WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil degrading bacteria

  1. Isolation of Asphaltene-Degrading Bacteria from Sludge Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingkan Aditiawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sludge oil contains 30%–50% hydrocarbon fractions that comprise saturated fractions, aromatics, resins, and asphaltene. Asphaltene fraction is the most persistent fraction. In this research, the indigenous bacteria that can degrade asphaltene fractions from a sludge oil sample from Balikpapan that was isolated using BHMS medium (Bushnell-Hass Mineral Salt with 0.01% (w/v yeast extract, 2% (w/v asphaltene extract, and 2% (w/v sludge oil. The ability of the four isolates to degrade asphaltene fractions was conducted by the biodegradation asphaltene fractions test using liquid cultures in a BHMS medium with 0.01% (w/v yeast extract and 2% (w/v asphaltene extract as a carbon source. The parameters measured during the process of biodegradation of asphaltene fractions include the quantification of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (g, log total number of bacteria (CFU/ml, and pH. There are four bacteria (isolates 1, 2, 3, and 4 that have been characterized to degrade asphaltic fraction and have been identified as Bacillus sp. Lysinibacillus fusiformes, Acinetobacter sp., and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. The results showed that the highest ability to degrade asphaltene fractions is that of Bacillus sp. (isolate 1 and Lysinibacillus fusiformes (Isolate 2, with biodegradation percentages of asphaltene fractions being 50% and 55%, respectively, and growth rate at the exponential phase is 7.17x107 CFU/mL.days and 4.21x107 CFU/mL.days, respectively.

  2. Lubricating oil-degrading bacteria in soils from filling stations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... 1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of ... Key words: environmental pollution, oil-degrading bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, physico-chemical factors, ..... Manual of Environmental.

  3. From oil spills to barley growth - oil-degrading soil bacteria and their promoting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Reinhard, Anne; Alimbetova, Anna; Omirbekova, Anel; Pasler, Lisa; Schumann, Peter; Kabisch, Johannes; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2016-11-01

    Heavy contamination of soils by crude oil is omnipresent in areas of oil recovery and exploitation. Bioremediation by indigenous plants in cooperation with hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms is an economically and ecologically feasible means to reclaim contaminated soils. To study the effects of indigenous soil bacteria capable of utilizing oil hydrocarbons on biomass production of plants growing in oil-contaminated soils eight bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soils in Kazakhstan and characterized for their abilities to degrade oil components. Four of them, identified as species of Gordonia and Rhodococcus turned out to be effective degraders. They produced a variety of organic acids from oil components, of which 59 were identified and 7 of them are hitherto unknown acidic oil metabolites. One of them, Rhodococcus erythropolis SBUG 2054, utilized more than 140 oil components. Inoculating barley seeds together with different combinations of these bacterial strains restored normal growth of the plants on contaminated soils, demonstrating the power of this approach for bioremediation. Furthermore, we suggest that the plant promoting effect of these bacteria is not only due to the elimination of toxic oil hydrocarbons but possibly also to the accumulation of a variety of organic acids which modulate the barley's rhizosphere environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Abundance and activity of oil-degrading and indigenous bacteria in sediment microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, R.; Molina, M.; Bachoon, D.

    1995-01-01

    The responses of bacterial community composition and degradation crude oil to applications of bioremediation products and plant detrital material were investigated in wetlands microcosms. The microcosms were constructed of sieved sediments and operated as tidal marshes. Products included nutrients, organisms, surfactants and combinations thereof; dried ground Spartina was the source of detrital material. Plate count and most probable-number techniques were used to enumerate microbial populations and GC/MS analysis of indicator petroleum hydrocarbons was used to assess oil degradation. Microbial communities were characterized by whole-genome hybridization and specific probes for bacterial groups, including Pseudomonas, Streptomycetes, Vibrio, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Although the total microbial numbers were similar in all bioremediation treatments, the numbers of oil degraders increased two to three log units in the fertilizer and microbial-degrader-enriched treatments. Oil-degraders comprised the largest fraction of the total population in the treatment amended with microbial degraders, apparently at the expense of indigenous bacteria, as indicated by specific probes. Oil-degraders were also detected in the subsurface in all treatments except the controls. The extent of oil degradation was not consistent with bacterial numbers; only nutrient additions resulted in significantly enhanced degradation of oil. After 1 month of microcosm operation, oil-degraders had increased at least two orders of magnitude in sediment surface layers when oil was added alone or with Spartina detritus, although total bacterial numbers and the number of oil-degraders decreased to near initial levels by 2 months. The peak coincides with bacterial utilization of the alkane fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons

  5. Novel diesel-oil-degrading bacteria and fungi from the Ecuadorian Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddela, N R; Masabanda, M; Leiva-Mora, M

    2015-01-01

    Isolating new diesel-oil-degrading microorganisms from crude-oil contaminated sites and evaluating their degradation capacities are vitally important in the remediation of oil-polluted environments and crude-oil exploitation. In this research, new hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and fungi were isolated from the crude-oil contaminated soil of the oil-fields in the Amazon rainforest of north-east Ecuador by using a soil enrichment technique. Degradation analysis was tracked by gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector. Under laboratory conditions, maximum degradability of the total n-alkanes reached up to 77.34 and 62.62 removal ratios after 30 days of incubation for the evaporated diesel oil by fungi (isolate-1) and bacteria (isolate-1), respectively. The 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the microorganisms were most closely (99-100%) related to Bacillus cereus (isolate-1), Bacillus thuringiensis (isolate-2), Geomyces pannorum (isolate-1), and Geomyces sp. (isolate-2). Therefore, these strains enable the degradation of hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source, and these findings will benefit these strains in the remediation of oil-polluted environments and oil exploitation.

  6. Exploration of Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria on Soils Contaminated by Crude Oil From South Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Napoleon, A; Probowati, D S

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3) sites of contaminated soil and treated using SB...

  7. Ecodynamics of oil-degrading bacteria and significance of marine mixed populations in the degradation of petroleum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Tanaka, Hiroki; Komukai, Shyoko

    1993-01-01

    Ecological studies, screening of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, and studies of the potentials of various single and mixed bacterial populations in the utilization of petroleum compounds were carried out to understand the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in marine ecosystems. Populations of hydrocarbon utilizers were larger in coastal regions than in pelagic environments. Ecological observations indicated that oil-degrading bacteria were ubiquitously distributed in both temperate and tropical environments, irrespective of oil-polluted and unpolluted ecosystem. Bacteria were grown with n-tet-radecane, pristane, propylbenzene, phenanthrene, and crude oil as the sole carbon source; and substrate specificities of the purified strains were characterized. Based on the assimilation characteristics of the isolated strains, an artificial mixed-culture system was constructed. Biodegradation of crude oil by the natural mixed population was found to be higher than by the artificial mixed population. However, when some of the substrate-specific degraders were artificially mixed with natural microflora, the degradation of hard-to-degrade aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil was enhanced

  8. Bioremediation Potential of Native Hydrocarbons Degrading Bacteria in Crude Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil is an effective process to clean petroleum pollutants from the environment. Crude oil bioremediation of soils is limited by the bacteria activity in degrading the spills hydrocarbons. Native crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from different crude oil polluted soils. The isolated bacteria belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Bacillus. A natural biodegradable product and bacterial inoculum were used for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from an artificial polluted soil. For soil polluted with 5% crude oil, the bacterial top, including those placed in the soil by inoculation was 30 days after impact, respectively 7 days after inoculum application, while in soil polluted with 10% crude oil,  multiplication top of bacteria was observed in the determination made at 45 days after impact and 21 days after inoculum application, showing once again how necessary is for microorganisms habituation and adaptation to environment being a function of pollutant concentration. The microorganisms inoculated showed a slight adaptability in soil polluted with 5% crude oil, but complete inhibition in the first 30 days of experiment at 10% crude oil.

  9. Isolation and identification of crude oil degrading bacteria from gastropod Haustrum scobina collected from Persian Gulf (Bandar Abbas Shoreline provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinab Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodegradation is a good alternative rather than chemical and physical methods for cleaning oil contaminated areas. Several factors like crude oil concentration, biosurfactant production, salinity and incubation time affect the biodegradation. Materials and methods: In this study, seawater sample and gastropod were collected from Persian Gulf. To isolate oil degrading bacteria from collected samples, ONR7a medium was used. The strains that had more growth and higher oil removal were selected and identified. The factors such as the effect of different concentrations of oil, incubation time, mixed cultures and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. Results: Six crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated. Between these bacteria 2 strains were selected based on higher oil removal. These strains belonged to the genus Vibrio and Halomonas. Strains with higher Emulsification activity produce more biosurfactant and have higher oil biodegradation. Growth and oil degradation have increment pattern by prolonging the incubation time. Mixed culture of Vibrio and Halomonas strains have higher rates of degradation rather than culturing with one of them. Increase in crudeoil concentration to 2.5% caused reduction in growth of bacteria and degradation of oil. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study show that crude oil degrading bacteria have high diversity in Persian Gulf. These bacteria have higher capability for oil degradation thus they can be used for remediation of oil contaminated areas.

  10. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from tropical areas around the Indian peninsula. Two of the isolates showed high phosphatase activity. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus pumilus, and they showed high...

  11. A novel method for the synergistic remediation of oil-water mixtures using nanoparticles and oil-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabresm, Amjed; Chen, Yung Pin; Decho, Alan W; Lead, Jamie

    2018-07-15

    Releases of crude oil and other types of oil from numerous sources can impose catastrophic physical, chemical, and biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. While currently-used oil removal techniques possess many advantages, they have inherent limitations, including low removal efficiencies and waste disposal challenges. The present study quantified the synergistic interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated magnetite nanoparticles (NP) and oil-degrading bacteria for enhanced oil removal at the laboratory scale. The results showed that at relatively high oil concentrations (375 mg L -1 ), NP alone could remove approximately 70% of lower-chain alkanes (C9-C22) and 65% of higher-chain (C23-C26), after only 1 h, when magnetic separation of NP was used. Removal efficiency did not increase significantly after that, which was likely due to saturation of the NP with oil. Microbial bioremediation, using strains of oil-degrading bacteria, removed almost zero oil immediately but 80-90% removal after 24-48 h. The combination of NPs and oil-degrading bacterial strains worked effectively to remove essentially 100% of oil within 48 h or less. This was likely due to the sorption of oil components to NPs and their subsequent utilization by bacteria as a joint Fe and C source, although the mechanisms of removal require further testing. Furthermore, results showed that the emission of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were reduced after addition of NPs and bacteria separately. When combined, VOC and SVOC emissions were reduced by up to 80%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation and Identification of Crude Oil Degrading and Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from the Oil-Contaminated Soils of Gachsaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Zahra Hashemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Petroleum hydrocarbons are harmful to the environment, human health, and all other living creatures. Oil and its byproducts in contact with water block sunshine to phytoplanktons and thus break the food chain and damage the marine food source. This study aims to isolate the crude oil degrading and biosurfactant producing bacteria from the oil contaminated soils of Gachsaran, Iran. Materials and Methods: Isolation was performed in peptone-water medium with yeast extract. Oil displacement area, emulsification index and bacterial phylogeny using 16S rRNA analysis were studied. Results and Conclusion: Three isolates were able to degrade the crude oil. In the first day, there were two phases in the medium; after a few days, these three bacteria degraded the crude oil until there was only one phase left in the medium. One strain was selected as a superior strain by homogenizing until the medium became clear and transparent. This method confirmed that the strain produces biosurfactant. According to the morphological and biochemical tests, the strain isolated from the oil contaminated soils is a member of Bacillus subtilis, so to study the bacterial phylogeny and taxonomy of the strain, an analysis of 16S rRNA was carried out, and the phylogenic tree confirmed them. The results verified that oil contaminated soils are good source for isolation of the biosurfactant producing bacteria.

  13. Effects of surfactants on bacteria and the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruheim, Per

    1998-12-31

    This thesis investigates the effects of surfactants on the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil. Several alkane oxidising Gram positive and Gram negative were tested for their abilities to oxidise alkanes in crude oil emulsified with surfactants. The surfactants used to make the oil in water emulsions were either of microbial or chemical origin. Oxidation rates of resting bacteria oxidising various crude oil in water emulsions were measured by Warburg respirometry. The emulsions were compared with non-emulsified oil to see which was the preferred substrate. The bacteria were pregrown to both the exponential and stationary phase of growth before harvesting and preparation for the Warburg experiments. 123 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in liquid organic waste (effluent samples)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpe, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in some liquid organic wastes (cassava mill effluents, rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents) was carried out. Hydrocarbon utilising bacteria were isolated on mineral salt agar using vapour phase technique. The samples yielded 20 bacterial isolates from 13 different genera. Cassava mill effluent and rubber effluent had the highest number (7), while oil palm effluent had the least number (6) of bacterial isolates. The isolates that had the highest occurrence (occurring in all samples) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Of these 13 genera 9 were gram negative, while only 4 were gram positive. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count and total hydrocarbon utilisers (THU) from all the effluent samples ranged from 3.0 * 10/sup 4/ to 6.0* 10/sup 7/ cfu/mL and 2.3 *10/sup 2/ to 4.2*10/sup 3/ cfu/mL, respectively. The counts of hydrocarbon utilisers were obviously lower than the heterotrophic counts, although the differences in counts were found to be statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents had the highest number of hydrocarbon utilisers with three isolates each. The active hydrocarbon utilisers encountered in this study included Serratia marscescens, Bacillus cereus, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacillus subtilis. Presence of nutrients and crude oil degrading bacteria in these effluents suggests that these effluents can be used to enhance bioremediation through their use as biostimulation and bioaugmentation agents. (author)

  15. Production of rhamnolipids and diesel oil degradation by bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Giuseppe G F; Figueirôa, Juciane V; Almeida, Thiago C M; Valões, Jaqueline L; Marques, Walber F; Duarte, Maria D D C; Gorlach-Lira, Krystyna

    2016-03-01

    Biosurfactants are microbial secondary metabolites. The most studied are rhamnolipids, which decrease the surface tension and have emulsifying capacity. In this study, the production of biosurfactants, with emphasis on rhamnolipids, and diesel oil degradation by 18 strains of bacteria isolated from waste landfill soil contaminated by petroleum was analyzed. Among the studied bacteria, gram-positive endospore forming rods (39%), gram positive rods without endospores (17%), and gram-negative rods (44%) were found. The following methods were used to test for biosurfactant production: oil spreading, emulsification, and hemolytic activity. All strains showed the ability to disperse the diesel oil, while 77% and 44% of the strains showed hemolysis and emulsification of diesel oil, respectively. Rhamnolipids production was observed in four strains that were classified on the basis of the 16S rRNA sequences as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only those strains showed the rhlAB gene involved in rhamnolipids synthesis, and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia carotovora, and Ralstonia solanacearum. The highest production of rhamnolipids was 565.7 mg/L observed in mineral medium containing olive oil (pH 8). With regard to the capacity to degrade diesel oil, it was observed that 7 strains were positive in reduction of the dye 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (2,6-DCPIP) while 16 had the gene alkane mono-oxygenase (alkB), and the producers of rhamnolipids were positive in both tests. Several bacterial strains have shown high potential to be explored further for bioremediation purposes due to their simultaneous ability to emulsify, disperse, and degrade diesel oil. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:262-270, 2016. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Physiological aspects of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) grown in microcosms with oil-degrading bacteria and oil contaminated sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodré, Vanessa; Caetano, Vanessa S.; Rocha, Renata M.; Carmo, Flávia L.; Medici, Leonardo O.; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the severity of oil spills on mangroves, diagnosis of the vegetation health is crucial. Some aspects of photosynthesis such as photochemical efficiency and leaf pigment composition together with the level of oxidative stress may constitute reliable indicators for vegetation health. To test this approach 14 month old Laguncularia racemosa were contaminated with 5 L m −2 of the marine fuel oil MF-380 and treated with an oil degrading bacterial consortium in microcosms. Contamination resulted in a 20% decrease in shoot dry weight after 128 days. Photochemical efficiency, pigment content, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase remained unchanged. Multivariate ordination of DGGE microbial community fingerprints revealed a pronounced separation between the oil contaminated and the non-contaminated samples. Further studies are necessary before physiological parameters can be recommended as indicators for plant's health in oil polluted mangroves. - Highlights: ► L. racemosa growth rate was reduced by 20% in response to a simulated oil spill of 5 L m −2 in a microcosm. ► Photochemistry was not directly affected by the oil contamination during the 128-day experiment. ► Oil contamination changed the rhizobacterial community. ► The oil degrading bacteria consortium did not affect plant growth. - Despite the need to establish methods to diagnose the health status of mangroves little is known about the impacts of petrochemicals on mangrove plants and associated rhizosphere microorganisms.

  17. Exploration of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on soils contaminated by crude oil from South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Napoleon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3 sites of contaminated soil and treated using SBS medium were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnumoniae, Streptococcus beta hemolisa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acinotobacter calcoaceticus. Isolates that survived on 300 ppm of hydrocarbon concentration were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter cakciaceticus Selected isolates posses the ability to degrade hydrocarbon by breaking hydrocarbon substance as the energy source to support isolates existence up to 1,67 TPH level. Based on results accomplish by this research, we urge for further research involving the capacity of isolates to degrade wide variety of hydrocarbon substance and more to develop the potential of these bacteria for bioremediation.

  18. Characterization of Crude Oil Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soils Surrounding Gas Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Eraky, Mohamed; Haddad, Ahmed M; Abdel-Gaffar, Abdel-Rahman B; Salem, Ahmed M

    2016-11-01

    A total of twenty bacterial cultures were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Of the 20 isolates, RAM03, RAM06, RAM13, and RAM17 were specifically chosen based on their relatively higher growth on salt medium amended with 4 % crude oil, emulsion index, surface tension, and degradation percentage. These bacterial cultures had 16S rRNA gene sequences that were most similar to Ochrobactrum cytisi (RAM03), Ochrobactrum anthropi (RAM06 and RAM17), and Sinorhizobium meliloti (RAM13) with 96 %, 100 % and 99 %, and 99 % similarity. The tested strains revealed a promising potential for bioremediation of petroleum oil contamination as they could degrade >93 % and 54 % of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in a liquid medium and soil amended with 4 % crude oil, respectively, after 30 day incubation. These bacteria could effectively remove both aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons. In conclusion, these strains could be considered as good prospects for their application in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated environment.

  19. Detection of Toluene Degradation in Bacteria Isolated from Oil Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Hamzah; Tavakoli, A.; Amir Rabu

    2011-01-01

    Toluene (C 7 H 8 ) a hydrocarbon in crude oil, is a common contaminant in soil and groundwater. In this study, the ability to degrade toluene was investigated from twelve bacteria isolates which were isolated from soil contaminated with oil. Out of 12 bacterial isolates tested, most of Pseudomonas sp. showed the capability to grow in 1 mM of toluene compared with other isolates on the third day of incubation. Based on enzyme assays towards toluene monooxygenase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UKMP-14T and Bacillus cereus UKMP-6G were shown to have the highest ability to degrade toluene. The toluene monooxygenase activity was analysed by using two calorimetric methods, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and indole-indigo. Both of the methods measured the production of catechol by the enzymatic reaction of toluene monooxygenase. In the HRP assay, the highest enzyme activity was 0.274 U/ mL, exhibited by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UKMP-14T. However, for indole-indigo assay, Bacillus cereus UKMP-6G produced the highest enzyme activity of 0.291 U/ ml. Results from both experiments showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa UKMP-14T and Bacillus cereus UKMP-6G were able to degrade toluene. (author)

  20. Reconditioning of soils degraded through oil contamination using bacteria relating to thiosphaera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhno, T.V.; Kurashov, V.M.; Kolesnik, A.A.; Morozkin, A.I.; Gavrilov, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    Bio-preparations based on aerobic bacteria are conventionally used to decontaminate soils of oil. There is a problem of no effect in oil decomposing by using conventional bio-preparations in soils where the depth of oil penetration into the soil exceeds 60 cm in the case of oil outflow. At deep oil penetration into the soil, the efficiency of oil biodegradation with aerobic hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms is limited by the factor of oxygen accessibility (oxygen limit). We used Thiosphaera pantotropha as a mono-culture and together with a culture of Pseudomonas putida to solve this problem. Pseudomonas putida being aerobes decompose oil effectively at oil concentration up to 25 g of oil in 1 kg of soil and at the depth of oil penetration into the soil up to 25-30 cm. At a deeper level of soil, the activity of Pseudomonas putida falls because of oxygen limit. At the depth of 60 cm and deeper, Pseudomonas putida stop oxidize and decompose oil because of the limited oxygen accessibility. Bacteria of Thiosphaera pantotropha being elective anaerobes decompose oil both in the presence and in the absence of oxygen, and at low concentrations of oxygen insufficient for vital functions of obligate aerobic species of bacteria. Thus, bacteria of Thiosphaera pantotropha decompose hydrocarbons independently on the depth of oil penetration into the soil. Due to special features of their metabolism, bacteria of Thiosphaera pantotropha can realize their vital functions and decompose hydrocarbons at high oil concentrations in soils at which conventionally used bio-preparations can not be effective. We found out that Thiosphaera decompose sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds in oil which are chemically and thermally stable and can be hardly decomposed, and possess extremely poisonous properties, as well. The use of microorganisms of Thiosphaera pantotropha allows to purify soils polluted with oil and oil products. The results obtained are applied to the cleaning of

  1. Sequential Isolation of Saturated, Aromatic, Resinic and Asphaltic Fractions Degrading Bacteria from Oil Contaminated Soil in South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingkan Aditiawati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sequential isolation has been conducted to obtain isolates of saturated, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions degrading bacteria from oil contaminated sites. Five soil samples were collected from South Sumatera. These were analyzed using soil extract medium enriched with oil recovery or Remaining-Oil recovery Degradated (ROD as sole carbon and energy sources according to the isolation stage. ROD at the end of every isolation stage analyzed oil fractions by use of the SARA analysis method. Six isolates of bacteria have been selected, one isolate was fraction saturates degrading bacteria that are Mycobacterium sp. T1H2D4-7 at degradation rate 0.0199 mgs/h with density 8.4x106 cfu/g from stage I. The isolate T2H1D2-4, identified as Pseudomonas sp. was fraction aromatics degrading bacteria at accelerate 0.0141 mgs/h with density 5.1x106 cfu/g are obtained at stage II. Two isolates namely Micrococcus sp. T3H2D4-2 and Pseudomonas sp. T1H1D5-5 were fraction resins degrading bacteria by accelerate 0.0088 mgs/h at density 5.6x106 cfu/g and 0.0089 mgs/h at density 5.7x106 cfu/g are obtained at stage III. Isolation of stage IV has been obtained two isolates Pseudomonas sp. T4H1D3-1and Pseudomonas sp. T4H3D5-4 were fraction asphaltenes degrading bacteria by accelerate 0.0057 mgs/h at density 5.6x106 cfu/g and accelerate 0.0058 mgs/h at density 5.7x106 cfu/g.

  2. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  3. Characterization of dioxygenases and biosurfactants produced by crude oil degrading soil bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhakumar Muthukamalam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Role of microbes in bioremediation of oil spills has become inevitable owing to their eco friendly nature. This study focused on the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with superior oil degrading potential from crude-oil contaminated soil. Three such bacterial strains were selected and subsequently identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Acinetobacter baumannii and Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans respectively. The specific activity of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12O and catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23O was determined in these three strains wherein the activity of C12O was more than that of C23O. Among the three strains, Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans exhibited superior crude oil degrading ability as evidenced by its superior growth rate in crude oil enriched medium and enhanced activity of dioxygenases. Also degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH in crude oil was higher with Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans. The three strains also produced biosurfactants of glycolipid nature as indicated d by biochemical, FTIR and GCMS analysis. These findings emphasize that such bacterial strains with superior oil degrading capacity may find their potential application in bioremediation of oil spills and conservation of marine and soil ecosystem.

  4. Isolation, molecular and biochemical characterization of oil degrading bacteria from contaminated soil at an oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Deeb, T.M.; Malkawi, H.I.

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradation using microorganisms is considered to be cost-effective and environmentally friendly treatment of oil-contaminated sites. Oil-biodegrading bacterial strains were isolated, identified and characterized from oil contaminated soil samples at oil refinery in Zarqa (Jordan). Thirty four bacterial isolates were grown on mineral salt media supplemented with crude oil, but 16 showed positive biodegradation of diesel. All the 34 bacterial isolates were characterized at the molecular and bio-chemical levels, and showed positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification product size of 1500 bp when 16s rDNA bacterial universal primers were used. Eighteen bacterial isolates showed positive PCR amplification product size of 150 bp specific for the genus Pseudomonas and 3 bacterial isolates showed positive amplification product size of 1500 bp specific for the genus Acinetobacter. Biochemical and physiological characterization performed on the 34 bacterial isolates revealed the presence of oil biodegrading bacterial genera and species of Pseudomonas Acidovorans, P. aeruginosa, P. vesicularis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Ac. lowffii, Micro-ococcus luteus, M. varians, M. lylae, M. roseus, Alcaligenes denitrificians, Bacillus megaterium, Comamonas sp., Moralxella sp., Bordetella sp., P. putida, P. stutzeri and P. mallei. (au)

  5. Alkane and crude oil degrading bacteria from the petroliferous soil of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, I.; Mishra, A.K.; Ray, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 0.5 percent of transported crude oil finds its way into seawater, largely through accidental spills and discharge of ballast and wash water from oil tankers. Some microorganisms are well known for their ability to degrade a variety of hydrocarbons present in crude oil. Oil spills at sea or on land have demonstrated the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of these organisms. Under laboratory conditions, nitrogen may be supplied in soluble form (inorganic salts of ammonia or nitrate of urea). Since most natural aquatic environments are deficient in utilizable forms of nitrogen, it is necessary to add the same exogeneously, but because of rapid dilution the added source of nitrogen does not remain effective. The need for nitrogen supplements may be overcome by appropriate choice of microbes with the genetic capacity to fix molecular nitrogen. In this paper the authors are reporting the isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri from the petroliferous soil of India. This strain has the capacity to degrade alkane and crude oil and to fix nitrogen

  6. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Tony; Singleton, David R; Berry, David; Yang, Tingting; Aitken, Michael D; Teske, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The massive influx of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster triggered dramatic microbial community shifts in surface oil slick and deep plume waters. Previous work had shown several taxa, notably DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus and Colwellia, were found to be enriched in these waters based on their dominance in conventional clone and pyrosequencing libraries and were thought to have had a significant role in the degradation of the oil. However, this type of community analysis data failed to provide direct evidence on the functional properties, such as hydrocarbon degradation of organisms. Using DNA-based stable-isotope probing with uniformly 13C-labelled hydrocarbons, we identified several aliphatic (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter)- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia)-degrading bacteria. We also isolated several strains (Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Cycloclasticus, Halomonas, Marinobacter and Pseudoalteromonas) with demonstrable hydrocarbon-degrading qualities from surface slick and plume water samples collected during the active phase of the spill. Some of these organisms accounted for the majority of sequence reads representing their respective taxa in a pyrosequencing data set constructed from the same and additional water column samples. Hitherto, Alcanivorax was not identified in any of the previous water column studies analysing the microbial response to the spill and we discuss its failure to respond to the oil. Collectively, our data provide unequivocal evidence on the hydrocarbon-degrading qualities for some of the dominant taxa enriched in surface and plume waters during the DWH oil spill, and a more complete understanding of their role in the fate of the oil. PMID:23788333

  7. Isolation, screening, and characterization of surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria of Mumbai Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Rajamani; Jagtap, Chandrakant; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-04-15

    Diverse marine bacterial species predominantly found in oil-polluted seawater produce diverse surface-active agents. Surface-active agents produced by bacteria are classified into two groups based on their molecular weights, namely biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers. In this study, surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria were isolated using a modified Bushnell-Haas medium with high-speed diesel as a carbon source from three oil-polluted sites of Mumbai Harbor. Surface-active agent-producing bacterial strains were screened using nine widely used methods. The nineteen bacterial strains showed positive results for more than four surface-active agent screening methods; further, these strains were characterized using biochemical and nucleic acid sequencing methods. Based on the results, the organisms belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Comamonas, Chryseomicrobium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Nesterenkonia, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. The present study confirmed the prevalence of surface-active agent-producing bacteria in the oil-polluted waters of Mumbai Harbor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation of Thermophilic Lignin Degrading Bacteria from Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C. M. T.; Chua, H. B.; Danquah, M. K.; Saptoro, A.

    2017-06-01

    Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) is a potential and sustainable feedstock for bioethanol production due to its high cellulosic content and availability in Malaysia. Due to high lignin content of EFB and the lack of effective delignification process, commercial bioethanol production from EFB is presently not viable. Enzymatic delignification has been identified as one of the key steps in utilising EFB as a feedstock for bioethanol conversion. To date, limited work has been reported on the isolation of lignin degrading bacteria. Hence, there is a growing interest to search for new lignin degrading bacteria with greater tolerance to temperature and high level of ligninolytic enzymes for more effective lignin degradation. This study aimed to isolate and screen thermophilic ligninolytic microorganisms from EFB compost. Ten isolates were successfully isolated from EFB compost. Although they are not capable of decolorizing Methylene Blue (MB) dye under agar plate assay method, they are able to utilize lignin mimicked compound - guaiacol as a sole carbon on the agar plate assay. This infers that there is no correlation of ligninolytic enzymes with dye decolourization for all the isolates that have been isolated. However, they are able to produce ligninolytic enzymes (Lignin peroxidase, Manganese peroxidase, Laccase) in Minimal Salt Medium with Kraft Lignin (MSM-KL) with Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) as the predominant enzyme followed by Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac). Among all the tested isolates, CLMT 29 has the highest LiP production up to 8.7673 U/mL following 24 h of growth.

  9. Remediation of saline soils contaminated with crude oil using the halophyte Salicornia persica in conjunction with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Ali; Khoshkholgh Sima, Nayer Azam; Olamaee, Mohsen; Hashemi, Maryam; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Reza

    2018-05-08

    The negative impact of salinity on plant growth and the survival of rhizosphere biota complicates the application of bioremediation to crude oil-contaminated saline soils. Here, a comparison was made between the remedial effect of treating the soil with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a salinity tolerant hydrocarbon-degrading consortium in conjunction with either the halophyte Salicornia persica or the non-halophyte Festuca arundinacea. The effect of the various treatments on salinized soils was measured by assessing the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation, the soil's dehydrogenase activity, the abundance of the bacteria and the level of phytotoxicity as measured by a bioassay. When a non-salinized soil was assessed after a treatment period of 120 days, the ranking for effectiveness with respect to TPH removal was F. arundinacea > P. aeruginosa > S. persica > no treatment control, while in the presence of salinity, the ranking changed to S. persica > P. aeruginosa > F. arundinacea > no treatment control. Combining the planting of S. persica or F. arundinacea with P. aeruginosa inoculation ("bioaugmentation") boosted the degradation of TPH up to 5-17%. Analyses of the residual oil contamination revealed that long chain alkanes (above C20) were particularly strongly degraded following the bioaugmentation treatments. The induced increase in dehydrogenase activity and the abundance of the bacteria (3.5 and 10 fold respectively) achieved in the bioaugmentation/S. persica treatment resulted in 46-76% reduction in soil phytotoxicity in a saline soil. The indication was that bioaugmentation of halophyte can help to mitigate the adverse effects on the effectiveness of bioremediation in a crude oil-contaminated saline soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DEGRADATION OF WEATHERED OIL BY MIXED MARINE BACTERIA AND THE TOXICITY OF ACCUMULATED WATER-SOLUBLE MATERIAL TO TWO MARINE CRUSTACEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificially weathered crude oil was degraded by four diverse cultures of mixed marine bacteria under optimized conditions for 7 and 14 days. Loss in total weight of starting oil (30 g) ranged from 6.8-17.3% in biologically active incubations compared with only 0.9-1.1% in steril...

  11. A Survey of Deepwater Horizon (DWH Oil-Degrading Bacteria from the Eastern Oyster Biome and its Surrounding Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eThomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident led to the release of an estimated 794,936,474 liters of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico over an 85 day period in 2010, resulting in the contamination of the Gulf of Mexico waters, sediments, permeable beach sands, coastal wetlands and marine life. This study examines the potential response of the Eastern oyster’s microbiome to hydrocarbon contamination and compares it with the bacterial community responses observed from the overlaying water column and the oyster bed sediments. For this purpose, microcosms seeded with DWH crude oil were established and inoculated separately with oyster tissue (OT, mantle fluid (MF, overlaying water column (WC and sediments (S collected from Apalachicola Bay, FL. Shifts in the microbial community structure in the amended microcosms was monitored over a 3-month period using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer region analysis (ARISA, which showed that the microbiome of the oyster tissue and mantle fluid were more similar to the sediment communities than those present in the overlaying water column. This pattern remained largely consistent, regardless of the concentration of crude oil or the enrichment period. Additionally, 72 oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from the microcosms containing OT, MF, WC and S and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequencing and compared by principal component analysis (PCA which clearly showed that the water column isolates were different to those identified from the sediment. Conversely, the oyster tissue and mantle fluid isolates clustered together; a strong indication that the oyster microbiome is uniquely structured relative to its surrounding environment. When selected isolates from the OT, MF, WC and S were assessed for their oil-degrading potential, we found that the DWH oil was biodegraded between 12%-42%, under the existing conditions.

  12. Microbial oil-degradation under mild hydrostatic pressure (10 MPa): which pathways are impacted in piezosensitive hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Mapelli, Francesca; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills represent an overwhelming carbon input to the marine environment that immediately impacts the sea surface ecosystem. Microbial communities degrading the oil fraction that eventually sinks to the seafloor must also deal with hydrostatic pressure, which linearly increases with depth. Piezosensitive hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria are ideal candidates to elucidate impaired pathways following oil spills at low depth. In the present paper, we tested two strains of the ubiquitous Alcanivorax genus, namely A. jadensis KS_339 and A. dieselolei KS_293, which is known to rapidly grow after oil spills. Strains were subjected to atmospheric and mild pressure (0.1, 5 and 10 MPa, corresponding to a depth of 0, 500 and 1000 m, respectively) providing n-dodecane as sole carbon source. Pressures equal to 5 and 10 MPa significantly lowered growth yields of both strains. However, in strain KS_293 grown at 10 MPa CO2 production per cell was not affected, cell integrity was preserved and PO43− uptake increased. Analysis of its transcriptome revealed that 95% of its genes were downregulated. Increased transcription involved protein synthesis, energy generation and respiration pathways. Interplay between these factors may play a key role in shaping the structure of microbial communities developed after oil spills at low depth and limit their bioremediation potential. PMID:27020120

  13. Microbial oil-degradation under mild hydrostatic pressure (10 MPa): which pathways are impacted in piezosensitive hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria?

    KAUST Repository

    Scoma, Alberto

    2016-03-29

    Oil spills represent an overwhelming carbon input to the marine environment that immediately impacts the sea surface ecosystem. Microbial communities degrading the oil fraction that eventually sinks to the seafloor must also deal with hydrostatic pressure, which linearly increases with depth. Piezosensitive hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria are ideal candidates to elucidate impaired pathways following oil spills at low depth. In the present paper, we tested two strains of the ubiquitous Alcanivorax genus, namely A. jadensis KS_339 and A. dieselolei KS_293, which is known to rapidly grow after oil spills. Strains were subjected to atmospheric and mild pressure (0.1, 5 and 10 MPa, corresponding to a depth of 0, 500 and 1000 m, respectively) providing n-dodecane as sole carbon source. Pressures equal to 5 and 10 MPa significantly lowered growth yields of both strains. However, in strain KS_293 grown at 10 MPa CO2 production per cell was not affected, cell integrity was preserved and PO43− uptake increased. Analysis of its transcriptome revealed that 95% of its genes were downregulated. Increased transcription involved protein synthesis, energy generation and respiration pathways. Interplay between these factors may play a key role in shaping the structure of microbial communities developed after oil spills at low depth and limit their bioremediation potential.

  14. Metagenome enrichment approach used for selection of oil-degrading bacteria consortia for drill cutting residue bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alaine B; Oliveira, Jorge S; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; Araújo, Wydemberg; Carlos, Aline C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Domingos, Yldeney Silva; de Farias, Mirna Ferreira; Fernandes, Glauber José Turolla; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2018-04-01

    Drill cuttings leave behind thousands of tons of residues without adequate treatment, generating a large environmental liability. Therefore knowledge about the microbial community of drilling residue may be useful for developing bioremediation strategies. In this work, samples of drilling residue were enriched in different culture media in the presence of petroleum, aiming to select potentially oil-degrading bacteria and biosurfactant producers. Total DNA was extracted directly from the drill cutting samples and from two enriched consortia and sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. Taxonomic analysis revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria in the metagenome from the drill cuttings, while Firmicutes was enriched in consortia samples. Functional analysis using the Biosurfactants and Biodegradation Database (BioSurfDB) revealed a similar pattern among the three samples regarding hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactants production pathways. However, some statistical differences were observed between samples. Namely, the pathways related to the degradation of fatty acids, chloroalkanes, and chloroalkanes were enriched in consortia samples. The degradation colorimetric assay using dichlorophenolindophenol as an indicator was positive for several hydrocarbon substrates. The consortia were also able to produce biosurfactants, with biosynthesis of iturin, lichnysin, and surfactin among the more abundant pathways. A microcosms assay followed by gas chromatography analysis showed the efficacy of the consortia in degrading alkanes, as we observed a reduction of around 66% and 30% for each consortium in total alkanes. These data suggest the potential use of these consortia in the bioremediation of drilling residue based on autochthonous bioaugmentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  16. Isolation and Identification of Carcinogen Acenaphthene-Degrading Endemic Bacteria from Crude Oil Contaminated Soils around Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: PAHs are non-polar organic compounds consisting of two or more fused benzene multi-rings. Among these compounds, acenaphthene is a multi-ring hydrocarbon that occurs abundantly in nature. Use of microorganisms to clean the contaminations of soil can be cheap and effective. The most important acenaphthene-degrading bacteria are pseudomonas, micrococcus, and Bacillus. The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria which degrade acenaphthene in soils around Abadan Refinery and to investigate the relation between the levels of environmental pollution with acenaphthene. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from three areas around Abadan Refinery. The number of the bacteria was counted on the nutrient agar culture with and without acenaphthene. Isolation of the bacteria was done by culturing the samples on acenaphthene broth with a mineral-salt medium, and on an acenaphthene agar medium. Then, the bacteria were identified via biochemical diagnostic tests. Results: The logarithm average of the bacteria was 4.786 ± 0.073 at a medium with acenaphthene, which was 6.671 ± 0.073 less than that of the control medium. The maximum number of degrading bacteria was 7.089 ± 0.089 at Station C, and the minimum number of the degrading bacteria was 4.485 ± 0.089 at Station B. In this study, Bacillus sp, Micrococcus Luteus, Corynebacterium sp, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas sp bacteria were isolated and identified in terms of frequency, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the soil around Abadan Refinery contained a great number of acenaphthene degrading bacteria, especially Bacillus and Micrococcus.

  17. Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of bacteria isolated from spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of bacteria isolated from spent lubricating oil contaminated soil. ... This study has shown that resident bacteria strains in lubricating oil contaminated soils have potential application in the bioremediation of oil polluted sites and enhance the possibility of developing models and strategies ...

  18. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaerun, S. Khodijah; Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon- degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed inside the building and outside the building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  19. Bacterial Structure and Characterization of Plant Growth Promoting and Oil Degrading Bacteria from the Rhizospheres of Mangrove Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    do Carmo, Flavia Lima; dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; Martins, Edir Ferreira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    Most oil from oceanic spills converges on coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove forests, which are threatened with worldwide disappearance. Particular bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere of local plant species can stimulate plant development through various mechanisms; it would be advantageous if

  20. Diversity of alkane degrading bacteria associated with plants in a petroleum oil-contaminated environment and expression of alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andria, V.; Yousaf, S.; Reichenauer, T. G.; Smalla, K.; Sessitsch, A.

    2009-04-01

    Among twenty-six different plant species, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. Taurus), Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. Leo), and the combination of both plants performed well in a petroleum oil contaminated soil. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere, root interior and shoot interior and subjected to the analysis of 16S rRNA, the 16S and 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and alkane hydroxylase genes. Higher numbers of culturable, degrading bacteria were associated with Italian ryegrass, which were also characterized by a higher diversity, particularly in the plant interior. Only half of the isolated bacteria hosted known alkane hydroxylase genes (alkB and cytochrome P153-like). Our results indicated that alkB genes have spread through horizontal gene transfer, particularly in the Italian ryegrass rhizosphere, and suggested mobility of catabolic genes between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. We furthermore studied the colonization behaviour of selected hydrocarbon-degrading strains (comprising an endopyhte and a rhizosphere strain) as well as the expression of their alkane monooxygenase genes in association with Italian ryegrass. Results showed that the endophyte strain better colonized the plant, particularly the plant interior, and also showed higher expression of alkB genes suggesting a more efficient degradation of the pollutant. Furthermore, plants inoculated with the endophyte were better able to grow in the presence of diesel. The rhizosphere strain colonized primarily the rhizosphere and showed low alkB gene expression in the plant interior.

  1. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  2. Occurrence of diverse alkane hydroxylase alkB genes in indigenous oil-degrading bacteria of Baltic Sea surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggor, Signe; Jõesaar, Merike; Vedler, Eve; Kiiker, Riinu; Pärnpuu, Liis; Heinaru, Ain

    2015-12-30

    Formation of specific oil degrading bacterial communities in diesel fuel, crude oil, heptane and hexadecane supplemented microcosms of the Baltic Sea surface water samples was revealed. The 475 sequences from constructed alkane hydroxylase alkB gene clone libraries were grouped into 30 OPFs. The two largest groups were most similar to Pedobacter sp. (245 from 475) and Limnobacter sp. (112 from 475) alkB gene sequences. From 56 alkane-degrading bacterial strains 41 belonged to the Pseudomonas spp. and 8 to the Rhodococcus spp. having redundant alkB genes. Together 68 alkB gene sequences were identified. These genes grouped into 20 OPFs, half of them being specific only to the isolated strains. Altogether 543 diverse alkB genes were characterized in the brackish Baltic Sea water; some of them representing novel lineages having very low sequence identities with corresponding genes of the reference strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, K.; Dahlmann, G.; Gunkel, W.

    1993-01-01

    Data were collected in 1988 and 1989 on the distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Crude oil degrading bacteria and the number of bacteria which in particular degrade naphthalene were quantified using a modified dilution method (MPN). Crude oil degrading bacteria were present in all of about 100 water samples, with as many as 10 3 ml -1 in some samples. Numbers of naphthalene degrading bacteria were at least tenfold lower. There is obviously a greater connection between this bacteria group and petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination than between the more nonspecific group of crude oil degrading bacteria and PHC contamination. Data from the North Sea show an extremely high abundance of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, even in winter, while in the southern Baltic Sea low numbers of bacteria were found and slower crude oil degradation was observed. (orig.)

  4. Crude oil degradation potential of bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soil and animal wastes in soil amended with animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voke O. Urhibo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of animal wastes on crude oil degradation potential of strains of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis isolated from animal wastes (poultry and pig droppings and petroleum-polluted soil was compared in laboratory studies. Both bacterial strains were selected for high crude oil degradation ability after screening many isolates by the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol method. Analyses by gas chromatography (GC showed that degradation of crude oil was markedly enhanced (88.3–97.3% vs 72.1–78.8% in soil amended with animal wastes as indicated by the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH. TPH reduction by animal waste bacterial strains in animal waste-amended soil was more than the reduction by strains from soil contaminated with petroleum (P < 0.001. The greatest reduction of TPH (96.6–97.3% vs 80.4–95.9% was by poultry waste strains and it occurred in soil amended with poultry waste. GC analyses of n-alkanes showed that although shorter chains were preferentially degraded [32.0–78.5% (C8–23 vs 6.3–18.5% (C24–36] in normal soil, biodegradation of longer chains increased to 38.4–46.3% in animal waste-amended soil inoculated with the same animal wastes’ strains. The results indicate that these animal waste strains may be of potential application for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in the presence of the wastes from where they were isolated.

  5. Hydrocarbon-degrading Capability of Bacteria isolated from a Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon-degrading Capability of Bacteria isolated from a Maize-Planted, Kerosene-contaminated Ilorin Alfisol. ... also revealed that some bacteria survive and even thrive in kerosene contaminated soil and hence have the potential to be used in biodegradation and/or bioremediation of oil contaminated soils and water.

  6. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by oil field isolated bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mixed consortium was prepared with 15 bacteria isolated by enrichment technique from the sample collected from an oil contaminated site. This consortium was incubated with crude oil to investigate the metabolic capability of bacteria. The degradation efficiency of the isolates in consortium was checked with 2% crude oil ...

  7. Molecular application for identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading bacteria (PAHD) species isolated from oil polluted soil in Dammam, Saud Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Al-Turki, Ameena; Al-Sewedi, Dona; Arif, Ibrahim A; El-Gaaly, Gehan A

    2015-09-01

    Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbon products such as diesel and engine oil is becoming one of the major environmental problems. This study describes hydrocarbons degrading bacteria (PHAD) isolated from long-standing petrol polluted soil from the eastern region, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The isolated strains were firstly categorized by accessible shape detection, physiological and biochemistry tests. Thereafter, a technique established on the sequence analysis of a 16S rDNA gene was used. Isolation of DNA from the bacterial strains was performed, on which the PCR reaction was carried out. Strains were identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, As follows amplified samples were spontaneously sequenced automatically and the attained results were matched to open databases. Among the isolated bacterial strains, S1 was identified as Staphylococcus aureus and strain S1 as Corynebacterium amycolatum.

  8. Bacteria-mediated bisphenol A degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yin, Kun; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, food cans, and other daily used chemicals. Daily and worldwide usage of BPA and BPA-contained products led to its ubiquitous distribution in water, sediment/soil, and atmosphere. Moreover, BPA has been identified as an environmental endocrine disruptor for its estrogenic and genotoxic activity. Thus, BPA contamination in the environment is an increasingly worldwide concern, and methods to efficiently remove BPA from the environment are urgently recommended. Although many factors affect the fate of BPA in the environment, BPA degradation is mainly depended on the metabolism of bacteria. Many BPA-degrading bacteria have been identified from water, sediment/soil, and wastewater treatment plants. Metabolic pathways of BPA degradation in specific bacterial strains were proposed, based on the metabolic intermediates detected during the degradation process. In this review, the BPA-degrading bacteria were summarized, and the (proposed) BPA degradation pathway mediated by bacteria were referred.

  9. Isolation of naphthalene-degrading bacteria from tropical marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, W.-Q.; Tay, J.-H.; Maszenan, A.M.; Tay, S.T.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major environmental concern in many countries, and this has led to a concerted effort in studying the feasibility of using oil-degrading bacteria for bioremediation. Although many oil-degrading bacteria have been isolated from different environments, environmental conditions can impose a selection pressure on the types of bacteria that can reside in a particular environment. This study reports the successful isolation of two indigenous naphthalene-degrading bacteria from oil-contaminated tropical marine sediments by enrichment culture. Strains MN-005 and MN-006 were characterized using an extensive range of biochemical tests. The 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) sequence analysis was also performed for the two strains. Their naphthalene degradation capabilities were determined using gas chromatography and DAPI counting of bacterial cells. Strains MN-005 and MN-006 are phenotypically and phylogenetically different from each other, and belong to the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus, respectively. Strains MN-005 and MN-006 has maximal specific growth rates (μ max ) of 0.082±0.008 and 0.30±0.02 per hour, respectively, and half-saturation constants (K s ) of 0.79±0.10 and 2.52±0.32 mg per litre, respectively. These physiological and growth studies are useful in assessing the potential of these indigenous isolates for in situ or ex situ naphthalene pollutant bioremediation in tropical marine environments. (author)

  10. Isolation and identification α-Naphthol-degrading bacteria from oil-contaminated soils of Masjed-e-Soleyman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Rahmatabadi

    2018-03-01

    Discussion and conclusion: The isolate N1 could degrade α-naph‏thol by 80.5% from BSM medium at 30° C, pH 7.0 and the α-naph‏thol concentration of 100ppm in fifteen days of incub‏a‏tion.  According to the results, the isolate N1 can remove a large amount of the α-naph‏thol from BSM medium under the mentioned conditions and it is possible that under a similar situation the isolate N1 can remove a large amount of α-naph‏thol.

  11. Isolation and identification of aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs degrading bacteria. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in lab scale aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Polyurethane foams were used as bio-carrier and synthetic wastewater was prepared with PCBs in transformer oil as the main substrate (20-700 μg/l and acetone as a solvent for PCBs as well as microelements. After achieving to adequate microbial population and acclimation of microorganisms to PCB compounds with high efficiency of PCB removal, identification of degrading microbial species was performed by 16s rRNA gene sequencing of isolated bacteria. Results: Gene sequencing results of the isolated bacteria showed that Rhodococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Pseudoxanthomonas spp., Agromyces spp., and Brevibacillus spp. were dominant PCB-degrading bacteria. Conclusion: PCB compounds can be degraded by some microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions or at least be reduced to low chlorinated congeners, despite their chemical stability and toxicity. Based on the results of the study, five bacterial species capable of degrading PCBs in transformer oil have been identified.

