Cross-correlation analysis of the AE index and the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, C.-I.; Tsurutani, B.; Kawasaki, K.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1973-01-01

    A cross-correlation study between magnetospheric activity (the AE index) and the southward-directed component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is made for a total of 792 hours (33 days) with a time resolution of about 5.5 min. The peak correlation tends to occur when the interplanetary data are shifted approximately 40 min later with respect to the AE index data. Cross-correlation analysis is conducted on some idealized wave forms to illustrate that this delay between southward turning of the IMF and the AE index should not be interpreted as being the duration of the growth phase.

  11. Robust algorithm of direction of arrival estimation for coherent wideband sources in unknown correlated noise fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Pengxiao; MA Chizhou; YANG Yichun; LI Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    A robust algorithm of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation for coherent wideband sources in unknown correlated noise fields was investigated. The noise is usually unknown and correlated among sensors in practical applications, especially for arrays with comparatively small apertures. The spatially correlated noise incurs an increase in focusing error and a severe degradation in the DOA estimation, and therefore a method of focusing transformation based on differentiating covariance matrix was proposed to eliminate noise, hence reduce the focusing error. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Pyritization effect on well logging parameters in Jurassic reservoirs within S-E Western Siberian oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ten, T.; Ezhova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Authigenic sulfide mineralization in hydrocarbon-saturated reservoirs distorts the electrical and density properties of rocks. The correlation between volumetric density, electro-conductive minerals and open porosity in 300 samples were determined. This fact made it possible to develop a nomograph in evaluating oil saturated reservoirs and could be applied in well geophysical survey data interpretation.

  13. The problem in transportation of high waxy crude oils through submarine pipelines at JV Vietsovpetro oil fields, offshore Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuc, P. D.; Bich, H. V.; Son, T. C.; Hoe, L. D.; Vygovskoy, V. P. [J. V. Vietsovpetro (Viet Nam)

    2003-06-01

    Problems encountered in transporting crude oil with high wax content in a submarine pipeline, built without thermal insulation, are reviewed. The focus is on crystallization and deposition of the wax on the walls, the resulting reduction in pipeline diameter leading to higher pressure drop, and the formation of gelled interlocking structures of wax crystals in the pipeline which can lead to shutdown. Methods to reduce wax deposition and gelling, and modelling to predict restart pressures and flow characteristics to improve the pumpability of Vietsovpetro's high paraffin crude oil are described. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. Microstructure-mobility correlation in self-organised, conjugated polymer field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirringhaus, H.; Brown, P.J.; Friend, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the correlation between polymer microstructure and charge carrier mobility in high-mobility, self-organised field-effect transistors of poly-3-hexyl-thiophene (P3HT). Two different preferential orientations of the microcrystalline P3HT domains with respect to the substrate have...... the charge transport properties of conjugated polymer field-effect devices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved....

  15. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  16. Secondary ferroan dolomite rhombs in oil reservoirs, Chadra Sands, Gialo field, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaieb, Z.; Shelton, J.W.

    1978-03-01

    Oil-productive, Oligocene Chadra sands in Gialo field, Libya, at depths of 600 to 750 m contain small dolomite rhombs. The rhombs are present as single crystals on detrital grains and as nonmosaic aggregates in pore space. The dolomite is calcium-rich and contains up to 10% iron but not measurable sodium or strontium. Total dissolved solids of produced interstitial water from the Chadra sand range from about 4,500 to 10,000 ppM. Introduction of fresh (meteoric) water into the Chadra sands, which were deposited in shallow-marine (shelf) environment, was responsible for formation of the dolomite rhombs. Iron in the dolomite rhombs was derived from alteration of galuconite.

  17. Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil in a large-scale field simulated experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xinping; Wang, Lina; Cao, Lixin; Li, Fujuan

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil with hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients was carried out by a large-scale field simulated experiment in this paper. After a 103 day experiment, for n-alkanes, the maximum biodegradation rate reached 71% and the results showed hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients have a comprehensive effect. It also showed that rhamnolipid biosurfactants could shorten the biodegradation time through an emulsifying function; the nutrients could greatly increase the biodegradation rate by promoting HDB production. For PAHs, the chrysene series had higher weathering resistance. For the same series, the weathering resistance ability is C1- biodegradation was found for different n-alkanes in two pools which only had added rhamnolipid biosurfactants or nutrients, respectively. Except for C14, C15 and C16 sesquiterpanes, most of the steranes and terpanes had high antibiodegradability.

  18. Inactivation of Bacteria in Oil Field Injected Water by a Pulsed Plasma Discharge Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qing; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed plasma discharge was employed to inactivate bacteria in the injection water for an oil field. The effects of water conductivity and initial concentration of bacteria on elimination efficiency were investigated in the batch and continuous flow modes. It was demonstrated that Fe2+ contained in injection water could enhance the elimination efficiency greatly. The addition of reducing agent glutathione (GSH) indicated that active radicals generated by pulsed plasma discharges played an important role in the inactivation of bacteria. Moreover, it was found that the microbial inactivation process for both batch and continuous flow mode well fitted the model based on the Weibull's survival function. supported by Zhejiang Province Welfare Technology Applied Research Project of China (No. 2014C31137), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21436007 and U1462201), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2015QNA4032)

  19. Impact of Galactic magnetic field modelling on searches of point sources via UHECR-Neutrino correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Carpio, J A

    2016-01-01

    We use the Jansson-Farrar JF12 magnetic field configuration in the context of point source searches by correlating the Telescope Array ultra-high energy cosmic ray data and the IceCube-40 neutrino candidates. As expected, we have found no correlations, thus, we devote this paper to the study of the effect of different magnetic field hypotheses on the minimum neutrino source flux strength required for a $5\\sigma$ discovery and the derived $90\\%$ CL upper limits. In this study we present a comparison between the JF12 field, that includes a combination of regular and random field components, and the standard turbulent magnetic field used in previous correlation analyses. For a wider perspective, we also incorporate in our comparison the cases of no magnetic field and the JF12 regular component alone and consider different power law indices $\\alpha=2,\\alpha=2.3$ for the neutrino point source flux. Collaterally, a novel parameterisation of the JF12 random component is introduced. We have observed that the discover...