  12. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Considering the Specific Impact of Harsh Conditions and Oil Weathering on Diversity, Adaptation, and Activity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Strategies of Bioremediation of Harsh Oily-Polluted Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Disi, Zulfa; Jaoua, Samir; Al-Thani, Dhabia; Al-Meer, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Weathering processes change properties and composition of spilled oil, representing the main reason of failure of bioaugmentation strategies. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic adaptation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at harsh conditions to be considered to overcome the limitations of bioaugmentation strategies at harsh conditions. Polluted soils, exposed for prolonged periods to weathered oil in harsh soils and weather conditions, were used. Two types of enrichment cultures were employed using 5% and 10% oil or diesel as sole carbon sources with varying the mineral nitrogen sources and C/N ratios. The most effective isolates were obtained based on growth, tolerance to toxicity, and removal efficiency of diesel hydrocarbons. Activities of the newly isolated bacteria, in relation to the microenvironment from where they were isoalted and their interaction with the weathered oil, showed individual specific ability to adapt when exposed to such factors, to acquire metabolic potentialities. Among 39 isolates, ten identified ones by 16S rDNA genes similarities, including special two Pseudomonas isolates and one Citrobacter isolate, showed particularity of shifting hydrocarbon-degrading ability from short chain n-alkanes (n-C12–n-C16) to longer chain n-alkanes (n-C21–n-C25) and vice versa by alternating nitrogen source compositions and C/N ratios. This is shown for the first time. PMID:28243605

  14. Considering the Specific Impact of Harsh Conditions and Oil Weathering on Diversity, Adaptation, and Activity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Strategies of Bioremediation of Harsh Oily-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfa Al Disi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weathering processes change properties and composition of spilled oil, representing the main reason of failure of bioaugmentation strategies. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic adaptation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at harsh conditions to be considered to overcome the limitations of bioaugmentation strategies at harsh conditions. Polluted soils, exposed for prolonged periods to weathered oil in harsh soils and weather conditions, were used. Two types of enrichment cultures were employed using 5% and 10% oil or diesel as sole carbon sources with varying the mineral nitrogen sources and C/N ratios. The most effective isolates were obtained based on growth, tolerance to toxicity, and removal efficiency of diesel hydrocarbons. Activities of the newly isolated bacteria, in relation to the microenvironment from where they were isoalted and their interaction with the weathered oil, showed individual specific ability to adapt when exposed to such factors, to acquire metabolic potentialities. Among 39 isolates, ten identified ones by 16S rDNA genes similarities, including special two Pseudomonas isolates and one Citrobacter isolate, showed particularity of shifting hydrocarbon-degrading ability from short chain n-alkanes (n-C12–n-C16 to longer chain n-alkanes (n-C21–n-C25 and vice versa by alternating nitrogen source compositions and C/N ratios. This is shown for the first time.

  15. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  16. Research on heavy oil degradation by four thermophilic bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Chen, Q.; Liu, Z.; Li, Y. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China)

    2009-07-01

    The Shengli oilfield is the second largest onshore oil field in China, with a crude oil output of approximately 30 million tons per year. The large quantities of wastewater that are produced during thermal recovery methods have posed a challenge in terms of water reuse, reinjection and discharge. The important aspect of wastewater treatment is the removal of residual heavy oil. Biological methods are considered to be efficient in solving this problem. This paper reported on a study in which 4 thermophilic microorganisms which had the ability to biodegrade heavy oil were screened from heavy oil wastewater in the Shengli oilfield. Their degradation to heavy oil was discussed and the suitable biodegradation conditions of these bacteria were investigated. The study showed that the degrading efficiency of heavy oil by the 4 bacteria was up to 42.0, 47.6, 55.6 and 43.4 per cent in the wastewater which contained 500 mg per litre of heavy oil, respectively. The crude oil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) before and after degradation. The single 4 strains demonstrated strong biodegradability to normal alkanes and aromatics, and the average degrading efficiency was about 50 and 35 per cent. The degrading efficiency of the mixed 4 strains was better than the single ones, particularly for the poor biodegradable hydrocarbons such as phenanthrenes and fluorines. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  17. Degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Petersen, Elijah J.; Habteselassie, Mussie Y.; Mao, Liang; Huang, Qingguo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental transformation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is important to their life cycle assessment and potential environmental impacts. We report that a bacterial community is capable of degrading 14 C-labeled MWCNTs into 14 CO 2 in the presence of an external carbon source via co-metabolism. Multiple intermediate products were detected, and genotypic characterization revealed three possible microbial degraders: Burkholderia kururiensis, Delftia acidovorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This result suggests that microbe/MWCNTs interaction may impact the long-term fate of MWCNTs. Highlights: •Mineralization of MWCNTs by a bacterial community was observed. •The mineralization required an external carbon source. •Multiple intermediate products were identified in the MWCNT degrading culture. •Three bacterial species were found likely responsible for MWCNT degradation. -- The 14 C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes can be degraded to 14 CO 2 and other byproducts by a bacteria community under natural conditions

  18. Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater using oil degrading bacteria and phototrophic microorganisms in rotating biological contactor: Effect of N:P ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, Anal; Mukherji, Suparna

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater in bioreactors using heterotrophic microorganisms is often associated with various operational problems. In this study, a consortium of phototrophic microorganisms and a bacterium is developed on the discs of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of wastewater containing diesel oil. The reactor was fed with oil degrading bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia and oil tolerant phototrophic microorganisms. After biofilm formation and acclimatization to 0.6% (v/v) diesel, continuous-mode operation was initiated at 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Residual diesel in the effluent was 0.003%. Advantages of this system include good total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal, no soluble carbon source requirement and good settleability of biosolids. Biofilm observations revealed the predominance of B. cepacia and cyanobacteria (Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus). The N:P ratio affected the relative dominance of the phototrophic microorganisms and bacterial culture. This ratio was a critical factor in determining the performance efficiency of the reactor. At 21 h HRT and organic loading of 27.33 g TPH/m 2 d, the N:P ratio 28.5:1 and 38:1 both yielded high and almost comparable TPH and COD removal efficiencies. This study presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries

  19. Individually and Synergistic Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirarsalan Kavyanifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing worldwide contamination with hydrocarbons has urged environmental remediation using biological agents such as bacteria. Our goal here was to study the phylogenetic relationship of two crude oil degrader bacteria and investigation of their ability to degrade hydrocarbons. Materials and Methods: Phylogenetic relationship of isolates was determined using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Optimum conditions of each isolate for crude oil degradation were investigated using one factor in time method. The rate of crude oil degradation by individual and consortium bacteria was assayed via Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Biosurfactant production was measured by Du Noüy ring method using Krüss-K6 tensiometer. Results: The isolates were identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 and Dietzia cinnamea AP and clustered separately, while both are closely related to each other and with other isolates of Dietzia cinnamea. The optimal conditions for D. cinnamea KA1 were 35°C, pH9.0, 510 mM NaCl, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2PO4. In the case of D. cinnamea AP, the values were 30°C, pH8.0, 170 mM NaCl, and minimal requirement of 55.8 mM NH4Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2PO4, respectively. Gas chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS analysis showed that both isolates were able to utilize various crude oil compounds, but D. cinnamea KA1 was more efficient individually and consortium of isolates was the most. The isolates were able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil and optimization of MSM conditions lead to increase in biosurfactant production. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of synergistic relationship between two strains of D. cinnamea in biodegradation of crude oil components, including poisonous and carcinogenic compound in a short time.

  20. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  1. Active oil-water interfaces: buckling and deformation of oil drops by bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria are unicellular organisms that seek nutrients and energy for growth, division, and self-propulsion. Bacteria are also natural colloidal particles that attach and self-assemble at liquid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present experimental results on active oil-water interfaces that spontaneously form when bacteria accumulate or grow on the interface. Using phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, we simultaneously observed the dynamics of adsorbed Alcanivorax bacteria and the oil-water interface within microfluidic devices. We find that, by growing and dividing, adsorbed bacteria form a jammed monolayer of cells that encapsulates the entire oil drop. As bacteria continue to grow at the interface, the drop buckles and the interface undergoes strong deformations. The bacteria act to stabilize non-equilibrium shapes of the oil-phase such wrinkling and tubulation. In addition to presenting a natural example of a living interface, these findings shape our understanding of microbial degradation of oil and may have important repercussions on engineering interventions for oil bioremediation.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in

  3. Screening and biological characteristics of fufenozide degrading bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenhao; Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan; Deng, Xia; Deng, Hongyan; Huang, Jiao

    2018-04-01

    Fufenozide was a novel pesticide for the control of Lepidoptera pests, which was highly toxic to silkworm. Fufenozide-contaminated soil samples were collected and the bacteria that degrade fufenozide were isolated and screened by selective medium. The colony characteristics, cell characteristics and degradation characteristics in different concentrations fufenozide of the fufenozide degrading bacteria were studied. The results indicated that seven strains of fufenozide degradeing bacteria, named as DDH01, DDH03, DDH04, DDH04, DDH05, DDH07 and DDH07 respectively, were isolated from soil contaminated with fufenozide. DDH01, DDH02, DDH04 and DDH05 of seven fufenozide degrading bacteria, was gram-positive bacteria, and DDH03, DDH06 and DDH07 was gram-negative bacteria. All of seven strains of fufenozide degrading bacteria were not spores, weeks flagella, rod-shaped bacteria. DDH06 and DDH07 had capsules, and the remaining five strains had not capsule. The colonies formed by seven strains of fufenozide degradation bacteria on beef extract peptone medium plate were milky white colonies with irregular edges, thinner lawn, smaller colony with smooth surface. The growth of 7 strains of fufenozide degradation bacteria was significantly affected by the concentration of fufenozide, All of 7 strains grown in the range from 0.00025 g/mL to 1 g/mL of 10% fufenozide suspension. DDH2 was the best among the 7 strains of fufenozide degrading bacteria grown in 10% fufenozide suspension medium.

  4. Isolation and characterization of feather degrading bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at isolating and characterizing new culturable feather degrading bacteria from soils of the University of Mauritius Farm. Bacteria that were isolated were tested for their capability to grow on feather meal agar (FMA). Proteolytic bacteria were tested for feather degradation and were further identified ...

  5. Behaviour of marine oil-degrading bacterial populations in a continuous culture system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; David, J.J.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    In pursuit of developing an oil-degrading microbial consortium, we used the principle of "plasmid assisted molecular breeding" (PAMB) in a continuous culture system. Three marine bacteria, Pseudomonas putida, Brevibacterium epidermidis...

  6. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Consequences of oil film degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravendran, Rathesan

    2017-01-01

    In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution.......In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution....

  8. Evaluation of Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds Degradation by Indigenous Bacteria Isolated from Soil Contaminated with Petroleum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Gilavand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The major of this study was to isolate oil-degrading bacteria from soil contaminated with petroleum and examining the removal of hydrocarbons by these bacteria. Methods: Oil-degrading colonies were purified from the samples obtained of around Ahvaz oil wells. Organic matter degradation was investigated with 1 g of crude oil in basal salt medium (BSM as sole carbon source. The growth rate was determined through total protein assay and hydrocarbon consuming was measured through organic carbon oxidation and titration by dichromate as oxidizing agent. Results: Two potential isolates named S1 and S2 strains were screened and identified as Planococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As results for S1 and S2 could degrade 80.86 and 65.6% of olive oil, 59.6 and 35.33 of crude oil, while 32 and 26.15 % of coal tar were consumed during 14 days incubation. Conclusion: The results of this investigation showed these indigenous strains high capability to biodegradation at short time and are desirable alternatives for treatment of oil pollutants.

  9. Study and isolation of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from Cuban shorelines

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios-San Martín, Yaima; Acosta, Silvia; Sánchez, Ayixon; Toledo, Antonio; González, Francisca; García, Regla M

    2012-01-01

    The isolation of aerobic marine bacteria able to degrade hydrocarbons represents a promising alternative for the decontamination of oceanic and coastal environments. In the present work, twelve water and sediment samples from the Felton coastline in the Province of Holguín were collected and screened with Bushnell-Haas medium supplemented with light crude oil or with seawater supplemented with yeast extract and crude oil as a carbon source, obtaining twenty seven and six bacterial isolates re...

  10. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-11-06

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes.

  11. Hydrocarbon Degradation Potentials of Bacteria Isolated from Spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    chemical nature of the compounds within the petroleum mixture and ... are toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic (Clemente et al., 2001). ... Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in the soil sample ... paper (Whatman No.1) saturated with sterile spent oil.

  12. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  13. Aerobic dehalogenation activities of two petroleum degrading bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Full Length Research Paper. Aerobic ... these compounds are good carbon sources for bacteria capable of ... Degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using soil .... Such toxic effects of chlorinated aromatic compound.

  14. Isolation and Identification of Phenol Degrader Bacteria from Sirjan Golgohar Mine Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanshhian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenol and phenolic compounds are highly toxic substances that are found as monoaromatic compounds in various industrial effluents from oil refineries, petrochemical plants, (coal mines, and phenol resin plants. Their discharge into the environment, especially in water resources, causes serious toxicity. Traditionally, physicochemical methods have been used for the removal of phenol and phenolic compounds. Nowadays, bioremediation is known to be the best method for phenol removal from wastewater. The objective of the present study was twofold: isolation and identification of phenol degrading bacteria in the effluent from Golgohar Mine in Sirjan. For this purpose, samples were collected from different sections at Golgohar Mine and its effluent. Phenol degrading bacteria were isolated via enrichment of the samples in the Bushnell Hass medium with phenol used as the only source of carbon and energy. The predominant phenol degrader bacteria were selected by measuring turbidity at 600 nm. The bacteria were subsequently identified by amplification of 16S rRNA with specific primers and PCR sequencing. In this study, 17 strains of phenol degrader bacteria were isolated in soil and wastewater samples collected from different zones of the mine. Screening methods confirmed that 4 strains exhibit a better capability for phenol degradation as evidenced by their capability to degrade 0.4 g/l of phenol. Molecular identification showed that these bacteria belong to the species Pesudomonas sp, Nitrratireductor sp., and Salegentibacter sp. The results also show that the effluent from Golgohar Mine in Sirjan contains many phenol degrading bacteria. The use of these bacteria in the treatment process may lead to a significant reduction in phenol pollution in the mineral effluent.

  15. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  16. Biosurfactant and Degradative Enzymes Mediated Crude Oil Degradation by Bacterium Bacillus subtilis A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Preetham, Elumalai; Machuca, Laura L.; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the biodegradation of the crude oil by the potential biosurfactant producing Bacillus subtilis A1 was investigated. The isolate had the ability to synthesize degradative enzymes such as alkane hydroxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase at the time of biodegradation of hydrocarbon. The biosurfactant producing conditions were optimized as pH 7.0, temperature 40°C, 2% sucrose and 3% of yeast extract as best carbon and nitrogen sources for maximum production of biosurfactant (4.85 g l-1). Specifically, the low molecular weight compounds, i.e., C10–C14 were completely degraded, while C15–C19 were degraded up to 97% from the total hydrocarbon pools. Overall crude oil degradation efficiency of the strain A1 was about 87% within a short period of time (7 days). The accumulated biosurfactant from the biodegradation medium was characterized to be lipopeptide in nature. The strain A1 was found to be more robust than other reported biosurfactant producing bacteria in degradation efficiency of crude oil due to their enzyme production capability and therefore can be used to remove the hydrocarbon pollutants from contaminated environment. PMID:28232826

  17. Biodegradation Capability of Some Bacteria Isolates to Use Lubricant Oil in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahda, Y.; Azhar, M.; Fitri, L.; Afnida, A.; Adha, G. S.; Alifa, W. N.; Handayani, D.; Putri, D. H.; Irdawati, I.; Chatri, M.

    2018-04-01

    Our previous study identified three species of bacteria, i.e. Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus spl, and Bacillus sp2 isolated from using lubricant oil-contaminated soil in a Padang’s workshop. However, its ability to degrade hydrocarbon were not known yet. In this extension study, we explore a wider area to find more hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and examined its capability to degrade hydrocarbon in vitro. Seventeen isolates were characterized its capability using NA + used lubricant oil + tween + neutral red medium. Isolates A1, B2, D1 and D4 shows the high degradation index, whereas isolates A2, A3, A5, D2, B1, B3 and isolates A4, B4, D3 have medium and low degradation index, respectively. These potential hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria need in situ characterization to know their actual activities for bioremediation.

  18. Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Degrading Bacteria in the Desert Soil of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Gounaim, M.; Diab, A.; Al-Hilali, A.; Abu-Shady, A. Sattar

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples of different levels of oil pollutants were collected from Kuwait's Burgan Oil Field, near an oil lake. The samples represented, highly polluted (8.0% w/w), moderately polluted (2.1%-3.4%) and slightly polluted (2.1%-3.4%) and slightly polluted (0.5- 0.8%). The aromatic fractions of the collected samples were in the range of (0.21-2.57g/100g) soil. (GC) analysis of the aromatic fractions of the resolution of the different individual (PAHs) revealed the presence of (16) different (PAHs) resolved from the aromatic fraction of the highly polluted sample (S3). (15), (14) and (13) individual (PAHs) were identified soil samples (S5), (S2) and (S1, S4, S6) respectively. The most frequent (PAH) was indeno (1, 2, 3-c, d) pyrene (22.5%-45.11%) followed chrysene (13.6%-19.48%). Eight carcinogenic (PAHs) were resolved from the aromatic fractions of the polluted samples. Total carcinogenic (PAHs) recorded in this study were in this study were in the range of (11.53) (forS4) - (510.98) (for S3) ppm. The counts of (CFU) of aromatic degraders (AD) were in the range of (3x10) - (110x 10) (CFU/g) soil (with a percent of (2.2%-69.6%)). The results show that, higher counts of (AD) were recorded from a highly polluted sample (S3), followed by the moderately polluted samples; total of (51) bacteria, that gave presumptive positive biodegradation activities, were isolated and identified (45.1%) of them were isolated and identified. (45.1%) of them were isolated from the highly polluted sample (S3). Total of (13) different species were identified of which Micrococcus luteus was more frequent (23.5) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (19.6%) and Bacillus subtilis (11.8%). The three Pseudomonas species collectively were presented by (11.8%). Five different species proved to be of good activities, they are: Bacillus brevis, Bacillus lichenoformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas flourescens. The ability of five species and their mixture was

  19. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  20. Radiation-thermal transformation of degraded oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliyeva, N.G.; Aliyeva, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text :In order to elucidate the role of radiation in the process of oil degradation in the environment, and to identify opportunities for application of radiation-chemical technology to clean oil-contaminated soil were studied some regularities of radiation-chemical transformations of oil samples taken from wells, as well as after long-term presence on the surface of the water and soil. The most high radiation resistances of oil are samples taken from surface water. This is due to structural changes in the process of oil degradation, namely an increase in their part of the radiation-resistant resins and aspartames. This is due to evaporation of light hydrocarbons and heavy destructive transformations under the influence of oxygen, microorganisms, as well as components of the surface layer of soil. This phenomenon is explained by the specificity of action of the beam of accelerated electrons, namely the possible heating of the reaction zone due to inhibition of the electron. In this case the acceleration of diffusion processes results in an increase in the yield of gases.

  1. Enhanced crude oil biodegradative potential of natural phytoplankton-associated hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Haydn; Angelova, Angelina; Bowler, Bernard; Jones, Martin; Gutierrez, Tony

    2017-07-01

    Phytoplankton have been shown to harbour a diversity of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), yet it is not understood how these phytoplankton-associated HCB would respond in the event of an oil spill at sea. Here, we assess the diversity and dynamics of the bacterial community associated with a natural population of marine phytoplankton under oil spill-simulated conditions, and compare it to that of the free-living (non phytoplankton-associated) bacterial community. While the crude oil severely impacted the phytoplankton population and was likely conducive to marine oil snow formation, analysis of the MiSeq-derived 16S rRNA data revealed dramatic and differential shifts in the oil-amended communities that included blooms of recognized HCB (e.g., Thalassospira, Cycloclasticus), including putative novel phyla, as well as other groups with previously unqualified oil-degrading potential (Olleya, Winogradskyella, and members of the inconspicuous BD7-3 phylum). Notably, the oil biodegradation potential of the phytoplankton-associated community exceeded that of the free-living community, and it showed a preference to degrade substituted and non-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our study provides evidence of compartmentalization of hydrocarbon-degrading capacity in the marine water column, wherein HCB associated with phytoplankton are better tuned to degrading crude oil hydrocarbons than that by the community of planktonic free-living bacteria. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of bacteria on degradation of bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinková, M.; Boturová, K.

    2017-10-01

    The degradation rate of bioplastic in soil is closely related to the diversity of soil microbiota. To investigate the effect of soil bacterial on biodegradation, 4 bacterial strains of soil - Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Kocuria rosea, Cupriavidus necator and Bacillus cereus, were used to accelerate the decomposition of bioplastics manufactured from Polylactid acid (PLA) by direct action during 250 days. The best results were obtained with bacterial strains Cupriavidus necator and Pseudomonas chlororaphis that were isolated of lagoons with anthropogenic sediments.

  3. Temperature dependence of autoxidation of perilla oil and tocopherol degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Seonyeong; Hwang, Hyunsuk; Yoon, Sukhoo; Choe, Eunok

    2010-08-01

    Temperature dependence of the autoxidation of perilla oil and tocopherol degradation was studied with corn oil as a reference. The oils were oxidized in the dark at 20, 40, 60, and 80 degrees C. Oil oxidation was determined by peroxide and conjugated dienoic acid values. Tocopherols in the oils were quantified by HPLC. The oxidation of both oils increased with oxidation time and temperature. Induction periods for oil autoxidation decreased with temperature, and were longer in corn oil than in perilla oil, indicating higher sensitivity of perilla oil to oxidation. However, time lag for tocopherol degradation was longer in perilla oil, indicating higher stability of tocopherols in perilla oil than in corn oil. Activation energies for oil autoxidation and tocopherol degradation were higher in perilla oil (23.9 to 24.2, 9.8 kcal/mol, respectively) than in corn oil (12.5 to 15.8, 8.8 kcal/mol, respectively) indicating higher temperature-dependence in perilla oil. Higher stability of tocopherols in perilla oil was highly related with polyphenols. The study suggests that more careful temperature control is required to decrease the autoxidation of perilla oil than that of corn oil, and polyphenols contributed to the oxidative stability of perilla oil by protecting tocopherols from degradation, especially at the early stage of oil autoxidation.

  4. Simulation of Deepwater Horizon oil plume reveals substrate specialization within a complex community of hydrocarbon degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Dubinsky, Eric A; Probst, Alexander J; Wang, Jian; Sieber, Christian M K; Tom, Lauren M; Gardinali, Piero R; Banfield, Jillian F; Atlas, Ronald M; Andersen, Gary L

    2017-07-11

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident released an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 10 10 mol of natural gas into the Gulf of Mexico, forming deep-sea plumes of dispersed oil droplets and dissolved gases that were largely degraded by bacteria. During the course of this 3-mo disaster a series of different bacterial taxa were enriched in succession within deep plumes, but the metabolic capabilities of the different populations that controlled degradation rates of crude oil components are poorly understood. We experimentally reproduced dispersed plumes of fine oil droplets in Gulf of Mexico seawater and successfully replicated the enrichment and succession of the principal oil-degrading bacteria observed during the DWH event. We recovered near-complete genomes, whose phylogeny matched those of the principal biodegrading taxa observed in the field, including the DWH Oceanospirillales (now identified as a Bermanella species), multiple species of Colwellia , Cycloclasticus , and other members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Rhodobacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis, combined with hydrocarbon compositional analysis and species abundance data, revealed substrate specialization that explained the successional pattern of oil-degrading bacteria. The fastest-growing bacteria used short-chain alkanes. The analyses also uncovered potential cooperative and competitive relationships, even among close relatives. We conclude that patterns of microbial succession following deep ocean hydrocarbon blowouts are predictable and primarily driven by the availability of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons rather than natural gases.

  5. Diverse bacteria isolated from microtherm oil-production water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Quan; Xu, Lian; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Yan; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2014-02-01

    In total, 435 pure bacterial strains were isolated from microtherm oil-production water from the Karamay Oilfield, Xinjiang, China, by using four media: oil-production water medium (Cai medium), oil-production water supplemented with mineral salt medium (CW medium), oil-production water supplemented with yeast extract medium (CY medium), and blood agar medium (X medium). The bacterial isolates were affiliated with 61 phylogenetic groups that belong to 32 genera in the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Except for the Rhizobium, Dietzia, and Pseudomonas strains that were isolated using all the four media, using different media led to the isolation of bacteria with different functions. Similarly, nonheme diiron alkane monooxygenase genes (alkB/alkM) also clustered according to the isolation medium. Among the bacterial strains, more than 24 % of the isolates could use n-hexadecane as the sole carbon source for growth. For the first time, the alkane-degrading ability and alkB/alkM were detected in Rhizobium, Rhodobacter, Trichococcus, Micrococcus, Enterococcus, and Bavariicoccus strains, and the alkM gene was detected in Firmicutes strains.

  6. Starch-degrading enzymes from anaerobic non-clostridial bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, H; Schepers, H J; Troesch, W [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-08-01

    A number of meso- and thermophilic anaerobic starch-degrading non-spore-forming bacteria have been isolated. All the isolates belonging to different genera are strictly anaerobic, as indicated by a catalase-negative reaction, and produce soluble starch-degrading enzymes. Compared to enzymes of aerobic bacteria, those of anaerobic origin mainly show low molecular mass of about 25 000 daltons. Some of the enzymes may have useful applications in the starch industry because of their unusual product pattern, yielding maltotetraose as the main hydrolysis product. (orig.).

  7. Discovery of novel algae-degrading enzymes from marine bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel; Bech, Pernille Kjersgaard; Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine

    Algal cell wall polysaccharides, and their derived oligosaccharides, display a range of health beneficial bioactive properties. Enzymes capable of degrading algal polysaccharides into oligosaccharides may be used to produce biomolecules with new functionalities for the food and pharma industry....... Some marine bacteria are specialized in degrading algal biomass and secrete enzymes that can decompose the complex algal cell wall polysaccharides. In order to identify such bacteria and enzymatic activities, we have used a combination of traditional cultivation and isolation methods, bioinformatics...... and functional screening. This resulted in the discovery of a novel marine bacterium which displays a large enzymatic potential for degradation of red algal polysaccharides e.g. agar and carrageenan. In addition, we searched metagenome sequence data and identified new enzyme candidates for degradation...

  8. 'Rare biosphere' bacteria as key phenanthrene degraders in coastal seawaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Caroline; Séverin, Tatiana; Vétion, Gilles; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Fagervold, Sonja K; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2014-11-01

    By coupling DNA-SIP and pyrosequencing approaches, we identified Cycloclasticus sp. as a keystone degrader of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) despite being a member of the 'rare biosphere' in NW Mediterranean seawaters. We discovered novel PAH-degrading bacteria (Oceanibaculum sp., Sneathiella sp.) and we identified other groups already known to possess this function (Alteromonas sp., Paracoccus sp.). Together with Cycloclasticus sp., these groups contributed to potential in situ phenanthrene degradation at a rate >0.5 mg l(-1) day(-1), sufficient to account for a considerable part of PAH degradation. Further, we characterized the PAH-tolerant bacterial communities, which were much more diverse in the polluted site by comparison to unpolluted marine references. PAH-tolerant bacteria were also members of the rare biosphere, such as Glaciecola sp. Collectively, these data show the complex interactions between PAH-degraders and PAH-tolerant bacteria and provide new insights for the understanding of the functional ecology of marine bacteria in polluted waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Breeding of in-situ Petroleum Degrading Bacteria in Hangzhou Bay and evaluating for the In-situ repair effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ru; Lin, Hai; Qiao, Bing; Dong, Yingbo; Zhang, Wei; Chang, Wen

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the restoration behaviour of the in-situ microorganisms in seawater and sediments to the marine accident oil spill was researched. The experimental study on the breeding of in-situ petroleum-degrading bacteria in the seawater and sediments of Hangzhou Bay and the restoration of oil spill were carried out. Making use of the reinforced microbial flora, combined with physical and chemical methods in field environment, petroleum degrading and restoration experiment were performed, the effect of the breeding of in-situ degrading bacteria was evaluated, and the standard process of in-situ bacteria sampling, laboratory screening, domestication and degradation efficiency testing were formed. This study laid a foundation for further evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages for the petroleum-degrading bacteria of Hangzhou Bay during the process of in-situ restoration. The results showed that in-situ microbes of Hangzhou Bay could reach the growth peak in 5 days with the suitable environmental factors and sufficient nutrient elements, and the degradation efficiency could reach 65.2% (or 74.8% after acclimation). And also the microbes could adapt to the local sea water and environmental conditions, with a certain degree of degradation. The research results could provide parameter support for causal judgment and quantitative assessment of oil spill damage.

  10. Identification of New Aflatoxin B1-Degrading Bacteria from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Sangi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a mutagenic and carcinogenic compound mainly produced by the Aspergillus parasiticus, A. flavus, A. nomius, A. tamari, and A. pseudotamarii. AFB1 biodegradation is the most important strategy for reducing AFB1 in plant tissues. Bacteria can deactivate and biodegrade AFB1 for effective detoxification of contaminated products. The present study investigated the efficiency of AFB1 degradation by soil bacteria from the Southern Khorasan Province in Eastern Iran by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography during 2014–2015. Methods: DNA was extracted from AFB1-degrading isolates by the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the 27f and 1492r general bacterial primers and the sequences were used to identify the isolates based on their similarity to Gene Bank sequences of known bacterial species. Results: We isolated five strains from four species of AFB1-degrading bacteria from Birjand plain, including Bacillus pumilus, two isolates of Ochrobactrum pseudogrigonens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloace, which had AFB1-degrading activities of 88%, 78%, 61%, 58%, and 51%, respectively. Conclusion: We provide the first demonstration of AFB1 degradation by B. pumilus in from Iran and the first report identifying O. pseudogrigonens and E. cloace species as having AFB1-degrading activity.

  11. Indigenous production of biosurfactant and degradation of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rashedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Iranian oil wells. The biosurfactant production of bacteria isolates was evaluated and confirmed using hemolysis and emulsification tests. The biodegradation of crude oil was studied using GC and HPLC analysis. A total of 45 strains have been isolated. These strains showed less than a 40 mN m-1 reduction in surface tension. The effects of different pH (4.2-9.2, salinity concentrations (1%-15%, and temperatures (25-50 in biosurfactant production of isolated strains were evaluated. One of the strains (Bacillus sp. NO.4 showed a high salt tolerance and a successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH range. Its maximum biomass production (about 3.1 g L-1 dry weight was achieved after 60 hours of growth. The surface tension of the culture broth dropped rapidly after inoculation and reached its lowest value (36 mN m-1 during the exponential phase after about 36-48 hours of growth. The study of the GC graphs showed that higher aliphatic reduction occurred in fractions with C14 to C24 hydrocarbons. The depicted results of the HPLC graphs indicated a 100% degradation of chrysene and fluorine. In this study, we demonstrated the useful capacities of the isolates in removing oil pollutants and their application in MEOR in vitro.

  12. Isolation and identification of Profenofos degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadatullah Malghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An enrichment culture technique was used to isolate bacterial strains responsible for the biodegradation of profenofos in a soil from Hubei province of central China. Two pure bacterial cultures, named W and Y, were isolated and subsequently characterized by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and biochemical tests. Isolate W showed 96% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene of a Pseudomonas putida unlike Y which showed 99% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene of Burkholderia gladioli. Both strains grew well at pH 5.5-7.2 with a broad temperature profile ranging from 28º to 36 ºC. Bioremediation of profenofos-contaminated soil was examined using soil treated with 200 ug g-1; profenofos resulted in a higher degradation rate than control soils without inoculation. In a mineral salt medium (FTW reduction in profenofos concentration was 90% within 96 hours of incubation. A literature survey revealed that no data is available regarding the role of Burkholderia gladioli on pesticide biodegradation as well as on profenofos.

  13. Amylase activity of a starch degrading bacteria isolated from soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch degrading bacteria are most important for industries such as food, fermentation, textile and paper. Thus isolating and manipulating pure culture from various waste materials has manifold importance for various biotechnology industries. In the present investigation a bacterial strain was isolated from soil sample ...

  14. Biotransformation of geosmin by terpene-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two terpene-degrading bacteria that are able to transform geosmin have been identified. Pseudomonas sp. SBR3-tpnb, isolated on -terpinene, converts geosmin to several products; the major products are keto-geosmins. This geosmin transformation ability is inducible by -terpinene. Rhodococcus wratisl...

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    June 2017. Vol. 21 (4) 641-645. Full-text Available Online at www.ajol.info and ... ABSTRACT: The isolation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in topsoil and subsoil samples of ... This process whereby microorganisms break down ..... Page 5 ...

  16. Screening of an oil-degrading strain by N+ implantation and the oil degradation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yajuan; Li Zongwei; Qin Guangyong; Liu Jianling

    2008-01-01

    A strain DC-3-2-50 was obtained through N + implanting into Yarrowia lipolytica DC-3-2. An increase of 11.09% in the oil-degradation rate was obtained. The stain has good genetic stability after 10 times of subculture. The culturing condition of DC-3-2-50 was studied. The optimal culture conditions were as follow: initial pH value, 9.0; inoculum size, 3%; temperature, 25-28 degree C; dissolved oxygen, 180-200 rpm; and carbon nutriments soybean salad oil. The off-degradation rate can be up to 87.7%. (authors)

  17. Dominant petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Archipelago Sea in South-West Finland (Baltic Sea) belong to different taxonomic groups than hydrocarbon degraders in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Anna; Riemann, Lasse; Leskinen, Piia; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2013-07-15

    The natural petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capacity of the Archipelago Sea water in S-W Finland was studied in a microcosm experiment. Pristine and previously oil exposed sites were examined. Bacterial community fingerprinting was performed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and samples from selected microcosms were sequenced. The abundance of PAH degradation genes was measured by quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities in diesel exposed microcosms diverged from control microcosms during the experiment. Gram positive PAH degradation genes dominated at both sites in situ, whereas gram negative PAH degrading genes became enriched in diesel microcosms. The dominant bacterial groups after a 14 days of diesel exposure were different depending on the sampling site, belonging to the class Actinobacteria (32%) at a pristine site and Betaproteobacteria (52%) at a previously oil exposed site. The hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the Baltic Sea differ from those in the oceans, where most hydrocarbon degraders belong to Gammaproteobacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in soil in Kukawa, Borno State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Allamin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil samples were collected from five sites covering petroleum exploration station in Kukawa, Kukawa Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria between October, 2012 and February, 2013 at two different depths (0-10cm and 10-20cm to enumerate and identify hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the soil. Total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (TAHB were enumerated on Nutrient agar (NA, and Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB enumerated on Oil agar (OA. The bacterial isolates were identified using morphological and biochemical tests. It was observed that the microorganisms (TAHB, and HUB were more densely populated at 10cm depth. (TAHB: 5.3×108 - 11.4×108cfu/g, and HUB: 2.4×105 - 5.3×105 cfu/g, than at 20 cm depth (TAHB: 3.0×108 - 5.7×108 cfu/g, and HUB: 2.1×105 - 4.8×105 cfu/g. The HUB was identified as species of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, and Actinomyces. Bacillus, and Pseudomonas species were more constantly isolated than other isolates and they constitute 100% of total bacterial isolates. The potential of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria isolated to degrade hydrocarbon was studied. Nineteen (19 bacterial species was screened, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus leteus,and Lactobacillus casei, utilized and degrade crude oil at considerably high rates after 21 days of incubation. The degradation efficiency was confirmed by GC-MS analysis, which indicated that the bacterial isolates utilized most of the crude oil components particularly straight chain alkanes and cycloalkanes DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10503 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 36-47

  19. Molecular Identification of Bacteria Involved in Degradation of Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 0189 1731. Available online at http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njb/index ... activities is a main cause of water and soil pollution. One of the ... 60% reduction in household food security and were capable of .... isolates to degrade crude oil, mineral salt media was .... to help maintain the cold chain and prevent the DNA ...

  20. Metabolic and spatio-taxonomic response of uncultivated seafloor bacteria following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, K. M.; Piceno, Y. M.; Hu, P.; Tom, L. M.; Mason, O. U.; Andersen, G. L.; Jansson, J. K.; Gilbert, J. A.

    2017-08-04

    The release of 700 million liters of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a few months in 2010 produced dramatic changes in the microbial ecology of the water and sediment. Here, we reconstructed the genomes of 57 widespread uncultivated bacteria from post-spill deep-sea sediments, and recovered their gene expression pattern across the seafloor. These genomes comprised a common collection of bacteria that were enriched in heavily affected sediments around the wellhead. Although rare in distal sediments, some members were still detectable at sites up to 60 km away. Many of these genomes exhibited phylogenetic clustering indicative of common trait selection by the environment, and within half we identified 264 genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation. Alkane degradation ability was near ubiquitous among candidate hydrocarbon degraders, whereas just three harbored elaborate gene inventories for the degradation of alkanes and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Differential gene expression profiles revealed a spill-promoted microbial sulfur cycle alongside gene upregulation associated with PAH degradation. Gene expression associated with alkane degradation was widespread, although active alkane degrader identities changed along the pollution gradient. Analyses suggest that a broad metabolic capacity to respond to oil inputs exists across a large array of usually rare indigenous deep-sea bacteria.

  1. Isolation and study of Biodegradiation Potential of Phenanthrene degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nafise Nourieh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are among of potentially hazardous chemicals for environment and cause health concern. These compounds exhibit carcinogenic and/or mutagenic properties and are listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA as priority pollutants. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are hardly degraded and therefore bioremediation is often considered as a desirable and cost effective remediation technique for soil. contaminated with them. Materials and Methods: In this research Phenanthrene (C14H10, a three-benzene ring PAHs, was selected as a PAH representative compound and two different concentrations of Phenanthrene (100mg/kg and 500mg/kg were studied. First, PAH-degrading microorganisms were separated and after adaptation and enrichment PAH-degrading bacteria were identified. Results: The results showed that removal efficiency of Phenanthrene in the samples containing pseudomonas was more than other specified bacteria. Also the most removal efficiency of Phenanthrene occurred in first 45 days of biotreatment and then decreasing trend slowed down. Other finding was that the bioremediation of the lower concentration of Phenanthrene takes shorter time compared with the higher concentration and also the comparison of Phenanthrene bioremediation by pure bacteria and Consertium indicated that, at the beginning of the process, the pace of eliminating Phenanthrene by Consertium is more than other bacteria. Conclusion: Microbial analysis, based on cinfirmation tests and analytical profile index (api 20E kit tests, showed that Pseudomonas. SPP, Bacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter were the bacteria, responsible for Phenanthrene degradation. Extraction was conducted by ultra sonic method and Phenanthrene concentration was measured by (HPLC.

  2. Isolation and identification of bacterial consortia responsible for degrading oil spills from the coastal area of Yanbu, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abd-EL Mooti EL Hanafy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three crude-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from oil-contaminated sites near the Red Sea. Based on a high growth rate on crude oil and on hydrocarbon degradation ability, four strains were selected from the 23 isolated strains for further study. These four strains were selected on the basis of dichlorophenolindophenol assay. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene showed that these isolated strains belonged to genus Pseudomonas and Nitratireductor. Among the four isolates, strains S5 (Pseudomonas sp., 95% and 4b (Nitratireductor sp., 70% were the most effective ones in degrading crude oil. Using a spectrophotometer and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, degradation of more than 90% of the crude oil was observed after two weeks of cultivation in Bushnell–Haas medium. The results showed that these strains have the ability to degrade crude oil and may be used for environmental remediation.

  3. Crude oil degradation by bacterial consortia under four different redox and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shunzi; Li, Xia; Chen, Jianfa; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-02-01

    There is emerging interest in the anaerobic degradation of crude oil. However, there is limited knowledge about the geochemical effects and microbiological activities for it. A mixture of anaerobic sludge and the production water from an oil well was used as an inoculum to construct four consortia, which were incubated under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions at either mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures. Significant degradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the changing quantities of some marker compounds, such as pristane, phytane, hopane and norhopane, and their relative quantities, suggested the activity of microorganisms in the consortia. Notably, the redox conditions and temperature strongly affected the diversity and structure of the enriched microbial communities and the oil degradation. Although some specific biomarker showed larger change under methanogenic condition, the degradation efficiencies for total aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon were higher under sulfate-reducing condition. After the 540-day incubation, bacteria of unknown classifications were dominant in the thermophilic methanogenic consortia, whereas Clostridium dominated the mesophilic methanogenic consortia. With the exception of the dominant phylotypes that were shared with the methanogenic consortia, the sulfate-reducing consortia were predominantly composed of Thermotogae, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaeta, and Synergistetes phyla. In conclusion, results in this study demonstrated that the different groups of degraders were responsible for degradation in the four constructed crude oil degrading consortia and consequently led to the existence of different amount of marker compounds under these distinct conditions. There might be distinct metabolic mechanism for degrading crude oil under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  4. Diuron degradation by bacteria from soil of sugarcane crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassia C. Egea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of microorganisms from soil impacted by xenobiotic chemicals and exposing them in the laboratory to the contaminant can provide important information about their response to the contaminants. The purpose of this study was to isolate bacteria from soil with historical application of herbicides and to evaluate their potential to degrade diuron. The isolation media contained either glucose or diuron as carbon source. A total of 400 bacteria were isolated, with 68% being Gram-positive and 32% Gram-negative. Most isolates showed potential to degrade between 10 and 30% diuron after five days of cultivation; however Stenotrophomonas acidophila TD4.7 and Bacillus cereus TD4.31 were able to degrade 87% and 68%, respectively. The degradation of diuron resulted in the formation of the metabolites DCPMU, DCPU, DCA, 3,4-CAC, 4-CA, 4-CAC and aniline. Based on these results it was proposed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa TD2.3, Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila TD4.7, B. cereus TD4.31 and Alcaligenes faecalis TG 4.48, act on 3,4-DCA and 4-CA by alkylation and dealkylation while Micrococcus luteus and Achromobacter sp follow dehalogenation directly to aniline. Growth on aniline as sole carbon source demonstrates the capacity of strains to open the aromatic ring. In conclusion, the results show that the role of microorganisms in the degradation of xenobiotics in the environment depends on their own metabolism and also on their synergistic interactions.

  5. Oil field and freshwater isolates of Shewanella putrefaciens have lipopolysaccharide polyacrylamide gel profiles characteristic of marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, C.; Foght, J.M.; Pickard, M.A.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide structure of oil field and freshwater isolates of bacteria that reduce ferric iron, recently classified as strains of Shewanella putrefaciens, was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a lipopolysaccharide-specific silver-staining procedure. The results demonstrate that all the oil field and freshwater isolates examined exhibited the more hydrophobic R-type lipopolysaccharide, which has been found to be characteristic of Gram-negative marine bacteria. This hydrophobic lipopolysaccharide would confer an advantage on bacteria involved in hydrocarbon degradation by assisting their association with the surface of oil droplets. 15 refs., 1 fig

  6. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil) were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis ...

  7. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  8. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  9. Environmental Degradation in Oil Producing Areas of Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to oil exploration and other human activities in the Niger Delta region, there is evidence of environmental degradation all over the area (Oronto, 1998). Environmental degradation is occasioned by consistent flow of industrial waste, oil spills, gas flares, fire disaster, acid rain, flooding erosion, etc., which has led to the ...

  10. Degradation Capability of n-hexadecane Degrading Bacteria from Petroleum Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Huai-li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Samplings were performed in the petroleum contaminated soils of Dongying, Shandong Province of China. Degrading bacteria was isolated through enrichment in a Bushnel-Hass medium, with n-hexadecane as the sole source of carbon and energy. Then the isolated strains were identified by amplification of 16S rDNA gene and sequencing. The strain TZSX2 was selected as the powerful bacteria with stronger degradation ability, which was then identified as Rhodococcus hoagii genera based on the constructing results of the phylogenetic tree. The optimum temperature that allowed both high growth and efficient degradation ratio was in the scope of 28~36 ℃, and gas chromatography results showed that approximately more than 30% of n-hexadecane could be degraded in one week of incubation within the temperature range. Moreover, the strain TZSX2 was able to grow in high concentrations of n-hexadecane. The degradation rate reached 79% when the initial n-hexadecane concentration was 2 mL·L-1,while it still achieved 12% with n-hexadecane concentration of 20 mL·L-1. The optimal pH was 9 that allowed the highest growth and the greatest degradation rate of 91%. Above all, the screened strain TZSX2 showed high capabilities of alkali tolerance with excellent degradation efficiency for even high concentration of n-hexadecane, and thus it would be quite suitable for the remediation of petroleum contaminated soils especially in the extreme environment.

  11. Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussila, Minna M.; Jurgens, German; Lindstroem, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains that tolerated m-toluate also degraded m-toluate. The inoculum Pseudomonas putida PaW85 was not found in the rhizosphere samples. The ability to degrade m-toluate by the TOL plasmid was detected only in species of the genus Pseudomonas. However, a few Rhodococcus erythropolis strains were found which were able to degrade m-toluate. A new finding was that Pseudomonas migulae strains and a few P. oryzihabitans strains were able to grow on m-toluate and most likely contained the TOL plasmid. Because strain specific differences in degradation abilities were found for P. oryzihabitans, separation at the strain level was important. For strain specific separation (GTG) 5 fingerprinting was the best method. A combination of the single locus ribotyping and the whole genomic fingerprinting techniques with the selective partial sequencing formed a practical molecular toolbox for studying genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere. - Bacterial diversity during rhizoremediation in oil-contaminated soil is characterized by a combination of molecular methods

  12. Laboratory based degradation of light crude oil by aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... This spilled oil produces destructive effect on the environment. For example, when ... growth was separated from the oil using gas chromatography. The hydrocarbon that dissolved in carbon tetrachloride ... Gasoline and gas oil were also degraded (Figure 1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. The authors wish to ...

  13. Microbial degradation of waste hydrocarbons in oily sludge from some Romanian oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Dobrota, S.; Voicu, A.; Stefanescu, M.; Sandulescu, L.; Petrisor, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    During oil production and processing activities, significant quantities of oily sludge are produced. The sludge represents not only an environmental pollution source but also occupies big spaces in storage tanks. Romania, an experienced European oil-producing and processing country, is faced with environmental problems generated by oily sludge accumulations. Many such accumulations are to be submitted to bioremediation processes based on the hydrocarbon degradation activity of naturally occurring, selectively isolated bacteria. In this paper the results concerning a laboratory screening of several natural bacterial consortia and laboratory tests to establish the performance in degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludges from Otesti oil field area, are presented. As a result of the laboratory screening, we selected six natural bacterial consortia (BCSl-I 1 to BCSl-I 6 ) with high ability in degradation of hydrocarbons from paraffinic and non-paraffinic asphaltic oils (between 25.53%-64.30% for non-paraffinic asphaltic oil and between 50.25%-72.97% for paraffinic oil). The laboratory tests proved that microbial degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludge from Otesti oil field area varied from 16.75% to 95.85% in moving conditions (Erlenmeyers of 750 ml on rotary shaker at 200 rpm) and from 16.85% to 51.85% in static conditions (Petri dishes Oe 10 cm or vessels of 500 ml)

  14. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Handayani Kurniati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrene degradation and biosurfactant activity by a new strain identified as Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10 were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of glucose, sucrose, and crude oil. The biosurfactants production was detected by the decreased surface tension of the medium and emulsification activity.  Analysis of microbial growth parameters showed that AMP10 grew best at 50 µg mL-1 pyrene concentration, leading to 96 % degradation of pyrene within 7 days. The result of nested PCR analysis revealed that this isolate possessed the nahAc gene which encodes dioxygenase enzyme for initial degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH. Observation of both tensio-active and emulsifying activities indicated that biosurfactants which produced by AMP 10 when grown on glucose could lower the surface tension of medium from 71.3 mN/m to 24.7 mN/m and formed a stable emulsion in used lubricant oil with an emulsification index (E24 of 74%. According to the results, it is suggested that the bacterial isolates G. cholesterolivorans AMP10 are suitable candidates for bioremediation of PAH-contaminated environments.How to CiteKurniati, T. H.,  Rusmana, I. Suryani, A. & Mubarik, N. R. (2016. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 336-343. 

  15. Testing Method of Degrading Heavy Oil Pollution by Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Zhao, Lin; Ma, Aijin

    2018-01-01

    With the development of human society, we are more and more relying on the petrochemical energy. The use of petrochemical energy not only brings us great convenience, but is also accompanied by a series of environmental pollution problems, especially oil pollution. Since it is impractical to restore all pollution problems, the proper use of some remedial measures, under the guidance of functional orientation, may be sufficient to minimize the risk of persistent and diffusing pollutants. In recent years, bioremediation technology has been gradually developed into a promising stage and has played a crucial role in the degradation of heavy oil pollution. Specially, microbes in the degradation of heavy oil have made a great contribution. This paper mainly summarizes the different kinds of microorganisms for degrading heavy oil and the detection method for degradation efficiency of heavy oil pollution.

  16. Effectiveness of a model constructed wetland system containing Cyperus papyrus in degrading diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbowo, Danni Gathot; Choesin, Devi Nandita

    2014-03-01

    Synergism between wetland systems and the provision of degrading bacterial inoculum is now being developed for the recovery of areas polluted waters of pollutants. In connection with the frequent cases of diesel oil pollution in the waters of Indonesia, we need a way of water treatment as an efficient. In this study conducted a series of tests to develop an construcred wetland design that can effectively degrade diesel oil. Tested five systems: blanko (A), substrated, without bacterial inoculums, and vegetation (B); with the addition of inoculum (C); subsrated and vegetated (D); substrated and vegetated with the addition of inoculum (E). Vegetation used in this study is Cyperus papyrus because it has the ability to absorb pollutants. Inoculum used was Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes which is a bacteria degrading organic compounds commonly found in water. To measure the effectiveness of the system, use several indicators to see the degradation of pollutants, namely changes in viscosity, surface tension of pollutants, and the emergence of compound degradation. Based on the results of the study can be determined that the substrated and vegetated system with Cyperus papyrus inoculum (E) was considered the most capable of degrading diesel oil due to the large changes in all parameters. In the system E, 40.6% increase viscosity, surface tension decreased 32.7%, the appearance of degradation compounds with relatively 3614.7 points, and increased to 227.8% TDS. In addition the environmental conditions in the system E also supports the growth of vegetation and degrading microbes.

  17. Bioremediation of oil sludge using a type of nitrogen source and the consortium of bacteria with composting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Inayah; Ni'matuzahroh, Surtiningsih, Tini

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this research are to know the effect of addition of different nitrogen source, consortium of bacteria, incubation time and the interaction between those variables to the total number of bacteria (CFU/g-soil) and the percentage of degradation (%) in the bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil; as well as degraded hydrocarbon components at the best treatment on 6th week. The experiments carried out by mixing the materials and placed them in each bath with and without adding different nitrogen source and bacterial consortium. pH and moisture were measured for every week. An increase in total number of bacteria and percent of maximum degradation recorded at treatment with the addition of NPK+Azotobacter+bacteria consortium; with the TPC value was 14.24 log CFU/g, percent degradation was 77.8%, organic C content was 10.91%, total N was 0.12% and organic matter content was 18.87%, respectively.

  18. Degradation of Zearalenone by Essential Oils under In vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczak, Adam; Juś, Krzysztof; Marchwińska, Katarzyna; Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Goliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of ZEA reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in ZEA content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g., palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20°C) a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of ZEA. We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of ZEA decontamination and/or detoxification. PMID:27563298

  19. Isolation of imidacloprid degrading bacteria from industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.N.; Jabeen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Immidacloprid is a cyclodiene organochlorine used as an insecticide all over the world and possessing a serous environmental threat. It is mostly used for cotton insects (bollworm, aphid and white fly). For isolation of imidacloprid degrading bacteria, two soil samples were collected from industrial contaminated sites of Kala Shah Kahu district sheikupura, having ten year history of use. Soil samples were analyzed by measuring pH and electric conductivity. The isolation of imidacroprid degrading bacteria was performed by enrichment technique. Eight bacterial strains, S/sub 1-a/ S/2-2-b/ S/2-c/ S/2-d/ S/2-e/ S/sub 2-f/ and S/sub 2-g/ and S/sub e-a/ were isolated on the basis of their colony morphologies. The purified colonies were characterized morphologically, physiologically and biochemically. Gram staining was done and Gram negative strain were confirmed on MacConkey agar and Eosin Methylene Blue. Bacterial strains were also checked for different minimal media in which only carbon source was the imidcloprid. For this purpose. FTW, FTW without N/sub 2/ NSM, M/sub 9/ and MM/sub 2/ media were used and their optical densities were taken on spectrophotometer isolates were checked for resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals. On these characteristics, S/sub 2-d/ and S/sub c-a/ were assigned to Enterobacteriaceae, S/sub 2-b/ to Pseudomonad and rest of the bacterial isolates were affiliated to bacillaceae. (author)

  20. Biodispersant production by sea bacteria and its application to oil spills at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayol, M.A.; Pita, A.; Bergueiro, J.R.; Rallo, M.; Somoza, S.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of developing natural dispersants (biodispersants) for use in response to a marine oil spill was discussed. In this study biochemical tests were conducted with Bacillus and Coccus Gram Positive bacteria in order to select the one marine microorganism which is capable of producing biodispersants to degrade crude oil. Different carbon sources and salt concentrations were used in the experiments. A second experiment was conducted in which the production of biodispersants by the pure microbial strain were studied by measuring interfacial tension, determined by using the Longman method. The surfactant efficacy and the dispersant stability of Arabian Light crude oil was also studied. The biological oxygen demand at five days, biological oxygen demand at the end of the biodegradation, the biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant were determined during the degradation process. 23 refs., 9 tabs.,4 figs

  1. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  2. Microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery by the aid of inhabitant spore-forming bacteria: an insight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an important tertiary oil recovery method which is cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to drive the residual oil trapped in the reservoirs. The potential of microorganisms to degrade heavy crude oil to reduce viscosity is considered to be very effective in MEOR. Earlier studies of MEOR (1950s) were based on three broad areas: injection, dispersion, and propagation of microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs; selective degradation of oil components to improve flow characteristics; and production of metabolites by microorganisms and their effects. Since thermophilic spore-forming bacteria can thrive in very extreme conditions in oil reservoirs, they are the most suitable organisms for the purpose. This paper contains the review of work done with thermophilic spore-forming bacteria by different researchers.

  3. Microbial Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by the Aid of Inhabitant Spore-Forming Bacteria: An Insight Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biji Shibulal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR is an important tertiary oil recovery method which is cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to drive the residual oil trapped in the reservoirs. The potential of microorganisms to degrade heavy crude oil to reduce viscosity is considered to be very effective in MEOR. Earlier studies of MEOR (1950s were based on three broad areas: injection, dispersion, and propagation of microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs; selective degradation of oil components to improve flow characteristics; and production of metabolites by microorganisms and their effects. Since thermophilic spore-forming bacteria can thrive in very extreme conditions in oil reservoirs, they are the most suitable organisms for the purpose. This paper contains the review of work done with thermophilic spore-forming bacteria by different researchers.

  4. Microbial degradation of resins fractionated from Arabian light crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Hoaki, T.; Kato, M.; Maruyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Japanese coasts were screened for microorganisms able to degrade resin components of crude oil. A mixed population that could degrade 35% of 5000 ppm resin in 15 days was obtained. This population also metabolized 50% of saturates and aromatics present in crude oil (5000 ppm) in 7 days. A Pseudomonas sp., isolated from the mixed population, emulsified and degraded 30% of resins. It also degraded saturates and aromatics (30%) present in crude oil (5000 ppm). These results were obtained from Iatroscan analysis. Degradation of crude oil was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The peaks corresponding to known aliphatic hydrocarbons in crude oil greatly decreased within the first two days of incubation in the cultures of the RY-mixed population and of Pseudomonas strain UN3. Aromatic compounds detected as a broad peak by GC were significantly degraded at day 7 by Pseudomonas strain UN3, and at day 15 by the RY-mixed population. Investigations are ongoing to determine the genetic basis for the ability of these organisms to grow on the resin fractions of crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. The quantitative significance of Syntrophaceae and syntrophic partnerships in methanogenic degradation of crude oil alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Grant, R J; Rowan, A K; Hubert, C R J; Callbeck, C M; Aitken, C M; Jones, D M; Adams, J J; Larter, S R; Head, I M

    2011-11-01

    Libraries of 16S rRNA genes cloned from methanogenic oil degrading microcosms amended with North Sea crude oil and inoculated with estuarine sediment indicated that bacteria from the genera Smithella (Deltaproteobacteria, Syntrophaceace) and Marinobacter sp. (Gammaproteobacteria) were enriched during degradation. Growth yields and doubling times (36 days for both Smithella and Marinobacter) were determined using qPCR and quantitative data on alkanes, which were the predominant hydrocarbons degraded. The growth yield of the Smithella sp. [0.020 g(cell-C)/g(alkane-C)], assuming it utilized all alkanes removed was consistent with yields of bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons and other organic compounds in methanogenic consortia. Over 450 days of incubation predominance and exponential growth of Smithella was coincident with alkane removal and exponential accumulation of methane. This growth is consistent with Smithella's occurrence in near surface anoxic hydrocarbon degrading systems and their complete oxidation of crude oil alkanes to acetate and/or hydrogen in syntrophic partnership with methanogens in such systems. The calculated growth yield of the Marinobacter sp., assuming it grew on alkanes, was [0.0005 g(cell-C)/g(alkane-C)] suggesting that it played a minor role in alkane degradation. The dominant methanogens were hydrogenotrophs (Methanocalculus spp. from the Methanomicrobiales). Enrichment of hydrogen-oxidizing methanogens relative to acetoclastic methanogens was consistent with syntrophic acetate oxidation measured in methanogenic crude oil degrading enrichment cultures. qPCR of the Methanomicrobiales indicated growth characteristics consistent with measured rates of methane production and growth in partnership with Smithella. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  7. Isolation of Crude Oil from Polluted Waters Using Biosurfactants Pseudomonas Bacteria: Assessment of Bacteria Concentration Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khalifeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological decomposition techniques and isolation of environmental pollutions using biosurfactants bacteria are effective methods of environmental protection. Surfactants are amphiphilic compounds that are produced by local microorganisms and are able to reduce the surface and the stresses between surfaces. As a result, they will increase solubility, biological activity, and environmental decomposition of organic compounds. This study analyzes the effects of biosurfactants on crude oil recovery and its isolation using pseudomonas sea bacteria species. Preparation of biosurfactants was done in glass flasks and laboratory conditions. Experiments were carried out to obtain the best concentration of biosurfactants for isolating oil from water and destroying oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions in two pH ranges and four saline solutions of different concentrations. The most effective results were gained when a concentration of 0.1% biosurfactants was applied.

  8. Isolation of imidacloprid degrading bacteria from cotton fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.N.; Jabeen, F.; Hassan, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    Imidacloprid is cyclodiene organochlorine, used as an insecticide all over the world an possess a serious environmental threat. It is mostly used for cotton insects (bollworm, aphid and white fly). For isolation of imidacloprid degrading bacteria three soil samples were collected from cotton fields of district Layyah having five years history of use. Soil samples were analyzed by measuring pH and electric conductivity. The isolation of imidacroprid degrading bacteria was performed by enrichment technique. Fourteen bacterial strains: S/sub i-a/, S/sub i-b/, S/sub i-c/, S/sub i-d/, S/sub i-e/, S/sub a-a/, S/a-b/, S/a-c/, S/a-d/, S/sub b-a/, S/sub b-b/, S/sub b-c/, S/sub b-d/ and S/b-e/ were isolated on the basis of their colony morphologies. The purified colonies were characterized morphologically physiologically and biochemically. Gram staining was done and Gram staining was done and Gram negative strains were confirmed on macConkey agar and Eosin methylene blue. Bacterial strains were also checked for different minimal media in which only carbon source was the imidacloprid. For this purpose FTW, FTW without N/sun 2/, NSM, M/sub 9/ and MM/sub 2/ media were used and their optical densities were taken on spectrophotometer, isolates were checked for resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals. On the basis of these characteristics. S/sub a-c/ and S/sub l-d/ were assigned to Enterobacteriaceae, S/sub a-b/ to Pseudomonadaceae and rest of the bacterial isolates were affiliated. (author)

  9. Potential of Selected Rumen Bacteria for Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Zorec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous animals harbour potent cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic microorganisms that supply the host with nutrients acquired from degradation of ingested plant material. In addition to protozoa and fungi, rumen bacteria contribute a considerable part in the breakdown of recalcitrant (hemicellulosic biomass. The present review is focused on the enzymatic systems of three representative fibrolytic rumen bacteria, namely Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans. R. flavefaciens is known for one of the most elaborated cellulosome architectures and might represent a promising candidate for the construction of designer cellulosomes. On the other hand, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans produce multiple free, but highly efficient xylanases. In addition, P. xylanivorans was also shown to have some probiotic traits, which makes it a promising candidate not only for biogas production, but also as an animal feed supplement. Genomic and proteomic analyses of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial species aim to identify novel enzymes, which can then be cloned and expressed in adequate hosts to construct highly active recombinant hydrolytic microorganisms applicable for different biotechnological tasks.

  10. Isolation and application of hydrocarbon degradation of indigenous microbial from oil contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research are to obtain indigenous potential microbes from bacterial and fungal groups which have capable of degrading hydrocarbon from crude oil contaminated soil. The research carried out were isolation, selection, and identification potential microbial isolates capable of degrading hydrocarbon from oil contaminated soil located at Cepu East Java. The isolates were tested for their growth and ability to degrades crude oil. Each isolate was inoculated unto minimum mineral salt medium (MSM) contained 1% crude oil. Viability and stability test of selected isolates were carried out on irradiated compost carrier materials contained 5% crude oil. The fours series microbial s consortium consists of microbial consortium I, II, III, and IV were tested for the in vitro biodegradability of hydrocarbon. The results shows there sixty two (62) isolates are obtained, among them 42 bacteria and 20 molds. From 42 bacterial isolates, only 8 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Three of these isolates are identified Bacillus cereus (BMC2), Bacillus sp (BMC4), and Pseudomonas sp (BMC6). Whereas from 20 fungal isolates, only 4 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Two of these isolates are identified Aspergillus fumigatus (FMC2) and Aspergillus niger (FMC6). All isolates show good growth in mineral salt medium contained crude oil with decrease in pH. The ability of decrease of TPH content by the bacterial and fungal isolates were 54, 61, 67, 74, and 78% respectively at day 30. The viability and stability of microbial isolates show considerable good viability on irradiated compost carrier materials after 14 days storage. From the fours series microbial consortium, the highest TPH degradation rates is found in microbial consortium III (BMC6, BMC2, and FMC6) with 89,1% in 5 weeks. (author)

  11. Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, B.; Sengeløv, G.; Tjørnelund, J.

    2002-01-01

    Tetracyclines used in veterinary therapy invariably will find their way as parent compound and degradation products to the agricultural field. Major degradation products formed due to the limited stability of parent tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline) in aqueous...... at the same concentration level as tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline on both the sludge and the tetracycline-sensitive soil bacteria. Further, both 5a,6-anhydrotetracychne and 5a,6-anhydrochlortetracycline had potency on tetracycline-resistant bacteria supporting a mode of action different...

  12. Dissolution and degradation of crude oil droplets by different bacterial species and consortia by microcosm microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Bacteria are involved in cleanup and degradation of crude oil in polluted marine and soil environments. A number of bacterial species have been identified for consuming petroleum hydrocarbons with diverse metabolic capabilities. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate bacterial consumption by monitoring the volume change to oil droplets as well as effects of oil droplet size on this process. To conduct our study, we developed a micro-bioassay containing an enclosed chamber with bottom substrate printed with stationary oil microdroplets and a digital holographic interferometer (DHI). The morphology of microdroplets was monitored in real time over 100 hours and instantaneous flow field was also measured by digital holographic microscope. The substrates with printed oil droplets were further evaluated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the end of each experiment. Three different bacteria species, Pseudomonas sp, Alcanivorax borkumensis, and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, as well as six bacterial consortia were used in this study. The results show that droplets smaller than 20µm in diameter are not subject to bacterial degradation and the volume of droplet did not change beyond dissolution. Substantial species-specific behaviors have been observed in isolates. The experiments of consortia and various flow shears on biodegradation and dissolution are ongoing and will be reported.

  13. Different Abilities of Eight Mixed Cultures of Methane-oxidizing Bacteria to Degrade TCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Kim; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of eight mixed cultures of methane-oxidizing bacteria to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) was examined in laboratory batch experiments. This is one of the first reported works studying TCE degradation by mixed cultures of methane-oxidizing bacteria at 10°C, a common temperature for soils...... methanol, but only for a limited time period of about 5 days. Several explanations for the discontinued degradation of TCE are given. An experiment carried out to re-activate the methane-oxidizing bacteria after 8 days of growth on methanol by adding methane did not immediately result in degradation...... of methane and TCE. During the first 10–15 days after the addition of methane a significant degradation of methane and a minor degradation of TCE were observed. This experiment revealed that the ability of mixed cultures of methane-oxidizing bacteria to degrade TCE varied significantly even though...

  14. Biodegradation of spent engine oil by bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of legumes grown in contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HY Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of spent engine oil (SEO by bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Cajan cajan and Lablab purpureus was investigated. It was with a view to determining most efficient bacterial species that could degrade SEO in phytoremediation studies. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated and identified by enrichment culture technique using oil agar supplemented with 0.1% v/v SEO. Total heterotrophic and oil utilizing bacterial count showed the occurrence of large number of bacteria predominantly in the rhizosphere soil, ranging between 54×108 - 144×108 CFU/g and 4×108- 96×108 CFU/g respectively. Percentage of oil utilizing bacteria ranged between 0% (uncontaminated non rhizosphere soil to 76% (contaminated rhizosphere. Turbidimetrically, five bacterial species namely Pseudomonas putrefacience CR33, Klebsiella pneumonia CR23, Pseudomonas alcaligenes LR14, Klebsiella aerogenes CR21, and Bacillus coagulans CR31 were shown to grow maximally and degraded the oil at the rate of 68%, 62%, 59%, 58%and 45% respectively. Chromatographic analysis using GC-MS showed the presence of lower molecular weight hydrocarbons in the residual oil (indicating degradation after 21 days, whereas the undegraded oil (control had higher molecular weight hydrocarbons after the same period. The species isolated were shown to have high ability of SEO biodegradation and therefore could be important tools in ameliorating SEO contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10515 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 63-75

  15. Comparison of Paraffin and Diesel Oil as Cultivation Medium Supplements for Preparing a Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokukins Eduards

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of liquid paraffin and diesel oil as nutrient amendments for hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was compared. Different parameters were analyzed - optical density of bacterial suspension, oxygen consumption by biomass, morphology of bacteria, etc. In some experiments the paraffin was more preferable for microorganisms, but in other tests the results for both substances were similar. The influence of the comparable substances strongly depends on cultivation conditions.

  16. Cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent characterisation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Guaymas Basin sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony eGutierrez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the biodegradation of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the diversity and function of these organisms in deep-sea sediment. Here we used stable-isotope probing (SIP, a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading bacteria under aerobic conditions in sediments from Guaymas Basin with uniformly labeled [13C]phenanthrene. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from phenanthrene enrichments were identified to belong to the genus Cycloclasticus. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Cycloclasticus to determine their abundance in sediment incubations amended with unlabeled phenanthrene and showed substantial increases in gene abundance during the experiments. We also isolated a strain, BG-2, representing the SIP-identified Cycloclasticus sequence (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, and used this strain to provide direct evidence of phenanthrene degradation and mineralization. In addition, we isolated Halomonas, Thalassospira and Lutibacterium spp. with demonstrable phenanthrene-degrading capacity from Guaymas Basin sediment. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea.

  17. Effects of vanillin, quillaja saponin, and essential oils on in vitro fermentation and protein-degrading microorganisms of the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Yu, Zhongtang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of vanillin on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation, and the responses of ruminal protein-degrading bacteria to vanillin (at concentrations of 0, 0.76 and 1.52 g/L), essential oils (clove oil, 1 g/L; origanum oil, 0.50 g/L, and peppermint oil, 1 g/L), and quillaja saponin (at concentration of 0 and 6 g/L) in vitro. Methane production, degradabilities of feed substrate, and ammonia concentration decreased linearly with increasing doses of vanillin. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids also decreased, whereas proportion of butyrate tended to increase linearly with increasing doses of vanillin. Protozoa population decreased, but abundances of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Prevotella bryantii, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Prevotella ruminicola, Clostridium aminophilum, and Ruminobacter amylophilus increased with increasing doses of vanillin. Origanum and clove oils resulted in lower ammonia concentrations compared to control and peppermint oil. All the tested essential oils decreased abundances of protozoa, Selenomonas ruminantium, R. amylophilus, P. ruminicola and P. bryantii, with the largest decrease resulted from origanum oil followed by clove oil and peppermint oil. The abundances of Megasphaera elsdenii, C. aminophilum, and Clostridium sticklandii were deceased by origanum oil while that of B. fibrisolvens was lowered by both origanum and clove oils. Saponin decreased ammonia concentration and protozoal population, but increased the abundances of S. ruminantium, R. amylophilus, P. ruminicola, and P. bryantii, though the magnitude was small (less than one log unit). The results suggest that reduction of ammonia production by vanillin and saponin may not be caused by direct inhibition of major known proteolytic bacteria, and essential oils can have different inhibitory effects on different proteolytic bacteria, resulting in varying reduction in ammonia production.

  18. The Deep-Sea Microbial Community from the Amazonian Basin Associated with Oil Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeão, Mariana E; Reis, Luciana; Leomil, Luciana; de Oliveira, Louisi; Otsuki, Koko; Gardinali, Piero; Pelz, Oliver; Valle, Rogerio; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane C

    2017-01-01

    One consequence of oil production is the possibility of unplanned accidental oil spills; therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential of indigenous microorganisms (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) from different oceanic basins to degrade oil. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial response during the biodegradation process of Brazilian crude oil, both with and without the addition of the dispersant Corexit 9500, using deep-sea water samples from the Amazon equatorial margin basins, Foz do Amazonas and Barreirinhas, in the dark and at low temperatures (4°C). We collected deep-sea samples in the field (about 2570 m below the sea surface), transported the samples back to the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions (5°C in the dark) and subsequently performed two laboratory biodegradation experiments that used metagenomics supported by classical microbiological methods and chemical analysis to elucidate both taxonomic and functional microbial diversity. We also analyzed several physical-chemical and biological parameters related to oil biodegradation. The concomitant depletion of dissolved oxygen levels, oil droplet density characteristic to oil biodegradation, and BTEX concentration with an increase in microbial counts revealed that oil can be degraded by the autochthonous deep-sea microbial communities. Indigenous bacteria (e.g., Alteromonadaceae, Colwelliaceae , and Alcanivoracaceae ), archaea (e.g., Halobacteriaceae, Desulfurococcaceae , and Methanobacteriaceae ), and eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Microsporidia, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota) from the Amazonian margin deep-sea water were involved in biodegradation of Brazilian crude oil within less than 48-days in both treatments, with and without dispersant, possibly transforming oil into microbial biomass that may fuel the marine food web.

  19. The Deep-Sea Microbial Community from the Amazonian Basin Associated with Oil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana E. Campeão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of oil production is the possibility of unplanned accidental oil spills; therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential of indigenous microorganisms (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from different oceanic basins to degrade oil. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial response during the biodegradation process of Brazilian crude oil, both with and without the addition of the dispersant Corexit 9500, using deep-sea water samples from the Amazon equatorial margin basins, Foz do Amazonas and Barreirinhas, in the dark and at low temperatures (4°C. We collected deep-sea samples in the field (about 2570 m below the sea surface, transported the samples back to the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions (5°C in the dark and subsequently performed two laboratory biodegradation experiments that used metagenomics supported by classical microbiological methods and chemical analysis to elucidate both taxonomic and functional microbial diversity. We also analyzed several physical–chemical and biological parameters related to oil biodegradation. The concomitant depletion of dissolved oxygen levels, oil droplet density characteristic to oil biodegradation, and BTEX concentration with an increase in microbial counts revealed that oil can be degraded by the autochthonous deep-sea microbial communities. Indigenous bacteria (e.g., Alteromonadaceae, Colwelliaceae, and Alcanivoracaceae, archaea (e.g., Halobacteriaceae, Desulfurococcaceae, and Methanobacteriaceae, and eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Microsporidia, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota from the Amazonian margin deep-sea water were involved in biodegradation of Brazilian crude oil within less than 48-days in both treatments, with and without dispersant, possibly transforming oil into microbial biomass that may fuel the marine food web.

  20. Degradation of volatile hydrocarbons from steam-classified solid waste by a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Joseph G; Tracy, Karen D; Eley, Michael H

    2003-03-01

    Steam classification is a process for treatment of solid waste that allows recovery of volatile organic compounds from the waste via steam condensate and off-gases. A mixed culture of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was used to degrade the contaminants in the condensate, which contained approx. 60 hydrocarbons, of which 38 were degraded within 4 d. Many of the hydrocarbons, including styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, naphthalene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, chloroform, 1,3-dichloropropene, were completely or nearly completely degraded within one day, while trichloroethylene and 1,2,3-trichloropropane were degraded more slowly.

  1. Enhanced biodegradation of Pina Cuban crude oil by a culture of mixed marine bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, I.N.; Perigo, E. [Ministry of Science. Inst. of Oceanography, La Habana (Cuba); Bergueiro, J.R.; Pita, A.; Mayol, M.A. [Balearic Island Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Islas Baleares (Spain); Navarro, A. [Ministry of Industry, Oil Research Center, La Habana (Cuba)

    1998-09-01

    The ability of a mixed marine bacteria culture to degrade Pina Cuban crude oil in the presence of nutrients and sea water was studied. Laboratory experiments were conducted in flasks with 100 ml of saline liquid containing 1 per cent crude. The flasks were inoculated with marine bacteria (IDO-225, IDO-226, and IDO-229) at a final concentration of 10{sup 6} cell/ml. The cultures were grown at 29 degrees C for 21 days. Bacterial growth, and surface and interfacial tension were measured after 5, 13 and 21 days. Results showed that the marine bacteria were effective in accelerating the biodegradation process of Pina Cuban oil. The efficiency of the process increased when nutrients were added to the system. This biopreparation also accelerated emulsification of the oil without any negative effects to the natural microbiota. The biological oxygen demand at five days and at the end of the experiment was determined. The biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant were also measured. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Enhanced biodegradation of Pina Cuban crude oil by a culture of mixed marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, I.N.; Perigo, E.; Bergueiro, J.R.; Pita, A.; Mayol, M.A.; Navarro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of a mixed marine bacteria culture to degrade Pina Cuban crude oil in the presence of nutrients and sea water was studied. Laboratory experiments were conducted in flasks with 100 ml of saline liquid containing 1 per cent crude. The flasks were inoculated with marine bacteria (IDO-225, IDO-226, and IDO-229) at a final concentration of 10 6 cell/ml. The cultures were grown at 29 degrees C for 21 days. Bacterial growth, and surface and interfacial tension were measured after 5, 13 and 21 days. Results showed that the marine bacteria were effective in accelerating the biodegradation process of Pina Cuban oil. The efficiency of the process increased when nutrients were added to the system. This biopreparation also accelerated emulsification of the oil without any negative effects to the natural microbiota. The biological oxygen demand at five days and at the end of the experiment was determined. The biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant were also measured. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  3. The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on Enrichments of Hydrocarbon Degrading Microbes From the Gulf of Mexico Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietou, Angeliki; Chastain, Roger; Beulig, Felix; Scoma, Alberto; Hazen, Terry C; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest and deepest oil spills recorded. The wellhead was located at approximately 1500 m below the sea where low temperature and high pressure are key environmental characteristics. Using cells collected 4 months following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill at the Gulf of Mexico, we set up Macondo crude oil enrichments at wellhead temperature and different pressures to determine the effect of increasing depth/pressure to the in situ microbial community and their ability to degrade oil. We observed oil degradation under all pressure conditions tested [0.1, 15, and 30 megapascals (MPa)], although oil degradation profiles, cell numbers, and hydrocarbon degradation gene abundances indicated greatest activity at atmospheric pressure. Under all incubations the growth of psychrophilic bacteria was promoted. Bacteria closely related to Oleispira antarctica RB-8 dominated the communities at all pressures. At 30 MPa we observed a shift toward Photobacterium , a genus that includes piezophiles. Alphaproteobacterial members of the Sulfitobacter , previously associated with oil-degradation, were also highly abundant at 0.1 MPa. Our results suggest that pressure acts synergistically with low temperature to slow microbial growth and thus oil degradation in deep-sea environments.

  4. Characterization and evaluation of catechol oxygenases by twelve bacteria, isolated from oil contaminated soils in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tavakoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Catechol is a common intermediate compound in aromatic degradation process. Some microorganisms have this potentiality to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons by catechol dioxygenases to less toxic compounds with ability of entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In the present study, the catechol oxygenase activity was measured for 12 crude oil degrader bacteria. Materials and methods: Catechol oxygenase activity of two enzymes includes catechol 1, 2 dioxygenase and catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase were determined using spectrophotometer at 260 nm and 375 nm, respectively. Results: The highest enzyme activity for catechol 1, 2 dioxygenase by Bacillus cereus UKMP-6G was (0.07 U/mL and about catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase was 0.031 U/mL by Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M during the first minute of incubation. Catechol 1, 2 dioxygenase and catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase followed the ortho and meta pathway, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The enzyme assay results showed that among 12 examined bacteria, only R. ruber UKMP-5M has the ability to use meta pathway for degradation and produce 2-hydroxymuconic acid. The other isolates use ortho pathway and create cis, cis-muconic acid.

  5. FPGA implementation of predictive degradation model for engine oil lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idros, M. F. M.; Razak, A. H. A.; Junid, S. A. M. Al; Suliman, S. I.; Halim, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the implementation of linear regression model for degradation prediction on Register Transfer Logic (RTL) using QuartusII. A stationary model had been identified in the degradation trend for the engine oil in a vehicle in time series method. As for RTL implementation, the degradation model is written in Verilog HDL and the data input are taken at a certain time. Clock divider had been designed to support the timing sequence of input data. At every five data, a regression analysis is adapted for slope variation determination and prediction calculation. Here, only the negative value are taken as the consideration for the prediction purposes for less number of logic gate. Least Square Method is adapted to get the best linear model based on the mean values of time series data. The coded algorithm has been implemented on FPGA for validation purposes. The result shows the prediction time to change the engine oil.

  6. Characterization of carbofuran-degrading bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Workstation

    Key words: Pesticides, carbofuran, methomyl, biodegradation, bacteria. INTRODUCTION .... polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and partial sequence analysis of ..... Beutel KK (1986). Chlorinated hydrocarbon, In W. Gerhartz (ed.),.

  7. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis test, emulsification test and measurement of surface tension were conducted. We also evaluated the effect of different pH, salinity concentrations, and temperatures on biosurfactant production. Among importance features of the isolated strains, one of the strains (NO.4: Bacillus.sp showed high salt tolerance and their successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH and temperature domain and reduced surface tension to value below 40 mN/m. This strain is potential candidate for microbial enhanced oil recovery. The strain4 biosurfactant component was mainly glycolipid in nature.

  8. Influence of degradation rate of oil on its radiation stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiyeva, S.R.; Samadova, A.A.; Mustafayev, I.I; Guliyeva, N.K.; Melikova, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Regularities of radiation-chemical transformations of heavy fractions of Surakhani oil fields of Azerbaijan taken from the surface of the basin were studied. Studies were conducted at the range of absorbed doses of γ-radiation 3,8 - 109,5 kGy at dose rate of P=0,21 Gy/s. It was established radiation-chemical yields of gases obtained within the radiolysis of oil fractions and determined structural-group composition of the components. The research results will allow evaluating the possibility of applying radiation-chemical technology in purification of water from degraded oil products.In terms of negative impact on the environment, the oil industry is in one of the first places among the leading sectors of the economy. The problem of water pollution with oil and oil products are becoming more urgent each year. The last accidents (in the Gulf of Mexico, on Amur, in Azerbaijan) clearly show the need for application of new methods of water purification from oil /1/. Oil and oil products fall into the body of water in different ways: with storm water, within pipeline accidents, dumping of industrial sewage, etc. According to experts, each year about 10 million tons of oil and oil products get in the world ocean /2/. Only Azerbaijan dumps more than 500 mln m3 of normative-treated water in the Caspian Sea every year, as a result of which the sea gets more than 3 thousand tons of oil products, 25 tons of phenols, 28 thousand tons of suspended materials, 520 thousand tons of synthetic surfactant /3/. Within the ingress of oil on the surface of water objects the greatest danger is its spread to large areas, leading to disruption of ecological balance in the environment. Oil consisting of mainly hydrocarbon molecules, insoluble in water, spreads on the surface of the water during a disaster. Under the action of waves and current, the oil patch divided into many parts. Volatile fractions evaporate in the first hours of the accident; further processes occurring within the

  9. Degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter by seawater bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochelle-Newall, E.J.; Pizay, M-D.; Middelburg, J.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The functional response of a seawater bacterial community transplanted into freshwater dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated together with the response of natural populations of bacteria to size-fractioned natural source water. Seawater bacteria were incubated over a period of 8 d in

  10. Influence of compost amendments on the diversity of alkane degrading bacteria in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSchloter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkane degrading microorganisms play an important role for bioremediation of petrogenic contaminated environments. In this study, we investigated the effects of compost addition on the diversity of alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB harboring bacteria in oil-contaminated soil originated from an industrial zone in Celje, Slovenia, to improve our understanding about the bacterial community involved in alkane degradation and the effects of amendments. Soil without any amendments (control soil and soil amended with compost of different maturation stages, i 1 year and ii 2 weeks, were incubated under controlled conditions in a microcosm experiment and sampled after 0, 6, 12 and 36 weeks of incubation. By using quantitative real-time PCR higher number of alkB genes could be detected in soil samples with compost compared to the control soil after 6, 12 and 36 weeks mainly if the less maturated compost was added. To get an insight into the composition of the alkB harboring microbial communities, we performed next generation sequencing of alkB gene fragment amplicons. Richness and diversity of alkB gene harboring prokaryotes was higher in soil mixed with compost compared to control soil after 6, 12 and 36 weeks again with stronger effects of the less maturated compost. Comparison of communities detected in different samples and time points based on principle component analysis revealed that the addition of compost in general stimulated the abundance of alkB harboring Actinobacteria during the experiment independent from the maturation stage of the compost compared to the control soils. In addition alkB harboring proteobacteria like Shewanella or Hydrocarboniphaga as well as proteobacteria of the genus Agrobacterium responded positively to the addition of compost to soil The amendment of the less maturated compost resulted in addition in a large increase of alkB harboring bacteria of the Cytophaga group (Microscilla mainly at the early sampling

  11. Effect of isolates of fibre degrading bacteria on body weight changes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tc

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... lactating buffaloes divided into treatment and control groups of six animals each were fed with experimental diets ... anaerobic fibre degrading bacteria was prepared as described by ..... Bryant MP, Burkey LA (1953). Cultural ...

  12. Use of compost bacteria to degrade cellulose from grass cuttings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-06

    Sep 6, 2007 ... bacteria isolated from compost, thereby producing volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other ... 100% increase in the use of water by the mining and industrial .... other intermediates of cellulose degradation, such as hydrogen.

  13. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was direc...

  14. Anaerobic degradation of naphthalene by the mixed bacteria under nitrate reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Ding Aizhong

    2009-01-01

    Mixed bacteria were enriched from soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The anaerobic degradation characteristics by the enriched bacteria with different initial naphthalene concentrations were investigated under nitrate reducing conditions. The results showed that the mixed bacteria could degrade nearly all the naphthalene over the incubations of 25 days when the initial naphthalene concentration was below 30 mg/L. The degradation rates of naphthalene increased with increasing initial concentrations. A high naphthalene concentration of 30 mg/L did not inhibit neither on the bacterial growth nor on the naphthalene degradation ability. The accumulation of nitrite was occurred during the reduction of nitrate, and a nitrite concentration of 50 mg/L had no inhibition effect on the degradation of naphthalene. The calculation of electron balances revealed that most of the naphthalene was oxidized whereas a small proportion was used for cell synthesis.

  15. Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Characterization of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikilili, P. V.; Chirwa, E. M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was studied. Naphthalene was used as a model compound to represent these compounds. Low initial concentrations of naphthalene in a range of 30-60 mg/L were completely degraded after incubation for 15 hrs by consortia from a landfill soil while consortia from minewater took more that 29 hrs to reach complete degradation.

  16. Biochemical activities of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) degrading bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five indigenous DCA degrading bacterial isolates capable of completely degrading DCA under aerobic conditions recently isolated from South African waste water treatment facilities, were found to belong to the genus Ancylobacter. The specific activities of the enzymes in DCA catabolism were compared with previously ...

  17. degrading bacteria isolated from South African waste water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Al

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... biodiversity in which microorganisms co-exist as a dyna- mic community with ... elemental chlorine or chlorine oxide making this industry a major source of ... This two stage procedure ensured the selection of bacteria only ...

  18. Biodegradation of n-alkanes on oil-seawater interfaces at different temperatures and microbial communities associated with the degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthus, Synnøve; Netzer, Roman; Lewin, Anna S; Heggeset, Tonje M B; Haugen, Tone; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2018-04-01

    Oil biodegradation studies have mainly focused on microbial processes in dispersions, not specifically on the interfaces between the oil and the seawater in the dispersions. In this study, a hydrophobic adsorbent system, consisting of Fluortex fabrics, was used to investigate biodegradation of n-alkanes and microbial communities on oil-seawater interfaces in natural non-amended seawater. The study was performed over a temperature range from 0 to 20 °C, to determine how temperature affected biodegradation at the oil-seawater interfaces. Biodegradation of n-alkanes were influenced both by seawater temperature and chain-length. Biotransformation rates of n-alkanes decreased by reduced seawater temperature. Low rate coefficients at a seawater temperature of 0 °C were probably associated with changes in physical-chemical properties of alkanes. The primary bacterial colonization of the interfaces was predominated by the family Oceanospirillaceae at all temperatures, demonstrating the wide temperature range of these hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. The mesophilic genus Oleibacter was predominant at the seawater temperature of 20 °C, and the psychrophilic genus Oleispira at 5 and 0 °C. Upon completion of n-alkane biotransformation, other oil-degrading and heterotrophic bacteria became abundant, including Piscirickettsiaceae (Cycloclasticus), Colwelliaceae (Colwellia), Altermonadaceae (Altermonas), and Rhodobacteraceae. This is one of a few studies that describe the biodegradation of oil, and the microbial communities associated with the degradation, directly at the oil-seawater interfaces over a large temperature interval.

  19. Bovine intestinal bacteria inactivate and degrade ceftiofur and ceftriaxone with multiple beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J; Cerniglia, Carl E; Erickson, Bruce D

    2011-11-01

    The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific β-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple β-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-β-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading β-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that β-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple β-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle.

  20. Bovine Intestinal Bacteria Inactivate and Degrade Ceftiofur and Ceftriaxone with Multiple β-Lactamases▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J.; Cerniglia, Carl E.; Erickson, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific β-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple β-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-β-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading β-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that β-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple β-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle. PMID:21876048

  1. Identification and characterization of epoxide hydrolase activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria for biocatalytic resolution of racemic styrene oxide and styrene oxide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jung-Hee; Kwon, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Jun-Tae; Kim, Choong-Gon; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2013-04-01

    A novel epoxide hydrolase (EHase) from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria was identified and characterized. EHase activity was identified in four strains of PAH-degrading bacteria isolated from commercial gasoline and oil-contaminated sediment based on their growth on styrene oxide and its derivatives, such as 2,3- and 4-chlorostyrene oxides, as a sole carbon source. Gordonia sp. H37 exhibited high enantioselective hydrolysis activity for 4-chlorostyrene oxide with an enantiomeric ratio of 27. Gordonia sp. H37 preferentially hydrolyzed the (R)-enantiomer of styrene oxide derivatives resulting in the preparation of a (S)-enantiomer with enantiomeric excess greater than 99.9 %. The enantioselective EHase activity was identified and characterized in various PAH-degrading bacteria, and whole cell Gordonia sp. H37 was employed as a biocatalyst for preparing enantiopure (S)-styrene oxide derivatives.

  2. Biodiversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from deep sea sediments of the Middle Atlantic Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhisong; Lai, Qiliang; Dong, Chunming; Shao, Zongze

    2008-08-01

    The bacteria involved in the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in deep sea subsurface environments are largely unknown. In order to reveal their biodiversity, sediments from 2.2 m under the bottom surface at a water depth of 3542 m were sampled on the Middle Atlantic Ridge with a gravity column sampler. The sediments were promptly enriched with either crude oil or a mixture of PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene) as the sole carbon source, and further enriched with the PAH mixture mentioned above in the lab. The resulting consortia were named C2CO and C2PPN respectively. Their bacterial composition was analysed with plate cultivation, PCR-DGGE and 16S rDNA library analysis. On plates, isolates belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Thalassospira and Tistrella dominated the culturable populations. With PCR-DGGE, five major bands closely related to Cycloclasticus, Alteromonas, Thalassospira, Alcanivorax and Rhodospirillaceae were detected in consortium C2CO, while only one major band of Cycloclasticus was detected in consortium C2PPN. In addition, the dynamics of community structure in response to aromatic substrate alterations were examined. As a result, three ribotypes of Cycloclasticus were detected by 16S rDNA library analysis, one which played a key role in phenanthrene degradation; two Alteromonas bacteria dominated the naphthalene reselected consortium. Although bacteria of the two genera grew as the main members of the communities, none of them were isolated, probably owing to their poor cultivability. These results confirm that bacteria of Cycloclasticus are important obligate PAH degraders in marine environments, and coexist with other degrading bacteria that inhabit the deep subsurface sediment of the Atlantic. This supports the view that PAH accumulation and bioattenuation occur in remote areas consistently and continuously.

  3. Amylase activity of a starch degrading bacteria isolated from soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Key words: Amylase, Bacillus, kitchen waste, starch degrading. INTRODUCTION ... several sources such as plant, animal and microbes. (Kathiresan .... Test. Response of the strain. Gram's staining. +. Shape. Bacilli. Motility. +.

  4. Endophytic degrader bacteria for improving phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, U.; Trapp, Stefan; Lelie, D, van der

    2003-01-01

    This project represented a completely new approach towards improving the technology of phytoremediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with water soluble and volatile compounds. It endeavoured to tackle the problem of inefficient degradation of these compounds during phytoremediation by imp...

  5. The gut microbiota of insecticide-resistant insects houses insecticide-degrading bacteria: A potential source for biotechnological exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, Luis Gustavo; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Trigo, Jos? Roberto; Omoto, Celso; C?nsoli, Fernando Luis

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of new niches for microorganisms capable of degrading recalcitrant molecules is still required. We hypothesized the gut microbiota associated with insect-resistant lines carry pesticide degrading bacteria, and predicted they carry bacteria selected to degrade pesticides they were resistant to. We isolated and accessed the pesticide-degrading capacity of gut bacteria from the gut of fifth instars of Spodoptera frugiperda strains resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, ch...

  6. Kinetic study of olive oil degradation monitored by fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Application to oil characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Falcó, Iván P; Grané Teruel, Nuria; Prats Moya, Soledad; Martín Carratalá, M Luisa

    2012-11-28

    A new approach for the determination of kinetic parameters of the cis/trans isomerization during the oxidation process of 24 virgin olive oils belonging to 8 different varieties is presented. The accelerated process of degradation at 100 °C was monitored by recording the Fourier transform infrared spectra. The parameters obtained confirm pseudo-first-order kinetics for the degradation of cis and the appearance of trans double bonds. The kinetic approach affords the induction time and the rate coefficient; these parameters are related to the fatty acid profile of the fresh olive oils. The data obtained were used to compare the oil stability of the samples with the help of multivariate statistical techniques. Fatty acid allowed a classification of the samples in five groups, one of them constituted by the cultivars with higher stability. Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters showed greater ability for the characterization of olive oils, allowing the classification in seven groups.

  7. Isolation, identification and characterization of lignin-degrading bacteria from Qinling, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-X; Wang, T; Gao, L-N; Yin, H-J; Lü, X

    2017-12-01

    Lignin is an aromatic heteropolymer forming a physical barrier and it is a big challenge in biomass utilization. This paper first investigated lignin-degradation bacteria from rotten wood in Qinling Mountain. Nineteen potential strains were selected and ligninolytic enzyme activities were determined over 84 h. Strains that had higher enzyme activities were selected. Further, the biodegradation of wheat straw lignin and alkali lignin was evaluated indicating that Burkholderia sp. H1 had the highest capability. It was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography and field emission scanning electron microscope that alkali lignin was depolymerized into small fragments. The degraded products were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total ion chromatograph of products treated for 7 days showed the formation of aromatic compounds, an important intermediate from lignin degradation. Interestingly, they disappeared in 15 days while the aldehyde and ester compounds increased. The results suggest that the lignin-degrading bacteria are abundant in rotten wood and strain H1 has high potential to break down lignin. The diversity of lignin-degrading bacteria in Qinling Mountain is revealed. The study of Burkholderia sp. H1 expands the range of bacteria for lignin degradation and provides novel bacteria for application to lignocellulosic biomass. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Oil sands to the rescue: oil sand microbial communities can degrade recalcitrant alkyl phenyl alkanoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, Corinne [University of Essex (Canada)], email: cwhitby@essex.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    Almost half of all global oil reserves are found as biodegraded heavy oils found in vast tar sand deposits located in North and South America and these account for 47% of Canadian oil production. Oil sand extraction generates large amounts of toxic waste water, known as oil sand process waters (OSPW), that are stored in large tailing ponds that contain toxic compounds like naphthenic acids (NAs). The presence of NAs creates problems like toxicity, corrosion, and the formation of calcium napthenate deposits which block pipelines and other infrastructure and need to be removed. This paper presents oil sand microbial communities that can degrade these NAs. The approach is to apply new aliphatic and aromatic NAs as substrates to supplement and identify NA degrading microbes and also to identify the metabolites produced and explain NA degradation pathways and the functional genes involved. The chemistry and the processes involved are explained. From the results, it is suggested that pure cultures of P. putida KT2440 be used against NAs.

  9. Inducible secretion of phytate-degrading enzymes from bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... Key words: Bacillus sp., phytase activities, soil bacteria, Bacillus broth, Bacillus broth. INTRODUCTION ... Penicillium) enzymes conquered many applications in ... U/(g×h)] than in (SSF) Solid State Fermentation [1.2. U/(g×h)] ... mM (from Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai), and liquid nitrogen (from. Air liquid ...

  10. Inducible secretion of phytate-degrading enzymes from bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 320 bacteria were isolated from the soil (Rhizosphere, endophyte, flowers and leaves) of Rosa damascena cv. Taifi and screened for phytase activity. Phytase activity was checked for 24 isolates in Bacillus broth media supplemented with and without rice bran. Twelve (12) isolates were found with detectable ...

  11. Degradation of Dehydrodivanillin by Anaerobic Bacteria from Cow Rumen Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Ohmiya, Kunio; Shimizu, Shoichi; Kawakami, Hidekuni

    1985-01-01

    Dehydrodivanillin (DDV; 0.15 g/liter) was biodegradable at 37°C under strictly anaerobic conditions by microflora from cow rumen fluid to the extent of 25% within 2 days in a yeast extract medium. The anaerobes were acclimated on DDV for 2 weeks, leading to DDV-degrading microflora with rates of degradation eight times higher than those initially. Dehydrodivanillic acid and vanillic acid were detected in an ethylacetate extract of a DDV-enriched culture broth by thin-layer, gas, and high-perf...

  12. Isolation and identification of phenol degrading bacteria from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenol and its components are extremely toxic and can easily be isolated from different industrial sewage such as oil refinery, petrochemical industry and mines, especially collier and chemical factories. Hence the presence of these compounds in the environment could cause environmental pollution, especially in water ...

  13. Influence of Environmental Stressors on the Physiology of Pollutant Degrading Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Nanna Bygvraa

    of model degrader bacteria to nutrient- and oxidative stress, two highly relevant stress scenarios in natural environments, and at evaluating the impact of these environmental stress conditions on catabolic gene expression. The results suggest that environmental bacteria, here represented by the toluene...... biodegradative or catabolic performance. To date, details concerning the physiology of degrader microorganisms and their ability to express the relevant catabolic genes in the context of a complex and stressful environment have yet to be elucidated. In order to fully exploit the catabolic potential of degrader......- and xylene degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida mt-2 and the phenoxy acid herbicide degrading bacterium Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, have a high defense capacity towards archetypical environmental stressors. However, the results also showed that induction of a stress defense may have a cost in regard...

  14. Identification of soil bacteria able to degrade phenanthrene bound to a hydrophobic sorbent in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regonne, Raïssa Kom; Martin, Florence; Mbawala, Augustin; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Jouanneau, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Efficient bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites is limited by the hydrophobic character and poor bioavailability of pollutants. In this study, stable isotope probing (SIP) was implemented to track bacteria that can degrade PAHs adsorbed on hydrophobic sorbents. Temperate and tropical soils were incubated with 13 C-labeled phenanthrene, supplied by spiking or coated onto membranes. Phenanthrene mineralization was faster in microcosms with PAH-coated membranes than in microcosms containing spiked soil. Upon incubation with temperate soil, phenanthrene degraders found in the biofilms that formed on coated membranes were mainly identified as Sphingomonadaceae and Actinobacteria. In the tropical soil, uncultured Rhodocyclaceae dominated degraders bound to membranes. Accordingly, ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences recovered from this soil matched PAH-specific dioxygenase genes recently found in Rhodocyclaceae. Hence, our SIP approach allowed the detection of novel degraders, mostly uncultured, which differ from those detected after soil spiking, but might play a key role in the bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. -- Highlights: •Soil bacteria with the ability to degrade sorbent-bound PAHs were investigated. •In soil, membrane-bound phenanthrene was readily mineralized. •PAH degraders found in biofilms were different in temperate and tropical soils. •Uncultured Rhodocyclaceae were dominant phenanthrene degraders in the tropical soil. •PAH-specific ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences were identified in soil DNA. -- Bacteria able to degrade PAHs bound to a hydrophobic sorbent were mainly identified as uncultured Rhodocyclaceae and Sphingomonadaceae in polluted soils from tropical and temperate area, respectively

  15. Degradation of alkenones by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: Selective or not ?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rontani, J-F.; Harji, R.; Guasco, S.; Prahl, F.G.; Volkman, J.K.; Bhosle, N.B.; Bonin, P.