  20. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Estonian oil shale consists of organic matter and mineral material and contains various amounts of heavy metals as well as natural radionuclides (from the U-238 and Th-232 series and K-40). Previous research has shown that burning oil shale in the large power plants causes these radionuclides to become enriched in different ash fractions and be partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of these nuclides in different oil shale ash fractions vary significantly. This is influenced by the boiler parameters and combustion conditions - prevailing temperatures, pressure, ash circulating mechanisms, fly ash particle size, chemical composition of ash and coexistence of macro and micro components. As with radionuclides, various heavy metals remain concentrated in the ash fractions and are released to the atmosphere (over 20 tons of Pb per year from Estonian oil shale power plants). Lead is a heavy metal with toxic influence on the nervous system, reproductive system and different organs in human body. Depending on the exposure pathways, lead could pose a long term health hazard. Ash samples are highly heterogeneous and exhibit great variability in composition and particle size. Determining the lead concentration in ash samples by modern methods like inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and other techniques often requires time consuming, multistage and complex chemical sample preparation. The list of possible methods to use is lengthy, but it is a challenge to choose a suitable one to meet measurement needs and practical considerations. The detection limits, capital costs and maintenance expenses vary between the instruments. This work presents the development of an alternative measurement technique for our oil shale ash samples. Oil shale ash was collected from different boilers using pulverized fuel

  1. Investigating electrokinetics application for in-situ inorganic oil field scale control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashaykeh, Manal A. I. Albadawi

    Oil well scale formation and deposition is an expensive problem and could be a nightmare for any production engineer if the rate of deposition is rapid as in the case of North Sea oil fields. Inorganic scales accumulate in surface and subsurface equipment causing a reduction in oil production and severe damage for production equipment. The major components of most oil field scale deposits are BaSO4, CaSO4 and SrSO4, which are formed due to incompatible mixing of reservoir formation water and sea water flooded in secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. This work focuses on BaSO4 scale as it is one of the toughest scale components to be removed either by chemical means or mechanical means. Scale control methods usually involve complicated treatment using chemical dissolution methods as primary attempt and mechanical scrapping or jetting methods in case of failure of the chemical means. In this work, we devised a novel in-situ scale control method benefiting from the application of direct current (DC) which involves some of the electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. The applications of EK has been proved in our laboratories yielding high efficiency in capturing barium and separating it from sulfate before reaching the production well, thus preventing deposition in the production wellbore or wellbore formation. This objective was evaluated in our lab designed EK apparatus in three parts. In part-1, an 18.5 cm unconsolidated sand core was used which produced inconsistent results. This problem was overcome in part-2, where the porous media involved 46 cm consolidated sandcore. This also partly fulfilled the purpose of upscaling. In part-3, the porous media was extended to a 100 cm spatial distance between the injection and production wells. For all the experiments the reservoir models were made of 125 µm uniform sand particles and followed a final consolidation pressure of 30 psi. The EK-reservoir model contains 2 basic junctions; one of them injecting a 500 ppm SO4 2

  2. Laboratory testing and simulation of the paraffin deposition in Turija field oil well in Vojvodina region, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Dušan Š.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia approx. 70% of the crude oil produced accounts for the heavy oil type, these results in the deposition of paraffin in wells, oil production decrease while increasing the operating costs. Different methods, such as mechanical, chemical and thermal, are applied in effort to solve the paraffin deposition problem. Most methods require an accurate determination of that the deposition zone in well. In this paper, experimental and simulation results of the parameter analysis affecting intensity and zone of paraffin deposition in oil wells are presented. The analysis has been done for heavy oil produced from the oil field Turija, Vojvodina region, Serbia. The paraffin deposition curves and paraffin deposition intensity during time are experimentally defined. The influence of temperature gradient, fluid flow rate and gas content in oil changes on the paraffin deposition zone change was analyzed by the computer simulation. It was found that temperature gradient changes can cause paraffin deposition zone to change approx. 22 m, i.e. maximum 43 m. It was also determined that the length of paraffin deposition zone can change up to 140 m due to the changes in the fluid flow rate or in the gas content in oil. The increase of the flow rate causes paraffin deposition zone to reduce, while increased gas content in oil leads to its increase. On the basis of the obtained results, the optimal working parameters of mechanical method, such as frequency and depth of paraffin scraping as well as temperature and heating cable power of thermal methods can be determined.

  3. Correlation between optic nerve head structural parameters and glaucomatous visual field indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Kyoichi; Gosho, Masahiko; Zako, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    We examined associations between optic nerve head structural parameters and glaucomatous visual field indices. The study population included patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy who were evaluated at Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan, from October 2010 to January 2011. A total of 57 eyes from 33 patients were assessed. We measured visual field using a Humphrey field analyzer, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL-T), and Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and rim area with referring three-dimensional photography. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated between the threshold of visual sensitivity or total deviation of visual field and the following five optic nerve head structural parameters: RNFL-T length, BMO-MRW length, rim area, and calculated RNFL-T and BMO-MRW volumes (each length multiplied by rim area). The Akaike information criterion was calculated to determine which structural parameter was the best predictor of each visual field index. Threshold of visual sensitivity had correlation coefficients of 0.23 with global sector of RNFL-T, 0.32 with BMO-MRW, 0.14 with rim area, 0.21 with RNFL-T volume, and 0.26 with BMO-MRW volume. The correlation coefficients for each parameter with total deviation of visual field were 0.22, 0.33, 0.28, 0.36, and 0.37, respectively. The Akaike information criterion of BMO-MRW showed the smallest values in analyses of both threshold of visual sensitivity and total deviation. The present results show that RNFL-T volume and BMO-MRW volume were more strongly correlated with total deviation than BMO-MRW, but BMO-MRW appeared to be the best predictor of the two glaucomatous visual field indices.