    -treated algal cells. The observed increases in U sup (k’) sub(37) are equivalent to a +2 degrees C and +3.3 degrees C change in the inferred temperature. Our results clearly show that intense aerobic microbial degradative processes have the potential...

  16. [Screening of harmine tolerance/degrading bacteria from camel rumen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dengdi; Zhu, Yanlei; Tang, Jing; Ye, Yongxia; Zeng, Xianchun

    2010-08-01

    Peganum harmala, a famous traditional Chinese drug, contains a variety of alkaloids and toxic for many animals. Camels mainly live in desert or semi-desert areas, with the robust gastrointestine system in digesting various feed including toxic plants without disease symptoms. Camel rumen content was used as the inoculant to inoculate medium M98-5 which contains 100 mg x L(-1) harmin and cultivated for 5 days. Upto 5 subculturings, strains that could degrading or tolerant harmine were isolated. Their conversion activity was determined by thin-layer chromatography. The taxonomic position of the strains were identified based on 16S rRNA sequences analysis. 15 out of the 29 isolates have harmine degrading activity. Most of the isolates are identified as the members of the Genera Lactobacillus (16 strains, 55%), Shigella (7 strains, 24%) and Bacillus (4 strains, 13.8%). Only one strain belong to genus Enterococcus and one belong to genus Megasphaera. The results indicated that the harmine tolerance/degrading communities of camel rumen are limited and only Lactobacillus have harmine-degrading activity.

  17. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolation and surfactant influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbons are substantially insoluble in water, often remaining partitioned in the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). However, there had been little or no attempts to advance the bioavailability of hydrocarbons through the use of surfactants. This study was conducted based on the need to isolate hydrocarbon degrading ...

  18. Degradation of plant wastes by anaerobic process using rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, J; Creuly, C; Duchez, D; Pons, A; Dussap, C G

    2003-01-01

    An operational reactor has been designed for the fermentation of a pure culture of Fibrobacter succinogenes with the constraints of strict anaerobic condition. The process is controlled by measurements of pH, redox, temperature and CO2 pressure; it allows an efficient degradation (67%) of lignocellulosic wastes such as a mixture of wheat straw, soya bean cake and green cabbage.

  19. RNA degradation in Archaea and Gram-negative bacteria different from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena; Klug, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Exoribonucleolytic and endoribonucleolytic activities are important for controlled degradation of RNA and contribute to the regulation of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by influencing the half-lives of specific messenger RNAs. The RNA half-lives are determined by the characteristics of the RNA substrates and by the availability and the properties of the involved proteins-ribonucleases and assisting polypeptides. Much is known about RNA degradation in Eukarya and Bacteria, but there is limited information about RNA-degrading enzymes and RNA destabilizing or stabilizing elements in the domain of the Archaea. The recent progress in the understanding of the structure and function of the archaeal exosome, a protein complex with RNA-degrading and RNA-tailing capabilities, has given some first insights into the mechanisms of RNA degradation in the third domain of life and into the evolution of RNA-degrading enzymes. Moreover, other archaeal RNases with degrading potential have been described and a new mechanism for protection of the 5'-end of RNA in Archaea was discovered. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on RNA degradation in the Archaea. Additionally, RNA degradation mechanisms in Rhodobacter capsulatus and Pseudomonas syringae are compared to those in the major model organism for Gram-negatives, Escherichia coli, which dominates our view on RNA degradation in Bacteria.

  20. Use of mycelia as paths for the isolation of contaminant‐degrading bacteria from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Shoko; Remer, Rita; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mycelia of fungi and soil oomycetes have recently been found to act as effective paths boosting bacterial mobility and bioaccessibility of contaminants in vadose environments. In this study, we demonstrate that mycelia can be used for targeted separation and isolation of contaminant‐degrading bacteria from soil. In a ‘proof of concept’ study we developed a novel approach to isolate bacteria from contaminated soil using mycelia of the soil oomycete Pythium ultimum as translocation networks for bacteria and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene (NAPH) as selective carbon source. NAPH‐degrading bacterial isolates were affiliated with the genera Xanthomonas, Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas. Except for Rhodococcus the NAPH‐degrading isolates exhibited significant motility as observed in standard swarming and swimming motility assays. All steps of the isolation procedures were followed by cultivation‐independent terminal 16S rRNA gene terminal fragment length polymorphism (T‐RFLP) analysis. Interestingly, a high similarity (63%) between both the cultivable NAPH‐degrading migrant and the cultivable parent soil bacterial community profiles was observed. This suggests that mycelial networks generally confer mobility to native, contaminant‐degrading soil bacteria. Targeted, mycelia‐based dispersal hence may have high potential for the isolation of bacteria with biotechnologically useful properties. PMID:22014110

  1. Enrichment and identification of polycyclic aromatic compound-degrading bacteria enriched from sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rachel M; Lappin-Scott, Hilary M; Stevens, Jamie R

    2009-07-01

    The degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) has been widely studied. Knowledge of the degradation of PACs by microbial populations can be utilized in the remediation of contaminated sites. To isolate and identify PAC-degrading bacteria for potential use in future bioremediation programmes, we established a series of PAC enrichments under the same experimental conditions from a single sediment sample taken from a highly polluted estuarine site. Enrichment cultures were established using the pollutants: anthracene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene as a sole carbon source. The shift in microbial community structure on each of these carbon sources was monitored by analysis of a time series of samples from each culture using 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Significantly, our findings demonstrate that shifts in the constituent species within each degradative community are directly attributable to enrichment with different PACs. Subsequently, we characterized the microorganisms comprising the degradative communities within each enrichment using 16S rRNA sequence data. Our findings demonstrate that the ability to degrade PACs is present in five divisions of the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. By determining the precise identity of the PAC-degrading bacterial species isolated from a single sediment sample, and by comparing our findings with previously published research, we demonstrate how bacteria with similar PAC degrading capabilities and 16S rRNA signatures are found in similarly polluted environments in geographically very distant locations, e.g., China, Italy, Japan and Hawaii. Such a finding suggests that geographical barriers do not limit the distribution of key PAC-degrading bacteria; this finding is in accordance with the Baas-Becking hypothesis "everything is everywhere; the environment selects" and may have significant consequences for the global distribution of PAC-degrading bacteria and

  2. Potential Environmental Factors Affecting Oil-Degrading Bacterial Populations in Deep and Surface Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bacterial community dynamics as a result of an oil spill is important for predicting the fate of oil released to the environment and developing bioremediation strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the roles of temperature, water chemistry (nutrients), and initial bacterial community in selecting oil degraders through a series of incubation experiments. Surface (2 m) and bottom (1537 m) waters, collected near the Deepwater Horizon site, were amended with 200 ppm light Louisiana sweet crude oil and bacterial inoculums from surface or bottom water, and incubated at 4 or 24°C for 50 days. Bacterial community and residual oil were analyzed by pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results showed that temperature played a key role in selecting oil-degrading bacteria. Incubation at 4°C favored the development of Cycloclasticus, Pseudoalteromonas , Sulfitobacter , and Reinekea , while 24°C incubations enhanced Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Phaeobacter, and Roseobacter. Water chemistry and the initial community also had potential roles in the development of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities. Pseudoalteromonas , Oleibacter , and Winogradskyella developed well in the nutrient-enriched bottom water, while Reinekea and Thalassobius were favored by low-nutrient surface water. We revealed that the combination of 4°C, crude oil and bottom inoculum was a key factor for the growth of Cycloclasticus , while the combination of surface inoculum and bottom water chemistry was important for the growth of Pseudoalteromonas . Moreover, regardless of the source of inoculum, bottom water at 24°C was a favorable condition for Oleibacter. Redundancy analysis further showed that temperature and initial community explained 57 and 19% of the variation observed, while oil and water chemistry contributed 14 and 10%, respectively. Overall, this study revealed the relative roles of temperature, water

  3. Screening and Optimization of Bio surfactant Production by the Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Hamzah; Noramiza Sabturani; Shahidan Radiman

    2013-01-01

    Bio surfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced by microorganisms as secondary metabolite. The unique properties of bio surfactants make them possible to replace or to be added to synthetic surfactants which are mainly used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries and in environmental applications. In this study twenty hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were screened for bio surfactant production. All of the bacterial isolates were grown in mineral salt medium (MSM) with addition of 1 % (v/v) Tapis crude oil as carbon source. The presence of bio surfactant was determined by the drop-collapse test, microplate analysis, oil spreading technique, emulsification index (%EI24) and surface tension measurement. Only one isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UKMP14T, was found to be positive for all the qualitative tests and reducing the surface tension of the medium to 49.5 dynes/ with emulsification index of 25.29 %. This isolate produced bio surfactant optimally at pH 9.0 and incubation temperature of 37 degree Celsius. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa UKMP14T when grown in MSM with addition of 1 % (v/v) glycerol and 1.3 g/ L ammonium sulphate with C/N ratio 14:1 produced bio surfactant with percentage of surface tension reduction at 55 % or 30.6 dynes/ cm with %EI24 of 43 %. This percentage of surface tension reduction represents an increasing reduction in surface tension of medium by 39 % over the value before optimization. This study showed that P. aeruginosa UKMP14T has the ability to biodegrade hydrocarbon and concurrently produce bio surfactant. (author)

  4. Isolation, identification and diesel-oil biodegradation capacities of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading strains of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Acinetobacter baumannii from tarball at Terengganu beach, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkem, Bruno Martins; Halimoon, Normala; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Johari, Wan Lufti Wan; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Kannan, Narayanan

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we isolated two indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from tarball found in Rhu Sepuluh beach, Terengganu, Malaysia. These bacteria were identified based on their physiological characteristic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and they showed 99% similarity with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans DSM 43879 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 respectively. Their hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities were tested using diesel-oil as sole carbon source. Results analysed using GC-MS, showed diesel-oil alkanes were degraded an average 64.4% by C. cellulans and 58.1% by A. baumannii with medium optical density reaching 0.967 (C. cellulans) and 1.515 (A. baumannii) in minimal salt media at 32°C for 10days. Individual diesel-oil alkanes were degraded between 10%-95.4% by C. cellulans and 0.2%-95.9% by A. baumannii. Both strains utilized diesel-oil for growth. The study suggests both strains are part of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in tarball with potential for bioremediation of oil-polluted marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytate degradation by fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting.

  6. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of

  7. Treatment of heavy oil wastewater by UASB-BAFs using the combination of yeast and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    A novel system integrating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a two-stage biological aerated filter (BAF) system was investigated as advanced treatment of heavy oil wastewater with large amounts of dissolved recalcitrant organic substances and low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. #1 BAF, inoculated with two yeast strains (Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula dairenensis), was installed in the upper reaches of #2 BAF inoculated with activated sludge. During the 180-day study period, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), oil and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the wastewater were removed by 90.2%, 90.8%, 86.5% and 89.4%, respectively. Although the wastewater qualities fluctuated and the hydraulic retention time continuously decreased, the effluent quality index met the national discharge standard steadily. The UASB process greatly improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while #1 BAF played an important role not only in degrading COD but also in removing oil and high molecular weight PAHs. This work demonstrates that the hybrid UASB-BAFs system containing yeast-bacteria consortium has the potential to be used in bioremediation of high-strength oily wastewater.

  8. Characteristic Assessment of Diesel-degrading Bacteria Immobilized on Natural Organic Carriers in Marine Environment: the Degradation Activity and Nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianliang; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Zhixiu; Li, Menglu; Sun, Xiyu; Wang, Huajun; Liu, Bing

    2017-08-17

    Oil spill has led to severe environmental and ecological problems. Due to the harsh environmental conditions, the bioremediation technology is not successfully used to remedy the oil spill in marine environment. In this study, immobilization technology was used to immobilize bacteria on natural organic carriers (i.e., wood chips and maize straw). The higher surface area of in wood chips leads to larger biomass density (0.0242 gVSS/g) than that of maize straw of 0.0097 gVSS/g carrier. Compared with biodegradation efficiency of free bacteria (44.79%), the immobilized bacteria on wood chips and maize straw reached to 73.39% and 52.28%, respectively. The high biological activity of the immobilized bacteria can be also explained by nutrients, such as TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus), released from wood chips and maize straw, which was 8.83 mg/g and 5.53 mg/g, 0.0624 mg/g and 0.0099 mg/g, respectively.

  9. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  10. Anaerobic degradation of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether and guaiacoxyacetic acid by mixed rumen bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W; Supanwong, K; Ohmiya, K; Shimizu, S; Kawakami, H

    1985-01-01

    Veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether (0.2 g/liter), a lignin model compound, was found to be degraded by mixed rumen bacteria in a yeast extract medium under strictly anaerobic conditions to the extent of 19% within 24 h. Guaiacoxyacetic acid, 2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethanol, vanillic acid, and vanillin were detected as degradation products of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Guaiacoxyacetic acid (0.25...

  11. Exploring the microbiota dynamics related to vegetable biomasses degradation and study of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria for industrial biotechnological application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Aliberti, Alberto; Faraco, Vincenza; Robertiello, Alessandro; Giacobbe, Simona; Ercolini, Danilo; Amore, Antonella; Fagnano, Massimo; Pepe, Olimpia

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbial diversity of different lignocellulosic biomasses during degradation under natural conditions and to isolate, select, characterise new well-adapted bacterial strains to detect potentially improved enzyme-producing bacteria. The microbiota of biomass piles of Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing. A highly complex bacterial community was found, composed of ubiquitous bacteria, with the highest representation by the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla. The abundances of the major and minor taxa retrieved during the process were determined by the selective pressure produced by the lignocellulosic plant species and degradation conditions. Moreover, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated using differential substrates and screened for cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase and ligninase activities. Forty strains that showed multienzymatic activity were selected and identified. The highest endo-cellulase activity was seen in Promicromonospora sukumoe CE86 and Isoptericola variabilis CA84, which were able to degrade cellulose, cellobiose and xylan. Sixty-two percent of bacterial strains tested exhibited high extracellular endo-1,4-ß-glucanase activity in liquid media. These approaches show that the microbiota of lignocellulosic biomasses can be considered an important source of bacterial strains to upgrade the feasibility of lignocellulose conversion for the `greener' technology of second-generation biofuels.

  12. POTENCY OF LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BUFFALO AND HORSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ELEPHANT DUNG FOR FEED FIBER DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wahyudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is limiting factor for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in rumen. Isolation andselection bacteria from buffalo and horse gastrointestinal tract and elephant dung could be foundbacteria that have superiority to degrade lignin, xylan, and cellulose. Those animals were chosenbecause they were herbivores that consume low quality crude fiber as their main energy sources.Lignocellulose degrading bacteria were isolated by Hungate selective media, by using lignin (tannicacid, xylan, and cellulose as selective substrates. The morphological identification used an enrichmentmedia by measuring color, colony size, diffusion zone, clear zone, and biochemical identification usingproduction of ligninase, xylanase, and cellulase enzymes. The best lignocellulose degrading bacteriathen was determined by the morphological and biochemical character. This study showed thatlignocellulose degrading bacteria could be found in gastrointestinal tract of buffalo and horse, andelephant dung. Highest number colony was found in samples from buffalo's colon (376, followed byhorse's cecum (203, elephant’s dung (46, buffalo’s cecum (23, buffalo's rumen (9 and horse’s colon(7. The highest isolates activity of lignolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic were reached by buffalo’scecum (7.64, horse's cecum (6.27, and buffalo’s colon (2.48. Meanwhile the highest enzymesproductivities were: buffalo’s cecum (0.0400 µmol, horse’s cecum (1.3912 µmol and buffalo’s colon(0.1971 µmol. Based on morphologycal character and biochemical test, it could be concluded thatlignolytic from buffalo’s cecum, xylanolytic from horse’s cecum, and cellulolytic from buffalo’s colonwere the superior isolates and they were 99% analyzed as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarumspecies.

  13. Catabolism and biotechnological applications of cholesterol degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J L; Uhía, I; Galán, B

    2012-11-01

    Cholesterol is a steroid commonly found in nature with a great relevance in biology, medicine and chemistry, playing an essential role as a structural component of animal cell membranes. The ubiquity of cholesterol in the environment has made it a reference biomarker for environmental pollution analysis and a common carbon source for different microorganisms, some of them being important pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This work revises the accumulated biochemical and genetic knowledge on the bacterial pathways that degrade or transform this molecule, given that the characterization of cholesterol metabolism would contribute not only to understand its role in tuberculosis but also to develop new biotechnological processes that use this and other related molecules as starting or target materials. © 2012 The Authors; Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  15. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms; Nechaeva, I.; Akhmetov, L.; Gafarov, A.; Puntus, I. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  16. Biodegradation of crude oil by introduced psychotropic microbial association and indigenous bacteria under laboratory and field conditions in soils of Moscow region, Russia. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filonov, A.; Boronin, A. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms; Nechaeva, I.; Akhmetov, L.; Gafarov, A.; Puntus, I. [Pushchino State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented an in-situ bioremediation method that accelerates the degradation of crude oil. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of adding mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and accelerate microbial metabolism. The strongest effect was observed when nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium sources were added with microbial association jointly, particularly in field soil experiments. A 22 per cent oil spill removal was achieved due to metabolic activity of indigenous bacteria after only 2 months of experimenting. This study examined the kinetics of total number and crude oil degrading bacteria in the soil resulting from nutrient inoculation. It was shown that the rate of hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms in the environment is determined by a range of factors such as temperature, soil pH, oxygen, water and nutritive availability. The use of psychotrophic degrader strains resulted in a higher degree of oil degradation in the field than in the laboratory. The study also revealed that the biodegradation process in polluted Arctic soils polluted with diesel was accelerated with the addition of degrader microorganisms. It was recommended that in cold climates, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium should be introduced simultaneously. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. Photo- and thermal degradation of olive oil measured using an optical fibre smartphone spectrofluorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of olive oil under light and heat are analysed using an optical fibre based low-cost portable smartphone spectrofluorimeter. Visible fluorescence bands associated with phenolic acids, vitamins and chlorophyll centred at λ 452, 525 and 670 nm respectively are generated using near-UV excitation (LED λex 370 nm), of extra virgin olive oil are degraded more likely than refined olive oil under light and heat exposure. Packaging is shown to be critical when assessing the origin of degradation.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Three and Four Ring Pahs Degrading Bacteria from Contaminated Sites, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasha G. Patel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from prolong contaminated Amalakhadi sediment and crude oil polluted soil Telva, near Ankleshwar Gujarat India. Organisms were treated with two-model PAHs compound Anthracene (ANT, and Pyrene (PYR as the sole source of carbon and energy. Identification of the isolates was carried out based on their morphological and partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, which revealed that the isolates belong to two main bacterial groups: gram-negative pseudomonas indoxyladons and gram-positive, spore-forming group, Bacillus benzoevorans. GC-MS based degradation study demonstrated that P. indoxyladons efficiently degrade 98% of ANT and PYR by 93.2 % when treated with 250 mg L-1. However, B. benzoevorans could tolerate to 200 mg L-1of PYR. Thus, the findings of the study provide novel bacterial sp. having different capacity to degrade model PAHs compounds and further could be utilized for the standardization of bioremediation protocols for ex situ and in situ studies in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystem.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12184International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 130-140  

  19. Distribution of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Soils from King George Island, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Dayanna Souza; Almeida, Juliana Rodrigues Barboza; de Jesus, Hugo E; Rosado, Alexandre S; Seldin, Lucy; Jurelevicius, Diogo

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic diesel fuel Arctic (DFA) degradation has already been demonstrated in Antarctic soils. However, studies comparing the distribution of anaerobic bacterial groups and of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Antarctic soils containing different concentrations of DFA are scarce. In this study, functional genes were used to study the diversity and distribution of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (bamA, assA, and bssA) and of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB-apsR) in highly, intermediate, and non-DFA-contaminated soils collected during the summers of 2009, 2010, and 2011 from King George Island, Antarctica. Signatures of bamA genes were detected in all soils analyzed, whereas bssA and assA were found in only 4 of 10 soils. The concentration of DFA was the main factor influencing the distribution of bamA-containing bacteria and of SRB in the analyzed soils, as shown by PCR-DGGE results. bamA sequences related to genes previously described in Desulfuromonas, Lautropia, Magnetospirillum, Sulfuritalea, Rhodovolum, Rhodomicrobium, Azoarcus, Geobacter, Ramlibacter, and Gemmatimonas genera were dominant in King George Island soils. Although DFA modulated the distribution of bamA-hosting bacteria, DFA concentration was not related to bamA abundance in the soils studied here. This result suggests that King George Island soils show functional redundancy for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that specialized anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria have been selected by hydrocarbon concentrations present in King George Island soils.

  20. Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Goodman, J P; Lynn, B C; Flythe, M D; Ji, H; Aiken, G E

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. Samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h for ergovaline analysis and enumeration of hyper-ammonia producing (HAB) and tryptophan-utilizing bacteria. Ergovaline values were analyzed by repeated measures using the mixed procedure of SAS. Enumeration data were log transformed for statistical analysis. When suspensions were incubated with extract, 11 to 15% of ergovaline disappearance was observed over 48 h ( = 0.02). After 24 h, suspensions with added extract had 10-fold less HAB than controls ( = 0.04), but treatments were similar by 48 h ( = 1.00). However, after 24 h and 48 h, suspensions with extract had 10-fold more tryptophan-utilizing bacteria ( rumen pure cultures ( JB1, B159, HD4, B, F, MD1, SR) were evaluated for the ability to degrade ergovaline in vitro. Pure culture cell suspensions were incubated as described above and samples were taken at 0 and 48 h for ergovaline analysis. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA procedure of SAS. All HAB, including the isolates, tested degraded ergovaline (54 to 75%; bacteria tested did not degrade ergovaline. The results of this study indicate which rumen bacteria may play an important role in ergovaline degradation and that microbiological strategies for controlling their activity could have ramifications for fescue toxicosis and other forms of ergotism in ruminants.

  1. Identification of anthraquinone-degrading bacteria in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers-Vieira, Elyse A; Zhang, Zhenfa; Adrion, Alden C; Gold, Avram; Aitken, Michael D

    2015-06-01

    Quinones and other oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are toxic and/or genotoxic compounds observed to be cocontaminants at PAH-contaminated sites, but their formation and fate in contaminated environmental systems have not been well studied. Anthracene-9,10-dione (anthraquinone) has been found in most PAH-contaminated soils and sediments that have been analyzed for oxy-PAHs. However, little is known about the biodegradation of oxy-PAHs, and no bacterial isolates have been described that are capable of growing on or degrading anthraquinone. PAH-degrading Mycobacterium spp. are the only organisms that have been investigated to date for metabolism of a PAH quinone, 4,5-pyrenequinone. We utilized DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) with [U-(13)C]anthraquinone to identify bacteria associated with anthraquinone degradation in PAH-contaminated soil from a former manufactured-gas plant site both before and after treatment in a laboratory-scale bioreactor. SIP with [U-(13)C]anthracene was also performed to assess whether bacteria capable of growing on anthracene are the same as those identified to grow on anthraquinone. Organisms closely related to Sphingomonas were the most predominant among the organisms associated with anthraquinone degradation in bioreactor-treated soil, while organisms in the genus Phenylobacterium comprised the majority of anthraquinone degraders in the untreated soil. Bacteria associated with anthracene degradation differed from those responsible for anthraquinone degradation. These results suggest that Sphingomonas and Phenylobacterium species are associated with anthraquinone degradation and that anthracene-degrading organisms may not possess mechanisms to grow on anthraquinone. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Enhanced biological degradation of crude oil in a Spitsbergen tundra site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.; Faksness, L.-G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of oil-contaminated tundra plots on Spitsbergen was treated with combinations of five different fertilizer additives. Both organic and mineral nutrient sources were used, alone or in combination. Biological degradation of oil was recorded in all of the plots. The extent of degradation depended on the type of fertilizer added. The local conditions influence oil degradation significantly, as well as the effect of the fertilizer. Urea, SkogAN (a slow releasing fertilizer), and a blend of fish meals all give high degrees of oil degradation. Both the microbial parameters and the total heterotrophic respiration are influenced by the addition of fertilizers. 6 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Microbial degradation, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of polyurethanes based on modified castor oil and polycaprolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscátegui, Yomaira L; Arévalo, Fabián R; Díaz, Luis E; Cobo, Martha I; Valero, Manuel F

    2016-10-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of type of polyol and concentration of polycaprolactone (PCL) in polyurethanes (PUs) on microbial degradability, cytotoxicity, biological properties and antibacterial activity to establish whether these materials may have biomedical applications. Chemically modified and unmodified castor oil, PCL and isophorone diisocyanate in a 1:1 ratio of NCO/OH were used. PUs were characterized by stress/strain fracture tests and hardness (ASTM D 676-59). Hydrophilic character was determined by contact angle trials and morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Degradability with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by measuring variations in the weight of the polymers. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the ISO 10993-5 (MTT) method with mouse embryonic fibroblasts L-929 (ATCC® CCL-1) in direct contact with the PUs and with NIH/3T3 cells (ATCC® CRL-1658) in indirect contact with the PUs. Antimicrobial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa was determined. PUs derived from castor oil modified (P0 and P1) have higher mechanical properties than PUs obtained from castor oil unmodified (CO). The viability of L-929 mouse fibroblasts in contact with polymers was greater than 70%. An assessment of NIH/3T3 cells in indirect contact with PUs revealed no-toxic degradation products. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the PUs decreased by 77% for E. coli and 56% for P. aeruginosa after 24 h. These results indicate that PUs synthesized with PCL have biocidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria and do not induce cytotoxic responses, indicating the potential use of these materials in the biomedical field.

  4. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellulose- and xylan-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacteria from biocompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizova, M V; Izquierdo, J A; Panikov, N S; Lynd, L R

    2011-04-01

    Nine thermophilic cellulolytic clostridial isolates and four other noncellulolytic bacterial isolates were isolated from self-heated biocompost via preliminary enrichment culture on microcrystalline cellulose. All cellulolytic isolates grew vigorously on cellulose, with the formation of either ethanol and acetate or acetate and formate as principal fermentation products as well as lactate and glycerol as minor products. In addition, two out of nine cellulolytic strains were able to utilize xylan and pretreated wood with roughly the same efficiency as for cellulose. The major products of xylan fermentation were acetate and formate, with minor contributions of lactate and ethanol. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 (GH48) gene sequences revealed that two xylan-utilizing isolates were related to a Clostridium clariflavum strain and represent a distinct novel branch within the GH48 family. Both isolates possessed high cellulase and xylanase activity induced independently by either cellulose or xylan. Enzymatic activity decayed after growth cessation, with more-rapid disappearance of cellulase activity than of xylanase activity. A mixture of xylan and cellulose was utilized simultaneously, with a significant synergistic effect observed as a reduction of lag phase in cellulose degradation.

  6. Hydrolytic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic degradation of plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zverlov, Vladimir V.; Hiegl, Wolfgang; Koeck, Daniela E.; Koellmeier, Tanja; Schwarz, Wolfgang H. [Department of Microbiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Kellermann, Josef [Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz, Martinsried (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Adding plant biomass to a biogas reactor, hydrolysis is the first reaction step in the chain of biological events towards methane production. Maize silage was used to enrich efficient hydrolytic bacterial consortia from natural environments under conditions imitating those in a biogas plant. At 55-60 C a more efficient hydrolyzing culture could be isolated than at 37 C. The composition of the optimal thermophilic bacterial consortium was revealed by sequencing clones from a 16S rRNA gene library. A modified PCR-RFLP pre-screening method was used to group the clones. Pure anaerobic cultures were isolated. 70% of the isolates were related to Clostridium thermocellum. A new culture-independent method for identification of cellulolytic enzymes was developed using the isolation of cellulose-binding proteins. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and end-sequencing of peptides from prominent protein bands revealed cellulases from the cellulosome of C. thermocellum and from a major cellulase of Clostridium stercorarium. A combined culture of C. thermocellum and C. stercorarium was shown to excellently degrade maize silage. A spore preparation method suitable for inoculation of maize silage and optimal hydrolysis was developed for the thermophilic bacterial consortium. This method allows for concentration and long-term storage of the mixed culture for instance for inoculation of biogas fermenters. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole

  8. Isolation and Identification of Phenanthrene-degrading Bacteria and Increasing the Biodegrading Ability by Synergistic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Fathi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Results showed that isolated co-culture bacteria have high potential to degrade phenanthrene with the best results achieved when the enriched consortium was used and this mixture was shown to be an appropriate candidate for bioremediation purposes.

  9. Anti-bacterial effects of the essential oil of Teucrium polium L. on human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Results: The total oil content of Teucrium polium plant was 0.75%. Twenty eight compounds were identified in the essential oil that included 99.75% of the total oil. The major components were α-pinene (12.52%, Linalool (10.63% and Caryophyllene oxide (9.69%. For study of antimicrobial activity of the oil sample, the essential oil was tested against 9 bacteria by disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial effects of this essential oil was determined against three Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus areous (PTCC 1431, Staphylococcus epidermidis (PTCC 1436, Streptococcus faecalis (PTCC 1237; as well as six Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeroginosa (PTCC 11430, Shigella flexneri (PTCC 1716, Kellebsiella pneuomonae(PTCC=1053, Salmonella typhi (PTCC=1609, Serratia marcescens (PTCC 1187 and Escherichia coli (PTCC 1533. The antimicrobial effects of this essential oil on the Gram positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and on all the Gram negative bacteria tested was much higher than those observed by tetracycline. Conclusions: The results showed the essential oil of Teucrium polium had strong anti-bacterial effects. The relatively high contents of α-pinene and Linalool in the essential oil may be the cause of its potential medicinal effects

  10. Contribution of increased mutagenesis to the evolution of pollutants-degrading indigenous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmjärv, Tanel; Naanuri, Eve; Kivisaar, Maia

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria can rapidly evolve mechanisms allowing them to use toxic environmental pollutants as a carbon source. In the current study we examined whether the survival and evolution of indigenous bacteria with the capacity to degrade organic pollutants could be connected with increased mutation frequency. The presence of constitutive and transient mutators was monitored among 53 pollutants-degrading indigenous bacterial strains. Only two strains expressed a moderate mutator phenotype and six were hypomutators, which implies that constitutively increased mutability has not been prevalent in the evolution of pollutants degrading bacteria. At the same time, a large proportion of the studied indigenous strains exhibited UV-irradiation-induced mutagenesis, indicating that these strains possess error-prone DNA polymerases which could elevate mutation frequency transiently under the conditions of DNA damage. A closer inspection of two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains PC20 and PC24 revealed that they harbour genes for ImuC (DnaE2) and more than one copy of genes for Pol V. Our results also revealed that availability of other nutrients in addition to aromatic pollutants in the growth environment of bacteria affects mutagenic effects of aromatic compounds. These results also implied that mutagenicity might be affected by a factor of how long bacteria have evolved to use a particular pollutant as a carbon source. PMID:28777807

  11. Direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for evaluating chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.M.; Brey, J.; Fliermans, C.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River, Aiken, SC (United States). Environmental Biotechnology Section; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K. [Medical Coll. of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Immunological procedures were developed to enumerate chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Polyclonal antibodies (Pabs) were produced by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits against 18 contaminant-degrading bacteria. These included methanotrophic and chlorobenzene (CB) degrading species. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test for specificity and sensitivity of the Pabs. Direct fluorescent antibodies (DFAs) were developed with these Pabs against select methanotrophic bacteria isolated from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and cultures from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Analysis of cross reactivity testing data showed some of the Pabs to be group specific while others were species specific. The threshold of sensitivity for the ELISA is 105 bacteria cells/ml. The DFA can detect as few as one bacterium per ml after concentration. Results from the DFA and ELISA techniques for enumeration of methanotrophic bacteria in groundwater were higher but not significantly different (P < 0.05) compared to indirect microbiological techniques such as MPN. These methods provide useful information on in situ community structure and function for bioremediation applications within 1--4 hours of sampling.

  12. Biogenic amines degradation by malolactic bacteria: towards a potential application in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio eCapozzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines in wine represent a toxicological risk for the health of the consumer, with several trade implications. In this study 26 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were analysed for their ability to degrade biogenic amines commonly found during wine fermentation. Two strains of L. plantarum were selected in reason of their ability to degrade putrescine and tyramine. The degradation was assessed in vitro, both in presence of the biogenic amines and in presence of the specific chemical precursor and of producer bacteria. The two L. plantarum biotypes were found capable to work synergically. In addition, the survival in wine-like medium and the aptitude to degrade malic acid after alcoholic fermentation of the selected L. plantarum strains was analysed. Our results suggest the potential application of wine L. plantarum strains to design malolactic starter cultures able to degrade biogenic amines in wine.

  13. Microbial communities inhabiting oil-contaminated soils from two major oilfields in Northern China: Implications for active petroleum-degrading capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Dong, Yiran; Gao, Pin; Fu, Meiyan; Ta, Kaiwen; Li, Jiwei

    2015-06-01

    Although oilfields harbor a wide diversity of microorganisms with various metabolic potentials, our current knowledge about oil-degrading bacteria is limited because the vast majority of oil-degrading bacteria remain uncultured. In the present study, microbial communities in nine oil-contaminated soils collected from Daqing and Changqing, two of the largest oil fields in China, were characterized through highthroughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Bacteria related to the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominant in four and three samples, respectively. At the genus level, Alkanindiges, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Rhodococcus were frequently detected in nine soil samples. Many of the dominant genera were phylogenetically related to the known oil-degrading species. The correlation between physiochemical parameters within the microbial communities was also investigated. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that soil moisture, nitrate, TOC, and pH had an important impact in shaping the microbial communities of the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. This study provided an in-depth analysis of microbial communities in oilcontaminated soil and useful information for future bioremediation of oil contamination.

  14. Application of fluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for TCE and PAH degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.; Brey, J.; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K.; Fliermans, C.

    1996-07-01

    Historically, methods used to identify methanotrophic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon-degrading (PAH) bacteria in environmental samples have been inadequate because isolation and identification procedures are time-consuming and often fail to separate specific bacteria from other environmental microorganisms. Methanotrophic bacteria have been isolated and characterized from TCE-contaminated soils (Bowman et al. 1993; Fliermans et al., 1988). Fliermans et al., (1988) and others demonstrated that cultures enriched with methane and propane could cometabolically degrade a wide variety of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons including ethylene; 1,2-cisdichloroethylene (c-DCE); 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE); vinyl chloride (VC); toluene; phenol and cresol. Characterization of select microorganisms in the natural setting is important for the evaluation of bioremediation potential and its effectiveness. This realization has necessitated techniques that are selective, sensitive and easily applicable to soils, sediments, and groundwater (Fliermans, et al., 1994). Additionally these techniques can identify and quantify microbial types in situ in real time

  15. Identification of soil bacteria able to degrade phenanthrene bound to a hydrophobic sorbent in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regonne, Raïssa Kom [CEA, DSV/iRTSV, Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, 38054, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, UMR 5249, 38042, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire de Substances Actives et Pollution, ENSAI, Université de Ngaoundéré, BP 455, Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Martin, Florence [CEA, DSV/iRTSV, Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, 38054, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, UMR 5249, 38042, Grenoble (France); Mbawala, Augustin [Laboratoire de Microbiologie, ENSAI, Université de Ngaoundéré, BP 455, Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Ngassoum, Martin Benoît [Laboratoire de Substances Actives et Pollution, ENSAI, Université de Ngaoundéré, BP 455, Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Jouanneau, Yves [CEA, DSV/iRTSV, Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, 38054, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, UMR 5249, 38042, Grenoble (France)

    2013-09-15

    Efficient bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites is limited by the hydrophobic character and poor bioavailability of pollutants. In this study, stable isotope probing (SIP) was implemented to track bacteria that can degrade PAHs adsorbed on hydrophobic sorbents. Temperate and tropical soils were incubated with {sup 13}C-labeled phenanthrene, supplied by spiking or coated onto membranes. Phenanthrene mineralization was faster in microcosms with PAH-coated membranes than in microcosms containing spiked soil. Upon incubation with temperate soil, phenanthrene degraders found in the biofilms that formed on coated membranes were mainly identified as Sphingomonadaceae and Actinobacteria. In the tropical soil, uncultured Rhodocyclaceae dominated degraders bound to membranes. Accordingly, ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences recovered from this soil matched PAH-specific dioxygenase genes recently found in Rhodocyclaceae. Hence, our SIP approach allowed the detection of novel degraders, mostly uncultured, which differ from those detected after soil spiking, but might play a key role in the bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. -- Highlights: •Soil bacteria with the ability to degrade sorbent-bound PAHs were investigated. •In soil, membrane-bound phenanthrene was readily mineralized. •PAH degraders found in biofilms were different in temperate and tropical soils. •Uncultured Rhodocyclaceae were dominant phenanthrene degraders in the tropical soil. •PAH-specific ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences were identified in soil DNA. -- Bacteria able to degrade PAHs bound to a hydrophobic sorbent were mainly identified as uncultured Rhodocyclaceae and Sphingomonadaceae in polluted soils from tropical and temperate area, respectively.

  16. Isolation and characterization of diesel degrading bacteria, Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii from petroleum contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Wang, Duanchao; Li, Mengmeng; Xiang, Wei-Ning; Achal, Varenyam

    2014-03-01

    Two indigenous bacteria of petroleum contaminated soil were characterized to utilize diesel fuel as the sole carbon and energy sources in this work. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these bacteria as Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii. The ability to degrade diesel fuel has been demonstrated for the first time by these isolates. The results of IR analyses showed that Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 degraded up to 82.6% and 75.8% of applied diesel over 15 days, respectively. In addition, Sphingomonas sp. VA1 possessed the higher cellular hydrophobicities of 94% for diesel compared to 81% by A. junii VA2. The isolates Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 exhibited 24% and 18%, respectively emulsification activity. This study reports two new diesel degrading bacterial species, which can be effectively used for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated sites.

  17. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii food without oregano oil (the control. The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae. The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p <0.05 in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.

  18. Identification of Anaerobic Aniline-Degrading Bacteria at a Contaminated Industrial Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Li, Yun; McGuinness, Lora R; Luo, Shuai; Huang, Weilin; Kerkhof, Lee J; Mack, E Erin; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic aniline biodegradation was investigated under different electron-accepting conditions using contaminated canal and groundwater aquifer sediments from an industrial site. Aniline loss was observed in nitrate- and sulfate-amended microcosms and in microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. Lag times of 37 days (sulfate amended) to more than 100 days (methanogenic) were observed prior to activity. Time-series DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify bacteria that incorporated (13)C-labeled aniline in the microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. In microcosms from heavily contaminated aquifer sediments, a phylotype with 92.7% sequence similarity to Ignavibacterium album was identified as a dominant aniline degrader as indicated by incorporation of (13)C-aniline into its DNA. In microcosms from contaminated canal sediments, a bacterial phylotype within the family Anaerolineaceae, but without a match to any known genus, demonstrated the assimilation of (13)C-aniline. Acidovorax spp. were also identified as putative aniline degraders in both of these two treatments, indicating that these species were present and active in both the canal and aquifer sediments. There were multiple bacterial phylotypes associated with anaerobic degradation of aniline at this complex industrial site, which suggests that anaerobic transformation of aniline is an important process at the site. Furthermore, the aniline degrading phylotypes identified in the current study are not related to any known aniline-degrading bacteria. The identification of novel putative aniline degraders expands current knowledge regarding the potential fate of aniline under anaerobic conditions.

  19. Spectroscopic investigation of degradation of rapseed oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampars, V.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation of rapseed oil methyl esters by US VIS and FTIR spectroscopy during the heating at 80 deg C were carried out. The degradation begins immediately after beginning of experiment. The main process at first stage is destroying of carotenoids and oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by forming conjugated polyenes. Between the formation of conjugated triens and destroying of carotenoids exist definite interconnection, but there isn't evidence for the protective activity of carotenoids. As follows from FTIR spectroscopy the increase of carbonyl compounds concentration begins immediately after the start of experiment and continues all the time. Despite to the complex character the peak at 220 nm is only one spectroscopic characteristic with a sharp alteration point and may be used for the fast and simple detection of storage stability of bio diesels. (authors)

  20. Enhancing crude oil degradation in a sandy soil: Effects of addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of the addition of poultry manure alone and in combination with surfactant (Goldcrew or Corexit) and/or alternate carbon substrate (glucose or starch) on crude oil degradation in a sandy soil. With poultry manure alone, optimal crude oil degradation was obtained at a concentration of 4.0% ...

  1. Distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the soil environment and their contribution to bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Yuki; Horii, Sachie; Matsuno, Toshihide; Matsumiya, Yoshiki; Mukai, Masaki; Kubo, Motoki

    2013-05-01

    A real-time PCR quantification method for indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) carrying the alkB gene in the soil environment was developed to investigate their distribution in soil. The detection limit of indigenous HDB by the method was 1 × 10(6) cells/g-soil. The indigenous HDB were widely distributed throughout the soil environment and ranged from 3.7 × 10(7) to 5.0 × 10(8) cells/g-soil, and the ratio to total bacteria was 0.1-4.3 %. The dynamics of total bacteria, indigenous HDB, and Rhodococcus erythropolis NDKK6 (carrying alkB R2) during bioremediation were analyzed. During bioremediation with an inorganic nutrient treatment, the numbers of these bacteria were slightly increased. The numbers of HDB (both indigenous bacteria and strain NDKK6) were gradually decreased from the middle stage of bioremediation. Meanwhile, the numbers of these bacteria were highly increased and were maintained during bioremediation with an organic nutrient. The organic treatment led to activation of not only the soil bacteria but also the HDB, so an efficient bioremediation was carried out.

  2. Potential of bacteria isolated from landfill soil in degrading low density polyethylene plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, E.; Sipayung, F. C.; Priyani, N.; Suryanto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is an important material and used for many purposes. It is returned to the environment as a waste which is recently considered as the second largest solid waste. The persistency of plastic in the environment has been attracted researchers from a different point of view. The study of the degradation of plastic using bacteria isolated from local landfill soil was conducted. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic was used as tested material. Potential isolates were obtained by culturing the candidates in mineral salt medium broth containing LDPE powder. Two of ten exhibited better growth response in the selection media and were used in degradation study. Results showed that isolate SP2 and SP4 reduced the weight of LDPE film significantly to a weight loss of 10.16% and 12.06%, respectively after four weeks of incubation. Scanning electron micrograph analyses showed the surface of LDPE changed compared to the untreated film. It looked rough and cracked, and bacteria cells attached to the surface was also noticed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses confirmed the degradation of LDPE film. These results indicated that bacteria isolated from landfill might play an important role in degrading plastic material in the landfill.

  3. Silage fermentation and ruminal degradation of stylo prepared with lactic acid bacteria and cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Zi, Xuejuan; Cai, Yimin

    2017-10-01

    In order to improve the silage fermentation of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) in tropical areas, stylo silages were prepared with commercial additives Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso-1 (CH1), L. rhamnasus Snow Lact L (SN), Acremonium cellulase (CE) and their combination as SN+CE or CH1 + CE, and the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of these silages were studied. Stylo silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or cellulase, the pH value and NH 3 -N ⁄ total-N were significantly (P fermentation and ruminal degradation than SN+CE treatment. The results confirmed that LAB or LAB plus cellulase treatment could improve the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of stylo silage. Moreover, the combined treatment with LAB and cellulase may have beneficial synergistic effects on ruminal degradation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. [Oil degradation by basidiomycetes in soil and peat at low temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, N A; Klein, O I; Pivchenko, D V; Landesman, E O; Pozdnyakova, N N; Turkovskaya, O V; Zaichik, B Ts; Ruzhitskii, A O; Koroleva, O V

    2016-01-01

    A total of 17 basidiomycete strains causing white rot and growing on oil-contaminated substrates have been screened. Three strains with high (Steccherinum murashkinskyi), average (Trametes maxima), and low (Pleurotus ostreatus) capacities for the colonization of oil-contaminated substrates have been selected. The potential for degrading crude oil hydrocarbons has been assessed with the use of fungi grown on nonsterile soil and peat at low temperatures. Candida sp. and Rhodococcus sp. commercial strains have been used as reference organisms with oil-degrading ability. All microorganisms introduced in oil-contaminated soil have proved to be ineffective, whereas the inoculation of peat with basidiomycetes and oil-degrading microorganisms accelerated the destruction of oil hydrocarbons. The greatest degradation potential of oil-aliphatic hydrocarbons has been found in S. murashlinskyi. T. maxima turned out to be the most successful in degrading aromatic hydrocarbons. It has been suggested that aboriginal microflora contributes importantly to the effectiveness of oil-destructing microorganisms. T. maxima and S. murashkinskyi strains are promising for further study as oil-oxidizing agents during bioremediation of oil-contaminated peat soil under conditions of low temperatures.

  5. Multifarious activities of cellulose degrading bacteria from Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose degrading bacteria from koala faeces were isolated using caboxymethylcellulose-Congo red agar, screened in vitro for different hydrolytic enzyme activities and phylogenetically characterized using molecular tools. Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the most prominent bacteria from koala faeces. The isolates demonstrated good xylanase, amylase, lipase, protease, tannase and lignin peroxidase activities apart from endoglucanase activity. Furthermore many isolates grew in the presence of phenanthrene, indicating their probable application for bioremediation. Potential isolates can be exploited further for industrial enzyme production or in bioremediation of contaminated sites.

  6. The metabolic and ecological interactions of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the Mammalian gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron W; Dearing, Denise

    2013-12-06

    Oxalate-degrading bacteria comprise a functional group of microorganisms, commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Oxalate is a plant secondary compound (PSC) widely produced by all major taxa of plants and as a terminal metabolite by the mammalian liver. As a toxin, oxalate can have a significant impact on the health of mammals, including humans. Mammals do not have the enzymes required to metabolize oxalate and rely on their gut microbiota for this function. Thus, significant metabolic interactions between the mammalian host and a complex gut microbiota maintain the balance of oxalate in the body. Over a dozen species of gut bacteria are now known to degrade oxalate. This review focuses on the host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions that regulate the degradation of oxalate by the gut microbiota. We discuss the pathways of oxalate throughout the body and the mammalian gut as a series of differentiated ecosystems that facilitate oxalate degradation. We also explore the mechanisms and functions of microbial oxalate degradation along with the implications for the ecological and evolutionary interactions within the microbiota and for mammalian hosts. Throughout, we consider questions that remain, as well as recent technological advances that can be employed to answer them.

  7. Screening of chlorpyrifos degrading bacteria CD7 and its combined application with PGPR JD37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Cuizhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We screened a chlorpyrifos degrading bacteria,Burkholderiasp. CD7.Joint with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR JD37 to produce a compositesoil amendment,which could restorethe pesticides polluted soil and promote plant growth.Results showed that CD7 and JD37 (at the volume ratio of 1:1 can promote the growth of plants,and within 25 days degrade about 66.43% chlorpyrifos in the soil.Further research found that under the same conditions of carrier dosage,vermicompost can adsorbed more bacteria than talcum powder;after a month preservation at room temperature,the number of living bacterium still maintained about 4.81×107 CFU/g.Carrier and soil,at the mass ratio of 1:1,could optimally promote plant growth,improve soil enzyme activities and increase the number of microorganisms in soil.

  8. STUDIES ON FUNCTIONAL BACTERIA OF INDONESIAN TROPICAL FOREST PLANTS FOR BIOREHABILITATION OF DEGRADED LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irnayuli R. Sitepu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest  degradations  have left vast amount  of damaged  and abandoned  lands in Indonesia.   In this paper, we present our approaches  in rehabilitation of adverse soils using functional  bacteria isolated from plant species of Indonesian tropical  rain forests. For these purposes,  we collected  bacteria  from various  bio-geo-climatically different forests and conducted bioassays to test these bacterial abilities in improving plant growth. Repeated seedling-based studies on Shorea spp., Alstonia scholaris, Acacia crassicarpa, and Agathis lorantifolia have revealed that many bacteria were able to promote plant growth at early stage in the nursery.  Various  plant responses towards  inoculations suggested that although  forest soils maintain  highly diverse and potent  bacteria,  it is necessary to select appropriate approaches to obtain optimum  benefits from these plant-bacteria interactions.  Our  ideas and futures  studies  for further  management  of these plant- bacteria interactions for biorehabilitation are also discussed.