  4. Potential evaluation and systemic analysis for sustainable development of heavy oil fields in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambaretto, A.; Zanardi, E.; Zangari, L. [Inst. Tecnologico Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented an overview of Argentina's heavy oil potential. Dynamic modelling techniques were used to simulate various oil recovery scenarios as well as to evaluate factors that may influence the long-term evolution of the country's heavy oil industry. Reserves were assessed. Differential oil prices were considered, as well as various tax and royalty scenarios. A temporal horizon of 30 years was used to consider various industry scenarios in relation to general trends in heavy oil production. The simulation also considered the total operational margin and returns per productive well. The study showed that an increase in the price of oil will not necessarily create a favourable environment for the sustainable development of heavy oil. Gradual increases in oil prices in relation to costs are needed to ensure long-term production stability. Results of the study will be used in decision-making and policy development. 10 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  5. Sequential accelerated tests: Improving the correlation of accelerated tests to module performance in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Thomas; Gambogi, William; Stika, Katherine; Yu, Bao-Ling; Bradley, Alex; Hu, Hongjie; Garreau-Iles, Lucie; Trout, T. John

    2016-09-01

    DuPont has been working steadily to develop accelerated backsheet tests that correlate with solar panels observations in the field. This report updates efforts in sequential testing. Single exposure tests are more commonly used and can be completed more quickly, and certain tests provide helpful predictions of certain backsheet failure modes. DuPont recommendations for single exposure tests are based on 25-year exposure levels for UV and humidity/temperature, and form a good basis for sequential test development. We recommend a sequential exposure of damp heat followed by UV then repetitions of thermal cycling and UVA. This sequence preserves 25-year exposure levels for humidity/temperature and UV, and correlates well with a large body of field observations. Measurements can be taken at intervals in the test, although the full test runs 10 months. A second, shorter sequential test based on damp heat and thermal cycling tests mechanical durability and correlates with loss of mechanical properties seen in the field. Ongoing work is directed toward shorter sequential tests that preserve good correlation to field data.

  6. Diagnosing collisionless energy transfer using field-particle correlations: gyrokinetic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G.; Tenbarge, Jason M.

    2017-08-01

    Determining the physical mechanisms that extract energy from turbulent fluctuations in weakly collisional magnetized plasmas is necessary for a more complete characterization of the behaviour of a variety of space and astrophysical plasmas. Such a determination is complicated by the complex nature of the turbulence as well as observational constraints, chiefly that in situ measurements of such plasmas are typically only available at a single point in space. Recent work has shown that correlations between electric fields and particle velocity distributions constructed from single-point measurements produce a velocity-dependent signature of the collisionless damping mechanism. We extend this work by constructing field-particle correlations using data sets drawn from single points in strongly driven, turbulent, electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations to demonstrate that this technique can identify the collisionless mechanisms operating in such systems. The velocity-space structure of the correlation between proton distributions and parallel electric fields agrees with expectations of resonant mechanisms transferring energy collisionlessly in turbulent systems. This work motivates the eventual application of field-particle correlations to spacecraft measurements in the solar wind, with the ultimate goal to determine the physical mechanisms that dissipate magnetized plasma turbulence.

  7. Ground state correlations and mean field using the exp(S) method

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, J H; Heisenberg, Jochen H.; Mihaila, Bogdan

    1999-01-01

    This document gives a detailed account of the terms used in the computation of the ground state mean field and the ground state correlations. While the general approach to this description is given in a separate paper (nucl-th/9802029) we give here the explicite expressions used.

  8. Estimating adhesive seed-dispersal distances : field experiments and correlated random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Lengkeek, W; van Diggelen, R

    1. In this study we aimed to estimate distance distributions of adhesively dispersed seeds and the factors that determine them. 2. Seed attachment and detachment were studied using field experiments with a real sheep, a sheep dummy and a cattle dummy. Seed-retention data were used in correlated

  9. Innovative well-completion strategy for challenging heavy-oil wells within mature fields requiring sand control in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huimin, YE; Patarroyo, Mauricio [Mansarovar Energy (Colombia); Lopez, Nicolas; Perez, Carlos [Schlumberger (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional oil resources and the development of new techniques, exploitation of heavy oil wells has become common in Northern South America. Nevertheless those projects face the great challenge of implementing environment and sand management systems while optimizing the production and reservoir's life. The aim of this paper is to present a completion methodology, its results and impacts on the productivity of the reservoir. Different simulations to select the sand control strategy and sensitivity studies to confirm their decision were carried out in the Moriche field, a heavy-oil mature field located in Colombia. Following the simulation results, stainless steel wool based screens were finally chosen and their implementation led to savings in time and costs and the elimination of downhole issues. The use of the completion methodology presented herein on the Moriche wells led to an overall improvement in productivity.

  10. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  11. Measuring Collisionless Damping in Heliospheric Plasmas using Field-Particle Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.