  9. Impact of chemical oxidation on indigenous bacteria and mobilization of nutrients and subsequent bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlan; Deng, Xin; Cui, Yiwei; Kong, Fanxing

    2016-12-15

    Fenton pre-oxidation provides nutrients to promote bioremediation. However, the effects of the indigenous bacteria that remain following Fenton oxidation on nutrient mobilization and subsequent bioremediation remain unclear. Experiments were performed with inoculation with native bacteria and foreign bacteria or without inoculation after four regimens of stepwise pre-oxidations. The effects of the indigenous bacteria remaining after stepwise oxidation on nutrient mobilization and subsequent bioremediation over 80 days were investigated. After stepwise Fenton pre-oxidation at a low H 2 O 2 concentration (225×4), the remaining indigenous bacterial populations reached their peak (4.8±0.17×10 6 CFU/g), the nutrients were mobilized rapidly, and the subsequent bioremediation of crude oil was improved (biodegradation efficiency of 35%). However, after stepwise Fenton pre-oxidation at a high H 2 O 2 concentration (450×4), only 3.6±0.16×10 3 CFU/g of indigenous bacteria remained, and the indigenous bacteria that degrade C 15 -C 30 alkanes were inhibited. The nutrient mobilization was then highly limited, and only 19% of total petroleum hydrocarbon was degraded. Furthermore, the recovery period after the low H 2 O 2 concentration stepwise Fenton pre-oxidation (225×4) was less than 20 days, which was 20-30 days shorter than with the other pre-oxidation treatments. Therefore, stepwise Fenton pre-oxidation at a low H 2 O 2 concentration protects indigenous bacterial populations and improves the nutrient mobilization and subsequent bioremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enumeration of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria by an overlayer technique and its use in evaluation of petroleum-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogardt, A.H.; Hemmingsen, B.B.

    1992-01-01

    Bacteria that are capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were enumerated by incorporating soil and water dilutions together with fine particles of phenanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, into an agarose overlayer and pouring the mixture over a mineral salts underlayer. The phenanthrene-degrading bacteria embedded in the overlayer were recognized by a halo of clearing in the opaque phenanthrene layer. Diesel fuel- or creosote-contaminated soil and water that were undergoing bioremediation contained 6 x 10 6 to 100 x 10 6 phenanthrene-degrading bacteria per g and ca. 5 x 10 5 phenanthrene-degrading bacteria per ml, respectively, whereas samples from untreated polluted sites contained substantially lower numbers. Unpolluted soil and water contained no detectable phenanthrene degraders or only very modest numbers of these organisms

  11. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) degradation by nitrate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Ana M S; Aydin, Rozelin; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Vreeling, Harm; Cavaleiro, Ana J; García-Encina, Pedro A; Stams, Alfons J M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-06-01

    The surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is widely used in the composition of detergents and frequently ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). While aerobic SLES degradation is well studied, little is known about the fate of this compound in anoxic environments, such as denitrification tanks of WWTPs, nor about the bacteria involved in the anoxic biodegradation. Here, we used SLES as sole carbon and energy source, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 mg L -1 , to enrich and isolate nitrate-reducing bacteria from activated sludge of a WWTP with the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A 2 /O) concept. In the 50 mg L -1 enrichment, Comamonas (50%), Pseudomonas (24%), and Alicycliphilus (12%) were present at higher relative abundance, while Pseudomonas (53%) became dominant in the 1000 mg L -1 enrichment. Aeromonas hydrophila strain S7, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain S8, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens strain S11 were isolated from the enriched cultures. Under denitrifying conditions, strains S8 and S11 degraded 500 mg L -1 SLES in less than 1 day, while strain S7 required more than 6 days. Strains S8 and S11 also showed a remarkable resistance to SLES, being able to grow and reduce nitrate with SLES concentrations up to 40 g L -1 . Strain S11 turned out to be the best anoxic SLES degrader, degrading up to 41% of 500 mg L -1 . The comparison between SLES anoxic and oxic degradation by strain S11 revealed differences in SLES cleavage, degradation, and sulfate accumulation; both ester and ether cleavage were probably employed in SLES anoxic degradation by strain S11.

  12. Development of Three Bacteria Consortium for the Bioremediation of Crude Petroleum-oil in Contaminated Water

    OpenAIRE

    Abdualdaim M. Mukred; Aidil A. Hamid; Ainon Hamzah; Wan M. Wan Yusoff

    2008-01-01

    We have to developed active microbial consortium that could be of higher degradation of crude oil contaminated groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia. Among four isolates that showed good growth only three different isolates (Acinetobacter faecalis WD2, Staphylococcus. sp DD3 and Neisseria elongate TDA4.) were selected based on the growth ability and degradation. Significant growth and effectiveness of hydrocarbon biodegradation of the bacter...

  13. In vitro study of the effect of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on dental plaque bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Soares Luís

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Essential oils and chlorhexidine are statistically similar and better than delmopinol for aerobic bacteria growth inhibition. For the other bacteria, essential oils and delmopinol are not statistically promising. Results show that essential oils only may help patients to maintain good oral health as a complement to daily brushing and interproximal cleaning.

  14. Petroleum residues degradation in laboratory-scale by rhizosphere bacteria isolated from the mangrove ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinanti, A.; Nainggolan, I. J.

    2018-01-01

    This research is about petroleum bioremediation experiment to obtain bacterial isolate from mangrove ecosystem which potentially degrade petroleum. It was conducted in an Erlenmeyer batch system filled with growth medium of Stone Mineral Salt Solution (SMSS) plus petroleum residue, placed in an incubator shaker with a rotation speed of 120 rpm, temperature 3000C, for 14 research days. Indigenous bacteria that have been isolated and identified from the roots of mangrove plants are Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus sp., Ralstonia pickettii and Bacillus circulans. Those bacteriain both monoculture and consortium form (mixed culture) are incorporated into erlenmeyer as remediator agents. All bacteria can utilize hydrocarbon compounds, but Ralstonia pickettii and Bacillus circulans reached exponential phase faster with more cell count than other bacteria. Compared to single cultures, petroleum degradation by a bacterial consortium provides a higher TPH reduction efficiency, i.e. at 5%, 10%, and 15% of initial TPH of 94.4%, 72%, and 80.3%, respectively. This study proved that all bacteria could optimize hydrocarbon compounds up to 15% TPH load.

  15. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed.

  16. Characterization of acetanilide herbicides degrading bacteria isolated from tea garden soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yei-Shung; Liu, Jian-Chang; Chen, Wen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2008-04-01

    Three different green manures were added to the tea garden soils separately and incubated for 40 days. After, incubation, acetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor were spiked into the soils, separately, followed by the isolation of bacteria in each soil at designed intervals. Several bacterial strains were isolated from the soils and identified as Bacillus silvestris, B. niacini, B. pseudomycoides, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. simplex, B. megaterium, and two other Bacillus sp. (Met1 and Met2). Three unique strains with different morphologies were chosen for further investigation. They were B. megaterium, B. niacini, and B. silvestris. The isolated herbicide-degrading bacteria showed optimal performance among three incubation temperatures of 30 degrees C and the best activity in the 10 to 50 microg/ml concentration of the herbicide. Each bacterial strain was able to degrade more than one kind of test herbicides. After incubation for 119 days, B. cereus showed the highest activity to degrade alachlor and propachlor, and B. thuringiensis to degrade metolachlor.

  17. A wide diversity of bacteria from the human gut produces and degrades biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, Benoit; Barcik, Weronika; Westermann, Patrick; Heider, Anja; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Hellings, Peter; Akdis, Cezmi A; O'Mahony, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Background : Biogenic amines (BAs) are metabolites produced by the decarboxylation of amino acids with significant physiological functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. BAs can be produced by bacteria in fermented foods, but little is known concerning the potential for microbes within the human gut microbiota to produce or degrade BAs. Objective : To isolate and identify BA-producing and BA-degrading microbes from the human gastrointestinal tract. Design : Fecal samples from human volunteers were screened on multiple growth media, under multiple growth conditions. Bacterial species were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and BA production or degradation was assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Results : In total, 74 BA-producing or BA-degrading strains were isolated from the human gut. These isolates belong to the genera Bifidobacterium , Clostridium , Enterococcus , Lactobacillus , Pediococcus , Streptococcus , Enterobacter , Escherichia , Klebsiella , Morganella and Proteus . While differences in production or degradation of specific BAs were observed at the strain level, our results suggest that these metabolic activities are widely spread across different taxa present within the human gut microbiota. Conclusions : The isolation and identification of microbes from the human gut with BA-producing and BA-degrading metabolic activity is an important first step in developing a better understanding of how these metabolites influence health and disease.

  18. The genome sequence of Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1(T reveals its genetic basis for crude oil degradation and adaptation to the saline soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Nie

    Full Text Available Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1(T is the type strain of a novel species in the recently published novel genus Polymorphum isolated from saline soil contaminated with crude oil. It is capable of using crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source and can adapt to saline soil at a temperature of 45°C. The Polymorphum gilvum genome provides a genetic basis for understanding how the strain could degrade crude oil and adapt to a saline environment. Genome analysis revealed the versatility of the strain for emulsifying crude oil, metabolizing aromatic compounds (a characteristic specific to the Polymorphum gilvum genome in comparison with other known genomes of oil-degrading bacteria, as well as possibly metabolizing n-alkanes through the LadA pathway. In addition, COG analysis revealed Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1(T has significantly higher abundances of the proteins responsible for cell motility, lipid transport and metabolism, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport and catabolism than the average levels found in all other genomes sequenced thus far, but lower abundances of the proteins responsible for carbohydrate transport and metabolism, defense mechanisms, and translation than the average levels. These traits support the adaptability of Polymorphum gilvum to a crude oil-contaminated saline environment. The Polymorphum gilvum genome could serve as a platform for further study of oil-degrading microorganisms for bioremediation and microbial-enhanced oil recovery in harsh saline environments.

  19. Degradation of Palm Oil Induced By Ionizing Radiation | Egbe | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-irradiated Palm Oil of the Elaeis guineensis specie was studied by assessing the effect of the radiation on the Peroxide, Iodine and Fatty acid values of the oil. These were compared with values of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil. Results showed a rise in the peroxide value by as much as 52.5% for thermoxidized oil and ...

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Phenanthrene Degrading Bacteria from Diesel Fuel-Contaminated Antarctic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gran-Scheuch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is an attractive target for human exploration and scientific investigation, however the negative effects of human activity on this continent are long lasting and can have serious consequences on the native ecosystem. Various areas of Antarctica have been contaminated with diesel fuel, which contains harmful compounds such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Bioremediation of PAHs by the activity of microorganisms is an ecological, economical, and safe decontamination approach. Since the introduction of foreign organisms into the Antarctica is prohibited, it is key to discover native bacteria that can be used for diesel bioremediation. By following the degradation of the PAH phenanthrene, we isolated 53 PAH metabolizing bacteria from diesel contaminated Antarctic soil samples, with three of these isolates exhibiting a high phenanthrene degrading capacity. In particular, the Sphingobium xenophagum D43FB isolate showed the highest phenanthrene degradation ability, generating up to 95% degradation of initial phenanthrene. D43FB can also degrade phenanthrene in the presence of its usual co-pollutant, the heavy metal cadmium, and showed the ability to grow using diesel-fuel as a sole carbon source. Microtiter plate assays and SEM analysis revealed that S. xenophagum D43FB exhibits the ability to form biofilms and can directly adhere to phenanthrene crystals. Genome sequencing analysis also revealed the presence of several genes involved in PAH degradation and heavy metal resistance in the D43FB genome. Altogether, these results demonstrate that S. xenophagum D43FB shows promising potential for its application in the bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated-Antarctic ecosystems.

  1. Isolation, Identification and Phenotypic Characterization of Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria from Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, A.; Mou, X. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Erie, the smallest and warmest lake among the Laurentian Great Lakes, is known for its problem of eutrophication and frequent occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs). One major harmful effect of CyanoHABs is the production of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins. Microcystins (MC) are a group of hepatotoxins and the predominant variant of them is MC-LR. Field measurements and lab experiments indicate that MC degradation in Lake Erie is mainly carried out by indigenous bacteria. However, our knowledge on taxa involved in this process is very limited. This study aimed to fill this knowledge gap using a culture-dependent approach. Water and surface sediment samples were collected from Lake Erie in 2014 and 2015 and enriched with MC-LR. Cells were plated on a number of culturing media. The obtained pure bacterial cultures were screened for MC degrading abilities by MT2 BIO-LOG assays and by growing cells in liquid media containing MC-LR as the sole carbon source. In the latter experiment, MC concentrations were measured using HPLC. Isolates showing positive MC degradation activities in the screening steps were designated MC+ bacteria and characterized based on their phenotypic properties, including colony pigmentation, elevation, opacity, margin, gram nature and motility. The taxonomic identity of MC+ bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene full-length DNA sequencing. The presence of mlrA, a gene encoding MC cleavage pathway, was detected by PCR. Our culturing efforts obtained 520 pure cultures; 44 of them were identified as MC+. These MC+ isolates showed diversity in taxonomic identities and differed in their morphology, gram nature, colony characteristics and motility. PCR amplification of mlrA gene yield negative results for all MC+ isolates, indicating that the primers that were used may not be ubiquitous enough to cover the heterogeneity of mlrA genes or, more likely, alternative degradative genes/pathways were employed by Lake Erie bacteria

  2. Selection of bacteria with hydrocarbon degrading capacity isolated from Colombian Caribbean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Florez, Silvia; Gomez, Martha L; Martinez Maria M

    2008-01-01

    Thirty one bacterial isolations in minimal salts supplemented medium with hydrocarbons (ACPM or crude oil) as sole carbon source were isolated from sediment samples from the Colombian Caribbean. Bacterial strains underwent selection tests in different concentrations of hydrocarbons; 11 tolerant crude oil and ACPM strains in a range of 1-8%v/v were chosen. A mixed bacterial culture was created and assessed its ability to degrade hydrocarbons in a laboratory-scale test, with a concentration of 2% v/v of ACPM over a period of 21 days. Measurements of biomass in Colony Forming Units (CFU)/mL were used to develop the growth curve of the mixed culture. Hydrocarbons remotion was measured by mass chromatography. The mixed culture was able to degrade the 68.6% of aliphatic hydrocarbons in preference of long chain n- alkenes (C12- C31), reaching a maximum growth of 3.13 x 10 9 UFC / mL. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was not evidenced under the observation time. Nine of the eleven strains were identified using the biochemical systems BBL and API 50 CHB/E; they belonged to the genus Klebsiella, Chromobacterium, Flavimonas, Enterobacter,Pseudomonas, and Bacillus. The evaluated strains have enzymatic potential to degrade hydrocarbons and it is necessary to characterize them at molecular level in order to develop and effective consortium for field application

  3. Antibacterial Effect of Carvacrol and Coconut Oil on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božik M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils play a prominent role as flavouring agents and fragrances in the food and perfume industries. Carvacrol is a major component of various essential oils, such as oregano and thyme oils, and is responsible for their antimicrobial activity. Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA with a high antibacterial potential. Both carvacrol and MCFAs have been used empirically as antimicrobial agents. Here, we tested the inhibitory properties of carvacrol and coconut (Cocos nucifera L. oil containing a high percentage of MCFAs against 5 harmful bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus cecorum. Gas chromatography (GC-FID analysis of coconut oil showed a high concentration of lauric acid (41%. Microdilution antimicrobial assays showed that the combination of carvacrol and coconut oil had a stronger antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria than both agents separately. We conclude that carvacrol could significantly improve the antibacterial effect of coconut oil.

  4. Bacteria that degrade hazardous waste: The isolation of trichloroethylene-degrading methanotrophic bacteria and development of monoclonal antibodies specific to them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a suspected carcinogen, is one of the most frequently reported groundwater contaminants at hazardous waste sites in the US. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated groundwater. Strain 46-1, a Type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE when growing on methane or methanol, producing CO 2 and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography and 14 C radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rate, methane dependence, and mechanism of TCE biodegradation. TCE biodegradation by strain 46-1 appears to be a co-metabolic process that occurs when the organism is actively metabolizing a suitable growth substrate such as methane or methanol. Five mouse monoclonal antibodies (MABS) that specifically bind strain 46-1 were prepared by conventional hybridoma technology. These MABS are apparently biochemically distinct and were used to develop enzyme-linked and fluorescent immunoassays to detect strain 46-1 cells in environmental samples. A fluorescent immunoassay utilizing four of these MABS easily distinguished laboratory-grown 46-1 cells from other methanotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, but failed to detect 46-1 cells in groundwater samples and cultures

  5. Biosurfactant and enzyme mediated crude oil degradation by Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Elumalai, Punniyakotti; Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Sabarinathan, Devaraj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-10-01

    The present study focuses on the optimization of biosurfactant (BS) production using two potential biosurfactant producer Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3 and role of enzymes in the biodegradation of crude oil. The optimal conditions for P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 for biodegradation were pH of 8 and 7; temperature of 30 and 40 °C, respectively. P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 produced 3.81 and 4.68 g/L of BS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry confirmed that BS was mainly composed of fatty acids. Furthermore, the role of the degradative enzymes, alkane hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and laccase on biodegradation of crude oil are explained. Maximum biodegradation efficiency (BE) was recorded for mixed consortia (86%) followed by strain P. stutzeri NA3 (84%). Both bacterial strains were found to be vigorous biodegraders of crude oil than other biosurfactant-producing bacteria due to their enzyme production capabilities and our results suggests that the bacterial isolates can be used for effective degradation of crude oil within short time periods.

  6. Composition and dynamics of biostimulated indigenous oil-degrading microbial consortia from the Irish, North and Mediterranean Seas: a mesocosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Christoph; Näther, Daniela J; Cappello, Simone; Gerdts, Gunnar; Quilliam, Richard S; Yakimov, Michail M; Golyshin, Peter N

    2012-09-01

    Diversity of indigenous microbial consortia and natural occurrence of obligate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (OHCB) are of central importance for efficient bioremediation techniques. To investigate the microbial population dynamics and composition of oil-degrading consortia, we have established a series of identical oil-degrading mesocosms at three different locations, Bangor (Menai Straits, Irish Sea), Helgoland (North Sea) and Messina (Messina Straits, Mediterranean Sea). Changes in microbial community composition in response to oil spiking, nutrient amendment and filtration were assessed by ARISA and DGGE fingerprinting and 16Sr RNA gene library analysis. Bacterial and protozoan cell numbers were quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Very similar microbial population sizes and dynamics, together with key oil-degrading microorganisms, for example, Alcanivorax borkumensis, were observed at all three sites; however, the composition of microbial communities was largely site specific and included variability in relative abundance of OHCB. Reduction in protozoan grazing had little effect on prokaryotic cell numbers but did lead to a decrease in the percentage of A. borkumensis 16S rRNA genes detected in clone libraries. These results underline the complexity of marine oil-degrading microbial communities and cast further doubt on the feasibility of bioaugmentation practices for use in a broad range of geographical locations. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE TEA TREE OIL ACTIVITY TO ANAEROBIC BACTERIA--IN VITRO STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, Marta; Kedzia, Anna; Meissner, Hhenry O; Kedzia, Andrzej W

    2016-01-01

    The study of the sensitivity to tea tree oil (Australian Company TTD International Pty. Ltd. Sydney) was carried out on 193 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with various infections within the oral cavity and respiratory tracts. The susceptibility (MIC) of anaerobes was determined by means of plate dilution technique in Brucella agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood, menadione and hemin. Inoculum contained 10(5) CFU per spot was cultured with Steers replicator upon the surface of agar with various tea tree oil concentrations or without oil (anaerobes growth control). Incubation the plates was performed in anaerobic jars under anaerobic conditions at 37 degrees C for 48 h. MIC was defined as the lowest concentrations of the essential oil completely inhibiting growth of anaerobic bacteria. Test results indicate, that among Gram-negative bacteria the most sensitive to essential oil were strains of Veillonella and Porphyromonas species. Essential oil in low concentrations (MIC in the range of = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) inhibited growth of accordingly 80% and 68% strains. The least sensitive were strains of the genus Tannerella, Parabacteroides and Dialister (MIC 1.0 - 2.0 mg/mL). In the case of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria the tea tree oil was the most active to strains of cocci of the genus Anaerococcus and Ruminococcus (MIC in range = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) or strains of rods of the genus Eubacterium and Eggerthella (MIC = 0.25 mg/mL). Among Gram-positive rods the least sensitive were the strains of the genus Bifidobacterium ( MIC = 2.0 mg/mL). The tea tree oil was more active to Gram-positive than to Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria.

  8. Diversity of Metabolically Active Bacteria in Water-Flooded High-Temperature Heavy Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara N. Nazina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study the overall genomic diversity of microorganisms of the Dagang high-temperature oilfield (PRC and to characterize the metabolically active fraction of these populations. At this water-flooded oilfield, the microbial community of formation water from the near-bottom zone of an injection well where the most active microbial processes of oil degradation occur was investigated using molecular, cultural, radiotracer, and physicochemical techniques. The samples of microbial DNA and RNA from back-flushed water were used to obtain the clone libraries for the 16S rRNA gene and cDNA of 16S rRNA, respectively. The DNA-derived clone libraries were found to contain bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the alkB genes encoding alkane monooxygenases similar to those encoded by alkB-geo1 and alkB-geo6 of geobacilli. The 16S rRNA genes of methanogens (Methanomethylovorans, Methanoculleus, Methanolinea, Methanothrix, and Methanocalculus were predominant in the DNA-derived library of Archaea cloned sequences; among the bacterial sequences, the 16S rRNA genes of members of the genus Geobacillus were the most numerous. The RNA-derived library contained only bacterial cDNA of the 16S rRNA sequences belonging to metabolically active aerobic organotrophic bacteria (Tepidimonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, as well as of denitrifying (Azoarcus, Tepidiphilus, Calditerrivibrio, fermenting (Bellilinea, iron-reducing (Geobacter, and sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria (Desulfomicrobium, Desulfuromonas. The presence of the microorganisms of the main functional groups revealed by molecular techniques was confirmed by the results of cultural, radioisotope, and geochemical research. Functioning of the mesophilic and thermophilic branches was shown for the microbial food chain of the near-bottom zone of the injection well, which included the microorganisms of the carbon, sulfur, iron, and nitrogen cycles.

  9. The diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in a deep-sea water column above the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Lai, Qiliang; Sun, Fengqin; Zheng, Tianling; Shao, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria involved in organic pollutant degradation in pelagic deep-sea environments are largely unknown. In this report, the diversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria was analyzed in deep-sea water on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). After enrichment with a PAH mixture (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene), nine bacterial consortia were obtained from depths of 3946–4746 m. While the consortia degraded all four PAHs when supplied in a mixture, when PAHs were tested individually, only phenanthrene supported growth. Thus, degradation of the PAH mixture reflected a cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene with phenanthrene. Further, both culture-dependent and independent methods revealed many new bacteria involved in PAH degradation. Specifically, the alpha and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria were confirmed as the major groups within the communities. Additionally, Actinobacteria, the CFB group and Firmicutes were detected. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that bacteria closely affiliated with Alcanivorax, Novosphingobium, and Rhodovulum occurred most frequently in different PAH-degrading consortia. By using general heterotrophic media, 51 bacteria were isolated from the consortia and of these 34 grew with the PAH mixture as a sole carbon source. Of these, isolates most closely related to Alterierythrobacter, Citricella, Erythrobacter, Idiomarina, Lutibacterium, Maricaulis, Marinobacter, Martelella, Pseudidiomarina, Rhodobacter, Roseovarius, Salipiger, Sphingopyxis, and Stappia were found to be PAH degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these bacteria have been identified in this context. In summary, this report revealed significant diversity among the PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea water column. These bacteria may play a role in PAH removal in deep-sea environments. PMID:26379634

  10. The diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in a deep-sea water column above the Southwest Indian Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Lai, Qiliang; Sun, Fengqin; Zheng, Tianling; Shao, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria involved in organic pollutant degradation in pelagic deep-sea environments are largely unknown. In this report, the diversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria was analyzed in deep-sea water on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). After enrichment with a PAH mixture (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene), nine bacterial consortia were obtained from depths of 3946-4746 m. While the consortia degraded all four PAHs when supplied in a mixture, when PAHs were tested individually, only phenanthrene supported growth. Thus, degradation of the PAH mixture reflected a cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene with phenanthrene. Further, both culture-dependent and independent methods revealed many new bacteria involved in PAH degradation. Specifically, the alpha and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria were confirmed as the major groups within the communities. Additionally, Actinobacteria, the CFB group and Firmicutes were detected. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that bacteria closely affiliated with Alcanivorax, Novosphingobium, and Rhodovulum occurred most frequently in different PAH-degrading consortia. By using general heterotrophic media, 51 bacteria were isolated from the consortia and of these 34 grew with the PAH mixture as a sole carbon source. Of these, isolates most closely related to Alterierythrobacter, Citricella, Erythrobacter, Idiomarina, Lutibacterium, Maricaulis, Marinobacter, Martelella, Pseudidiomarina, Rhodobacter, Roseovarius, Salipiger, Sphingopyxis, and Stappia were found to be PAH degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these bacteria have been identified in this context. In summary, this report revealed significant diversity among the PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea water column. These bacteria may play a role in PAH removal in deep-sea environments.

  11. Enhanced sulfamethoxazole degradation through ammonia oxidizing bacteria co-metabolism and fate of transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotaki, Elissavet; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Pijuan, Maite

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of the widely-used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SFX) in wastewaters and surface waters has been reported in a large number of studies. However, the results obtained up-to-date have pointed out disparities in its removal. This manuscript explores the enhanced biodegradation potential of an enriched culture of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) towards SFX. Several sets of batch tests were conducted to establish a link between SFX degradation and specific ammonia oxidation rate. The occurrence, degradation and generation of SFX and some of its transformation products (4-Nitro SFX, Desamino-SFX and N(4)-Acetyl-SFX) was also monitored. A clear link between the degradation of SFX and the nitrification rate was found, resulting in an increased SFX removal at higher specific ammonia oxidation rates. Moreover, experiments conducted under the presence of allylthiourea (ATU) did not present any removal of SFX, suggesting a connection between the AMO enzyme and SFX degradation. Long term experiments (up to 10 weeks) were also conducted adding two different concentrations (10 and 100 μg/L) of SFX in the influent of a partial nitrification sequencing batch reactor, resulting in up to 98% removal. Finally, the formation of transformation products during SFX degradation represented up to 32%, being 4-Nitro-SFX the most abundant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

    2014-01-01

    The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  14. Novel multifunctional plant growth-promoting bacteria in co-compost of palm oil industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Furuya, Yoshihide; Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Previously, a unique co-compost produced by composting empty fruit bunch with anaerobic sludge from palm oil mill effluent, which contributed to establishing a zero-emission industry in Malaysia. Little was known about the bacterial functions during the composting process and fertilization capacity of this co-compost. We isolated 100 strains from the co-compost on 7 types of enumeration media and screened 25 strains using in vitro tests for 12 traits, grouping them according to three functions: plant growth promoting (fixation of nitrogen; solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and silicate; production of 3-indoleacetic acid, ammonia, and siderophore), biocontrolling (production of chitinase and anti-Ganoderma activity), and composting (degradation of lignin, xylan, and cellulose). Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 25 strains with strong or multi-functional traits were found belong to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Kosakonia. Furthermore, several strains of Citrobacter sedlakii exhibited a plant growth-stimulation in vivo komatsuna plant cultivation test. In addition, we isolated several multifunctional strains; Bacillus tequilensis CE4 (biocontrolling and composting), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens B3 (plant growth promoting and biocontrolling), and C. sedlakii CESi7 (plant growth promoting and composting). Some bacteria in the co-compost play significant roles during the composting process and plant cultivation after fertilization, and some multifunctional strains have potential for use in accelerating the biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass, protecting against Ganoderma boninense infection, and increasing the yield of palm oil. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacteria encapsulated in layered double hydroxides: towards an efficient bionanohybrid for pollutant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halma, Matilte; Mousty, Christine; Forano, Claude; Sancelme, Martine; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Prevot, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    A soft chemical process was successfully used to immobilize Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP (ADP), a well-known atrazine (herbicide) degrading bacterium, within a Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide host matrix. This approach is based on a simple, quick and ecofriendly direct coprecipitation of metal salts in the presence of a colloidal suspension of bacteria in water. It must be stressed that by this process the mass ratio between inorganic and biological components was easily tuned ranging from 2 to 40. This ratio strongly influenced the biological activity of the bacteria towards atrazine degradation. The better results were obtained for ratios of 10 or lower, leading to an enhanced atrazine degradation rate and percentage compared to free cells. Moreover the biohybrid material maintained this biodegradative activity after four cycles of reutilization and 3 weeks storage at 4°C. The ADP@MgAl-LDH bionanohybrid materials were completely characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM) evidencing the successful immobilization of ADP within the inorganic matrix. This synthetic approach could be readily extended to other microbial whole-cell immobilization of interest for new developments in biotechnological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MALDI-TOF MS for the Identification of Cultivable Organic-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Groundwater near Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês C. Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality and quantity is of extreme importance as it is a source of drinking water in the United States. One major concern has emerged due to the possible contamination of groundwater from unconventional oil and natural gas extraction activities. Recent studies have been performed to understand if these activities are causing groundwater contamination, particularly with respect to exogenous hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. The impact of contaminants on microbial ecology is an area to be explored as alternatives for water treatment are necessary. In this work, we identified cultivable organic-degrading bacteria in groundwater in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter haemolyticus were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, which proved to be a simple, fast, and reliable method. Additionally, the potential use of the identified bacteria in water and/or wastewater bioremediation was studied by determining the ability of these microorganisms to degrade toluene and chloroform. In fact, these bacteria can be potentially applied for in situ bioremediation of contaminated water and wastewater treatment, as they were able to degrade both compounds.

  17. MALDI-TOF MS for the Identification of Cultivable Organic-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Groundwater near Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Martin, Misty S; Carlton, Doug D; Amorim, Catarina L; Castro, Paula M L; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Schug, Kevin A

    2017-08-10

    Groundwater quality and quantity is of extreme importance as it is a source of drinking water in the United States. One major concern has emerged due to the possible contamination of groundwater from unconventional oil and natural gas extraction activities. Recent studies have been performed to understand if these activities are causing groundwater contamination, particularly with respect to exogenous hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. The impact of contaminants on microbial ecology is an area to be explored as alternatives for water treatment are necessary. In this work, we identified cultivable organic-degrading bacteria in groundwater in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter haemolyticus were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which proved to be a simple, fast, and reliable method. Additionally, the potential use of the identified bacteria in water and/or wastewater bioremediation was studied by determining the ability of these microorganisms to degrade toluene and chloroform. In fact, these bacteria can be potentially applied for in situ bioremediation of contaminated water and wastewater treatment, as they were able to degrade both compounds.

  18. The gut microbiota of insecticide-resistant insects houses insecticide-degrading bacteria: A potential source for biotechnological exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luis Gustavo; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Trigo, José Roberto; Omoto, Celso

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of new niches for microorganisms capable of degrading recalcitrant molecules is still required. We hypothesized the gut microbiota associated with insect-resistant lines carry pesticide degrading bacteria, and predicted they carry bacteria selected to degrade pesticides they were resistant to. We isolated and accessed the pesticide-degrading capacity of gut bacteria from the gut of fifth instars of Spodoptera frugiperda strains resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, spinosad and lufenuron, using insecticide-selective media. Sixteen isolates belonging to 10 phylotypes were obtained, from which four were also associated with the susceptible strain. However, growth of gut bacteria associated with larvae from the susceptible strain was not obtained in any of the insecticide-based selective media tested. Growth of isolates was affected by the concentration of insecticides in the media, and all grew well up to 40 μg/ml. The insecticide-degrading capacity of selected isolates was assessed by GC or LC-MS/MS analyses. In conclusion, resistant strains of S. frugiperda are an excellent reservoir of insecticide-degrading bacteria with bioremediation potential. Moreover, gut-associated bacteria are subjected to the selection pressure imposed by insecticides on their hosts and may influence the metabolization of pesticides in insects. PMID:28358907

  19. The gut microbiota of insecticide-resistant insects houses insecticide-degrading bacteria: A potential source for biotechnological exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo de Almeida

    Full Text Available The exploration of new niches for microorganisms capable of degrading recalcitrant molecules is still required. We hypothesized the gut microbiota associated with insect-resistant lines carry pesticide degrading bacteria, and predicted they carry bacteria selected to degrade pesticides they were resistant to. We isolated and accessed the pesticide-degrading capacity of gut bacteria from the gut of fifth instars of Spodoptera frugiperda strains resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, spinosad and lufenuron, using insecticide-selective media. Sixteen isolates belonging to 10 phylotypes were obtained, from which four were also associated with the susceptible strain. However, growth of gut bacteria associated with larvae from the susceptible strain was not obtained in any of the insecticide-based selective media tested. Growth of isolates was affected by the concentration of insecticides in the media, and all grew well up to 40 μg/ml. The insecticide-degrading capacity of selected isolates was assessed by GC or LC-MS/MS analyses. In conclusion, resistant strains of S. frugiperda are an excellent reservoir of insecticide-degrading bacteria with bioremediation potential. Moreover, gut-associated bacteria are subjected to the selection pressure imposed by insecticides on their hosts and may influence the metabolization of pesticides in insects.

  20. Purification of water polluted with oil and sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds contained in oil and oil products using bacteria relating to thiosphaera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashov, V.M.; Sakhno, T.V.; Gavrilov, V.S.; Zijatdinov, R.N.

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of natural purification (self-purification) of reservoirs polluted with oil and oil products is determined by microorganisms. Hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms are constant natural constituent of biocenose in reservoirs. However, as a result of outflows, the oil and oil products concentration exceeds maximum values allowing normal vital functions of microorganisms resulting in breaking micro-biocenose suppression of vital functions of bacteria. In this regard, elective anaerobic microorganisms of Thiosphaera are worthy of notice. We found out that bacteria belonging to Thiosphaera pantotropha decomposed oil at high oil concentrations in water (at oil concentration like 1 liter of oil in 1 liter of water). And this is when aerobic microorganisms lose their vital functions at maximum concentration of 20 g of oil in 1 liter of water. To intensify the process of oil decomposition we emulsified oil with aqueous solutions of salts. Thiosphaera pantotropha are found out to decompose oil in a wide range of ratio between oil and aqueous solutions of salts: from 1:10 to 10:1. The water solutions salinity made from 20 g/l to 80 g/l. It must be noticed that, since the Thiosphaera pantotropha are elective anaerobes and decompose oil both in presence and in absence of oxygen, it is not necessary anymore to conduct the process under strictly anaerobic conditions and to supply additional oxygen. This makes it possible to simplify the process of biodegradation of oil and to make this process practically more feasible and economically more profitable being compared to the processes based on the use of other species of bacteria. We found out that Thiosphaera decompose sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds in oil which are chemically and thermally stable and can be hardly decomposed, and possess extremely poisonous properties, as well. The use of microorganisms of Thiosphaera pantotropha allows to purify waters polluted with oil and oil products both during

  1. Stimulation of diesel degradation and biosurfactant production by aminoglycosides in a novel oil-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas luteola PRO23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković Iva M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is promising technology for dealing with oil hydrocarbons contamination. In this research growth kinetics and oil biodegradation efficiency of Pseudomonas luteola PRO23, isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil samples, were investigated under different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 g/L of light and heavy crude oil. More efficient biodegradation and more rapid adaptation and cell growth were obtained in conditions with light oil. The 5 to 10 g/L upgrade of light oil concentration stimulated the microbial growth and the biodegradation efficiency. Further upgrade of light oil concentration and the upgrade of heavy oil concentration both inhibited the microbial growth, as well as biodegradation process. Aminoglycosides stimulated biosurfactant production in P. luteola in the range of sub-inhibitory concentrations (0.3125, 0.625 μg/mL. Aminoglycosides also induced biofilm formation. The production of biosurfactants was the most intense during lag phase and continues until stationary phase. Aminoglycosides also induced changes in P. luteola growth kinetics. In the presence of aminoglycosides this strain degraded 82% of diesel for 96 h. These results indicated that Pseudomonas luteola PRO23 potentially can be used in bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated environments and that aminoglycosides could stimulate this process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31080

  2. Device for selective culturing of bacteria used to increase oil bed output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, J; Zamfirescu, I

    1982-12-15

    The device is patented for selective culturing of bacteria which can be used for increasing oil bed output in order to adapt them to conditions of the field. Development and reproduction of the bacteria are recorded by increase in pressure indicated by the manometer. When the pressure in the container reaches 0.5-0.5 MPa, the gases formed in it are released into the atmosphere through the reverse valve and the hose. Slow rise in pressure in the vessel (usually within 5-10 days) indicates that the nutrient carrier is approaching depletion. After removal of the gases formed because of bacterial activity, the cover is opened and a sample is taken for microbiological analysis and establishment of bacterial growth required for increasing oil output in the given field. When it is established that the developing populations of bacteria correspond to the requirements, then the necessary quantity of bacteria are grown under the same conditions in a battery of similar devices.

  3. Impact of Oral Commensal Bacteria on Degradation of Periodontal Connective Tissue in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Koichiro; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Morita, Manabu; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Darveau, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Innate and adaptive immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal commensal bacteria can affect periodontal innate defense status. However, it is still unclear how commensal bacteria contribute to the inflammatory responses of junctional epithelium (JE) and periodontal connective tissue (PCT). The aim of the present study is to investigate the contribution of commensal bacteria on inflammatory responses in JE and PCT in mice. The periodontal tissue of germ-free (GF) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice were compared at age 11 to 12 weeks (n = 6 per group). In this study, the number of neutrophils and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and MMP-8 within the JE and the PCT are evaluated. The collagen density was also determined in PCT stained with picrosirius red (PSR). PSR staining combined with or without polarized light microscopy has been used to assess the organization and maturation of collagen matrix. In the present findings, the area of JE in SPF mice was significantly greater than that in GF mice (P bacteria induced a low-grade inflammatory state in JE and that such conditions may contribute to degradation of collagen in PCT in mice.

  4. Accumulation of Dissolved DMSP by Marine Bacteria and its Degradation Via Bacterivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.

    1996-01-01

    Several bacterial isolates enriched from seawater using complex media were able to accumulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) from media into cells over several hours without degrading it. Uptake only occurred in metabolically active cells, and was repressed in some strains by the presence of additional carbon sources. Accumulation was also more rapid in osmotically-stressed cells, suggesting DMSP is used as an osmotic solute. Uptake could be blocked by inhibitors of active transport systems (2,4-dinitrophenol, azide, arsenate) and of protein synthesis (chloramphenicol). Some structural analogs such as glycine betaine and S-methyl methionine also blocked DMSP uptake, suggesting that the availability of alternate organic osmolytes may influence DMSP uptake. Stresses such as freezing, heating, or osmotic down shock resulted in partial release of DMSP back to the medium. One strain which contained a DMSP-lyase was also able to accumulate DMSP, and DMS was only produced in the absence of alternate carbon sources. Bacteria containing DMSP were prepared as prey for bacterivorous ciliates and flagellates, to examine the fate of the DMSP during grazing. In all cases, predators metabolized the DMSP in bacteria. In some cases, DMS was produced, but it is not clear if this was due to the predators or to associated bacteria in the non-axenic grazer cultures. Bacterivores may influence DMSP cycling by either modulating populations of DMSP-metabolizing bacteria, or by metabolizing DMSP accumulated by bacterial prey.

  5. Degradation and utilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by indigenous soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetzenbach, L.D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The persistence of industrially derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the subsurface may be significantly affected by the metabolism of soil bacteria. This study was conducted to determine the ability of indigenous soil bacteria to decrease the concentration of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene) and to utilize the compounds as a substrate for growth. Soil cores from petroleum contaminated and noncontaminated sites contained 10 5 -10 7 viable microorganisms per gram dryweight of soil. Gram negative rod-shaped bacteria predominated. Decreases in the concentration of the four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were observed during incubation with bacterial isolates in aqueous suspension by the use of high performance liquid chromatography. Corresponding increases in bacterial numbers indicated utilization of the compounds as a carbon source. Soil samples from the contaminated sites contained greater numbers of bacteria utilizing anthracene and pyrene than soil samples from uncontaminated sites. Degradation rates of the four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were related to the compound, its concentration, and the bacterium. Biodegradation of pyrene was positively correlated with the presence of oxygen. Pyrene was biodegraded by an Acinetobacter sp. under aerobic conditions but not under anaerobic or microaerophilic conditions. Studies with radiolabeled 14 C-anthracene demonstrated utilization of the labeled carbon as a source of carbon by viable bacterial cells in aqueous suspension. Incorporation of 14 C into cellular biomass however was not observed during incubation of 14 C-anthracene in soil

  6. Degradation of spent craft brewer's yeast by caprine rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Bryant, R W; Cohen, S D; O'Connell, S P; Flythe, M D

    2016-10-01

    Spent yeast from craft beers often includes more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) secondary metabolites than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. The objective was to determine if the hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast (CY; ~ 3·5 mg g(-1) hops acids) would protect it from degradation by caprine rumen bacteria and HAB when compared to a baker's yeast (BY; no hops acids). Cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated goats, straining and differential centrifugation. The cells were re-suspended in media with BY or CY. After 24 h (39°C), HAB were enumerated and ammonia was measured. Fewer HAB and less ammonia was produced from CY than from BY. Pure culture experiments were conducted with Peptostreptococcus anaerobiusBG1 (caprine HAB). Ammonia production by BG1 from BY was greater than from CY. Ammonia production was greater when exogenous amino acids were included, but similar inhibition was observed in CY treatments. These results indicate that rumen micro-organisms deaminated the amino acids in CY to a lesser degree than BY. Spent brewer's yeast has long been included in ruminant diets as a protein supplement. However, modern craft beers often include more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. This study demonstrated that hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast protected protein from destruction by HABin vitro. These results suggest that the spent yeast from craft breweries, a source of beneficial hops secondary metabolites, could have value as rumen-protected protein. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hashemi; Saber Barkhori-Mehni; Saeed Khanzadi; Mohammad Azizzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO) against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas h...

  8. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, N.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Cidalia, P.; Markaouid, M.; Asehraoua, A.

    2011-07-01

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis. (Author).

  9. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Rozo, José; Sánchez Nieves, Jimena; Uribe Vélez, Daniel; Moreno Chacón, Leonardo; Melgarejo Muñoz, Luz Marina

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofuran degradation activity (Furadan®3SC) were obtained from soils cultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosum) in Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia), with different records of pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for their ability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mg L-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/ or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those obtai...

  10. Plant n-alkane production from litterfall altered the diversity and community structure of alkane degrading bacteria in litter layer in lowland subtropical rainforest in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tung-Yi; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chao, Wei-Chun; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2018-03-01

    n-Alkane and alkane-degrading bacteria have long been used as crucial biological indicators of paleoecology, petroleum pollution, and oil and gas prospecting. However, the relationship between n-alkane and alkane-degrading bacteria in natural forests is still poorly understood. In this study, long-chain n-alkane (C14-C35) concentrations in litterfall, litter layer, and topsoil as well as the diversity and abundance of n-alkane-degrading bacterial communities in litter layers were investigated in three habitats across a lowland subtropical rainforest in southern Taiwan: ravine, windward, and leeward habitats in Nanjenshan. Our results demonstrate that the litterfall yield and productivity of long-chain n-alkane were highest in the ravine habitats. However, long-chain n-alkane concentrations in all habitats were decreased drastically to a similar low level from the litterfall to the bulk soil, suggesting a higher rate of long-chain n-alkane degradation in the ravine habitat. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) analysis using next-generation sequencing data revealed that the relative abundances of microbial communities in the windward and leeward habitats were similar and different from that in the ravine habitat. Data mining of community amplicon sequencing using the NCBI database revealed that alkB-gene-associated bacteria (95 % DNA sequence similarity to alkB-containing bacteria) were most abundant in the ravine habitat. Empirical testing of litter layer samples using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for determining alkB gene levels confirmed that the ravine habitat had higher alkB gene levels than the windward and leeward habitats. Heat map analysis revealed parallels in pattern color between the plant and microbial species compositions of the habitats, suggesting a causal relationship between the plant n-alkane production and microbial community diversity. This finding indicates that the diversity and relative abundance of microbial communities in the

  11. Modelling TCE degradation by a mixed culture of methane-oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Kim; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    A model describing the growth of bacteria and the degradation of methane and trichloroethylene (TCE) based on the concept of competitive inhibition is proposed. The model has been applied to laboratory batch experiments representing different initial TCE concentrations (50–4300 μg/l) and initial...... methane concentrations (0.53–3.2 mg/l). The proposed model simulated successfully the data obtained for initial methane concentration (less than 1.8 mg/l), causing constant experimental growth conditions during the experiments. This indicates that the interactions between methane and TCE degradation can...... be explained as competitive inhibition. The model simulations of the results from the experiments with the highest initial methane concentration of 3.2 mg/l failed, supposedly because the growth conditions changed during the experiments. The proposed model is a useful engineering tool for design of treatment...

  12. Hydrocarbon degradation potential and plant growth-promoting activity of culturable endophytic bacteria of Lotus corniculatus and Oenothera biennis from a long-term polluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Cania, Barbara; Thijs, Sofie; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-08-01

    Many endophytic bacteria exert beneficial effects on their host, but still little is known about the bacteria associated with plants growing in areas heavily polluted by hydrocarbons. The aim of the study was characterization of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading endophytic bacteria associated with Lotus corniculatus L. and Oenothera biennis L. collected in long-term petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted site using culture-dependent and molecular approaches. A total of 26 hydrocarbon-degrading endophytes from these plants were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses classified the isolates into the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The majority of strains belonged to the genera Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Rhodococcus. More than 90% of the isolates could grow on medium with diesel oil, approximately 20% could use n-hexadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR analysis revealed that 40% of the isolates possessed the P450 gene encoding for cytochrome P450-type alkane hydroxylase (CYP153). In in vitro tests, all endophytic strains demonstrated a wide range of plant growth-promoting traits such as production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and phosphate solubilization. More than 40% of the bacteria carried the gene encoding for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (acdS). Our study shows that the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in tested plants was different. The results revealed also that the investigated plants were colonized by endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting features and a clear potential to degrade hydrocarbons. The properties of isolated endophytes indicate that they have the high potential to improve phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils.

  13. Sensitivity of spoiling and pathogen food-related bacteria to Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Evandro Leite de; Stamford,Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Lima,Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, has been known as plant specie with prominent biological properties for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative spoiling and/or pathogen food-related bacteria, as well as to observe its antimicrobial effectiveness in a food conservation micromodel. The results showed a strong antibacterial activity of the assayed essential oil noted by large growt...

  14. Performance and dye-degrading bacteria isolation of a hybrid membrane process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: sjyou@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, No. 200, Rd. Chung-Pei, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Teng, Jun-Yu, E-mail: nickprometheus@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Textile dyeing wastewater contains harmful compounds, which are toxic to both marine organisms and human beings if it discharged into an aquatic environmental without suitable treatment. In this study, the wastewater containing the azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5), was partially treated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor which was further treated either in an aerobic membrane bioreactors (AOMBR) or in combined aerobic membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis (AOMBR/RO) process. The results showed that in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor the RB5 dye was degraded to form aromatic amine intermediate metabolites, which were further mineralized in the AOMBR. It was also observed that although all effluents from the AOMBR and AOMBR/RO processes met the Taiwan EPA's effluent criteria, irrespective of which membranes were used in the aerobic tank, the effluent from the AOMBR/RO process met the criteria for reuse for toilet flushing, landscaping, irrigation, and cooling water purposes, where as the AOMBR effluent only met the criteria for cooling water due to incomplete color removal. Five anaerobic high dye-degrading bacteria were isolated, which were identified to be the same species of Lactococcus lactis by 16S rRNA sequencing. The L. lactis showed complete degradation of RB5 and further studies showed that it can also able to degrade Reactive Red 120 and Reactive Yellow 84 efficiently within 6 h.

  15. Performance and dye-degrading bacteria isolation of a hybrid membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Sheng-Jie; Teng, Jun-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Textile dyeing wastewater contains harmful compounds, which are toxic to both marine organisms and human beings if it discharged into an aquatic environmental without suitable treatment. In this study, the wastewater containing the azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5), was partially treated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor which was further treated either in an aerobic membrane bioreactors (AOMBR) or in combined aerobic membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis (AOMBR/RO) process. The results showed that in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor the RB5 dye was degraded to form aromatic amine intermediate metabolites, which were further mineralized in the AOMBR. It was also observed that although all effluents from the AOMBR and AOMBR/RO processes met the Taiwan EPA's effluent criteria, irrespective of which membranes were used in the aerobic tank, the effluent from the AOMBR/RO process met the criteria for reuse for toilet flushing, landscaping, irrigation, and cooling water purposes, where as the AOMBR effluent only met the criteria for cooling water due to incomplete color removal. Five anaerobic high dye-degrading bacteria were isolated, which were identified to be the same species of Lactococcus lactis by 16S rRNA sequencing. The L. lactis showed complete degradation of RB5 and further studies showed that it can also able to degrade Reactive Red 120 and Reactive Yellow 84 efficiently within 6 h.