    2016-08-01

    An innovative field-particle correlation technique is proposed that uses single-point measurements of the electromagnetic fields and particle velocity distribution functions to investigate the net transfer of energy from fields to particles associated with the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in weakly collisional plasmas, such as the solar wind. In addition to providing a direct estimate of the local rate of energy transfer between fields and particles, it provides vital new information about the distribution of that energy transfer in velocity space. This velocity-space signature can potentially be used to identify the dominant collisionless mechanism responsible for the damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind. The application of this novel field-particle correlation technique is illustrated using the simplified case of the Landau damping of Langmuir waves in an electrostatic 1D-1V Vlasov-Poisson plasma, showing that the procedure both estimates the local rate of energy transfer from the electrostatic field to the electrons and indicates the resonant nature of this interaction. Modifications of the technique to enable single-point spacecraft measurements of fields and particles to diagnose the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind are discussed, yielding a method with the potential to transform our ability to maximize the scientific return from current and upcoming spacecraft missions, such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Solar Probe Plus missions.

  12. Effects of correlated turbulent velocity fields on the formation of maser lines

    CERN Document Server

    Boeger, R; Hegmann, M

    2003-01-01

    The microturbulent approximation of turbulent motions is widely used in radiative transfer calculations. Mainly motivated by its simple computational application it is probably in many cases an oversimplified treatment of the dynamical processes involved. This aspect is in particular important in the analysis of maser lines, since the strong amplification of radiation leads to a sensitive dependence of the radiation field on the overall velocity structure. To demonstrate the influence of large scale motions on the formation of maser lines we present a simple stochastic model which takes velocity correlations into account. For a quantitative analysis of correlation effects, we generate in a Monte Carlo simulation individual realizations of a turbulent velocity field along a line of sight. Depending on the size of the velocity correlation length we find huge deviations between the resulting random profiles in respect of line shape, intensity and position of single spectral components. Finally, we simulate the e...

  13. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  14. The Geomagnetic Field and Correlations with Multiple Sclerosis: A Possible Etiology of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Brett

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease that results in a demyelinating process of the central nervous system. It is the most common, progressive, neurological disease affecting young adults, and there is no cure. A curious feature of MS is its distinct global prevalence with high rates of occurrence between 40 and 60 degrees latitude. While genetics may partially explain this phenomenon, studies have shown that the influence of genetics is modest. Many non-genetic variables, such as viruses, vitamin D, smoking, diet, hormones, etc., have been shown to be related to the expression of MS but none of these variables have been determined to be necessarily strong enough to exclude other factors. The geomagnetic field, which is a non-uniform, three dimensional entity which protects all living things from ionizing radiation, is suggested in this research to be related to global MS prevalence. This study hypothesized that either the total field, the vertical field, or the horizontal field strength of the geomagnetic field will be correlated with MS. Using secondary sources of prevalence studies (N=131) and geomagnetic data, the results supported all three hypotheses with the strongest correlation being an inverse relationship between the horizontal field and MS (r = -.607). The explanation for the inverse relationship being most strongly correlated with MS prevalence is explained by the fact that the horizontal aspect of the geomagnetic field has a protective effect from incoming cosmic radiation. Chronic exposure to high levels of background radiation can have deleterious health effects. This research suggests that living in areas of a weak horizontal field increases a person's exposure to ionizing radiation and therefore increases the risk for developing MS. While it was not the intention of this research, it became clear that an explanation which explained the results of this research and also attempted to unify the mechanisms of all non

  15. XPCS study of dynamic correlation in polyurethane gel-carbonyl iron composite under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriew, Helena [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw 03195 (Poland); Wiegart, Lutz [ESRF, Grenoble, 38043 Cedex 9 (France); Boczkowska, Anna [Faculty of Materials Science, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Mirkowska, Monika, E-mail: haga311@hotmail.co [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-10-01

    An X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) study of composite-type material consisting of polyurethane gel and carbonyl iron micrometric spheres was performed under magnetic fields of 0, 300 and 600 mT. The onion-like spheres structure was destroyed during the composite processing. The following conclusions were obtained from the study: -The polyurethane matrix is preferred as a source for the observed dynamic effects. -Below 300mT the material dynamics in direction of the outer magnetic field are very clear. -For 600 mT the dependence of the dynamics on magnetic field direction disappears, but the correlation rate is much higher. These findings may be caused by a disturbance of the polymer mesostructure by larger strain leading to its cross-linking.

  16. Propeller Cavitation in Non-Uniform Flow and Correlation with the Near Pressure Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study is carried out in a cavitation tunnel on a propeller operating downstream of a non-uniform wake. The goal of this work is to establish quantitative correlations between the near pressure field and the cavitation pattern that takes place on the propeller blades. The pressure field is measured at the walls of the test section and in the near wake of the propeller and is combined with quantitative high-speed image recording of the cavitation pattern. Through harmonic analysis of the pressure data and image processing techniques that allow retrieving the cavitation extension and volume, we discuss the potential sources that generate the pressure fluctuations. Time correlations are unambiguously established between pressure peak fluctuations and cavitation collapse events, based on the Rayleigh collapse time. Finally, we design a model to predict the cavitation-induced pressure fluctuations from the derivation of the cavitation volume acceleration. A remarkable agreement is observed with the actual pressure field.

  17. Field induced anomalous spreading, oscillation, ejection, spinning, and breaking of oil droplets on a strongly slipping water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunny; Sarma, Bhaskarjyoti; Dasmahapatra, Ahsok Kumar; Dalal, Amaresh; Basu, Dipankar Narayan; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Application of an electric field on an oil droplet floating on the surface of a deionized water bath showed interesting motions such as spreading, oscillation, and ejection. The electric field was generated by connecting a pointed platinum cathode at the top of the oil droplet and a copper anode coated with polymer at the bottom of the water layer. The experimental setup mimicked a conventional electrowetting setup with the exception that the oil was spread on a soft and deformable water isolator. While at relatively lower field intensities we observed spreading of the droplet, at intermediate field intensities the droplet oscillated around the platinum cathode, before ejecting out at a speed as high as ∼5 body lengths per second at even stronger field intensities. The experiments suggested that when the electric field was ramped up abruptly to a particular voltage, any of the spreading, oscillation, or ejection motions of the droplet could be engendered at lower, intermediate and higher field intensities, respectively. However, when the field was ramped up progressively by increasing by a definite amount of voltage per unit time, all three aforementioned motions could be generated simultaneously with the increase in the field intensity. Interestingly, when the aforementioned setup was placed on a magnet, the droplet showed a rotational motion under the influence of the Lorentz force, which was generated because of the coupling of the weak leakage current with the externally applied magnetic field. The spreading, oscillation, ejection, and rotation of the droplet were found to be functions of the oil-water interfacial tension, viscosity, and size of the oil droplet. We developed simple theoretical models to explain the experimental results obtained. Importantly, rotating at a higher speed broke the droplet into a number of smaller ones, owing to the combined influence of the spreading due to the centripetal force and the shear at the oil-water interface. While

  18. Hydraulic Fracturing of 403 Shallow Diatomite Wells in South Belridge Oil Field, Kern County, California, in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, D. B.; Agusiegbe, V.

    2015-12-01

    We examine all 403 Hydraulic Fracture (HF) jobs performed by Aera Energy, LLC, in the South Belridge oil field, Kern County, CA in 2014. HFs in the South Belridge oil field are atypical amongst North American plays because the reservoir is shallow and produced via vertical wells. Our data set constitutes 88% of all HF jobs performed in CA oil fields in calendar-2014. The South Belridge field produces 11% of California's oil and the shallow HFs performed here differ from most HFs performed elsewhere. We discuss fracture modeling and methods and summary statistics, and modelled dimensions of fractures and their relationships to depth and reservoir properties. The 403 HFs were made in the diatomite-dominated Reef Ridge member of the Monterey Formation. The HFs began at an average depth of 1047 feet below ground (ft TVD) and extended an average of 626 ft vertically downward. The deepest initiation of HF was at 2380 ft and the shallowest cessation was at 639 ft TVD. The average HF was performed using 1488 BBL (62,496 gallons) of water. The HFs were performed in no more than 6 stages and nearly all were completed within one day. We (1) compare metrics of the South Belridge sample group with recent, larger "all-CA" and nationwide samples; and (2) conclude that if relationships of reservoir properties, well completion and HF are well understood, shallow diatomite HF may be optimized to enhance production while minimizing environmental impact.

  19. Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Rana, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    -trends from logs were compared with normalized water saturation depth-trends predicted from capillary pressure core data. The ten wells lie close to a SW–NE cross section of the field. For the gas–oil contact, a free contact measured in one well corresponds to a practically horizontal contact interpreted from......The Tyra Field in the central North Sea is located in Palaeogene and Upper Cretaceous chalk. It contains a natural gas zone underlain by an oil leg. Based on analysis of logs and core data from ten wells drilled prior to the field being put into production, normalized water saturation depth...... logging data in the remaining wells. A westerly dipping oil–water contact was found from logging data. Comparison of the depth-wise trends in normalized water saturation among the different wells indicates a regional pattern: in the western side of the field, the trends correspond to a situation...

  20. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methodology and some results of the multifaceted evaluation of ecological risk of maintenance of oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vozuesensky, E.A. [Department of Engineering and Environmental Geology, Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Samarin, E.N. [Ditto (Russian Federation); Voznessenskaya, V.V. [A.N. Severtzov Institute of Ecology and Evolution RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    An inter-disciplinary methodology to investigate pollution from maintenance of oil and gas fields and to explore potential impact of new ones has been developed and tested at three oil and gas fields in Western Siberia and Mid-Volga region with different duration of exploitation. The investigations focused on the impact of oil, its derivatives and other chemicals on human health and biocenoses. The research included combination of methods of environmental geology, geophysics, bioindication, cytogenetics and analytical chemistry and is based on the idea that reliable control of concentration, regularities of sorption and the complete tracing of oil pollution in the environment from the source of contamination through the soils, ground and surface water, soil biota and via the food chains to small mammals and birds are needed to assess ecological risk. It is anticipated that direct determination of oil and its derivatives concentration in soil and ground water can provide a basis to understand the results of bioindication. The obtained data revealed the main regularities of the pollutants migration in soils and ground waters, the most dangerous sources of their contamination and demonstrated the impact of gas torches on soils, vegetation and soil- dwelling animals using new reliable and independent indices. (orig.)

  2. Microbial diversity and hydrocarbon degrading gene capacity of a crude oil field soil as determined by metagenomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi; Lockington, Robin; Ramadass, Kavitha

    2016-05-01

    Soils contaminated with crude oil are rich sources of enzymes suitable for both degradation of hydrocarbons through bioremediation processes and improvement of crude oil during its refining steps. Due to the long term selection, crude oil fields are unique environments for the identification of microorganisms with the ability to produce these enzymes. In this metagenomic study, based on Hiseq Illumina sequencing of samples obtained from a crude oil field and analysis of data on MG-RAST, Actinomycetales (9.8%) were found to be the dominant microorganisms, followed by Rhizobiales (3.3%). Furthermore, several functional genes were found in this study, mostly belong to Actinobacteria (12.35%), which have a role in the metabolism of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (2.51%), desulfurization (0.03%), element shortage (5.6%), and resistance to heavy metals (1.1%). This information will be useful for assisting in the application of microorganisms in the removal of hydrocarbon contamination and/or for improving the quality of crude oil. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:638-648, 2016.