  16. Impact analysis of palm oil mill effluent on the aerobic bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... Key words: Palm oil mill effluent, total aerobic bacteria, ammonium oxidizers. INTRODUCTION ... bacteria help in the degradation of macromolecules from plant and animal .... Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent.

  17. An investigation of influence of solvent on the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in oil extracts of Calendula officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    DEJAN BEZBRADICA; JELA MILIC-ASKRABIC; SLOBODAN D. PETROVIC; SLAVICA SILER-MARINKOVIC

    2005-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids was studied in marigold oil extracts prepared with following solvents: Myritol 312®, paraffin oil, almond oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, and soybean oil. The concentration of the carotenoids was determined by spectroscopic measurement at 450 nm. Degradation rate showed a first order dependence on the concentration of carotenoids with a faster first stage (which lasted 3550 days, depending on the solvent) and a slower second stage. The highest degra...

  18. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH ...

  19. Degradation Action of the Anaerobic Bacteria and Oxygen to the Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiang-Guo; ZHANG Ke

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen could prohibit anaerobic bacterium in the produced water and degrade the polymer molecular chains.Aiming at problems making up aerobic polymer solution by the produced water in Daqing Oil Field, some evaluations were done on the viscosity characteristics of polymer solution and bactericide in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Reasonable aerobic concentration of the produced water was obtained. The experimental results indicate that the viscosity of polymer solution confected by the produced water in the aerobic environment is higher than that of the polymer solution confected by the produced water in the anaerobic environment, and the reasonable ments, but the sterilization effect is better in the aerobic environment.

  20. Synergistic interaction and mode of action of Citrus hystrix essential oil against bacteria causing periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsariya, Karn; Phanthong, Phanida; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Srisukh, Vimol; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej

    2014-03-01

    Citrus hystrix de Candolle (Rutaceae), an edible plant regularly used as a food ingredient, possesses antibacterial activity, but there is no current data on the activity against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. C. hystrix essential oil from leaves and peel were investigated for antibiofilm formation and mode of action against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. In vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm formation activities were determined by broth microdilution and time kill assay. Mode of action of essential oil was observed by SEM and the active component was identified by bioautography and GC/MS. C. hystrix leaves oil exhibited antibacterial activity at the MICs of 1.06 mg/mL for P. gingivalis and S. mutans and 2.12 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. Leaf oil at 4.25 mg/mL showed antibiofilm formation activity with 99% inhibition. The lethal effects on P. gingivalis were observed within 2 and 4 h after treated with 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC, respectively. S. sanguinis and S. mutans were completely killed within 4 and 8 h after exposed to 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC of oil. MICs of tested strains showed 4 times reduction suggesting synergistic interaction of oil and chlorhexidine. Bacterial outer membrane was disrupted after treatment with leaves oil. Additionally, citronellal was identified as the major active compound of C. hystrix oil. C. hystrix leaf oil could be used as a natural active compound or in combination with chlorhexidine in mouthwash preparations to prevent the growth of bacteria associated with periodontal diseases and biofilm formation.

  1. In Vitro Degradation and Fermentation of Three Dietary Fiber Sources by Human Colonic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Weimer, Paul J.; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Savik, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend partially on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of supplemental fiber type on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a non-adapted human bacterial population from three normal subjects, extent of in vitro fermentation was greater for gum arabic (GA) than for psyllium (PSY), which was greater than that for carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). In a separate experiment, in vitro incubation with feces from 52 subjects with fecal incontinence, before and after random assignment to and consumption of one of three fiber (GA, PSY, or CMC) supplements or a placebo for 20-21d, indicated that prior consumption of a specific fiber source did not increase its degradation by fecal bacteria. Results suggest that the colonic microbial community enriched on a particular fiber substrate can rapidly adapt to the presentation of a new fiber substrate. Clinical implications of the findings are that intake of a fiber source by humans is not expected to result in bacterial adaptation that would require continually larger and eventually intolerable amounts of fiber to achieve therapeutic benefits. PMID:23556460

  2. Isolation and Identification of Sodium Fluoroacetate Degrading Bacteria from Caprine Rumen in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Expedito K. A. Camboim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report the isolation of two fluoroacetate degrading bacteria from the rumen of goats. The animals were adult goats, males, crossbred, with rumen fistula, fed with hay, and native pasture. The rumen fluid was obtained through the rumen fistula and immediately was inoculated 100 μL in mineral medium added with 20 mmol L−1 sodium fluoroacetate (SF, incubated at 39°C in an orbital shaker. Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain DSM 8341 was used as positive control for fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity. Two isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Pigmentiphaga kullae (ECPB08 and Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus (ECPB09. These bacteria degraded sodium fluoroacetate, releasing 20 mmol L−1 of fluoride ion after 32 hours of incubation in Brunner medium containing 20 mmol L−1 of SF. There are no previous reports of fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity for P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus. Control measures to prevent plant intoxication, including use of fences, herbicides, or other methods of eliminating poisonous plants, have been unsuccessful to avoid poisoning by fluoroacetate containing plants in Brazil. In this way, P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus may be used to colonize the rumen of susceptible animals to avoid intoxication by fluoroacetate containing plants.

  3. Improved oil recovery using bacteria isolated from North Sea petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, R.A.; Lappin-Scott, H. [Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    During secondary oil recovery, water is injected into the formation to sweep out the residual oil. The injected water, however, follows the path of least resistance through the high-permeability zones, leaving oil in the low-permeability zones. Selective plugging of these their zones would divert the waterflood to the residual oil and thus increase the life of the well. Bacteria have been suggested as an alternative plugging agent to the current method of polymer injection. Starved bacteria can penetrate deeply into rock formations where they attach to the rock surfaces, and given the right nutrients can grow and produce exo-polymer, reducing the permeability of these zones. The application of microbial enhanced oil recovery has only been applied to shallow, cool, onshore fields to date. This study has focused on the ability of bacteria to enhance oil recovery offshore in the North Sea, where the environment can be considered extreme. A screen of produced water from oil reservoirs (and other extreme subterranean environments) was undertaken, and two bacteria were chosen for further work. These two isolates were able to grow and survive in the presence of saline formation waters at a range of temperatures above 50{degrees}C as facultative anaerobes. When a solution of isolates was passed through sandpacks and nutrients were added, significant reductions in permeabilities were achieved. This was confirmed in Clashach sandstone at 255 bar, when a reduction of 88% in permeability was obtained. Both isolates can survive nutrient starvation, which may improve penetration through the reservoir. Thus, the isolates show potential for field trials in the North Sea as plugging agents.

  4. The Diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in a deep-sea water column above the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongze eShao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria involved in organic pollutant degradation in pelagic deep-sea environments are largely unknown. In this report, the diversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ( PAH-degrading bacteria was analyzed in deep-sea water on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR. After enrichment with a PAH mixture (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene, 9 nine bacterial consortia were obtained from depths of 3946 m to 4746 m. PAH degradation occurred to all components of the mixture, but when using a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, only phenanthrene can be degraded obviously. This indicates the cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene with phenanthreneWhile the consortia degraded all four PAHs when supplied in a mixture, when PAHs were tested individually, only phenanthrene supported growth. Thus, degradation of the PAH mixture reflected a cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene with phenanthrene. Further, both culture-dependent and independent methods revealed many new bacteria involved in PAH degradation. Specifically, the alpha and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria were confirmed as the major groups within the communities. Additionally, Actinobacteria, the CFB group and Firmicutes were detected. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE analysis showed that bacteria closely affiliated with Alcanivorax, Novosphingobium and Rhodovulum occurred most frequently in different PAH-degrading consortia. More than half of the isolates (34 of 51 isolates were confirmed to have the ability to grow with the PAH mixture By using general heterotrophic media, 51 bacteria were isolated from the consortia and of these 34 grew with the PAH mixture as a sole carbon source. Of these, isolates most closely related to Alterierythrobacter, Citricella, Erythrobacter, Idiomarina, Lutibacterium, Maricaulis, Marinobacter, Martelella, Pseudidiomarina, Rhodobacter, Roseovarius, Salipiger, Sphingopyxis and Stappia were found to

  5. Sulfur isotopic fractionation of carbonyl sulfide during degradation by soil bacteria and enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamezaki, Kazuki; Hattori, Shohei; Ogawa, Takahiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Kato, Hiromi; Katayama, Yoko; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an atmospheric trace gas that possess great potential for tracer of carbon cycle (Campbell et al., 2008). COS is taken up by vegetation during photosynthesis like absorption of carbon dioxide but COS can not emit by respiration of vegetation, suggesting possible tracer for gross primary production. However, some studies show the COS-derived GPP is larger than the estimates by using carbon dioxide flux because COS flux by photolysis and soil flux are not distinguished (e.g. Asaf et al., 2013). Isotope analysis is a useful tool to trace sources and transformations of trace gases. Recently our group developed a promising new analytical method for measuring the stable sulfur isotopic compositions of COS using nanomole level samples: the direct isotopic analytical technique of on-line gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) using fragmentation ions S+ enabling us to easily analyze sulfur isotopes in COS (Hattori et al., 2015). Soil is thought to be important as both a source and a sink of COS in the troposphere. In particular, soil has been reported as a large environmental sink for atmospheric COS. Bacteria isolated from various soils actively degrade COS, with various enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase and COSase (Ogawa et al., 2013) involved in COS degradation. However, the mechanism and the magnitude of bacterial contribution in terms of a sink for atmospheric COS is still uncertain. Therefore, it is important to quantitatively evaluate this contribution using COS sulfur isotope analysis. We present isotopic fractionation constants for COS by laboratory incubation experiments during degradation by soil bacteria and COSase. Incubation experiments were conducted using strains belonging to the genera Mycobacterium, Williamsia, Cupriavidus, and Thiobacillus, isolated from natural soil or activated sludge and enzyme purified from a bacteria. As a result, the isotopic compositions of OCS were increased during degradation of

  6. Conductometric Sensors for Monitoring Degradation of Automotive Engine Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz L. Dickert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS, and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES. Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity.

  7. ESSENTIAL OILS OF CYMBOPOGON SP. IN THE CONTROL OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Florisvaldo BRUGNERA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the agar well diffusion technique was used to determine the antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass essential oils, which were applied at different concentrations. The bacterial species used were the foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both essential oils presented antibacterial activity in most concentrations tested. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs founded were: 7.81μL/mL (S. aureus and 3.90μL/mL (E. coli and P. aeruginosa, for C. nardus essential oil; and 3.90μL/mL (S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, for C. citratus essential oil. The essential oils used were shown as promising natural antibacterials for pathogenic bacteria control in the food industry.

  8. Biodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide by bacteria isolated from production water after polymer flooding in an oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Mutai; Chen Qingguo; Li Yiming; Jiang Guancheng

    2010-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in production water after polymer flooding in oil filed causes environmental problems, such as increases the difficulty in oil-water separation, degrades naturally to produce toxic acrylamide and endanger local ecosystem. Biodegradation of HPAM may be an efficient way to solve these problems. The biodegradability of HPAM in an aerobic environment was studied. Two HPAM-degrading bacterial strains, named PM-2 and PM-3, were isolated from the produced water of polymer flooding. They were subsequently identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sp., respectively. The utilization of HPAM by the two strains was explored. The amide group of HPAM could serve as a nitrogen source for the two microorganisms, the carbon backbone of these polymers could be partly utilized by microorganisms. The HPAM samples before and after bacterial biodegradation were analyzed by the infrared spectrum, high performance liquid chromatography and scanning electronic microscope. The results indicated that the amide group of HPAM in the biodegradation products had been converted to a carboxyl group, and no acrylamide monomer was found. The HPAM carbon backbone was metabolized by the bacteria during the course of its growth. Further more, the hypothesis about the biodegradation of HPAM in aerobic bacterial culture is proposed.

  9. The ability of selected plant essential oils to enhance the action of recommended antibiotics against pathogenic wound bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Łysakowska, Monika; Kowalczyk, Edward; Szymańska, Grażyna; Kochan, Ewa; Krukowska, Jolanta; Olszewski, Jurek; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the ability of essential oils to support antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria in wounds. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria obtained from wound infections were identified according to standard microbiological methods. Essential oils were analysed by GC-FID-MS. The susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics, essential oils and their combination was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the essential oils were established by the micro-dilution broth method. Although cinnamon, clove, thyme and lavender essential oils were found to have the greatest antibacterial activity when used alone, the greatest additive and synergistic effects against pathogenic wound bacteria in combination with recommended antibiotics were demonstrated by basil, clary sage and rosemary oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular analysis of the bacterial diversity in a specialized consortium for diesel oil degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Accorsini, Fabio Raphael; Vidotti, Maria Benincasa; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], Emails: douglas_unespfcav@yahoo.com.br, vidotti@netsite.com.bregerle@fcav.unesp.br; Dimitrov, Mauricio Rocha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Email: mau_dimitrov@yahoo.com.br; Pereira, Rodrigo Matheus [EMBRAPARA Soybean - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA - Soja), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], Email: poetbr@gmail.com

    2010-05-15

    Diesel oil is a compound derived from petroleum, consisting primarily of hydrocarbons. Poor conditions in transportation and storage of this product can contribute significantly to accidental spills causing serious ecological problems in soil and water and affecting the diversity of the microbial environment. The cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is one of the molecular techniques that allows estimation and comparison of the microbial diversity in different environmental samples. The aim of this work was to estimate the diversity of microorganisms from the Bacteria domain in a consortium specialized in diesel oil degradation through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. After the extraction of DNA metagenomics, the material was amplified by PCR reaction using specific oligonucleotide primers for the 16S rRNA gene. The PCR products were cloned into a pGEM-T-Easy vector (Promega), and Escherichia coli was used as the host cell for recombinant DNAs. The partial clone sequencing was obtained using universal oligonucleotide primers from the vector. The genetic library obtained generated 431 clones. All the sequenced clones presented similarity to phylum Proteobacteria, with Gammaproteobacteria the most present group (49.8 % of the clones), followed by Alphaproteobacteira (44.8 %) and Betaproteobacteria (5.4 %). The Pseudomonas genus was the most abundant in the metagenomics library, followed by the Parvibaculum and the Sphingobium genus, respectively. After partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, the diversity of the bacterial consortium was estimated using DOTUR software. When comparing these sequences to the database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a strong correlation was found between the data generated by the software used and the data deposited in NCBI. (author)

  11. Development of dielectric sensor to monitor the engine lubricating oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balashanmugam Vasanthan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Present day practice of following fixed schedules of oil change intervals could result in loss for the equipment owner, as the oil is not utilized up-to its maximum useful life. Similarly, the extended use of engine oil beyond maximum useful life is of high risk, which could lead irreversible and catastrophic damages to engine parts. Engine oil condition indicates the condition of engine parts, in any application. Therefore, monitoring the condition of the oil in real time is of paramount importance. Researchers had established that the engine oil degradation correlates with change in dielectric property of the engine oil. The important factor to realize the on-line real time monitoring of the changes in dielectric property of the engine oil is, the cost of dielectric sensor within affordable limit for an operator. Current work aims at developing such a low cost affordable dielectric sensor and engine oil samples (SAE 15W40 grade were collected from durability test engines used in engine test rig and on-road vehicles. These samples were tested for physical and chemical properties. Any changes in the properties, of engine oil monitored, indicate that it undergoes degradation due to usage. A prototype of capacitive type sensor was developed and validated with reference fluids. The dielectric values measured using proto type sensor in the used oil samples show a correlation with change in physical properties. This trend and thresholds of dielectric provides effective plat form to monitor the engine oil degradation. The sensor could be coupled to a suitable warning device by incorporating specific algorithms.

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Lavandula coronopifolia essential oil against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Said, L; Zahlane, K; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Romane, A; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Lavandula coronopifolia from Morocco and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical infections. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by a broth micro-well dilution method using multiresistant clinical isolates of 11 pathogenic bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia rettgeri, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main compounds of the oil were carvacrol (48.9%), E-caryophyllene (10.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The oil showed activity against all tested strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1% and 4%. For most of the strains, the MIC value was equivalent to the minimal bactericidal concentration value, indicating a clear bactericidal effect of L. coronopifolia EO.

  13. Interactions among buffelgrass, phenanthrene and phenanthrene-degrading bacteria in gnotobiotic microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Francoise M; Sun, Wenhao H; Toma, Marisa; Jones, Ryan K; Tang, Chung-Shih

    2008-07-15

    An experiment was undertaken in gnotobiotic microcosms to determine the role of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium (strain PM600) in the degradation of phenanthrene. The Gram-negative bacterium was identified as a Sphingomonas sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and as S. paucimobilis by biochemical tests (API 20 NE strips). Its yellow pigment corresponded to nostoxanthin and its cellular fatty acids were typical of the genus Sphingomonas. Moreover, it was devoid of lipopolysaccharides. Strain PM600 was tested for growth on mineral medium supplemented with No. 2 diesel, hexadecane, mineral oil, pristane, phenanthrene, and pyrene as single carbon sources. It was capable of utilizing phenanthrene only. In the gnotobiotic microcosms silica sand was either or not supplemented with 150 mg of phenanthrene kg(-1) sand, inoculated with strain PM600, and planted to sterile young seedlings of buffelgrass. After 28 days, 67% of the reduction of the phenanthrene concentration was assigned to degradation by the bacterium and ca. 20% to abiotic factors. No statistically significant effect of the young buffelgrass was found. In the absence of phenanthrene, the bacterial population significantly increased in the rhizosphere of buffelgrass. However, in the presence of buffelgrass and phenanthrene, the bacterial population preferentially responded to phenanthrene. The growth of buffelgrass was severely curtailed by phenanthrene in the absence of the bacterium. However, strain PM600 effectively protected buffelgrass against the phytotoxicity of phenanthrene.

  14. Thermal degradation analysis of pongamia pinnata oil as alternative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mariprasath

    water content analysis are performed to without catalytic added PPO ... Also, the water content of PPO ... and sludge which have effectively reduced breakdown strength [9]. ..... tion of non-edible oil plant in uncultivable waste lands in. India.

  15. New strains of oil-degrading microorganisms for treating contaminated soils and wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, A. Yu; Panchenko, L. V.; Semina, D. V.; Golubev, S. N.; Turkovskaya, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Two new strains Achromobacter marplatensis101n and Acinetobacter sp. S-33, capable of degrading 49 and 46% of oil within 7 days were isolated, identified, and characterized. The application of A. marplatensis 101n in combination with ammonium nitrate (100 mg·kg-1) for 30 days of cultivation resulted in the degradation of 49% of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon content (274 g·kg-1) in the original highly acid (pH 4.9) oil-contaminated waste. Up to 30% of oil sludge added to a liquid mineral medium at a concentration of 15% was degraded after 10 days of cultivation of A. marplatensis 101n. Application of yellow alfalfa (Medicago falcata L.) plants with Acinetobacter sp. S-33 for bioremediation of oil-sludge-contaminated soil improved the quality of cleanup in comparison with the bacterium- or plant-only treatment. Inoculation of Acinetobacter sp. S-33 increased the growth of both roots and shoots by more than 40%, and positively influenced the soil microflora. We conclude that the new oil-degrading strains, Acinetobacter sp. S-33 and A. marplatensis 101n, can serve as the basis for new bioremediation agents for the treatment of oil contaminated soils and waste.

  16. Continuous thermal degradation of pyrolytic oil in a bench scale CSTR reaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Hwan; Nam, Ki Yun [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 102 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Continuous thermal degradation of two pyrolytic oils with low (LPO) and high boiling point distribution (HPO) was conducted in a constant stirrer tank reactor (CSTR) with bench scale. Raw pyrolytic oil as a reactant was obtained from the commercial rotary kiln pyrolysis plant for municipal plastic waste. The degradation experiment was conducted by temperature programming with 10 C/min of heating rate up to 450 C and then maintained with long lapse time at 450 C. Liquid product was sampled at initial reaction time with different degradation temperatures up to 450 C and then constant interval lapse time at 450 C. The product characteristics over two pyrolytic oils were compared by using a continuous reaction system. As a reactant, heavy pyrolytic oil (HPO) showed higher boiling point distribution than that of diesel and also light pyrolytic oil (LPO) was mainly consisting of a mixture of gasoline and kerosene range components. In the continuous reaction, LPO showed higher yield of liquid product and lower residue than those of HPO. The characteristics of liquid products were influenced by the type of raw pyrolytic oil. Also, the result obtained under degradation temperature programming was described. (author)

  17. Isolation and characterization of engine oil degrading indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-04

    Jan 4, 2007 ... School of Biochemistry, Genetics, Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of .... growth patterns were obtained by measuring the optical density at ..... genotypic characterization of phenanthrene–degrading fluorescent.

  18. Soil burial method for plastic degradation performed by Pseudomonas PL-01, Bacillus PL-01, and indigenous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovitri, Maya; Nafi'ah, Risyatun; Antika, Titi Rindi; Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Kuswytasari, N. D.; Zulaikha, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lately, plastic bag is becoming the most important pollutant for environment since it is difficult to be naturally degraded due to it consists of long hydrocarbon polymer chains. Our previous study indicated that our pure isolate Pseudomonas PL-01 and Bacillus PL-01 could degrade about 10% plastic bag. This present study was aimed to find out whether Pseudomonas PL01 and Bacillus PL01 put a positive effect to indigenous bacteria from marginal area in doing plastic degradation with a soil burial method. Beach sand was used as a representative marginal area, and mangrove sediment was used as a comparison. Plastics were submerged into unsterile beach sand with 10% of Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 containing liquid minimal salt medium (MSM) separately, while other plastics were submerged into unsterile mangrove sediments. After 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, their biofilm formation on their plastic surfaces and plastic degradation were measured. Results indicated that those 2 isolates put positive influent on biofilm formation and plastic degradation for indigenous beach sand bacteria. Bacillus PL-01 put higher influent than Pseudomonas PL-01. Plastic transparent was preferable degraded than black and white plastic bag `kresek'. But anyhow, indigenous mangrove soil bacteria showed the best performance in biofilm formation and plastic degradation, even without Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 addition. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis complemented the results; there were attenuated peaks with decreasing peaks transmittances. This FTIR peaks indicated chemical functional group changes happened among the plastic compounds after 16 weeks incubation time.

  19. PHB-degrading bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of aquatic animals as protective actors against luminescent vibriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiying; De Schryver, Peter; Van Delsen, Bart; Maignien, Loïs; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2010-10-01

    The use of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was shown to be successful in increasing the resistance of brine shrimp against pathogenic infections. In this study, we isolated for the first time PHB-degrading bacteria from a gastrointestinal environment. Pure strains of PHB-degrading bacteria were isolated from Siberian sturgeon, European sea bass and giant river prawn. The capability of selected isolates to degrade PHB was confirmed in at least two of three setups: (1) growth in minimal medium containing PHB as the sole carbon (C) source, (2) production of clearing zones on minimal agar containing PHB as the sole C source and (3) degradation of PHB (as determined by HPLC analysis) in 10% Luria-Bertani medium containing PHB. Challenge tests showed that the PHB-degrading activity of the selected isolates increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged to a pathogenic Vibrio campbellii strain by a factor 2-3. Finally, one of the PHB-degrading isolates from sturgeon showed a double biocontrol effect because it was also able to inactivate acylhomoserine lactones, a type of quorum-sensing molecule that regulates the virulence of different pathogenic bacteria. Thus, the combined supplementation of a PHB-degrading bacterium and PHB as a synbioticum provides perspectives for improving the gastrointestinal health of aquatic animals. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of commercial microbial products in enhancing oil degradation in Prince William Sound field plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Allen, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the spring of 1990, previously reported laboratory experiments were conducted on 10 commercial microbial products to test for enhanced biodegradation of weathered crude oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The laboratory tests measured the rate and extent of oil degradation in closed flasks. Weathered oil from the beaches in Alaska and seawater from Prince William Sound were used in the tests. Two of the 10 products were found to provide significantly greater alkane degradation than flasks supplemented with mineral nutrients alone. These two products were selected for further testing on a beach in Prince William Sound. A randomized complete block experiment was designed to compare the effectiveness of these two products in enhancing oil degradation compared to simple fertilizer alone. Four small plots consisting of a no nutrient control, a mineral nutrient plot, and two plots receiving mineral nutrients plus the two products, were laid out on a contaminated beach. These four plots comprised a 'block' of treatments, and this block was replicated four times on the same beach. Triplicate samples of beach sediment were collected at four equally spaced time intervals and analyzed for oil residue weight and alkane hydrocarbon profile changes with time. The objective was to determine if either of the two commercial microbiological products was able to enhance bioremediation of an oil-contaminated beach in Prince William Sound to an extent greater than that achievable by simple fertilizer application. Results indicated no significant differences among the four treatments in the 27-day period of the experiment

  1. Effect of peppermint essential oil on growth and survival of some foodborne pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Boniadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of peppermint essential oils on Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica. In the first step, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of peppermint essential were determined by the tube dilution method in tryptic soy broth (TSB. Then, the growth behavior of each of the aforementioned bacteria was assessed in presence of peppermint essential oil in concentration of less than MIC. The result of first step showed that Y. enterocolitica is more sensitive to peppermint essential oil than other tested bacteria (MIC = 0.1% & MBC = 0.22%, followed by L. monocytogenes (MIC = 0.12% & MBC = 0.15%, S. typhimurium (MIC = 0.22% & MBC = 0.25% and B. cereus (MIC = 0.3% & MBC = 5%, respectively. The results revealed that, the peppermint essential oils in low concentration inhibited the growth rate of bacteria thus may use as a natural preservative and flavoring in foods.

  2. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Hainanmycin on Protein Degradation and Populations of Ammonia-producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. B. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro fermentation was conducted to determine the effects of hainanmycin on protein degradation and populations of ammonia-producing bacteria. The substrates (DM basis for in vitro fermentation consisted of alfalfa hay (31.7%, Chinese wild rye grass hay (28.3%, ground corn grain (24.5%, soybean meal (15.5% with a forage: concentrate of 60:40. Treatments were the control (no additive and hainanmycin supplemented at 0.1 (H0.1, 1 (H1, 10 (H10, and 100 mg/kg (H100 of the substrates. After 24 h of fermentation, the highest addition level of hainanmycin decreased total VFA concentration and increased the final pH. The high addition level of hainanmycin (H1, H10, and H100 reduced (p0.05. After 24 h of fermentation, H10 and H100 increased (p<0.05 concentrations of peptide nitrogen and AA nitrogen and proteinase activity, and decreased (p<0.05 NH3-N concentration and deaminase activity compared with control. Peptidase activitives were not affected by hainanmycin. Hainanmycin supplementation only inhibited the growth of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which is one of the species of low deaminative activity. Hainanmycin supplementation also decreased (p<0.05 relative population sizes of hyper-ammonia-producing species, except for H0.1 on Clostridium aminophilum. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with hainanmycin could improve ruminal fermentation and modify protein degradation by changing population size of ammonia-producing bacteria in vitro; and the addition level of 10 mg/kg appeared to achieve the best results.

  3. Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

  4. Effects of bioremediation agents on oil degradation in mineral and sandy salt marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Q.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Henry, C.B. Jr.; Roberts, P.O.; Walsh, M.M.; Overton, E.B.; Portier, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although bioremediation for oil spill cleanup has received considerable attention in recent years, its satisfactory use in the cleanup of oil spills in the wetland environment is still generally untested. A study of the often most used bioremediation agents, fertiliser, microbial product and soil oxidation, as a means of enhancing oil biodegradation in coastal mineral and sandy marsh substrates was conducted in controlled greenhouse conditions. Artificially weathered south Louisiana crude oil was applied to sods of marsh (soil and intact vegetation) at the rate of 2 l m -2 . Fertiliser application enhanced marsh plant growth, soil microbial populations, and oil biodegradation rate. The live aboveground biomass of Spartina alterniflora with fertiliser application was higher than that without fertiliser. The application of fertiliser significantly increased soil microbial respiration rates, indicating the potential for enhancing oil biodegradation. Bioremediation with fertiliser application significantly reduced the total targeted normal hydrocarbons (TTNH) and total targeted aromatic hydrocarbons (TTAH) remaining in the soil, by 81% and 17%, respectively, compared to those of the oil controls. TTNH/hopane and TTAAH/hopane ratios showed a more consistent reduction, further suggesting an enhancement of oil biodegradation by fertilisation. Furthermore, soil type affected oil bioremediation; the extent of fertiliser-enhanced oil biodegradation was greater for sandy (13% TTNH remaining in the treatments with fertiliser compared to the control) than for mineral soils (26% of the control), suggesting that fertiliser application was more effective in enhancing TTNH degradation in the former. Application of microbial product and soil oxidant had no positive effects on the variables mentioned above under the present experimental conditions, suggesting that microbial degraders are not limiting biodegradation in this soil. Thus, the high cost of microbial amendments during

  5. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157. Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Enrichment of Bacteria From Eastern Mediterranean Sea Involved in Lignin Degradation via the Phenylacetyl-CoA Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Woo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of allochthonous terrestrial organic matter, such as recalcitrant lignin and hemicellulose from plants, occurs in the ocean. We hypothesize that bacteria instead of white-rot fungi, the model organisms of aerobic lignin degradation within terrestrial environments, are responsible for lignin degradation in the ocean due to the ocean’s oligotrophy and hypersalinity. Warm oxic seawater from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was enriched on lignin in laboratory microcosms. Lignin mineralization rates by the lignin-adapted consortia improved after two sequential incubations. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing detected a higher abundance of aromatic compound degradation genes in response to lignin, particularly phenylacetyl-CoA, which may be an effective strategy for marine microbes in fluctuating oxygen concentrations. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing detected a higher abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria bacteria such as taxonomic families Idiomarinaceae, Alcanivoraceae, and Alteromonadaceae in response to lignin. Meanwhile, fungal Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes remained at very low abundance. Our findings demonstrate the significant potential of bacteria and microbes utilizing the phenylacetyl-CoA pathway to contribute to lignin degradation in the Eastern Mediterranean where environmental conditions are unfavorable for fungi. Exploring the diversity of bacterial lignin degraders may provide important enzymes for lignin conversion in industry. Enzymes may be key in breaking down high molecular weight lignin and enabling industry to use it as a low-cost and sustainable feedstock for biofuels or other higher-value products.

  7. Plant species responses to oil degradation and toxicity reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetated plots were established by planting different plant species – legumes and vegetable (Abelmoschus, esculentus, Telfaria occidentalis and Vigna unguiculata) and applied with sawdust and chromolaena leaves at different intensities of oil pollution. Toxicity of the soil was evaluated using germination percentage, ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of novel hydrocarbon-degrading euryhaline consortia from crude oil and mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedad Díaz, M; Grigson, S J; Peppiatt, C J; Burgess, J G

    2000-11-01

    Two novel and versatile bacterial consortia were developed for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. They were isolated from crude oil from the Cormorant Field in the North Sea (MPD-7) and from sediment associated with mangrove roots (MPD-M). The bacterial consortia were able to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils very effectively in seawater (35 g/L NaCl) and synthetic media containing 0 to 100 g/L NaCl (1.7 M). Salinities over twice that of normal seawater decreased the biodegradation rates. However, even at the highest salinity biodegradation was significant. Ratios of nC17 to pristane and nC18 to phytane were significantly lowered across the range of salinity. The lowest values were at 0 and 20 g/L (0.34 M). Phytane was degraded in preference to pristane. The degradation of these compounds was constant over the salinity range, with evidence of a slight increase for consortium MPD-M with increasing salinity. In general, the consortium isolated from mangrove root sediments was more efficient in metabolizing North Sea crude oil than the consortium isolated from Cormorant crude oil. The 5 strains that comprise MPD-M have been tentatively identified as species of the genera Marinobacter, Bacillus, and Erwinia. This is the first report of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia isolated from crude oil and mangrove sediments that are capable of treating oily wastes over such a wide range of salinity.

  9. Prevent the degradation of algicidal ability in Scenedesmus-lysing bacteria using optimized cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunli; Liu, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    With the anthropogenic nutrient loading increasing, the frequency and impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have intensified in recent years. To biocontrol HABs, many corresponding algal-lysing bacteria have been exploited successively. However, there are few studies on an effective algal-lysing culture collection to prevent cells from death and particularly the degradation of algicidal ability to their hosts. An optimized cryopreservation was developed and experiments on the validation of this method on preventing algicidal degradation and effects of this optimized cryopreservation on the survival rate of Scenedesmus-lysing bacterium, Enterobacter NP23, isolated from Scenedesmus sp. community, China, on the algicidal dynamic of Scenedesmus wuhanensis was investigated. The optimized cryoprotectant composition consists of 30.0 g/L gelatin, 48.5 g/L sucrose, and 28.4 g/L glycerol, respectively. Using this approach, the survival rate of NP23 cells can still maintain above 90 % and the algal-lysing rate only decline 4 % after the 18-month cryoprotection. Moreover, the 16 generations' passage experiment showed a significant (p < 0.05) genetic stability of algicidal capacity after 18 months. The growth dynamic of S. wuhanensis was investigated in a 5-L bioreactor during 132 h in the absence or presence of NP23. As a result, NP23 has a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition to S. wuhanensis growth when injected into algal culture in the exponential phase at 60th hour. In addition, S. wuhanensis culture initially with NP23 exhibited a slow growth, performing a prolonged lag phase without a clear stationary phase and then rapidly decreased. Our findings, combined with the capacity of preventing the degradation of algicidal ability collectively suggest that the use of this opitimized cryopreservation may be a promising strategy for maintaining algicidal cells.

  10. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    .2-3.8 cm) during bacteria injection. Further seawater flooding after three days shut in period showed that permeability gradually increased in the first two sections of the core and started to decrease in the third section of the core (3.8-6.3 cm). Complete plugging was never observed in our experiments.......Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focused on core flooding experiments to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder with pressure ports at 1.2 cm, 3.8 cm, and 6.3 cm from the inlet...

  11. Microbial enhanced oil recovery—a modeling study of the potential of spore-forming bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    resulted in the following conclusions. In order to obtain sufficient local concentrations of surfactant, substantial amounts of substrate should be supplied; however, massive growth of bacteria increases the risk for clogging at the well inlet areas, causing injectivity loss. In such areas, starvation may......Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes microbes for enhancing the recovery by several mechanisms, among which the most studied are the following: (1) reduction of oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) by the produced biosurfactant and (2) selective plugging by microbes and metabolic products...

  12. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A. [INTEVEP S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  13. An in Vitro Experimental Study on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silicone Oil against Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Ceyhun; Aras, Cengiz; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar; Torun, Muzeyyen Mamal

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of silicone oil against anaerobic agents, specifically Propionibacterium acnes, Peptostreptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Bacteroides fragilis, Fuobacterium spp., and Clostridium tertium. A 0.5 McFarland turbidity of Propionibacterium acnes, Peptostreptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Bacteroides fragilis, Fuobacterium spp., and Clostridium tertium was prepared, and 0.1 mL was inoculated into 0.9 mL of silicone oil. Control inoculations were performed in anaerobic blood agar and fluid thioglycollate medium without silicone oil. Propionibacterium acnes retained their viability on the 3rd day in the presence of silicone oil. In total, 9.7 × 10(6) colonies were enumerated from 1 mL of silicone oil. After a prolonged incubation of 7 days, the number of colonies observed was 9.2 × 10(6). The other bacteria disappeared after the 3rd day of incubation in silicone oil. Propionibacterium acnes, which is the most common chronic postoperative endophthalmitis agent, is thought to be resistant to silicone oil.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens.

  15. Plant species responses to oil degradation and toxicity reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... contaminated soil and sediment is an emerging techno- logy that promises effective and inexpensive clean up of certain hazardous wastes (Simeon 1993; Nwoko, 1995). Some of these processes occurs within the plants and involves the degradation or breakdown of organic and inorganic contaminants ...

  16. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  17. Enhancing effects of picocyanobacteria on growth and hydrocarbon consumption potential of the associated oil-utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, S.S.; Al-Hasan, R.H.; Salamah, S.

    2004-01-01

    Marine surface waters around the world are rich in unicellular cyanobacteria or picocyanobacteria. This paper presents the results of a study which focused on the interaction of microorganisms in naturally occurring marine consortium active in hydrocarbon attenuation. Picocyanobacteria are minute phototrophs which accumulate hydrocarbons from water without any potential for oxidizing these compounds. This study demonstrates that the picocyanobacteria are part of a microbial consortia floating on the water surface of the Arabian Gulf. The consortia are include a rich population of oil-utilizing true bacteria whose growth and activities are improved in the presence of cyanobacterial partners. Each gram of picocyanobacterial biomass was associated with 10 8 - 10 12 cells of oil-utilizing bacteria. Studies have shown that oil-utilizing bacteria grow better in the presence of their partner picocyanobacteria. In addition, the oil-utilizing bacteria resulted in more powerful hydrocarbon attenuation in the presence of picocyanobacteria. Picocyanobacterial cells accumulate hydrocarbon from water without biodegrading it. The oil-utilizing bacteria grew on hydrocarbons for a source of carbon and energy. It was concluded that the oil-polluted environment of the Arabian Gulf can be cleaned effectively by the cooperative activities of this oil consuming group of bacteria composed of symbiotic microorganisms floating in the Gulf waters. 17 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  18. Bioaugmentation with Petroleum-Degrading Consortia Has a Selective Growth-Promoting Impact on Crop Plants Germinated in Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graj, Weronika; Lisiecki, Piotr; Szulc, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    or seeds with indigenous rhizospheric populations is a common approach in the rhizoremediation. However, we introduced hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (M10, R3, and K52) that were previously isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil instead of indigenous microbes. Bioaugmentation with these petroleum...... with the rhizospheric microbes. The microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. The main goal of this study was to establish a potential rhizoremediation combination for a diesel-polluted site. Inoculation of plant roots...... degraders was applied to screen four high biomass crop species (Indian mustard, alfalfa, high erucic acid rapeseed, HEAR, and low erucic acid rapeseed, LEAR) for their tolerance towards diesel oil. At no pollution, a promoting effect of M10 bacteria could be observed on germination and root elongation...

  19. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC NUTRIENTS AND COCULTURES ON THE COMPETITIVE BEHAVIOR OF 1,2-DICHLOROETHANE-DEGRADING BACTERIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, Arjan J. van den; Kleij, Roelof G. van der; Doornweerd, Rianne E.; Janssen, Dick B.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of organic nutrients and cocultures on substrate removal by and competitive behavior of 1,2-dichloroethane-degrading bacteria were investigated. Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 needed biotin for optimal growth on 1,2-dichloroethane. In continuous culture, dilution of biotin to a

  20. Combined use of alkane-degrading and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhanced phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara, Nain; Afzal, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq M; Tahseen, Razia; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M

    2014-01-01

    Inoculation of plants with pollutant-degrading and plant growth-promoting microorganisms is a simple strategy to enhance phytoremediation activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculation of different bacterial strains, possessing alkane-degradation and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1 -carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, on plant growth and phytoremediation activity. Carpet grass (Axonopus affinis) was planted in soil spiked with diesel (1% w/w) for 90 days and inoculated with different bacterial strains, Pseudomonas sp. ITRH25, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Burkholderia sp. PsJN, individually and in combination. Generally, bacterial application increased total numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere ofcarpet grass, plant biomass production, hydrocarbon degradation and reduced genotoxicity. Bacterial strains possessing different beneficial traits affect plant growth and phytoremediation activity in different ways. Maximum bacterial population, plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were achieved when carpet grass was inoculated with a consortium of three strains. Enhanced plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were associated with increased numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere of carpet grass. The present study revealed that the combined use of different bacterial strains, exhibiting different beneficial traits, is a highly effective strategy to improve plant growth and phytoremediation activity.

  1. Inorganic elements and organic compounds degradation studies by gamma irradiation in used lubricating oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The automotive lubricating oils have partial degradation of organic compounds and addition of undesirable inorganic elements, during its use. These substances classify the used lubricating oils as dangerous and highly toxic. According to global consensus, concerning the environmental conservation, the best is to perform a reuse treatment of these lubricating oils. For this purpose, the uses of an alternative and effective technology have been sought. In this work, the efficacy and technical feasibility of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), by gamma radiation, for used automotive lubricating oil treatment has been studied. Different quantities of hydrogen peroxide and water Milli-Q were added to oil samples. They were submitted to the Cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammacell, with 100, 200 and 500 kGy absorbed doses. The inorganic analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed inorganic elements removal, mainly to sulphur, calcium, iron and nickel elements at acceptable levels by environmental protection law for oils reusing. The gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis showed that the advanced oxidation process promotes the organic compounds degradation. The main identified compounds were tridecane, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and trietilamina-tetramethyl urea, which have important industrial applications. The multivariate analysis, Cluster Analysis, showed that advanced oxidation process application is a viable and promising treatment for used lubricating oil reusing. (author)

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Sature jahortensis Against Multi-DrugResistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeide Saeidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of resistance to many of the commonly used antibiotics is an impetus for further attempts to search for new antimicrobial agents. Objectives: In the present study, the antibacterial activity of Saturejahortensis essential oil against multi-drug resistant bacteria isolated from the urinary tract infections was investigated. Materials and Methods: During the years 2011 to 2012 a total of 36 strains of pathogenic bacteria including 12 Klebsiellapneumoniae, 12 Escherichia coli and 12 Staphylococcus aureus species were isolated from urine samples of hospitalized patients (Amir Al-Momenin Hospital, Zabol, South-eastern Iran suffering from urinary tract infections. After bacteriological confirmatory tests, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil of Saturejahortensis were determined using micro-dilution method. Results: The antibiotic resistance profile of the E. coli isolates were as follows: ceftazidime (50% cefixime (41.6%, tetracycline (75%, erythromycin (58.3%. However K. pneumoniae isolates showed resistance to ceftazidime (33.3%, cefixime (58.3%, erythromycin (75% and S. aureus isolates were resistant to cefixime (33.3%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (41.66%, penicillin (50%, oxacillin (83.3%, ceftazidime (66.6% and vancomycin (8.3%. The essential oil of this plant had inhibitory effect against most isolates. More than 1/3 of the E. coli isolates showed the lowest MIC (10 ppm whereas more than 1/3 of the K. pneumoniae isolates showed the highest (250 ppm MIC values. In contrast ,equal number of S. aureus isolates showed the low MIC values (10 and 50 ppm, while the heighest MIC (250 ppm was seen in 1/3 of isolates and moderate MIC (100 ppm was seen in one isolate only. Conclusions: The Saturejahortensis essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria. The present study confirms the usefullness of this essential oil as antibacterial agent but further research is

  3. Assessment of lubricating oil degradation in small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the degradation of lubricating oil was performed on the lubricants which had been used in a small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol in comparison with the lubricants from gasoline-run engine. The lubricant properties examined in the assessment were lubricating capacity, viscosity and stability to oxidation. Lubricating capacity was evaluated by accelerated wear test on the Timken tester. Lubricating oils from gasohol-run engine appeared to produce about 10% greater wear than that made in oils from gasoline-run engine. There was no significant difference between the effect of gasohol and gasoline on the viscosity of the used lubricating oils. Moreover, no oxidation products in any used oil samples could be detected.

  4. SCREENING AND EXTRACTION OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS.

    OpenAIRE

    B. F. Paul Beulah.

    2018-01-01

    Biosurfactants produced by bacteria are surface active compounds involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. They are heterogeneous group of surface active molecules produced by microorganisms, which adhere to the cell surface or are excreted extra cellularly in the growth medium. The biosurfactants producing microbes are helpful in bioremediation of heavy metals, pesticides and hydrocarbon contaminated sites. They are also used as bio control agent to protect plant against various diseases,...

  5. Investigating the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2‑based oil paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, B.A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Smout, M.; Dekker, N; Kooyman, P.J.; Dik, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2-based oil paints. Titanium white oil paint exists in a multitude of different recipes, and the effect of the formulation on photocatalytic binder
    degradation kinetics is unknown. These formulations

  6. An investigation of influence of solvent on the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in oil extracts of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN BEZBRADICA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The stability of carotenoids was studied in marigold oil extracts prepared with following solvents: Myritol 312®, paraffin oil, almond oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, and soybean oil. The concentration of the carotenoids was determined by spectroscopic measurement at 450 nm. Degradation rate showed a first order dependence on the concentration of carotenoids with a faster first stage (which lasted 35–50 days, depending on the solvent and a slower second stage. The highest degradation rates were observed in extracts prepared with linoleic acid rich solvents (sunflower oil, soybean oil and grape seed oil, while the lowest were found in oil with saturated fatty acids (Myritol 312® and paraffin oil. These results confirm the connection between the degradation of carotenoids and lipid autoxidation, and suggest that the influence of the oil solvents on the stability of oil extracts of Calendula officinalis is a factor that must be considered when selecting a solvent for the production of marigold oil extracts.

  7. Study of Tannin- degrading bacteria isolated from Pistachio soft hulls and feces of goat feeding on it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tahmourespour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tannins (tannic acid are toxic, high molecular weight and water- soluble polyphenols that are present in many plants such as pistachio and its by- products. Wide ranges of microorganisms including bacteria tolerate tannin and degrade it. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize tannin- tolerant bacteria from pistachio soft hulls (P- SH and feces of goat before and after feeding on this by- product as tannin rich diet. Materials and methods: Tannin tolerant bacteria were isolated from enrichment cultures of samples in medium containing tannic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. Tannin hydrolyzing ability of isolates was confirmed by observation of clear zones around the colonies. The increasing concentrations of tannin on minimal salt medium (MSM agar plates were used to test the maximum tolerable concentrations (MTCs. Furthermore, in the supplemented media tannin concentrations were measured by bovine serum albumin (BSA precipitation assay during time intervals. Results: Tannin- degrading bacterial population of P- SH was about only 10.3% of total population. More than 50 percent of tannin degrading strains were isolated from goat feces after grazing on tannin rich diet. Isolated bacteria were Gram- negative and positive rod species belonging to Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Escherichia and Enterobacter genera. Among the isolated bacteria 71.4% could tolerate the concentration of 64 g/l of tannin in their media while only 7.2% were able to tolerate the maximum tannin concentration of 16 g/l. Bacterial isolates of goat feces could degrade tannin more than 72% after 72 h of incubation. In the case of soft P- SH isolates, the biodegradation percentage was between 17- 75%. Discussion and conclusion: Feeding of tannin rich diet induced a shift in digestive system microbial profile with increased population of tannin tolerant bacteria. The ability of isolated strains provides novel insights for the role they can

  8. Degradation network reconstruction in uric acid and ammonium amendments in oil-degrading marine microcosms guided by metagenomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eBargiela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulation with different nitrogen sources is often regarded as a strategy of choice in combating oil spills in marine environments. Such environments are typically depleted in nitrogen, therefore limiting the balanced microbial utilization of carbon-rich petroleum constituents. It is fundamental, yet only scarcely accounted for, to analyse the catabolic consequences of application of biostimulants. Here, we examined such alterations in enrichment microcosms using sediments from chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediment at Ancona harbor (Italy amended with natural fertilizer, uric acid (UA, or ammonium (AMM. We applied the web-based AromaDeg resource using as query Illumina HiSeq meta-sequences (UA: 27,893 open reading frames; AMM: 32,180 to identify potential catabolic differences. A total of 45 (for UA and 65 (AMM gene sequences encoding key catabolic enzymes matched AromaDeg, and their participation in aromatic degradation reactions could be unambiguously suggested. Genomic signatures for the degradation of aromatics such as 2-chlorobenzoate, indole-3-acetate, biphenyl, gentisate, quinoline and phenanthrene were common for both microcosms. However, those for the degradation of orcinol, ibuprofen, phenylpropionate, homoprotocatechuate and benzene (in UA and 4-aminobenzene-sulfonate, p-cumate, dibenzofuran and phthalate (in AMM, were selectively enriched. Experimental validation was conducted and good agreement with predictions was observed. This suggests certain discrepancies in action of these biostimulants on the genomic content of the initial microbial community for the catabolism of petroleum constituents or aromatics pollutants. In both cases, the emerging microbial communities were phylogenetically highly similar and were composed by very same proteobacterial families. However, examination of taxonomic assignments further revealed different catabolic pathway organization at the organismal level, which should be considered

  9. Degradation Network Reconstruction in Uric Acid and Ammonium Amendments in Oil-Degrading Marine Microcosms Guided by Metagenomic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael

    2015-11-24

    Biostimulation with different nitrogen sources is often regarded as a strategy of choice in combating oil spills in marine environments. Such environments are typically depleted in nitrogen, therefore limiting the balanced microbial utilization of carbon-rich petroleum constituents. It is fundamental, yet only scarcely accounted for, to analyze the catabolic consequences of application of biostimulants. Here, we examined such alterations in enrichment microcosms using sediments from chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediment at Ancona harbor (Italy) amended with natural fertilizer, uric acid (UA), or ammonium (AMM). We applied the web-based AromaDeg resource using as query Illumina HiSeq meta-sequences (UA: 27,893 open reading frames; AMM: 32,180) to identify potential catabolic differences. A total of 45 (for UA) and 65 (AMM) gene sequences encoding key catabolic enzymes matched AromaDeg, and their participation in aromatic degradation reactions could be unambiguously suggested. Genomic signatures for the degradation of aromatics such as 2-chlorobenzoate, indole-3-acetate, biphenyl, gentisate, quinoline and phenanthrene were common for both microcosms. However, those for the degradation of orcinol, ibuprofen, phenylpropionate, homoprotocatechuate and benzene (in UA) and 4-aminobenzene-sulfonate, p-cumate, dibenzofuran and phthalate (in AMM), were selectively enriched. Experimental validation was conducted and good agreement with predictions was observed. This suggests certain discrepancies in action of these biostimulants on the genomic content of the initial microbial community for the catabolism of petroleum constituents or aromatics pollutants. In both cases, the emerging microbial communities were phylogenetically highly similar and were composed by very same proteobacterial families. However, examination of taxonomic assignments further revealed different catabolic pathway organization at the organismal level, which should be considered for designing

  10. Oil spill dispersants induce formation of marine snow by phytoplankton-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eenennaam, Justine S; Wei, Yuzhu; Grolle, Katja C F; Foekema, Edwin M; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2016-03-15

    Unusually large amounts of marine snow, including Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS), were formed during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The marine snow settled with oil and clay minerals as an oily sludge layer on the deep sea floor. This study tested the hypothesis that the unprecedented amount of chemical dispersants applied during high phytoplankton densities in the Gulf of Mexico induced high EPS formation. Two marine phytoplankton species (Dunaliella tertiolecta and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) produced EPS within days when exposed to the dispersant Corexit 9500. Phytoplankton-associated bacteria were shown to be responsible for the formation. The EPS consisted of proteins and to lesser extent polysaccharides. This study reveals an unexpected consequence of the presence of phytoplankton. This emphasizes the need to test the action of dispersants under realistic field conditions, which may seriously alter the fate of oil in the environment via increased marine snow formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingopyxis sp. Strain MWB1, a Crude-Oil-Degrading Marine Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Seung Il; Moon, Yoon-Jung; Park, Sung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Sphingopyxis sp. strain MWB1, which is capable of degrading crude oil, diesel, and kerosene, was isolated from crude oil–contaminated seashore in Tae-an, South Korea. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which comprises 3,118,428 bp with a G+C content of 62.85 mol%. PMID:25477411

  12. Allochthonous bioaugmentation in ex situ treatment of crude oil-polluted sediments in the presence of an effective degrading indigenous microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Fodelianakis, Stylianos

    2015-04-01

    Oil-polluted sediment bioremediation depends on both physicochemical and biological parameters, but the effect of the latter cannot be evaluated without the optimization of the former. We aimed in optimizing the physicochemical parameters related to biodegradation by applying an ex-situ landfarming set-up combined with biostimulation to oil-polluted sediment, in order to determine the added effect of bioaugmentation by four allochthonous oil-degrading bacterial consortia in relation to the degradation efficiency of the indigenous community. We monitored hydrocarbon degradation, sediment ecotoxicity and hydrolytic activity, bacterial population sizes and bacterial community dynamics, characterizing the dominant taxa through time and at each treatment. We observed no significant differences in total degradation, but increased ecotoxicity between the different treatments receiving both biostimulation and bioaugmentation and the biostimulated-only control. Moreover, the added allochthonous bacteria quickly perished and were rarely detected, their addition inducing minimal shifts in community structure although it altered the distribution of the residual hydrocarbons in two treatments. Therefore, we concluded that biodegradation was mostly performed by the autochthonous populations while bioaugmentation, in contrast to biostimulation, did not enhance the remediation process. Our results indicate that when environmental conditions are optimized, the indigenous microbiome at a polluted site will likely outperform any allochthonous consortium.