  3. Modeling petroleum generation and geochemistry of crude oils in Ras Budran field, northern gulf of Suez, Egypt: implications for prospectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)

    2005-12-01

    Petroleum generation modeling of the pre-rift succession in Ras Budran Field, which is located in the northern Gulf of Suez province in Egypt, showed that the best oil prone source rocks identified are the carbonate dominated one in the Upper Cretaceous and the Middle Eocene. These source rocks contain type-II kerogen (liptinitic materials) and progressively increase in their peak of oil generation from 0.63 and 0.83 vitrinite reflectance at a depth of about 3000 meters during the early of middle Miocene age and could have charged traps during the intra Rudeis tectonic phase. Crude oil and source rock extract interrelationships display a great similarity in their geologic occurrences and biological marker distributions. The biomarker characteristics indicate a low relative abundance of oleanane index around 5% pristane/phytane ratio<1, higher C{sub 35}/C{sub 34} homohopanes>1 and higher gammacerane indices >30%, suggesting a typical marine organic matter with source rock deposition under reducing conditions, Marginally mature stage of oil generation is indicated by the relatively low sterane isomerization of C{sub 29} {alpha}{alpha}{alpha} 20S/(S+R) and C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) of about 06 and relatively low aromatic sulfur compound rations. Crude oil geochemistry and related source rock potential define genetically related oils which ware generated from marginally mature and organic-rich carbonate source rocks, most probably from the pre-rift Duwi and Thebes formations. The best oil prone for future prospectivity would be oriented west of Ras Budran Field toward the deep marine of the Gulf, where the undiscovered reserves are expected to be accumulated within the pre-rift reservoirs in the footwalls of the normal faulted blocks. (orig.)

  4. Preliminary Prioritization of California Oil and Gas Fields for Regional Groundwater Monitoring Based on Intensity of Petroleum Resource Development and Proximity to Groundwater Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. A.; Landon, M. K.; Bennett, G.

    2016-12-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board is collaborating with the U.S. Geological Survey to implement a Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) to assess where and to what degree groundwater resources may be at risk of contamination from oil and gas development activities including stimulation, well integrity issues, produced water ponds, and underground injection. A key issue in the implementation of the RMP is that the state has 487 onshore oil fields covering 8,785 square kilometers but detailed characterization work can only be done in a few oil fields annually. The first step in the RMP is to prioritize fields using available data that indicate potential risk to groundwater from oil and gas development, including vertical proximity of groundwater and oil/gas resources, density of petroleum and water wells, and volume of water injected in oil fields. This study compiled data for these factors, computed summary metrics for each oil field, analyzed statewide distributions of summary metrics, used those distributions to define relative categories of potential risk for each factor, and combined these into an overall priority ranking. Aggregated results categorized 22% (107 fields) of the total number of onshore oil and gas fields in California as high priority, 23% as moderate priority, and 55% as low priority. On an area-weighted basis, 41% of the fields ranked high, 30% moderate, and 29% low, highlighting that larger fields tend to have higher potential risk because of greater intensity of development, sometimes coupled with closer proximity to groundwater. More than half of the fields ranked as high priority were located in the southern Central Valley or the Los Angeles Basin. The prioritization does not represent an assessment of groundwater risk from oil and gas development; rather, such assessments are planned to follow based on detailed analysis of data from the RMP near the oil fields selected for study in the future.

  5. Does Galactic Magnetic Field Disturb the Correlation of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays with their Sources?

    CERN Document Server

    Takami, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    The propagation trajectories of the highest energy cosmic rays can be deflected by Galactic magnetic field (GMF) and expected correlation between their arrival directions and the positions of their sources can be disturbed. In order to explore whether the possible correlation is disturbed or not, we simulate the arrival distribution of the highest energy protons (HEPs) with energies above $6 \\times 10^{19}$ eV taking 4 different GMF models into account and investigate the cross-correlation between the protons and sources assumed in the simulation. We show that the error of cross-correlation function adopted in this study is sufficiently small by accumulating 200 events. We also find that the correlation is not disturbed largely in many cases after 200 events accumulation and positive signals of the correlation are significantly expected at angular scale of 3-5$^{\\circ}$. Only in the cases of the northern sky with axisymmetric spiral structures of GMF, the cross-correlation functions are consistent with no cor...

  6. The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Bayona, Josep M; Albaiges, Joan; Solanas, Anna M

    2007-12-01

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation, particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community structure was determined by cultivation-independent analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial community was mainly composed of alpha-Proteobacteria (Rhodobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae). Representatives of gamma-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales, Moraxellaceae, and Halomonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriaceae), and Actinobacteria group (Nocardiaceae and Corynebacteriaceae) were also found. The addition of the fertilizer led to the appearance of the bacterium Mesonia algae in the early stages, with a narrow range of growth substrates, which has been associated with the common alga Achrosiphonia sonderi. The presence of Mesonia algae may be attributable to the response of the microbial community to the addition of N and P rather than indicating a role in the biodegradation process. The Rhodococcus group appeared in both assay plots, especially at the end of the experiment. It was also found at another site on the Galician coast that had been affected by the same spill. This genus has been associated with the degradation of n-alkanes up to C(36). Taking into account the high content of heavy alkanes in the Prestige fuel, these microorganisms could play a significant role in the degradation of such fuel. A similar bacterial community structure was observed at another site that showed a similar degree of fuel weathering.