  13. Improvement of Pure Poly aromatic Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Daem, G.A.N.A.; Tarrad, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to obtain a potent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegrading bacteria to be used for bio augmentation purpose which is considered a promising strategy for the cleanup of contaminated sites. Among 10 selected potent PAHs degrading bacteria isolated from Suez Gulf water (after enrichments on phenanthrene as a sole source of carbon and energy). Isolate HD20 was selected due to its fast and remarkable abilities to breakdown phenanthrene . In a trial to improve the biodegradation potentials of the most potent isolate (Had) identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, low doses of gamma irradiation were used to activate the organism. To determine the radiation response of S. maltophilia, 24 hours culture was exposed in saline solution in a triplicate glass vials separately to increasing doses of gamma irradiation, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kGy. The dose response curve revealed the linear death of bacterial cells with increasing irradiation dose, The D10 value of S. maltophilia was found to be 0.3 kGy. For PAHs biodegradation enhancement, the organism was irradiated at low doses of gamma irradiation, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 kGy. The grown colonies exhibited a morphological differences from the non irradiated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on Tryptone-glucose-yeast extract (TGY) plates. All of them showed a creamy rough appearance and a loss of the known yellow colour of the original isolate. The single selected irradiated colonies as well as the whole irradiated mixture of cells irradiated at different doses were tested separately in fertilized marine microcosms containing 200 ppm of phenanthrene as a model of PAH and the degradation rates of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were monitored by the determination of the residual phenanthrene up to one week . The biodegradation potentials of irradiated and non irradiated S. maltophilia was compared with that of the natural Suez Gulf microbial communities. The irradiated culture of S

  14. Characterization of native fungi responsible for degrading crude oil from the coastal area of Yanbu, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abd-EL-Mooti EL-Hanafy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 15 fungal isolates were obtained from oil-contaminated sites near the Red Sea in the Yanbu region. Based on the preliminary DCPIP (2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol assay, three isolates showed promising oil degrading ability. The next-generation sequencing of the ITS-I and ITS-II internal transcribed spacer regions assigned the isolates to Aspergillus and Penicillium. Among these three strains, Y2 (Aspergillus oryzae was the most efficient, degrading about 99% of the crude oil. The degradation rates were corroborated using spectrophotometric and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses after two weeks of cultivation in Bushnell–Haas medium. All the three strains proved to be potent oil-degrading strains and, hence, can be utilized to degrade oil contaminants.

  15. Dynamics of Phenol Degrading-Iron ReducingBacteria{1mm in Intensive Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate theeffects of cropping season, nitrogen fertilizer input and aeratedfallow on the dynamics of phenol degrading-iron reducingbacteria (PD-IRB) in tropical irrigated rice ({ Oryza sativa L.)systems. The PD-IRB population density was monitored at different stagesof rice growth in two cropping seasons (dry and early wet) in acontinuous annual triple rice cropping system under irrigated condition.In this system, the high nitrogen input (195 and 135 kg N ha-1 indry and wet seasons, respectively) plots and control plots receiving noN fertilizer were compared to investigate the effect of nitrogen rate onpopulation size. The phenol degrading-iron reducing bacteria (PD-IRB)were abundant in soils under cropping systems of tropical irrigatedrice. However, density of the bacterial populations varied with ricegrowth stages. Cropping seasons, rhizosphere, and aerated fallow couldaffect the dynamics of PD-IRB. In the field trial, viable counts ofPD-IRB in the topsoil layer (15 cm) ranged between 102 and 108cells per gram of dry soil. A steep increase in viable counts during thesecond half of the cropping season suggested that the population densityof PD-IRB increased at advanced crop-growth stages. Population growth ofPD-IRB was accelerated during the dry season compared to the wet season.In the greenhouse experiment, the adjacent aerated fallow revealed 1-2orders of magnitude higher in most probable number (MPN) of PD-IRB thanthe wet fallow treated plots. As a prominent group of Fe reducingbacteria, PD-IRB predominated in the rhizosphere of rice, since maximumMPN of PD-IRB (2.62108 g-1 soil) was found in rhizospheresoil. Mineral N fertilizer rates showed no significant effect on PD-IRBpopulation density.

  16. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pilot trials of the microbial degradation of Christos-Bitas water in oil emulsion (chocolate mousse) and BP llandarcy gas oil using venturi aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, P G

    1985-01-01

    Oil residues arising from the Christos-Bitas spillage were found to contain 28% of oil extractable by carbon tetrachloride; the remainder consisted of water and undefined solids. Christos-Bitas mousse was added to 1.18 m(3) liquor inoculated with oil-contaminated marine mud, and aerated with a 1.5-hp vortex pump and venturi nozzle (12.5 mm) in a cylindrical tank. After 70 days, oil degradation reached 7 mg oil/L/h. About 98% of the solvent extractable oil added was degraded over 83 days. Analysis of oil residues harvested at the end of this experiment showed that there was a decreasing trend in percent degradation in the following order: aromatics > saturates > heterocyclics > asphalts. No less than 94% of any fraction analysed was degraded.In the second pilot trial, oil degradation was carried out in a cylindrical jacket tank containing 6.82 m(3) liquor inoculated with oil-contaminated marine mud from Penarth, South Wales, UK, together with pure cultures derived from the same source, and aerated with a 7.5-hp vortex pump and venturi nozzle (18 mm diameter). Mixing of the oil was inhomogeneous for the first 100-110 days. The overall degree of substrate dispersion and total oil balance was determined by sampling at different depths. Degradation by the mixed culture was achieved at the rate of 164 mg oil/L/h. After 224 days, this was equivalent to 9.6 x 10(3)/kg(-1)/yr;(214 kg/wk) for 6.82 m(3) of liquor. The degradation rate continued to rise as the feed rate was increased by means of an automatic, timed pump. A lag phase of five to six months was necessary to allow the mixed population to build up to an exploitable level.

  18. Effect of temperature on biodegradation of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, A.; Chaalal, O.

    2005-01-01

    An active strain of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria was isolated from the environment of the United Arab Emirates. This project studied the effect of temperature, salinity and oil concentration on biodegradation of crude oil. Oil weight loss, microbial growth and the changes of the crude oil asphaltene concentration are used to evaluate the oil degradation by this strain. A series of batch experiments was performed to study the effects of bacteria on the degradation of crude oil. The effects of oil concentration, bacteria concentration, temperature and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. The temperatures of the studied systems were varied between 35 and 75 o C and the salt concentrations were varied between 0 and 10%. Oil concentrations were ranged from 5 to 50% by volume. Experimental work showed the bacteria employed in this project were capable of surviving the harsh environment and degrading the crude oil at various conditions. Increasing the temperature increases the rate of oil degradation by bacteria. Increasing the oil concentration in general decreases the rate of bacteria oil degradation. Salinity plays a major role on the acceleration of biodegradation process of crude oil. An optimum salinity should be determined for every studied system. The finding of this project could be used in either the treatment of oil spill or in-situ stimulation of heavy oil wells. (author)

  19. Isolation and Screening of Diesel-Degrading Bacteria from the Diesel Contaminated Seawater at Kenjeran Beach, Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi Putri Pranowo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Samples of contaminated seawater by diesel were taken at Kenjeran Beach Surabaya using aseptic technique. Isolation was conducted using serial dilution and spread method on nutrient agar (NA media. The all bacteria colony were devided in to group based on with morphological characterization and gram staining. After that, those bacterial colonies were tested individually in NA media containing different concentration of diesel (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% for up to 7 days at 30°C. The results showed that eight bacterial strains were isolated from diesel contaminated seawater in Kenjeran Beach Surabaya. Screening on diesel showed that all the isolation bacteria were capable of degrading diesel and bacteria with code of B and E haves highly percentage growth in compared to other bacterial isolation. In conclusion, bacteria with code of B and E have potential to be used in diesel bioremediation in contaminated seawater.

  20. The combined effects of phytoremediation and biostimulation in enhancing habitat restoration and oil degradation of petroleum contaminated wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A [Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute, Center for Coastal, Energy, and Environmental Resources, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    1998-06-30

    The combined effects of biostimulation and phytoremediation as a means of post-oil spill habitat restoration and enhancement of oil degradation in the soil were evaluated. Marsh sods of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens were dosed with 0, 4, 8, 16 and 24 l m{sup -2} of south Louisiana crude oil in the greenhouse. Plants were killed at oil dosages of 8 l m{sup -2} in the growing season following oil application. Two years after application of the oil, S. alterniflora and S. patens individuals were transplanted into the oiled and unoiled sods. Fertilizer was applied 1 and 7 months after transplantation. Application of the fertilizer significantly increased biomass of the transplants within 6 months and regrowth biomass of the transplants 1 year after transplantation for both plant species. The residual oil in the soil did not significantly affect the biomass of the S. patens transplants compared with that in the no oil treatment, except at the highest oil level. However, regrowth biomass of the S. alterniflora transplants treated with fertilizer was significantly higher at all oil levels up to 250 mg g{sup -1} than in the unoiled treatment, with or without fertilizer. The oil degradation rate in the soil was significantly enhanced by the application of fertilizer in conjunction with the presence of transplants. These results suggest that vegetative transplantation, when implemented with fertilization, can simultaneously restore oil contaminated wetlands and accelerate oil degradation in the soil

  1. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  3. Comparison of the degradation of 14C-labeled DHP and corn stalk lignins by micro- and macrofungi and bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, K.; Trojanowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    To what extent and by which mode microfungi and bacteria from soil are able to degrade lignin have been investigated and their activity compared with those of white and brown rot Basidiomycetes. The experiments were made by means of specifically 14C-labeled DHPs prepared by polymerization of correspondingly labeled coniferyl alcohol. Also, a corn stalk material was used which was specifically labeled in the lignin part. This material was prepared by infusion of specifically labeled cinnamic acid compounds into growing maize plants. The potential of the organisms to degrade several specifically labeled phenols was determined and compared. White and brown rot fungi, as well as several microscopic fungi, were able to degrade phenolcarboxylic and cinnamic acids and even some phenolic compounds with completely alkylated phenolic hydroxl groups. They could also introduce hydroxl groups into benzoic and pi-hydroxybenzoic acids before ring cleavage. As compared to brown rot, the white rot fungi released higher amounts of CO2 from the aromatic and side chain carbons of DHP and plant lignins. Some brown rot fungi, however, had similar capacities in degrading DHP lignin as white rot fungi. They especially released more CO2 from methoxyl groups. This release was dependent upon the added carbohydrate source and could be either repressed or enhanced. Several bacteria, especially Nocardia spp. and Pseudomonas spp., were tested for their potential to degrade the labeled lignins or phenols. Most of these bacteria did not appreciably degrade lignins, although they were highly active in the metabolization of phenols. Some Nocardia spp., however, were found to have a noteworthy capacity in the degradation of lignins and phenols. Preliminary studies of the potentials of the organisms to attack labeled lignin sulfonates either in liquid or soil cultures are presented. (Refs. 100)

  4. Efficient methanol-degrading aerobic bacteria isolated from a wetland ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulasi, Kavitha; Jayakumar, Arjun; Balakrishna Pillai, Aneesh; Gopalakrishnapillai Sankaramangalam, Vinod Kumar; Kumarapillai, Harikrishnan

    2018-04-10

    Methylotrophs present in the soil play an important role in the regulation of one carbon compounds in the environment, and thereby aid in mitigating global warming. The study envisages the isolation and characterization of methanol-degrading bacteria from Kuttanad wetland ecosystem, India. Three methylotrophs, viz. Achromobacter spanius KUT14, Acinetobacter sp. KUT26 and Methylobacterium radiotolerans KUT39 were isolated and their phylogenetic positions were determined by constructing a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequences. In vitro activity of methanol dehydrogenase enzyme, responsible for methanol oxidation was evaluated and the genes involved in methanol metabolism, mxaF and xoxF were partially amplified and sequenced. The specific activity of methanol dehydrogenase (451.9 nmol min -1 mg -1 ) observed in KUT39 is the highest, reported ever to our knowledge from a soil bacterium. KUT14 recorded the least activity of 50.15 nmol min -1 mg -1 and is the first report on methylotrophy in A. spanius.

  5. Analysis of triglyceride degradation products in drying oils and oil paints using LC–ESI-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, E.P.; van den Berg, K.J.; Proaño Gaibor, A.N.; van Bommel, M.

    An LC–ESI-MS method is presented as a novel approach for the study of aged drying oils and oil paints invarious stages of oxidation and hydrolysis. The method involves separation and detection of glyceridesand fatty acids on a reversed phase column using a polar gradient ranging from methanol/water

  6. Degradation potential and microbial community structure of heavy oil-enriched microbial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves constitute valuable coastal resources that are vulnerable to oil pollution. One of the major processes to remove oil from contaminated mangrove sediment is microbial degradation. A study on heavy oil- and hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan was performed to evaluate their capacity to biodegrade and their microbial community composition. Surface sediment samples were obtained from mangrove sites in Okinawa (Teima, Oura, and Okukubi) and enriched with heavy oil as the sole carbon and energy source. The results revealed that all enriched microbial consortia degraded more than 20% of heavy oil in 21 days. The K1 consortium from Okukubi site showed the most extensive degradative capacity after 7 and 21 days. All consortia degraded more than 50% of hexadecane but had little ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The consortia were dominated by Pseudomonas or Burkholderia. When incubated in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds, the active bacterial community shifted to favor the dominance of Pseudomonas. The K1 consortium was a superior degrader, demonstrating the highest ability to degrade aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds; it was even able to degrade heavy oil at a concentration of 15%(w/v). The dominance and turn-over of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia in the consortia suggest an important ecological role for and relationship between these two genera in the mangrove sediments of Okinawa.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Pyrene-degrading Bacteria from Soils around Landfills in Shiraz and Their Growth Kinetic Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Pyrene is a kind of carcinogen hydrocarbon in environment and one of the top 129 pollutants as ranked by the U.S.Environmental Pretection Agency (USEPA. Today's commodious method that is considered by many researchers is the use of microorganisms to degrade these compounds from the environment. The goal of this research is separation and identification of the indigenous bacterias which are effective in decomposition of Pyrene hydrocarbon from soils around Shiraz Landfills. Isolated bacteria growth in the presence of different concentrations of the aforesaid organic pollutant was evaluated. Materials & Methods: Taking samples from Landfills were done after transportation them to the laboratory. The numbers of the bacterias were counted in a medium including Pyrene 0.6 g/l and in another medium without Pyrene. The isolated bacterias were separated by the enriched medium of hydrocarbon Pyrene and were recognized accordance with standards methods (specialty of colony, microscopic properties, fermentation of sugars and biochemical test.The kinetic growth of the separated bacterias was evaluated every 12 hours during 7 successive days. Results: It was reported that the numbers of the bacterias in the medium without Pyrene is more than those with Pyrene (cfu/g. The separated bacterias were included Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Micrococcus spp., Mycobacterium spp. These four isolated bacterias showed the best growth with Pyrene 0.6 g/l during third and fourth days. Conclusion: The separating bacterias, effecting in decomposition of PAH, make this possibility that the modern methods with more efficiency to be created for removing the carcinogen organic polluters from the environment. Moreover, the separated bacterias (relating to this research can be applied to develop the microbial population in the areas that polluted with Pyrene.

  8. In vitro study of the effect of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LuIs, Henrique Soares; Luis, Luis Soares; Bernardo, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Mouthrinses are used, by many of our patients, as a complement to daily dental hygiene routine. The use of a toothbrush and an interproximal cleaning method may not be enough to control dental plaque. Essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses are effective for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis. To study the effect of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on dental plaque bacteria, an in vitro study was developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and aerobic and anaerobic dental plaque nonspecific bacteria. Samples of human dental plaque were collected from consenting participants and bacteria isolated. Disk-diffusion tests were performed to obtain the minimum concentration of the mouth rinses necessary to inhibit bacterial growth. The ability of the commercial mouth rinses to inhibit bacterial growth was studied in comparison to a positive control (0.2% chlorhexidine) and a negative laboratorial control (sterilized water). The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be inferior to the commercial essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses concentrations. Delmopinol and essential oils have significant antibacterial properties shown in vitro only for aerobic bacteria, and for S. mutans, Lactobacillus, and anaerobic bacteria, the results were not statistically significant. Essential oils and chlorhexidine are statistically similar and better than delmopinol for aerobic bacteria growth inhibition. For the other bacteria, essential oils and delmopinol are not statistically promising. Results show that essential oils only may help patients to maintain good oral health as a complement to daily brushing and interproximal cleaning.

  9. Screening of SDS-degrading bacteria from car wash wastewater and study of the alkylsulfatase enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Razieh; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Roha; Gharavi, Sara; Moosavi-Nejad, Zahra; Borzooee, Faezeh

    2013-06-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the main surfactant components in detergents and cosmetics, used in high amounts as a detergent in products such as shampoos, car wash soap and toothpaste. Therefore, its bioremediation by suitable microorganisms is important. Alkylsulfatase is an enzyme that hydrolyses sulfate -ester bonds to give inorganic sulfate and alcohol. The purpose of this study was to isolate SDS-degrading bacteria from Tehran city car wash wastewater, study bacterial alkylsulfatase enzyme activity and identify the alkylsulfatase enzyme coding gene. Screening of SDS-degrading bacteria was carried out on basal salt medium containing SDS as the sole source of carbon. Amount of SDS degraded was assayed by methylene blue active substance (MBAS). Identification of the sdsA gene was carried by PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and biochemical tests identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium is able to degrade 84% of SDS after four days incubation. Bacteria isolated from car wash wastewater were shown to carry the sdsA gene (670bp) and the alkylsulfatase enzyme specific activity expressed from this gene was determined to be 24.3 unit/mg. The results presented in this research indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a suitable candidate for SDS biodegradation.

  10. Degradation of hydrocarbons in crude oil by the ascomycete Pseudallescheria boydii (Microascaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, T. M.; Abbott, S. P.; Foght, J. M.; Currah, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Four strains of Pseudallescheria boydii were isolated from oil-soaked soils in British Columbia and Alberta and compared with strains from cattle dung and raw sewage. Variations in morphology, colony appearance, colony diameter and temperature tolerance were found among the strains. Three of the strains isolated from oil-contaminated soils and the strain from sewage were tested for their ability to utilize hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source. Gas chromatographic analysis of the residual oil revealed that the strains isolated from the oil-contaminated soil degraded the linear aliphatics. The strain derived from sewage utilized volatile n-alkenes (ethane, propane, butane) but did not utilize the liquid saturate compounds. Since certain strains of Pseudallescheria boydii are known to be pathogenic, cautious handling of these fungi was recommended. However, under properly controlled conditions, selected non-pathogenic strains of the fungi may be used as an integral and effective part of intrinsic bioremediation processes. 39 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  11. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Kappell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including PAHs, were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH

  12. Antimicrobial property of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against pathogenic bacteria isolated from pet turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, B C J; Jung, Won-Gi; Hossain, Sabrina; Wimalasena, S H M P; Pathirana, H N K S; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-06-01

    The usage of essential oils as antimicrobial agents is gaining attention. Besides, pet turtles were known to harbor a range of pathogenic bacteria while the turtle keeping is a growing trend worldwide.The current study examined the antimicrobial activity of lemon grass oil (LGO) against seven species of Gram negative bacteria namely; Aeromonas hydrophila , A. caviae , Citrobacter freundii , Salmonella enterica , Edwardsiella tarda , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Proteus mirabilis isolated from three popular species of pet turtles. Along with the results of disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) tests, LGO was detected as effective against 6 species of bacteria excluding P. aeruginosa . MIC of LGO for the strains except P. aeruginosa ranged from 0.016 to 0.5% (V/V). The lowest MIC recorded in the E. tarda strain followed by A. hydrophilla , C. freundii , P. mirabilis , and S. enterica . Interestingly, all the bacterial species except E. tarda were showing high multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index values ranging from 0.36 to 0.91 upon the 11 antibiotics tested although they were sensitive to LGO.

  13. Effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves on soil organisms involved in leaf degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins

    Full Text Available The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5-20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25-5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6-41.2 mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  15. Abundance and diversity of n-alkane-degrading bacteria in a forest soil co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and metals: a molecular study on alkB homologous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Engel, Marion; Schloter, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Unraveling functional genes related to biodegradation of organic compounds has profoundly improved our understanding of biological remediation processes, yet the ecology of such genes is only poorly understood. We used a culture-independent approach to assess the abundance and diversity of bacteria catalyzing the degradation of n-alkanes with a chain length between C(5) and C(16) at a forest site co-contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons and metals for nearly 60 years. The alkB gene coding for a rubredoxin-dependent alkane monooxygenase enzyme involved in the initial activation step of aerobic aliphatic hydrocarbon metabolism was used as biomarker. Within the area of study, four different zones were evaluated: one highly contaminated, two intermediately contaminated, and a noncontaminated zone. Contaminant concentrations, hydrocarbon profiles, and soil microbial respiration and biomass were studied. Abundance of n-alkane-degrading bacteria was quantified via real-time PCR of alkB, whereas genetic diversity was examined using molecular fingerprints (T-RFLP) and clone libraries. Along the contamination plume, hydrocarbon profiles and increased respiration rates suggested on-going natural attenuation at the site. Gene copy numbers of alkB were similar in contaminated and control areas. However, T-RFLP-based fingerprints suggested lower diversity and evenness of the n-alkane-degrading bacterial community in the highly contaminated zone compared to the other areas; both diversity and evenness were negatively correlated with metal and hydrocarbon concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of alkB denoted a shift of the hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community from Gram-positive bacteria in the control zone (most similar to Mycobacterium and Nocardia types) to Gram-negative genotypes in the contaminated zones (Acinetobacter and alkB sequences with little similarity to those of known bacteria). Our results underscore a qualitative rather than a quantitative response of

  16. Isolation of oxamyl-degrading bacteria and identification of cehA as a novel oxamyl hydrolase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina eRousidou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial degradation is the main process controlling the environmental dissipation of the nematicide oxamyl. Despite that, little is known regarding the microorganisms involved in its biotransformation. We report the isolation of four oxamyl-degrading bacterial strains from an agricultural soil exhibiting enhanced biodegradation of oxamyl. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA assigned the isolated bacteria to different subgroups of the genus Pseudomonas. The isolated bacteria hydrolyzed oxamyl to oxamyl oxime, which was not further transformed, and utilized methylamine as a C and N source. This was further supported by the detection of methylamine dehydrogenase in three of the four isolates. All oxamyl-degrading strains carried a gene highly homologous to a carbamate-hydrolase gene cehA previously identified in carbaryl- and carbofuran-degrading strains. Transcription analysis verified its direct involvement in the hydrolysis of oxamyl. Selected isolates exhibited relaxed degrading specificity and transformed all carbamates tested including the oximino carbamates aldicarb and methomyl (structurally related to oxamyl and the aryl-methyl carbamates carbofuran and carbaryl which share with oxamyl only the carbamate moiety

  17. Enhancement of Palm Oil Extraction Using Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvamany, H.; Jamaliah Md Jahim

    2015-01-01

    In this recent work, application of aqueous enzymatic process to enhance recovery of palm oil was studied. Experiments were carried out to investigate the structural carbohydrate composition of oil palm mesocarp (Elaeis guineensis) and to analyze the effect of different combination of enzymes on the palm oil recovery and degree of digestibility and the respective correlation. The optimum combination of enzymes comprising of Cellic CTec2 (X 1 ), Cellic HTec2 (X 2 ) and Pectinex Ultra SP-L (X 3 ) for Aqueous Enzymatic Oil Extraction Process (AEOEP), were determined using Simplex Lattice mixture design under fixed parameters. Maximum oil recovery of 88 % was achieved with ratio of enzymes at 0.46: 0.34: 0.2 (X 1 :X 2 :X 3 ), at enzyme loading of 30 mg protein/ 10 g substrate, substrate loading of 50 % w/v, pH 4.8, and 2 hours of incubation at 50 degree Celsius. The conversion of reducing sugar at corresponding condition was measured to evaluate the effectiveness of enzymes in degrading fruit cell wall releasing trapped oil. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to indicate the increase in cell wall disintegration leading to higher release of oil with enzymatic treatment. (author)

  18. Biodiversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from deep sea sediments of the Middle Atlantic Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Zhisong; Lai, Qiliang; Dong, Chunming; Shao, Zongze

    2008-01-01

    The bacteria involved in the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in deep sea subsurface environments are largely unknown. In order to reveal their biodiversity, sediments from 2.2 m under the bottom surface at a water depth of 3542 m were sampled on the Middle Atlantic Ridge with a gravity column sampler. The sediments were promptly enriched with either crude oil or a mixture of PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene) as the sole carbon source, and further enriched w...

  19. Mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids : degradation in OSPW and wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Water Science and Technology Directorate

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids and the degradation in OSPW and wetland plants. It presented background information on the Athabasca oil sands and naphthenic acids which involve a mixture of alkanes and cycloalkane carboxylic acids with aliphatic side chains. The presentation also discussed mass spectrometry with electrospray operating in negative ion modes. Loop injection, external standard methods and solid phase extraction were reviewed along with improved analysis by removing background ions. Other topics that were presented included hydroponic test systems and wetland plant toxicity, growth and transpiration. It was concluded that dissipation included species containing oxygen, ozone, O{sub 4}, and O{sub 5}. tabs., figs.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory (MIC and minimum bactericidal (MBC concentrations. Results: GC-MS results showed that phenolic components such as carvacrol (51.55% and thymol (25.49% were predominant constituents of the EO. Zataria multiflora Boiss EO exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Shewanella Putrefaciens was the most sensitive bacteria with MBC value of 0. 5 mg/ml. Conclusion: According to the results, this EO could be used as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food specially seafood products to preserve them against bacterial spoilage.

  1. Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    for ethanol fermentation. The resulting hydrolyzsates contain substances inhibitory to fermentation-depending on both the raw material (biomass) and the pre-treatment applied. An overview of the inhibitory effect on ethanol production by yeast and bacteria is presented. Apart from furans formed by sugar......An overview of the different inhibitors formed by pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials and their inhibition of ethanol production in yeast and bacteria is given. Different high temperature physical pre-treatment methods are available to render the carbohydrates in lignocellulose accessible...... degradation, phenol monomers from lignin degradation are important co-factors in hydrolysate inhibition, and inhibitory effects of these aromatic compounds on different ethanol producing microorganisms is reviewed. The furans and phenols generally inhibited growth and ethanol production rate (Q...

  2. Effect of mercaptoethylamine on DNA degradation in thermophilic bacteria Bac. stearothermophilus exposed to. gamma. -, UV-radiation or methylnitrosourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomenko, L A; Kuznetsovea, E A; Gaziev, A I

    1984-07-01

    The effect of mercaptoethylamine (MEA) on degradation of DNA in thermophilic bacteria Bac. stear. exposed to ..gamma..-, UV-rays or methylnitrosourea (MNU) was studied. Using centrifugation on alkaline and neutral sucrose gradients, it was shown that MEA inhibits the accumulation of breaks in the DNA of Bac. stear. It also lowers the level of DNA degradation in toluene-treated cells of Bac. stear. under the action of the intrinsic nuclease, reduces the activity of the endonuclease specific for apurinic DNA, as well as that of S/sub 1/-nuclease and DNase-I in vitro. The inhibition in the accumulation of DNA breaks is assumed to be due to a decrease of the endonuclease activity in the cells of thermophilic bacteria.

  3. Effect of mercaptoethylamine on DNA degradation in thermophilic bacteria Bac. stearothermophilus exposed to γ-, UV-radiation or methylnitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, L.A.; Kuznetsovea, E.A.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of mercaptoethylamine (MEA) on degradation of DNA in thermophilic bacteria Bac. stear. exposed to γ-, UV-rays or methylnitrosourea (MNU) was studied. Using centrifugation on alkaline and neutral sucrose gradients, it was shown that MEA inhibits the accumulation of breaks in the DNA of Bac. stear. It also lowers the level of DNA degradation in toluene-treated cells of Bac. stear. under the action of the intrinsic nuclease, reduces the activity of the endonuclease specific for apurinic DNA, as well as that of S 1 -nuclease and DNase-I in vitro. The inhibition in the accumulation of DNA breaks is assumed to be due to a decrease of the endonuclease activity in the cells of thermophilic bacteria. (orig.)

  4. Pesticide Degrading Bacteria in Aquatic Environment: Bioprospecting and Evaluation of Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigues dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides play an important role in the increase of productivity in agro-industry and the extensive use of these substances cause environmental, economic and social damage in time. Microbial activity is an essential part in the dynamics and the destination of pesticides in the environment. This research focuses in prospecting and characterizing bacterial strains which are potentially able to degrade/tolerate Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, Methyl parathion and Picloram. Bacteria were isolated from water samples collected according to the degree of salinity along the Pacoti River's estuary (Ceara, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. A total of 49 bacterial strains were isolated, all of which tolerated/ downgraded concentrations up to 200mg/L of picloram, atrazine and methyl parathion. Tested in pesticide mixtures, the percentage and tolerance level showed that 73% grew in concentrations up to 200mg/L, 17,4% tolerated/ downgraded up to 150ml/L and the remainder only grew in concentrations under 100ml/L. The strains which had the best performance against pesticides, by points, were P1 (13Db e 14D; P2 (10E; P3 (2M, 9M, 10M, 12Mb, 14M, 17M 18Mp 19M e 20M. A high percentage of isolates (67% expressed luminescence when exposed to the pesticides atrazine and methyl parathion in concentrations between 150 and 200ml/L. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i4.748

  5. Enrichment and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from petroleum refinery waste as potent bioaugmentation agent for in situ bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Poulomi; Roy, Ajoy; Pal, Siddhartha; Mohapatra, Balaram; Kazy, Sufia K; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sar, Pinaki

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic biodegradation potential of bacteria from petroleum refinery waste was investigated through isolation of cultivable strains and their characterization. Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. populated the normal cultivable taxa while prolonged enrichment with hydrocarbons and crude oil yielded hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria of genera Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Kocuria, Pandoraea, etc. Strains isolated through enrichment showed assemblages of superior metabolic properties: utilization of aliphatic (C6-C22) and polyaromatic compounds, anaerobic growth with multiple terminal electron acceptors and higher biosurfactant production. Biodegradation of dodecane was studied thoroughly by GC-MS along with detection of gene encoding alkane hydroxylase (alkB). Microcosms bioaugmented with Enterobacter, Pandoraea and Burkholderia strains showed efficient biodegradation (98% TPH removal) well fitted in first order kinetic model with low rate constants and decreased half-life. This study proves that catabolically efficient bacteria resides naturally in complex petroleum refinery wastes and those can be useful for bioaugmentation based bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on degradation of 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol by nitrifying activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpiyakorn, T.; Sermwaraphan, P.; Kurisu, F.

    2009-07-01

    An endocrine disrupting compound, 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), is a synthetic estrogen used as a key ingredient in oral contraceptives pill. this persistent organic pollutant, no biodegradable by most microorganisms, is discharged via municipal waste streams to natural receiving waters. Recently, it was found that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) enriched with high ammonium loads can degrade EE2 via co-metabolism during ammonia oxidation. (Author)

  7. Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity.

  8. Microbial degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in crude oil: a field-scale study at the low-land rainforest of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddela, Naga Raju; Scalvenzi, Laura; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala

    2017-10-01

    A field-level feasibility study was conducted to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degrading potential of two bacterial strains, Bacillus thuringiensis B3 and B. cereus B6, and two fungi, Geomyces pannorum HR and Geomyces sp. strain HV, all soil isolates obtained from an oil field located in north-east region of Ecuador. Crude oil-treated soil samples contained in wooden boxes received a mixture of all the four microorganisms and were incubated for 90 days in an open low-land area of Amazon rainforest. The percent removal of TPHs in soil samples that received the mixed microbial inoculum was 87.45, indicating the great potential of the soil isolates in field-scale removal of crude oil. The TPHs-degrading efficiency was verified by determining the toxicity of residues, remained in soil after biodegradation, toward viability of Artemia salina or seed germination and plant growth of cowpea. Our results clearly suggest that the selected soil isolates of bacteria and fungi could be effectively used for large-scale bioremediation of sites contaminated with crude oil.

  9. Self-bioremediation of cork-processing wastewaters by (chloro)phenol-degrading bacteria immobilised onto residual cork particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, I; Hernández, P; Lafuente, A; Rodríguez-Llorente, I D; Caviedes, M A; Pajuelo, E

    2012-04-15

    Cork manufacturing is a traditional industry in Southern Europe, being the main application of this natural product in wine stoppers and insulation. Cork processing begins at boiling the raw material. As a consequence, great volumes of dark wastewaters, with elevated concentrations of chlorophenols, are generated, which must be depurated through costly physicochemical procedures before discarding them into public water courses. This work explores the potential of bacteria, isolated from cork-boiling waters storage ponds, in bioremediation of the same effluent. The bacterial population present in cork-processing wastewaters was analysed by DGGE; low bacterial biodiversity was found. Aerobic bacteria were isolated and investigated for their tolerance against phenol and two chlorophenols. The most tolerant strains were identified by sequencing 16S rDNA. The phenol-degrading capacity was investigated by determining enzyme activities of the phenol-degrading pathway. Moreover, the capacity to form biofilms was analysed in a microtitre plate assay. Finally, the capacity to form biofilms onto the surface of residual small cork particles was evaluated by acridine staining followed by epifluorescence microscopy and by SEM. A low-cost bioremediation system, using phenol-degrading bacteria immobilised onto residual cork particles (a by-product of the industry) is proposed for the remediation of this industrial effluent (self-bioremediation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-density polyethylene (HDPE)-degrading potential bacteria from marine ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V; Natarajan, K; Hemambika, B; Ramesh, N; Sumathi, C S; Kottaimuthu, R; Rajesh Kannan, V

    2010-08-01

    Assessment of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-degrading bacteria isolated from plastic waste dumpsites of Gulf of Mannar. Rationally, 15 bacteria (GMB1-GMB15) were isolated by enrichment technique. GMB5 and GMB7 were selected for further studies based on their efficiency to degrade the HDPE and identified as Arthrobacter sp. and Pseudomonas sp., respectively. Assessed weight loss of HDPE after 30 days of incubation was nearly 12% for Arthrobacter sp. and 15% for Pseudomonas sp. The bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbon (BATH) assay showed that the cell surface hydrophobicity of Pseudomonas sp. was higher than Arthrobacter sp. Both fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and protein content of the biofilm were used to test the viability and protein density of the biomass. Acute peak elevation was observed between 2 and 5 days of inoculation for both bacteria. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum showed that keto carbonyl bond index (KCBI), Ester carbonyl bond index (ECBI) and Vinyl bond index (VBI) were increased indicating changes in functional group(s) and/or side chain modification confirming the biodegradation. The results pose us to suggest that both Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp. were proven efficient to degrade HDPE, albeit the former was more efficacious, yet the ability of latter cannot be neglected. Recent alarm on ecological threats to marine system is dumping plastic waste in the marine ecosystem and coastal arena by anthropogenic activity. In maintenance phase of the plastic-derived polyethylene waste, the microbial degradation plays a major role; the information accomplished in this work will be the initiating point for the degradation of polyethylene by indigenous bacterial population in the marine ecosystem and provides a novel eco-friendly solution in eco-management.

  11. Gluten-degrading bacteria are present in the human small intestine of healthy volunteers and celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrán, Alexandra R; Pérez-Andrés, Jénifer; Caminero, Alberto; Nistal, Esther; Vivas, Santiago; Ruiz de Morales, José María; Casqueiro, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Gluten is the only known environmental factor that triggers celiac disease. Several studies have described an imbalance between the intestinal microbiota of different individuals based on diagnoses. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that human bacteria may play an important role in gluten hydrolysis. However, there has been no research focusing on the small intestine. This study aimed to characterize the adult small intestine microbiota possibly implicated in gluten hydrolysis. Duodenal biopsies from different diagnosed individuals were cultured in a gluten-containing medium, and the grown microbiota was analyzed by culture dependent/independent methods. Results showed that gluten-degrading bacteria can be found in the human small intestine. Indeed, 114 bacterial strains belonging to 32 species were isolated; 85 strains were able to grow in a medium containing gluten as the sole nitrogen source, 31 strains showed extracellular proteolytic activity against gluten protein and 27 strains showed peptidolytic activity towards the 33 mer peptide, an immunogenic peptide for celiac disease patients. We found that there are no differences based on the diagnosis, but each individual has its own population of gluten-hydrolyzing bacteria. These bacteria or their gluten-degrading enzymes could help to improve the quality of life of celiac disease patients'. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and fluoroelastomers in rapeseed biodiesel and hydrogenated vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Akhlaghi, Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) are currently viewed by the transportation sector as the most viable alternative fuels to replace petroleum-based fuels. The use of biodiesel has, however, been limited by the deteriorative effect of biodiesel on rubber parts in automobile fuel systems. This work therefore aimed at investigating the degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and fluoroelastomers (FKM) on exposure to biodiesel and HVO at different temperatures and oxygen ...

  13. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuramirah Azizan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively, and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively. Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1% and eugenol (8.1%, while α-humulene (5.5% and germacrene D (7.7% were dominant in F. deltoidea. The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63–2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven

  14. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nuramirah; Mohd Said, Shahida; Zainal Abidin, Zamirah; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-12-05

    In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus salivarius , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum . Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)). Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively), and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively). Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1%) and eugenol (8.1%), while α-humulene (5.5%) and germacrene D (7.7%) were dominant in F. deltoidea . The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63-2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven strains

  15. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza L; Leite, Deborah C A; Ferreira, Edir M; Ferreira, Lívia Q; Paula, Geraldo R; Maguire, Michael J; Hubert, Casey R J; Peixoto, Raquel S; Domingues, Regina M C P; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-30

    Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0-5, 15-20 and 35-40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0-5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15-20 and 35-40 cm), which were similar to each other.

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic degradation of butyrate by a butyrate-utilizing bacterium in coculture and triculture with methanogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was beta-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in the triculture, in which both hydrogen and acetate were utilized, than in the coculture, in which acetate accumulated. Yeast extract, rumen fluid, and clarified digestor fluid stimulated butyrate degradation, while the effect of Trypticase was less pronounced. Penicillin G, d-cycloserine, and vancomycin caused complete inhibition of butyrate utilization by the cultures. No growth or degradation of butyrate occurred when 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid or chloroform, specific inhibitors of methanogenic bacteria, was added to the cultures and common electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, and fumarate were not used with butyrate as the electron donor. Addition of hydrogen or oxygen to the gas phase immediately stopped growth and butyrate degradation by the cultures. Butyrate was, however, metabolized at approximately the same rate when hydrogen was removed from the cultures and was metabolized at a reduced rate in the cultures previously exposed to hydrogen.

  17. Thermal degradation features of peppermint oil in a binary system with Β- cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Omelchenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. One of the most promising ways of changing physical and chemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient is an encapsulation on a molecular level with the use of cyclodextrins. This makes it possible to create products with the desired activity and controlled distribution in the body. Methods and results. We have studied the thermal decomposition of peppermint oil in binary systems with β-cyclodextrin. It has been found that the thermal degradation of mechanical mixture and inclusion complex of the «host-guest» with the composition of 1:1 passes through different mechanisms. Conclusions. It is shown that the given data of thermal stability are useful for the identification of an inclusion complex «β-CD – peppermint oil» and assessing its complexation, and for the development of technology of medicinal forms of supramolecular complex of β-cyclodextrin and peppermint oil

  18. Comparison of solid-phase cytometry and the plate count method for the evaluation of the survival of bacteria in pharmaceutical oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prijck, K; Peeters, E; Nelis, H J

    2008-12-01

    To compare the survival of four bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in pharmaceutical oils, including jojoba oil/tea tree oil, carbol oil, jojoba oil and sesame oil. Oils were spiked with the test bacteria in a concentration of 10(4) CFU ml(-1). Bacteria were extracted from oils with phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.5% Tween 20. Aliquots of the pooled water layers were analysed by solid-phase cytometry and plate counting. Plate counts dropped to zero for all test strains exposed for 24 h to three of the four oils. In contrast, significant numbers of viable cells were still detected by SPC, except in the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture and partly in sesame oil. Exposure of bacteria for 24 h to the two oils containing an antimicrobial led to a loss of their culturability but not necessarily of their viability. The antibacterial activity of the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture supersedes that of carbol oil. These in vitro data suggest that the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture more than carbol oil inhibits bacterial proliferation when used for intermittent self-catherization.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) against cariogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Nathalya Isabel; de Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; Fracarolli, Letícia; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller

    2015-01-01

    In Brazilian folk medicine, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) is used to treat toothaches and dental abscesses and diseases induced by worms, bacteria, or fungi. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial effects of the essential oil obtained from Tetradenia riparia leaves (TR-EO) grown in Southeastern Brazil against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of TR-EO in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). We identified aromadendrene oxide (14.0%), (E,E)-farnesol (13.6%), dronabinol (12.5%), and fenchone (6.2%) as the major constituents of TR-EO. TR-EO displayed MIC values between 31.2 and 500 μg/mL, with the lowest MIC value being obtained against Streptococcus mitis (31.2 μg/mL), S. mutans (62.5 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (31.2 μg/mL), and Lactobacillus casei (62.5 μg/mL). In time-kill experiments, TR-EO demonstrated bactericidal activity against S. mutans within the first 12 h, resulting in a curve profile similar to that of chlorhexidine. These results revealed that the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia displays promising activity against most of the selected cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. PMID:26273268

  20. Culture-based Identification Of Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria In the Sandusky Bay and Maumee Bay of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, A.; Mou, X.

    2012-12-01

    Harmful cyanobacteria blooms (cyanoHABs) are a serious issue that affects wildlife, human health, recreation and local economics worldwide. CyanoHABs produce cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs) that lead to skin irritation, illness and liver tumors. Bacterially mediated degradation of MCs plays a key role to transform these toxic substrates to less harmful metabolites in natural environments. However, only a few Sphingomonos species have been isolated for degradation of MCs and many of which are from other habitats such as water plants. This project aims to isolate and identify bacteria that can degrade MC-LR and MC-RR, two major forms of MCs found during cyanoHABs in Lake Erie. Water samples were collected from the surface of Sandusky Bay and Maumee Bay of Lake Erie and immediately filtered through 3.0 -μm-pore-size membrane filters to obtain bacterioplankton fraction. The filtrates were amended with excessive inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and incubated in the dark for a week to purposely establish a carbon-limited condition. Afterwards, enrichment microcosms were established in flasks filled with pre-incubated bacterioplankton and single MC compounds (final concentration 10 μM). Once cell growth was confirmed by flow cytometry-based cell counting, bacterial cells in enriched microcosms were transferred onto solid surfaces, i.e., GFF filter and noble agar for colony isolation. Obtained single colonies were inoculated in defined liquid media with MCs as single carbon source. DNA was extracted from each purified isolate and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). A total of 18 different RFLP banding patterns were found, indicating MC-degrading bacteria may be heterogeneous in studied water samples. 16S rRNA genes of selected bacterial isolates were PCR amplified and sequenced for taxonomic identification. Our results demonstrated that MCs can be degraded by multiple bacterial species in Lake Erie. Future directions

  1. Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Ricardo M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antonio J; Silva, Cleber J; Andrade, Nelio J; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Barbosa, Maria C A

    2012-08-14

    The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and α-pinene (22.0%), and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-D (11.5%). Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E)-β-ocimene (44.1%) and α-terpinolene (15.2%), whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%). However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high δ-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  3. Temporal metagenomic and metabolomic characterisation of fresh perennial ryegrass degradation by rumen bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mayorga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between ingested plant material and the attached microbiome is essential for developing methodologies to improve ruminant nutrient use efficiency. We have previously shown that perennial ryegrass (PRG rumen bacterial colonisation events follow a primary (up to 4 h and secondary (after 4 h pattern based on the differences in diversity of the attached bacteria. In this study we investigated temporal niche specialisation of primary and secondary populations of attached rumen microbiota using metagenomic shotgun sequencing as well as monitoring changes in the plant chemistry using mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Metagenomic Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (MG-RAST taxonomical analysis of shotgun metagenomic sequences showed that the genera Butyrivibrio, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Prevotella and Selenomonas dominated the attached microbiome irrespective of time. MG-RAST also showed that Acidaminococcus, Bacillus, Butyrivibrio and Prevotella rDNA increased in read abundance during secondary colonisation, whilst Blautia decreased in read abundance. MG-RAST Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG functional analysis also showed that the primary function of the attached microbiome was categorised broadly within ‘metabolism’; predominantly amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism and transport. Most sequence read abundances (51.6, 43.8, and 50.0% of COG families pertaining to amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, respectively within these categories were higher in abundance during secondary colonisation. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathways analysis confirmed that the PRG- attached microbiota present at 1 and 4 h of rumen incubation possess a similar functional capacity, with only a few pathways being uniquely found in only one incubation time point only. FT-IR data for the plant residues also showed that the main changes in plant chemistry between primary and secondary

  4. Study by 31P NMR spectroscopy of the triacylglycerol degradation processes in olive oil with different heat-transfer mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Torres, Covadonga; Pérez Martínez, Angel; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Moreno Moreno, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The thermal degradation of olive oil using conventional and microwave heating under the same experimental conditions were compared. A powerful identification and quantification technique based on 31P NMR has been developed to characterise the differences between the minor components including diacylglycerol and free fatty acids in the heated samples. The 31P NMR spectra of the degraded olive oils, which contain single bondOH groups derivatised with a phosphorus reagent, showed that convention...