  7. Spatial analysis in a Markov random field framework: The case of burning oil wells in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezzani, Raymond J.; Al-Dousari, Ahmad

    This paper discusses a modeling approach for spatial-temporal prediction of environmental phenomena using classified satellite images. This research was prompted by the analysis of change and landscape redistribution of petroleum residues formed from the residue of the burning oil wells in Kuwait (1991). These surface residues have been termed ``tarcrete'' (El-Baz etal. 1994). The tarcrete forms a thick layer over sand and desert pavement covering a significant portion of south-central Kuwait. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that utilizes satellite images from different time steps to examine the rate-of-change of the oil residue deposits and determine where redistribution is are likely to occur. This problem exhibits general characteristics of environmental diffusion and dispersion phenomena so a theoretical framework for a general solution is sought. The use of a lagged-clique, Markov random field framework and entropy measures is deduced to be an effective solution to satisfy the criteria of determination of time-rate-of-change of the surface deposits and to forecast likely locations of redistribution of dispersed, aggraded residues. The method minimally requires image classification, the determination of time stationarity of classes and the measurement of the level of organization of the state-space information derived from the images. Analysis occurs at levels of both the individual pixels and the system to determine specific states and suites of states in space and time. Convergence of the observed landscape disorder with respect to an analytical maximum provide information on the total dispersion of the residual system.

  8. The economics of disposal methods for North Sea oil and gas fields: A study in comparative advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishman, D.

    1986-05-01

    One of the major development problems of new North Sea fields is the transportation of oil or gas to a landfall (the disposal method). Oil can be disposed of by offshore loading or by pipeline. While offshore loading may be cheaper, it leads to reduced operational efficiency and may not be permitted by regulatory bodies because of perceived safety or environmental hazards. A dedicated pipeline to shore may be too costly for small- to medium-sized fields, but sharing a pipeline system or tying in to an existing pipeline for a tariff are viable alternatives. The development of gas fields and the production of associated gas from oil fields has been hampered by the lack of pipeline systems for disposal. With no fallback position of offshore loading, gas fields cannot be developed unless there is an economic disposal method by pipeline. When a tariff is negotiated that results in the development of a field, all parties stand to benefit economically. The tariff negotiation would thus be expected to result in a mutually beneficial solution. This paper develops economic models of the disposal alternatives to derive the relative benefit of each with respect to the cost-of-disposal, tariff-structure, and reserve-throughput parameters.

  9. IS THE SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD CORRELATED WITH THE DYNAMO CYCLE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Brandenburg, Axel, E-mail: bbkarak@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    The small-scale magnetic field is ubiquitous at the solar surface—even at high latitudes. From observations we know that this field is uncorrelated (or perhaps even weakly anticorrelated) with the global sunspot cycle. Our aim is to explore the origin, and particularly the cycle dependence, of such a phenomenon using three-dimensional dynamo simulations. We adopt a simple model of a turbulent dynamo in a shearing box driven by helically forced turbulence. Depending on the dynamo parameters, large-scale (global) and small-scale (local) dynamos can be excited independently in this model. Based on simulations in different parameter regimes, we find that, when only the large-scale dynamo is operating in the system, the small-scale magnetic field generated through shredding and tangling of the large-scale magnetic field is positively correlated with the global magnetic cycle. However, when both dynamos are operating, the small-scale field is produced from both the small-scale dynamo and the tangling of the large-scale field. In this situation, when the large-scale field is weaker than the equipartition value of the turbulence, the small-scale field is almost uncorrelated with the large-scale magnetic cycle. On the other hand, when the large-scale field is stronger than the equipartition value, we observe an anticorrelation between the small-scale field and the large-scale magnetic cycle. This anticorrelation can be interpreted as a suppression of the small-scale dynamo. Based on our studies we conclude that the observed small-scale magnetic field in the Sun is generated by the combined mechanisms of a small-scale dynamo and tangling of the large-scale field.

  10. Time-varying coefficient vector autoregressions model based on dynamic correlation with an application to crude oil and stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fengbin; Qiao, Han; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung; Li, Yuze

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new time-varying coefficient vector autoregressions (VAR) model, in which the coefficient is a linear function of dynamic lagged correlation. The proposed model allows for flexibility in choices of dynamic correlation models (e.g. dynamic conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models, Markov-switching GARCH models and multivariate stochastic volatility models), which indicates that it can describe many types of time-varying causal effects. Time-varying causal relations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and the US Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P 500) stock markets are examined by the proposed model. The empirical results show that their causal relations evolve with time and display complex characters. Both positive and negative causal effects of the WTI on the S&P 500 in the subperiods have been found and confirmed by the traditional VAR models. Similar results have been obtained in the causal effects of S&P 500 on WTI. In addition, the proposed model outperforms the traditional VAR model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pembina Cardium Field. Enhanced oil recovery economics. Proposed revisions to existing EOR incentives for low productivity reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, J.J.; Howes, B.J.

    1985-07-01

    Technical analysis of miscibly flooding selected parts of the Pembina Cardium reservoir in Alberta indicates that substantial amounts of additional oil can be recovered, using a hydrocarbon solvent, from areas where little or no conglomerate zone is present. This represents approximately one-half of the total pool. Previous evaluations of the proposed miscible flood projects in the Pembina Cardium Field showed that a substantial enhanced oil recovery potential exists but that such projects were only marinally economic under the conditions that existed at the time. Subsequent to these evaluations, a number of significant changes have occurred. The Western Accord phased-out the Petroleum and Gas Revenue Tax and decontrolled the price of oil, world market forces have reduced oil prices, costs have declined, and a new royalty schedule has been introduced. This report analyzes the Pembina miscible flood economics in light of these changes. The combined effect of the changes is a slight improvement in project economics, which, however, remain marginal. Modifications to the existing Section 4.2 Royalty Deduction and to the earned depletion deduction are proposed with the goal of creating an economic environment that will allow the development of the Pembina Cardium enhanced oil recovery potential. The two projects evaluated in this report represent only a very small portion of the field, 8.3 km/sup 2/ out of field total of 1900 km/sup 2/. If economic considerations permitted the expansion of miscible flooding into the 50% of the Pembina Cardium reservoir considered to be amenable to the current miscible flood design, a very important contribution to oil supplies and economic activity in Canada would result. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Generalized moment analysis of magnetic field correlations for accumulations of spherical and cylindrical magnetic pertubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Tobias Kurz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In biological tissue, an accumulation of similarly shaped objects with a susceptibility difference to the surrounding tissue generates a local distortion of the external magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging. It induces stochastic field fluctuations that characteristically influence proton spin diffusion in the vicinity of these magnetic perturbers. The magnetic field correlation that is associated with such local magnetic field inhomogeneities can be expressed in the form of a dynamic frequency autocorrelation function that is related to the time evolution of the measured magnetization. Here, an eigenfunction expansion for two simple magnetic perturber shapes, that of spheres and cylinders, is considered for restricted spin diffusion in a simple model geometry. Then, the concept of generalized moment analysis, an approximation technique that is applied in the study of (non-reactive processes that involve Brownian motion, allows to provide analytical expressions for the correlation function for different exponential decay forms. Results for the biexponential decay for both spherical and cylindrical magnetized objects are derived and compared with the frequently used (less accurate monoexponential decay forms. They are in asymptotic agreement with the numerically exact value of the correlation function for long and short times.

  13. Generalized moment analysis of magnetic field correlations for accumulations of spherical and cylindrical magnetic pertubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Felix; Kampf, Thomas; Buschle, Lukas; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Bendszus, Martin; Heiland, Sabine; Ziener, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In biological tissue, an accumulation of similarly shaped objects with a susceptibility difference to the surrounding tissue generates a local distortion of the external magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging. It induces stochastic field fluctuations that characteristically influence proton spin diffusion in the vicinity of these magnetic perturbers. The magnetic field correlation that is associated with such local magnetic field inhomogeneities can be expressed in the form of a dynamic frequency autocorrelation function that is related to the time evolution of the measured magnetization. Here, an eigenfunction expansion for two simple magnetic perturber shapes, that of spheres and cylinders, is considered for restricted spin diffusion in a simple model geometry. Then, the concept of generalized moment analysis, an approximation technique that is applied in the study of (non-)reactive processes that involve Brownian motion, allows to provide analytical expressions for the correlation function for different exponential decay forms. Results for the biexponential decay for both spherical and cylindrical magnetized objects are derived and compared with the frequently used (less accurate) monoexponential decay forms. They are in asymptotic agreement with the numerically exact value of the correlation function for long and short times.

  14. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  15. Quantum Entanglement and Correlation of Two Qubit Atoms Interacting with the Coherent State Optical Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing

    2017-10-01

    Using the three criterions of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord, we investigate the quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics of two two-level atoms interacting with the coherent state optical field. We discuss the influence of different photon number of the mean square fluctuations on the temporal evolution of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord between two atoms when the two atoms are initially in specific three states. The results show that different photon number of the mean square fluctuations can lead to different effects of quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics.

  16. Quantum Entanglement and Correlation of Two Qubit Atoms Interacting with the Coherent State Optical Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing

    2017-08-01

    Using the three criterions of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord, we investigate the quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics of two two-level atoms interacting with the coherent state optical field. We discuss the influence of different photon number of the mean square fluctuations on the temporal evolution of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord between two atoms when the two atoms are initially in specific three states. The results show that different photon number of the mean square fluctuations can lead to different effects of quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics.

  17. Self-consistent pseudopotentials in the thermodynamic limit. I. The correlation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, E.S.; Plastino, A.; Szybisz, L.

    1979-10-01

    The repulsive hard core of a pair-wise interaction acting between fermions is simulated by a constraint to be included in the variational principle. The Euler-Lagrange equations are usual Hartree-Fock equations with a self-consistent one-body pseudopotential. It can be seen that the imposed constraint generates a correlation field in addition to the regular portion of the two-body interaction. The origin of density waves in coordinate space is discussed in terms of the hard-core correlations.

  18. Quantum phase noise and field correlation in single frequency semiconductor laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallion, P.; Debarge, G.

    1984-04-01

    The influence of quantum phase fluctuations which affect single frequency semiconductor lasers in various coherent detection systems is discussed in terms of photocurrent autocorrelation and spectral density functions. The general treatment given in this paper can be applied in diverse practical cases and points out the problems of phase correlation and phase matching between the two mixed optical beams. In the more general case the photocurrent spectrum is found to be composed of discrete and quasi-Lorentzian parts whose energies and spectral spreads are discussed as a function of the laser line width, the phase matching and the phase correlation between the two coherently combined fields.

  19. Self Regulation of Infrared Correlations for Massless Scalar Fields during Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Self-energies of a minimally coupled scalar field with quartic and trilinear interactions are calculated in a de Sitter background, using a position space propagator. For quartic interactions, we recover earlier results for the seagull diagram, namely that it contributes an effective mass for the scalar field at leading order in the infrared enhancement in a steady-state de Sitter background. We further show that the sunset diagram also contributes to this effective mass and argue that these two contributions are sufficient in order to determine a self-consistent dynamical mass. In addition, trilinear interactions also induce a dynamical mass for the scalar field which we calculate. Since an interacting scalar field in de Sitter acquires a dynamical mass through these loop corrections, the infrared divergences of the two-point correlator are naturally self-regulated.

  20. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the