  5. Growth and biosurfactant synthesis by Nigerian hydrocarbon-degrading estuarine bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Adebusoye

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons is important for finding an environmentally-friendly method to restoring contaminated environmental matrices. Screening of hydrocarbon-utilizing and biosurfactant-producing abilities of organisms from an estuarine ecosystem in Nigeria, Africa, resulted in the isolation of five microbial strains identified as Corynebacterium sp. DDv1, Flavobacterium sp. DDv2, Micrococcus roseus DDv3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DDv4 and Saccharomyces cerevisae DDv5. These isolates grew readily on several hydrocarbons including hexadecane, dodecane, crude oil and petroleum fractions. Axenic cultures of the organisms utilized diesel oil (1.0 % v/v with generation times that ranged significantly (t-test, P La capacidad de los microorganismos para degradar hidrocarburos del petróleo es de gran importancia para hallar un método aceptable y ambientalmente amigable para la restauración de terrenos ambientalmente contaminados. Al investigar las capacidades de los organismos de un ecosistema de estuario que utilizan hidrocarburos y producen biosurfactantes, se produjo como resultado el aislamiento de cinco cepas microbianas identificadas como Corynebacterium sp. DDv1, Flavobacterium sp. DDv2, Micrococcus roseus DDv3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y DDv4 Saccharomyces cerevisiae DDv5. Estas cepas crecieron fácilmente en varios hidrocarburos incluyendo hexadecanos, dodecanos, petróleo crudo y fracciones de petróleo. Los cultivos axénicos de organismos utilizaron diesel (1.0% v/v con períodos por generación con ámbitos significativos (t-test, P <0.05 de entre 3.25 y 3.88 días, con la consiguiente producción de bio-surfactantes. La cinética del crecimiento indica que la síntesis de bio-surfactante se produjo principalmente durante la fase de crecimiento exponencial, lo que sugiere que las moléculas bioactivas son metabolitos primarios. Las cepas DDv1 y DDv4 fueron evidentemente las más metab

  6. Oil characterisation: assessment of composition, risks, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lookman, R.; Vanermen, G.; Van De Weghe, H.; Gemoets, J.; Van der Sterren, G.; Alphenaar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Several methods are available for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons. The TPHCWG (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group) developed a method based on a silica column separation of aromatics and aliphatics and a GC-FID subdivision into equivalent-carbon fractions (EC) ('TPH-method'). This method was mainly developed for assessing human risks of oil compounds. Within NOBIS (Dutch Research program Biological In-situ Remediation), another method was developed based upon an equilibrium-experiment of the oil-polluted soil with water (column recirculation), which was further developed by TTE ('TTE-method'). This method uses measured water solubilities of individual oil components and GC-retention times yielding a subdivision of the hydrocarbons into compound classes that are relevant for assessing the remediation potential of the specific oil pollution. In this paper we present results of a research project in which we developed a new method, the 'OK-method' that combines these two procedures and allows a complete characterisation of the oil in terms of composition, (human) risks, volatility, solubility, plume behaviour (migration velocities of the soluble components) and aerobic degradation potential. (authors)

  7. Oil characterisation: assessment of composition, risks, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lookman, R.; Vanermen, G.; Van De Weghe, H.; Gemoets, J. [Vito, Mol (Belgium); Van der Sterren, G.; Alphenaar, A. [TTE, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Several methods are available for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons. The TPHCWG (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group) developed a method based on a silica column separation of aromatics and aliphatics and a GC-FID subdivision into equivalent-carbon fractions (EC) ('TPH-method'). This method was mainly developed for assessing human risks of oil compounds. Within NOBIS (Dutch Research program Biological In-situ Remediation), another method was developed based upon an equilibrium-experiment of the oil-polluted soil with water (column recirculation), which was further developed by TTE ('TTE-method'). This method uses measured water solubilities of individual oil components and GC-retention times yielding a subdivision of the hydrocarbons into compound classes that are relevant for assessing the remediation potential of the specific oil pollution. In this paper we present results of a research project in which we developed a new method, the 'OK-method' that combines these two procedures and allows a complete characterisation of the oil in terms of composition, (human) risks, volatility, solubility, plume behaviour (migration velocities of the soluble components) and aerobic degradation potential. (authors)

  8. [Synthesis and degradation of hyaluronic acid by bacteria of Streptococcus genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloded, A V; Samoĭlenko, I I; Tsepilov, R N

    2010-01-01

    Modern data on metabolism of hyaluronic acid by bacteria from Streptococcus genus are presented. Several species of bacteria forming capsule from hyaluronic acid, which is analogous to glycosaminoglycan of vertebrates, are considered. Different aspects of hyaluronic acid synthesis are described: biochemical synthesis pathway, genetic basis, regulation of expression of genes belonging to hyaluronic acid synthesis operon. Biological role and physiologic importance of hyaluronic acid for bacteria, including its role in overcoming immune barrier by pathogenic species, are discussed. Process of depolymerization of hyaluronic acid in presence of hyaluronatlyases secreted by certain streptococci is considered. Characteristic of streptococcal enzyme hyaluronatlyase, its mechanism of catalytic effect, and biological function are presented.

  9. Photocatalytic Degradation of Oil using Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Titanium Dioxide Composite Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Ummi Nadiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of industrial wastewater is increasing as the oil and gas industry grows rapidly over the years. The constituents in the industrial wastewater such as organic and inorganic matters, dispersed and lubricant oil and metals which have high toxicity become the major concern to the environment and ecosystem. There are many technologies are being used for oil removal from industrial wastewater. However, there are still needs to find an effective technology to treat oily wastewater before in can be discharge safely to the environment. Membrane technology is an attractive separation technology to treat oily wastewater. The aim of this study is to fabricate polyvinylidene/titanium dioxide (PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane with further treatment using hot pressed method to enhance the adhesion between TiO2 with the membrane surfaces. In this study the structural and physical properties of fabricated membrane were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR respectively. The photocatalytic degradation of oil was measured using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The FTIR results confirmed that, hot pressed PVDF/TiO2 membrane TiO2 was successfully deposited onto PVDF membranes surface and XRD results shows that the XRD pattern of PVDF//TiO2 found that the crystalline structure was remained unchanged after hot pressed. Clear water was obtained after synthetic oily wastewater was exposed to visible light for at least 6 hours. In conclusion, PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane can be a potential candidate to degrade oil in oily wastewater and suggested to possess an excellent performance if perform simultaneously with membrane separation process.

  10. Removal of pyridine and quinoline by bio-zeolite composed of mixed degrading bacteria and modified zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yaohui; Sun Qinghua; Xing Rui; Wen Donghui; Tang Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    In the process of the biodegradation of pyridine and quinoline, ammonium is often generated because of the transformation of N from pyridine and quinoline. Zeolite has been proven to be an effective sorbent for the removal of the ammonium. The natural zeolite can be modified to be the macroporous carrier in the biological wastewater treatment process. In this study, a specific bio-zeolite composed of mixed bacteria (a pyridine-degrading bacterium and a quinoline-degrading bacterium) and modified zeolite was used for biodegradation and adsorption in two types of wastewater: sterile synthetic and coking wastewater. The experimental results indicated that pyridine and quinoline could be degraded simultaneously by the mixed bacteria. Furthermore, NH 4 + -N transformed from pyridine and quinoline could be removed by the modified zeolite. In addition, the bacterial community structures of the coking wastewater and the bio-zeolite were monitored by the amplicon length heterogeneity polymerase-chain reaction (LH-PCR) technique. Both LH-PCR results and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations indicated that the microorganisms, including BW001 and BW003, could be easily attached on the surface of the modified zeolite and that the bio-zeolite could be used in the treatment of wastewater containing pyridine and/or quinoline.

  11. Monitoring the degradation capability of novel haloalkaliphilic tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) resistant bacteria from butyltin-polluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hamdy A; Dawah, Somya E; El-Sheekh, Mostafa M

    2018-03-28

    Tributyltin (TBT) is recognized as a major environmental problem at a global scale. Haloalkaliphilic tributyltin (TBT)-degrading bacteria may be a key factor in the remediation of TBT polluted sites. In this work, three haloalkaliphilic bacteria strains were isolated from a TBT-contaminated site in the Mediterranean Sea. After analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences the isolates were identified as Sphingobium sp. HS1, Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga HS2 and Rhizobium borbori HS5. The optimal growth conditions for biodegradation of TBT by the three strains were pH 9 and 7% (w/v) salt concentration. S. chelatiphaga HS2 was the most effective TBT degrader and has the ability to transform most TBT into dibutyltin and monobutyltin (DBT and MBT). A gene was amplified from strain HS2 and identified as TBTB-permease-like, that encodes an ArsB-permease. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis in the HS2 strain confirmed that the TBTB-permease-like gene contributes to TBT resistance. The three novel haloalkaliphilic TBT degraders have never been reported previously. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Apparent Contradiction: Psychrotolerant Bacteria from Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Arctic Tundra Soils That Degrade Diterpenoids Synthesized by Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongtang; Stewart, Gordon R.; Mohn, William W.

    2000-01-01

    Resin acids are tricyclic terpenoids occurring naturally in trees. We investigated the occurrence of resin acid-degrading bacteria on the Arctic tundra near the northern coast of Ellesmere Island (82°N, 62°W). According to most-probable-number assays, resin acid degraders were abundant (103 to 104 propagules/g of soil) in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but they were undetectable (soil) in pristine soils from the nearby tundra. Plate counts indicated that the contaminated and the pristine soils had similar populations of heterotrophs (106 to 107 propagules/g of soil). Eleven resin acid-degrading bacteria belonging to four phylogenetically distinct groups were enriched and isolated from the contaminated soils, and representative isolates of each group were further characterized. Strains DhA-91, IpA-92, and IpA-93 are members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain DhA-95 is a member of the genus Sphingomonas. All four strains are psychrotolerant, with growth temperature ranges of 4°C to 30°C (DhA-91 and DhA-95) or 4°C to 22°C (IpA-92 and IpA-93) and with optimum temperatures of 15 to 22°C. Strains DhA-91 and DhA-95 grew on the abietanes, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, but not on the pimaranes, isopimaric and pimaric acids. Strains IpA-92 and IpA-93 grew on the pimaranes but not the abietanes. All four strains grew on either aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons, which is unusual for described resin acid degraders. Eleven mesophilic resin acid degraders did not use hydrocarbons, with the exception of two Mycobacterium sp. strains that used aliphatic hydrocarbons. We conclude that hydrocarbon contamination in Arctic tundra soil indirectly selected for resin acid degraders, selecting for hydrocarbon degraders that coincidentally use resin acids. Psychrotolerant resin acid degraders are likely important in the global carbon cycle and may have applications in biotreatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. PMID:11097882

  13. Bacterial degradation of emulsified crude oil and the effects of various surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheim, P.; Bredholt, H.; Eimhjellen, K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of surfactants on the oxidation rate of alkanes in crude oil were investigated using a selected bacterial species, Rhodococcus sp., pregrown to various growth stages. Oxidation rates were measured in a three-hour period by Warburg respirometry. Response to emulsified oil was found to be dependent on the physiological state of the bacteria. In the exponential growth phase oxidation rates were negatively affected by surfactant amendment, whereas in the stationary growth phase oxidation rates appear to have been stimulated. The stimulatory effect was attributed to the chemical structure and physico-chemical properties of the surfactants. Surfactants with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values (HLB) in the intermediate range of 8-12 gave the best values. Neither the commercial dispersants nor the biosurfactants exhibited any stimulative effects. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  15. Lignin distribution in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst degraded by erosion bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Schmitt, Uwe Schmitt; Koch, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV-microspectrophotome......The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV...

  16. Photochemical degradation of crude oil: Comparison between direct irradiation, photocatalysis, and photocatalysis on zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Auria, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita della Basilicata, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy)], E-mail: maurizio.dauria@unibas.it; Emanuele, Lucia; Racioppi, Rocco; Velluzzi, Vincenzina [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita della Basilicata, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Direct irradiation for 100 h of crude oil from Basilicata (Southern Italy) gave in the case of linear and branched alkanes a reduction of 9 and 5%, respectively. On the contrary, cyclic alkanes decreased for 54% while aromatic hydrocarbons showed a reduction of 37%. These results are in agreement with a prevalent electron transfer mechanism. Photocatalysis (100 h) gave extensive degradation of crude oil: linear alkanes were degraded for 98.66%, branched alkanes were reduced for 97.31%, cyclic alkanes for 96.04%, while aromatic compounds and alkenes were reduced for 99.54 and 98.38%, respectively. These results are in agreement with a prevalent hydrogen abstraction mechanism. When photocatalysis is performed in the presence of zeolite linear alkanes were degraded for 79.85%, branched alkanes were reduced for 45.38%, cyclic alkanes for 58.10%, while aromatic compounds were reduced for 91.85%. In this case, an increase of the relative amount of alkenes (42.05%) was observed.

  17. Photochemical degradation of crude oil: Comparison between direct irradiation, photocatalysis, and photocatalysis on zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, Maurizio; Emanuele, Lucia; Racioppi, Rocco; Velluzzi, Vincenzina

    2009-01-01

    Direct irradiation for 100 h of crude oil from Basilicata (Southern Italy) gave in the case of linear and branched alkanes a reduction of 9 and 5%, respectively. On the contrary, cyclic alkanes decreased for 54% while aromatic hydrocarbons showed a reduction of 37%. These results are in agreement with a prevalent electron transfer mechanism. Photocatalysis (100 h) gave extensive degradation of crude oil: linear alkanes were degraded for 98.66%, branched alkanes were reduced for 97.31%, cyclic alkanes for 96.04%, while aromatic compounds and alkenes were reduced for 99.54 and 98.38%, respectively. These results are in agreement with a prevalent hydrogen abstraction mechanism. When photocatalysis is performed in the presence of zeolite linear alkanes were degraded for 79.85%, branched alkanes were reduced for 45.38%, cyclic alkanes for 58.10%, while aromatic compounds were reduced for 91.85%. In this case, an increase of the relative amount of alkenes (42.05%) was observed

  18. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteria capable of degrading anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene as revealed by DNA based stable-isotope probing in a forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jiang, Longfei [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yu, Zhiqiang [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yin, Hua [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Investigate PAHs degraders in forest carbon-rich soils via DNA-SIP. • Rhodanobacter is identified to metabolite anthracene for the first time. • The first fluoranthene degrader belongs to Acidobacteria. • Different functions of PAHs degraders in forest soils from contaminated soils. - Abstract: Information on microorganisms possessing the ability to metabolize different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in complex environments helps in understanding PAHs behavior in natural environment and developing bioremediation strategies. In the present study, stable-isotope probing (SIP) was applied to investigate degraders of PAHs in a forest soil with the addition of individually {sup 13}C-labeled phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene. Three distinct phylotypes were identified as the active phenanthrene-, anthracene- and fluoranthene-degrading bacteria. The putative phenanthrene degraders were classified as belonging to the genus Sphingomona. For anthracene, bacteria of the genus Rhodanobacter were the putative degraders, and in the microcosm amended with fluoranthene, the putative degraders were identified as belonging to the phylum Acidobacteria. Our results from DNA-SIP are the first to directly link Rhodanobacter- and Acidobacteria-related bacteria with anthracene and fluoranthene degradation, respectively. The results also illustrate the specificity and diversity of three- and four-ring PAHs degraders in forest soil, contributes to our understanding on natural PAHs biodegradation processes, and also proves the feasibility and practicality of DNA-based SIP for linking functions with identity especially uncultured microorganisms in complex microbial biota.

  20. Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: kinetics study and stability as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The kinetics of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei as affected by storage temperature were studied. When shrimp oil was incubated at different temperatures (4, 30, 45 and 60 °C for 16 h, the rate constants (k of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil increased with increasing temperatures (p < 0.05. Thus, astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil were augmented at high temperature. When shrimp oils with different storage conditions (illumination, oxygen availability and temperature were stored for up to 40 days, astaxanthin contents in all samples decreased throughout storage (p < 0.05. All factors were able to enhance astaxanthin degradation during 40 days of storage. With increasing storage time, the progressive formation of primary and secondary oxidation products were found in all samples as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (p < 0.05. Light, air and temperatures therefore had the marked effect on astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oils during the extended storage.

  1. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies. PMID:27886221

  2. Do oil-in-water (O/W) nano-emulsions have an effect on survival and growth of bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Hani El; Devanthi, Putu Virgina Partha; Overton, Tim W; Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2017-11-01

    Nano-emulsions (typically droplet diameternano-emulsions even in reference to similar microbial species and formulations. Following up, this study aimed to investigate the effect of nano-emulsions on four bacterial species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and five Escherichia coli strains) possessing different surface charge and hydrophobicity. Model oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with different size of oil droplets were prepared with sunflower oil stabilised by polysorbate 80 (Tween80) emulsifier (hydrophilic), using high shear mixing followed by ultrasonication. The viability of bacteria was monitored by culture, membrane integrity was assessed with flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide (PI) staining and fluorescence microscopy monitored the spatial distribution of cells within the O/W emulsions. The stability of the nano-O/W emulsions in the presence of bacteria was assessed by monitoring the droplet size [D (4, 3)] and creaming height. In contrast to other reports the survival and growth of bacteria was not affected by the size of the oil droplets, no damage to the bacterial membrane was evident with flow cytometry and emulsion stability was not affected by the presence of bacteria during 7days of storage. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of caprylic acid (CA) was compared between O/W coarse and nano-emulsions while varying the concentration of the hydrophilic surfactant Tween80. The activity of CA was similar in nano-emulsion and coarse emulsion; however, it was higher than in bulk oil and was reduced with increasing Tween80 concentration, suggesting that its efficacy is dictated by formulation rather than oil droplet size. The results demonstrated no enhanced antimicrobial activity due to nano-sized oil droplets and that conclusions on nano-emulsions should be taken with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luiza L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm, which were similar to each other.

  4. Performance and diversity of polyvinyl alcohol-degrading bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Yang, Shisu; Zhang, Siqi

    2016-11-01

    To compare the degradation performance and biodiversity of a polyvinyl alcohol-degrading microbial community under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. An anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor was operated to degrade polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in simulated wastewater. The degradation performance of the bioreactor during sludge cultivation and the microbial communities in each reactor were compared. Both anaerobic and aerobic bioreactors demonstrated high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies of 87.5 and 83.6 %, respectively. Results of 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that Proteobacteria dominated in both reactors and that the microbial community structures varied significantly under different operating conditions. Both reactors obviously differed in bacterial diversity from the phyla Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Betaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria dominated, respectively, in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors. The anaerobic-aerobic system is suitable for PVA wastewater treatment, and the microbial genetic analysis may serve as a reference for PVA biodegradation.

  5. Degradation of waste waters from olive oil mills by Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 and Pseudomonas putida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, B.; Pontecorvo, G.; Carfagna, M. [Univ. of Naples, Caserta (Italy). Inst. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    Waste water from olive oil processing may cause severe pollution in the Mediterranean area, since they have a high level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (100-200 g/l) and contain other organic and inorganic compounds. In all olive oil producing countries, the reduction of pollution in olive oil mill waste waters at reasonable costs and using techniques suitable for most industrial applications is an unsolved problem. For this paper, the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 was grown on waste waters from an olive oil mill in a 3.5 l fermenter under batch culture conditions. The results showed that the yeast was capable of reducing the COD value by 80% in 24 h. In this way, a useful biomass of 22.45 g/l as single cell protein (SCP) and enzyme lipase were produced. During this process, most of the organic and inorganic substances were consumed, only aromatic pollutants were still present in the fermentation effluents. Therefore, we used a phenol degrader, namely Pseudomonas putida, to reduce phenolic compounds in the fermentation effluents after removing Yarrowia lipolytica cells. P. putida was effective in reducing phenols in only 12 h. (orig.)

  6. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  7. Isolation and characterization of diuron-degrading bacteria from lotic surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisson, Isabelle; Pesce, Stéphane; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Sancelme, Martine; Bohatier, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    The bacterial community structure of a diuron-degrading enrichment culture from lotic surface water samples was analyzed and the diuron-degrading strains were selected using a series of techniques combining temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) of 16 S rDNA gene V1-V3 variable regions, isolation of strains on agar plates, colony hybridization methods, and biodegradation assays. The TTGE fingerprints revealed that diuron had a strong impact on bacterial community structure and highlighted both diuron-sensitive and diuron-adapted bacterial strains. Two bacterial strains, designated IB78 and IB93 and identified as belonging to Pseudomonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp., were isolated and shown to degrade diuron in pure resting cells in a first-order kinetic reaction during the first 24 h of incubation with no 3,4-DCA detected. The percentages of degradation varied from 25% to 60% for IB78 and 20% to 65% for IB93 and for a diuron concentration range from 20 mg/L to 2 mg/L, respectively. It is interesting to note that diuron was less degraded by single isolates than by mixed resting cells, thereby underlining a cumulative effect between these two strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of diuron-degrading strains isolated from lotic surface water.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagacha, John M.; Dossaji, Saifuddin F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83 mm after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48 mg/mL and 95–190 mg/mL, respectively. These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria. PMID:27721831

  9. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  10. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H 2 S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H 2 S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the biofilm.

  11. Batch experiment on H2S degradation by bacteria immobilised on activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, R; Ng, Y L; Chen, X G; Geng, A L; Gould, W D; Duan, H Q; Liang, D T; Koe, L C C

    2004-01-01

    Biological treatments of odorous compounds, as compared to chemical or physical technologies, are in general ecologically and environmentally favourable. However, there are some inefficiencies relative to the media used in biofiltration processes, such as the need for an adequate residence time; the limited lifetime, and pore blockage of media, which at present render the technology economically non-viable. The aim of the study is to develop novel active media to be used in performance-enhanced biofiltration processes, by achieving an optimum balance and combination of the media adsorption capacity with the biodegradation of H2S through the bacteria immobilised on the media. An enrichment culture was obtained from activated sludges in order to metabolise thiosulphate. Batch-wise experiments were conducted to optimise the bacteria immobilisation on activated carbon, so as to develop a novel "biocarbon". Biofilm was mostly developed through culturing the bacteria with the presence of carbons in mineral media. SEM and BET tests of the carbon along with the culturing process were used to identify, respectively, the biofilm development and biocarbon porosity. Breakthrough tests evaluated the biocarbon performance with varying gas resistance time, inlet H2S concentration, and type of support materials. Fundamental issues were discussed, including type of support material, mode of bacteria immobilisation, pore blockages, and biodegradation kinetics, etc. This batch-wise study provides a basis for our future research on optimisation of the biofiltration process using a bio-trickling reactor.

  12. Gene clusters involved in isethionate degradation by terrestrial and marine bacteria.

    KAUST Repository

    Weinitschke, Sonja; Sharma, Pia I; Stingl, Ulrich; Cook, Alasdair M; Smits, Theo H M

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitous isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) is dissimilated by diverse bacteria. Growth of Cupriavidus necator H16 with isethionate was observed, as was inducible membrane-bound isethionate dehydrogenase (IseJ) and inducible transcription of the genes predicted to encode IseJ and a transporter (IseU). Biodiversity in isethionate transport genes was observed and investigated by transcription experiments.

  13. Use of olive oil for soil extraction and ultraviolet degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosaari, P; Tuhkanen, T; Vartiainen, T

    2001-03-15

    This paper represents a successful laboratory-scale photolysis of soil-bound tetra- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in olive oil. The irradiation source consisted of two blacklight lamps emitting light at a near-ultraviolet range. Samples used in the experiments included pure 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran, PCDD/F extract made of a wood preservative (chlorophenol product Ky 5), and soil that was highly contaminated with PCDD/Fs. Degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran dissolved in olive oil proceeded rapidlywith a first-order reaction half-life of 13 min. Irradiation of a soil sample resulted in an 84% reduction in PCDD/F toxicity equivalent (I-TEQ) in 17.5 h. A more complete degradation of soil-bound PCDD/Fs was achieved after extraction of the soil with olive oil. The oil was effective in solubilizing PCDD/Fs. After one extraction at room temperature, only 9% of I-TEQ remained in soil. Irradiation of the resulting extract reduced toxicity of the extract by 99%, and even the highly chlorinated congeners octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran degraded easily (97 and 99% degradation, respectively). Photodegradation byproducts found included diphenyl ether and small amounts of dechlorination products, which were mainly nontoxic PCDD/Fs. Degradation was probably mediated by light absorption of unsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds in olive oil, leading to sensitized photolysis of PCDD/Fs.

  14. The comparison of naturally weathered oil and artificially photo-degraded oil at the molecular level by a combination of SARA fractionation and FT-ICR MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Ananna; Cho, Yunju; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Weathered oils from the Hebei Spirit oil spill and photo degraded oils are compared. • We investigate changes of polar species at the molecular level by 15T FT-ICR MS. • Significant reduction of sulfur class compounds in saturates fraction is observed. • The relative abundance of protonated compounds (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increase after degradation. • Changes of polar compounds occurred by natural and photo degradation are similar. -- Abstract: Two sets of oil samples, one obtained from different weathering stages of the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill site and the other prepared by an in vitro photo-degradation experiment, were analyzed and compared at the molecular level by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). For a more detailed comparison at the molecular level, the oil samples were separated into saturate, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene (SARA) fractions before MS analysis. Gravimetric analysis of the SARA fractions revealed a decreased weight percentage of the aromatic fraction and an increased resin fraction in both sets of samples. Molecular-level investigations of the SARA fractions showed a significant reduction in the S 1 class in the saturate fraction and increase of S 1 O 1 class compounds with high DBE values in resin fraction. Levels of N 1 and N 1 O 1 class compounds resulting in protonated ions (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increased after degradation compared to compounds generating molecular ions (presumably non-basic nitrogen compounds). This study revealed changes occurring in heteroatom polar species of crude oils such as sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds that have not been easily detected with conventional GC based techniques

  15. Draft genome of bagasse-degrading bacteria Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 from deep sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian; Ren, Chong; Huang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Runying

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03 was isolated from deep sea water of the South China Sea, which can produce glucose and fructose by degrading bagasse at 25 °C. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus aryabhattai GZ03. The data obtained revealed 37 contigs with genome size of 5,105,129 bp and G+C content of 38.09%. The draft genome of B. aryabhattai GZ03 may provide insights into the mechanism of microbial carbohydrate and lignocellulosic material degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Akbar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Results: Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100 mg L-1 within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4 and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1. These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200 mg kg-1 within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76 mg-1 kg-1 d-1 with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069 d-1. These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200 mg L-1 was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5

  17. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100mgL(-1)) within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4) and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1). These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200mgkg(-1)) within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76mg(-1)kg(-1)d(-1) with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069d(-1). These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200mgL(-1)) was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5.69mg(-1)kg(-1)d(-1)) in planted soil. The

  18. Exposure to Anacardiaceae Volatile Oils and Their Constituents Induces Lipid Peroxidation within Food-Borne Bacteria Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. Montanari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA. The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E-caryophyllene (31.0% and α-pinene (22.0%, and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E-caryophyllene (15.4% and germacrene-D (11.5%. Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E-β-ocimene (44.1% and α-terpinolene (15.2%, whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of δ-3-carene (78.8%. However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high δ-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties.

  19. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) degradation by nitrate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva Paulo, da Ana; Aydin, Rozelin; Dimitrov, Mauricio R.; Vreeling, Harm; Cavaleiro, Ana J.; García-Encina, Pedro A.; Stams, Fons; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    The surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is widely used in the composition of detergents and frequently ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). While aerobic SLES degradation is well studied, little is known about the fate of this compound in anoxic environments, such as

  20. Effect of trichloroethylene on the competitive behavior of toluene-degrading bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, Astrid E.; Prins, Gjalt T.; Wietzes, Pieter; Koning, Wim de; Janssen, Dick B.

    The influence of trichloroethylene (TCE) on a mixed culture of four different toluene-degrading bacterial strains (Pseudomonas putida mt-2, P. putida F1, P. putida GJ31, and Burkholderia cepacia G4) was studied with a fed-batch culture. The strains were competing for toluene, which was added at a

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Methyl Parathion-degrading Bacteria Based on Microbial Sensor Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENG Fang-fang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methyl parathion (MP, a kind of typical organophosphates pesticides (OPs, is widely used as agricultural insecticides. However, due to their neurotoxic effects on humans, the elimination of OPs has become increasingly important. Microbial sensors are consisted of biological components and transducers. Owing to their attractive advantages including low cost, easy of miniaturization and excellent selectivity, they have been widely used for environmental analysis. In this paper, four novel bacterial strains capable of utilizing methyl parathion as the sole carbon source were isolated from pesticide contaminated soils. These four isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis, and their capability of degrading methyl parathion were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The highest degrading efficiency strain was selected for further study of degrading mechanism. The results indicated that degradation rate of these four strains were all over 78% after incubation at 30 ℃, pH 7.0 for 7 d with the original concentration of methyl parathion 50 mg·L-1. The highest degradation rate was up to 100%. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MP-6 was affiliated into the genus klebsiella. The LC-MS results indicated that methyl parathion was hydrolyzed to dimethyl thiophosphoric acid and p-nitrophenol by MP-6. A little of p-nitrophenol molecules could be further metabolized to 4-nitrocatechol and 1, 2, 4-benzenetrio. The results indicated that based on detecting the potential signal of intermediate product p-nitrophenol, the strain MP-6 could be used to construct microbial sensors for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in environment.

  2. Optimizing Degradation of Olive Oil Mill Waste Water Using Paecilomyces variotii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatab, O.K.; El-Nasr, A.A.; Hassan, A.A.; Abdel El- Aziz, A.B.; Zaki, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty six microbial isolates (ten fungal, nine yeast and seven bacterial isolates) were isolated from the Olive Oil Mill Waste Water (OOMW) which was extracted from effluent of olive oil industry factory. All isolates were tested for its growth on media containing 10% OOMW as sole carbon source. It was found that (three fungal, two yeast and two bacterial isolates) had the ability to grow on this concentration. These isolates were identified as Paecilomyces variotii, Ascopus stercoraris, Aspergillus terrus, Yarowia lipolytica, Candida tropicalis, Lactobacillus curvatus and Bacillus brevis. The identified isolates were tested for the biodegradation of phenolic compounds at high concentration of OOMW (25%). Paecilomyces variotii was the best isolate as it degraded 10.40 % of the phenolic compounds. The maximum degradation of phenolic compounds and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease percentage was (68.14 and 59.12, respectively) obtained at 50% dilution of OOMW for 12 days at 37±1 degree C, ph 6, supplement the degradation media with 150 mg/l sucrose, 2.5 g/l yeast extract and 0.070 mmol/l CuSO 4 concentration in aerobic conditions with aeration rate 4:1 (v air: v media), shaking at 150 rpm and 6 g/l inoculums size. In addition, 0.25 kGy was the best dose as it led to increase the phenolic compounds biodegradation percent 8.7% than the optimum conditions previously mentioned. Finally, the bio treated OOMW was lower toxicity to environment than untreated one.

  3. Detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms of crude oil-contaminated mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, A C F; Marques, E L S; Gross, E; Souza, S S; Dias, J C T; Brendel, M; Rezende, R P

    2012-01-27

    Currently, the effect of crude oil on ammonia-oxidizing bacterium communities from mangrove sediments is little understood. We studied the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in mangrove microcosm experiments using mangrove sediments contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% crude oil as well as non-contaminated control and landfarm soil from near an oil refinery in Camamu Bay in Bahia, Brazil. The evolution of CO(2) production in all crude oil-contaminated microcosms showed potential for mineralization. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-derived samples generated with primers for gene amoA, which encodes the functional enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, showed differences in the sample contaminated with 5% compared to the other samples. Principal component analysis showed divergence of the non-contaminated samples from the 5% crude oil-contaminated sediment. A Venn diagram generated from the banding pattern of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to look for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in common. Eight OTUs were found in non-contaminated sediments and in samples contaminated with 0.5, 1, or 2% crude oil. A Jaccard similarity index of 50% was found for samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% crude oil. This is the first study that focuses on the impact of crude oil on the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium community in mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay.

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. Materials & Methods The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. Results A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use. PMID:23825733

  5. Fibre degradability of oil palm frond pellet, supplemented with Arachis pintoi in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodee Khamseekhiew

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of Arachis pintoi (AP supplementation on rumen environment [(rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3N and volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentration] and degradability of oil palm frond (OPF. Three Kedah-Kelantan (KK cattle of about 2 1/2 years of age with an average body weight (BW173±17.2 kg, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used. The cattle were kept in individual pens and fed the treatment diets at 1.5% of BW. The diets comprised the following four OPF:AP ratios; 80:20 (L20, 70:30 (L30, 60:40 (L40, 50:50 (L50 in a 4 × 4 incomplete Latin Square Design. The DM an NDF degradation rates of OPF were significantly affected by AP supplementation. Ruminal pH was not significantly different (p>0.05 among the four different diets. The concentration of NH3N was significantly (p<0.05 higher in cattle fed L50 than those in L40, L30 and L20. Similarly, increasing levels of AP supplementation significantly increased the total VFAs concentration from 59.9 mmol/L for L20 to 69.2 mmol/L for L50. It is suggested that AP can be used as a protein supplement to improve fibre degradability of OPF in cattle.

  6. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxing eLiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55 oC. Most-probable number (MPN analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy, while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm2, while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  7. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S; Duncan, Kathleen E; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm(2), while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  8. Analysis of lubricant oil contamination and degradation and wear of a biogas-fed otto cycle engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovian Bertinatto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of biodigesters for the treatment of waste on farms and the use of the biogas generated in the production of energy have highlighted the need for knowing the influence of this fuel on internal combustion engines. This study aimed to analyze the influence of filtrated biogas on lubricant oil contamination and degradation, as well as on engine wear and corrosion. Lubricant oil samples were collected every 75 engine operating hours (EOH and then correlated between each other and with a sample of new oil, determining the elements present in the biogas that contribute to lubricant oil contamination and degradation, as well as lubricant oil performance in the course of EOH and engine wear. The results demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide affects the performance of the lubricant oil and engine wear. Among the metals, we observed that the copper concentration exceeded the maximum limit recommended in the literature. As for the additives, the variation in concentrations of magnesium impacted on lubricant performance. By monitoring lubricant oil quality were able to extend the engine oil change interval of this study by 50%, what resulted in a savings of 33.3% in the cost of lubricant per hour worked.

  9. Aerobic TCE degradation by encapsulated toluene-oxidizing bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Bae, Wookeun; Hwang, Jungmin; Park, Jaewoo

    2010-01-01

    The degradation rates of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE) by Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus spp. that were encapsulated in polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers were evaluated in comparison with the results of exposure to suspended cultures. PEG monomers were polymerized together with TCE-degrading microorganisms, such that the cells were encapsulated in and protected by the matrices of the PEG polymers. TCE concentrations were varied from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/L. In the suspended cultures of P. putida, the TCE removal rate decreased as the initial TCE concentration increased, revealing TCE toxicity or a limitation of reducing power, or both. When the cells were encapsulated, an initial lag period of about 10-20 h was observed for toluene degradation. Once acclimated, the encapsulated P. putida cultures were more tolerant to TCE at an experimental range of 0.6-1.0 mg/L and gave higher transfer efficiencies (mass TCE transformed/mass toluene utilized). When the TCE concentration was low (e.g., 0.1 mg/L) the removal of TCE per unit mass of cells (specific removal) was significantly lower, probably due to a diffusion limitation into the PEG pellet. Encapsulated Bacillus spp. were able to degrade TCE cometabolically. The encapsulated Bacillus spp. gave significantly higher values than did P. putida in the specific removal and the transfer efficiency, particularly at relatively high TCE concentration of approximately 1.0±0.5 mg/L. The transfer efficiency by encapsulated Bacillus spp. in this study was 0.27 mgTCE/mgToluene, which was one to two orders of magnitude greater than the reported values.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Polyacrylamide-Degrading Bacteria from Dewatered Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide (PAM is a water-soluble polymer that is widely used as a flocculant in sewage treatment. The accumulation of PAM affects the formation of dewatered sludge and potentially produces hazardous monomers. In the present study, the bacterial strain HI47 was isolated from dewatered sludge. This strain could metabolize PAM as its sole nutrient source and was subsequently identified as Pseudomonas putida. The efficiency of PAM degradation was 31.1% in 7 days and exceeded 45% under optimum culture condition (pH 7.2, 39 °C and 100 rpm. The addition of yeast extract and glucose improved the bacterial growth and PAM degradation. The degraded PAM samples were analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography, Fourier transform infrared and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that high-molecular-weight PAM was partly cleaved to small molecular oligomer derivatives and part of the amide groups of PAM had been converted to carboxyl groups. The biodegradation did not accumulate acrylamide monomers. Based on the SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing results, the PAM amide groups were converted into carboxyl groups by a PAM-induced extracellular enzyme from the aliphatic amidase family.

  11. Characterization of poly(L-lactide)-degrading enzyme produced by thermophilic filamentous bacteria Laceyella sacchari LP175.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanphakphoom, Srisuda; Maneewong, Narisara; Sukkhum, Sukhumaporn; Tokuyama, Shinji; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2014-01-01

    Eleven strains of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)-degrading thermophilic bacteria were isolated from forest soils and selected based on clear zone formation on an emulsified PLLA agar plate at 50°C. Among the isolates, strain LP175 showed the highest PLLA-degrading ability. It was closely related to Laceyella sacchari, with 99.9% similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The PLLA-degrading enzyme produced by the strain was purified to homogeneity by 48.1% yield and specific activity of 328 U·mg-protein-1 with a 15.3-fold purity increase. The purified enzyme was strongly active against specific substrates such as casein and gelatin and weakly active against Suc-(Ala)₃-pNA. Optimum enzyme activity was exhibited at a temperature of 60°C with thermal stability up to 50°C and a pH of 9.0 with pH stability in a range of 8.5-10.5. Molecular weight of the enzyme was approximately 28.0 kDa, as determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The inhibitors phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) strongly inhibited enzyme activity, but the activity was not inhibited by 1 mM 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-phen). The N-terminal amino acid sequences had 100% homology with thermostable serine protease (thermitase) from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. The results obtained suggest that the PLLA-degrading enzyme produced by L. sacchari strain LP175 is serine protease.

  12. Degradation rates of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas L. oil and pressed seeds under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasukarratchai, Naphatsarnan; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2017-03-01

    Phorbol esters (PEs), found in Jatropha curcas crude oil (JCO) and J. curcas pressed seeds (JPS), are known as bioactive compounds in agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. The degradation rates of PEs in JCO and JPS under various conditions is important for the utilisation of PEs. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the PE degradation rates in JCO and JPS under different storage conditions. PE degradation rates were found to be first-order reactions. The slowest degradation rate was at 0.9 × 10 -3 d -1 for both JCO and JPS unexposed to light at 4 °C. Light intensity (1097 lx and 4690 lx, representing diffused sunlight and fluorescent lighting, respectively) and temperature (25 to 35 °C) were the significant degradation factors. Light exposure led to 280% to 380% higher degradation rates in JCO than in JPS due to light penetration through the transparent oil. Dried and sterilised JPS showed an 80% to 90% lower PE degradation rate than untreated JPS under all storage conditions since biodegradation was assembly limited. The PEs were unstable under the studied conditions, especially when exposed to light and room temperature. To protect against PE degradation, a material should be stored in a light-protected container and below 4 °C. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Optimization and molecular identification of novel cellulose degrading bacteria isolated from Egyptian environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar A. Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase producing bacteria were isolated from both soil and ward poultry, using CMC (carboxymethylcellulose agar medium and screened by iodine method. Cellulase activity of the isolated bacteria was determined by DNS (dinitrosalicylic acid method. The highly cellulolytic isolates (BTN7A, BTN7B, BMS4 and SA5 were identified on the basis of Gram staining, morphological cultural characteristics, and biochemical tests. They were also identified with 16S rDNA analysis. The phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rDNA sequence data showed that BTN7B has 99% similarity with Anoxybacillus flavithermus, BMS4 has 99% similarity with Bacillus megaterium, SA5 has 99% homology with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and BTN7A was 99% similar with Bacillus subtilis. Cellulase production by these strains was optimized by controlling different environmental and nutritional factors such as pH, temperature, incubation period, different volumes of media, aeration rate and carbon source. The cellulase specific activity was calculated in each case. In conclusion four highly cellulolytic bacterial strains were isolated and identified and the optimum conditions for each one for cellulase production were determined. These strains could be used for converting plant waste to more useful compounds.

  14. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and selection of new biosurfactant producing bacteria from degraded palm kernel cake under liquid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Parveen; Mir, Shajrat; Alam, Md Zahangir; Wan Nawawi, Wan M Fazli

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by different microorganisms. The aim of this study was to introduce palm kernel cake (PKC) as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production using a potent bacterial strain under liquid state fermentation. This study was primarily based on the isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize palm kernel cake as a new major substrate. Potential bacterial strains were isolated from degraded PKC and screened for biosurfactant production with the help of the drop collapse assay and by analyzing the surface tension activity. From the screened isolates, a new strain, SM03, showed the best and most consistent results, and was therefore selected as the most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain. The new strain was identified as Providencia alcalifaciens SM03 using the Gen III MicroPlate Biolog Microbial Identification System. The yield of the produced biosurfactant was 8.3 g/L.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlan Almeida Freires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs. In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1% has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide.

  17. Isolation and survey of novel fluoroacetate-degrading bacteria belonging to the phylum Synergistetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carl K; Webb, Richard I; Sly, Lindsay I; Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Chris S

    2012-06-01

    Microbial dehalogenation of chlorinated compounds in anaerobic environments is well known, but the degradation of fluorinated compounds under similar conditions has rarely been described. Here, we report on the isolation of a bovine rumen bacterium that metabolizes fluoroacetate under anaerobic conditions, the mode of degradation and its presence in gut ecosystems. The bacterium was identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the phylum Synergistetes and was designated strain MFA1. Growth was stimulated by amino acids with greater quantities of amino acids metabolized in the presence of fluoroacetate, but sugars were not fermented. Acetate, formate, propionate, isobutryate, isovalerate, ornithine and H(2) were end products of amino acid metabolism. Acetate was the primary end product of fluoroacetate dehalogenation, and the amount produced correlated with the stoichiometric release of fluoride which was confirmed using fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance ((19) F NMR) spectroscopy. Hydrogen and formate produced in situ were consumed during dehalogenation. The growth characteristics of strain MFA1 indicated that the bacterium may gain energy via reductive dehalogenation. This is the first study to identify a bacterium that can anaerobically dehalogenate fluoroacetate. Nested 16S rRNA gene-specific PCR assays detected the bacterium at low numbers in the gut of several herbivore species. © 2012 Commonwealth of Australia.

  18. Degradation of organophosphoric acid triesters by the aquatic bacteria and toxicity to fish; Yuki rinsan toriester no suichu saikin ni yoru bunkai to dokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, S. [Kobe College, Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-09-10

    This paper describes biodegradation of organophosphoric acid triesters (OPEs) in water environment, in particular, by aquatic bacteria. In culture experiment using river water in Osaka, aryl system OPEs such as triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and tricresyl phosphate (TCP) are more easily degraded than alkyl system OPEs, and OPEs including Cl are hardly degraded. Properties of isolated TBP degradation bacteria and enzymes, and TCP degradation bacteria isolated from Mukogawa river water are examined. OPEs are toxic to fishes equivalently to or more than organophosphoric system pesticides. However, the cause of their toxicity can`t be interpreted only by cholinesterase activity hindrance of nervous system. Absorption, accumulation, metabolism and degradation of OPEs are dependent on fishes and kinds of OPEs. Although the toxicity evaluation using experimental animals is important, the evaluation using cultured bacteria is recognizing once again from various viewpoints. Direct toxicity of OPEs to fishes or aquatic organisms is yet unidentified, however, the influence of OPEs on human beings is rather important. 39 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effects of the Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. on Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria and Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Semihard Cheese Broth and Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Geany Targino; de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Schaffner, Donald; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of the essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and a mesophilic starter coculture composed of lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris) in Brazilian coalho cheese systems. The MIC of OVEO was 2.5 μl/ml against both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and 0.6 μl/ml against the tested starter coculture. In cheese broth containing OVEO at 0.6 μl/ml, no decrease in viable cell counts (VCC) of both pathogenic bacteria was observed, whereas the initial VCC of the starter coculture decreased approximately 1.0 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure at 10°C. OVEO at 1.25 and 2.5 μl/ml caused reductions of up to 2.0 and 2.5 log CFU/ml in S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively, after 24 h of exposure in cheese broth. At these same concentrations, OVEO caused a greater decrease of initial VCC of the starter coculture following 4 h of exposure. Higher concentrations of OVEO were required to decrease the VCC of all target bacteria in semisolid coalho cheese slurry compared with cheese broth. The VCC of Lactococcus spp. in coalho cheese slurry containing OVEO were always lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the concentrations of OVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in semihard cheese should be carefully evaluated because of its inhibitory effects on the growth of starter lactic acid cultures used during the production of the product.

  20. From tankers to tissues : tracking the degradation and fate of oil discharges in Port Valdez, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.R.; Braddock, J.F.; Bailey, J.; Ka'aihue, L.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Short, J.W.; Driskell, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    An average of 9 million gallons per day of oil-contaminated ballast water off loaded from tankers are treated at the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company Ballast Water Treatment Facility at the terminus of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline in Port Valdez, Alaska. This paper focuses on the results of 2 Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council monitoring programs which detail changes in the chemical composition of treated ballast water as it moves from tankers through the facility and subsequently traces the effluent hydrocarbons into the receiving environment of Port Valdez. The treatment facility involves gravity separation tanks, dissolved air flotation cells and biological treatment tanks. Effluent containing traces of volatile aromatics, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, low levels of oil, saturated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is being continuously discharged to Port Valdez. Because of the extremely large average flow rate, low concentrations in the effluent can add up to a significant mass discharge. Samples from the facility were collected on 3 occasions. In March 2004, a limited pilot series of composite samples were collected from the effluent and the effluent to Port Valdez from a sampling port in the Fan/Meter Building. Second-round samples were collected from a wider suite of locations. A BIORATE assay study was completed during September 2004 and January 2005 field programs to measure degradation rates. The largest hydrocarbon pollution sources detected in samples from Port Valdez stations are correlated with an oil spill mishap at the terminal in 1994 and a sheen event in 1997. Apart from these events, concentrations from petrogenic sources are usually near or below the detection limits of the analytic methods used. However, on a routine basis, oil signals attributed to the facility effluent are detectable in mussel tissues at both Alyeska Marine Terminal and Gold Creek stations, and in sediments at Alyeska

  1. Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.H.; Meijaard, E.; Laan, van der C.; Mantel, S.; Budiman, A.; Verweij, P.

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded

  2. Isolation and characterization of onion degrading bacteria from onion waste produced in South Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinland, María Emilia; Gómez, Marisa Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Onion production in Argentina generates a significant amount of waste. Finding an effective method to recycle it is a matter of environmental concern. Among organic waste reuse techniques, anaerobic digestion could be a valuable alternative to current practices. Substrate inoculation with appropriate bacterial strains enhances the rate-limiting step (hydrolysis) of anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Selection of indigenous bacteria with the ability to degrade onion waste could be a good approach to find a suitable bioaugmentation or pretreatment agent. We isolated bacterial strains from onion waste in different degradation stages and from different localities. In order to characterize and select the best candidates, we analyzed the growth patterns of the isolates in a medium prepared with onion juice as the main source of nutrients and we evaluated carbon source utilization. Nine strains were selected to test their ability to grow using onion tissue and the five most remarkable ones were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains belonged to the genera Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas. Two strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtillis MB2-62 and Pseudomonas poae VE-74 have characteristics that make them promising candidates for bioaugmentation or pretreatment purposes.

  3. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Negri, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms. - Vegetable-derived lubricants were more degradable than mineral oil lubricants

  4. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Negri, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms. - Vegetable-derived lubricants were more degradable than mineral oil lubricants.

  5. Hydrothermal dolomitization of the Bekhme formation (Upper Cretaceous), Zagros Basin, Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Record of oil migration and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurbeg, Howri; Morad, Daniel; Othman, Rushdy; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Al-Aasm, Ihsan; Kolo, Kamal; Spirov, Pavel; Proust, Jean Noel; Preat, Alain; Koyi, Hemin

    2016-07-01

    The common presence of oil seepages in dolostones is widespread in Cretaceous carbonate successions of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This integrated field, petrographic, chemical, stable C, O and Sr isotopes, and fluid inclusion study aims to link dolomitization to the origin and geochemical evolution of fluids and oil migration in the Upper Cretaceous Bekhme carbonates. Flux of hot basinal (hydrothermal) brines, which is suggested to have occurred during the Zagros Orogeny, resulted in dolomitization and cementation of vugs and fractures by coarse-crystalline saddle dolomite, equant calcite and anhydrite. The saddle dolomite and host dolostones have similar stable isotopic composition and formed prior to oil migration from hot (81-115 °C) basinal NaCl-MgCl2-H2O brines with salinities of 18-22 wt.% NaCl eq. The equant calcite cement, which surrounds and hence postdates saddle dolomite, has precipitated during oil migration from cooler (60-110 °C) NaCl-CaCl2-H2O brines (14-18 wt.% NaCl eq). The yellowish fluorescence color of oil inclusions in the equant calcite indicates that the oil had API gravity of 15-25° composition, which is lighter than present-day oil in the reservoirs (API of 10-17°). This difference in oil composition is attributed to oil degradation by the flux of meteoric water, which is evidenced by the low δ13C values (- 8.5‰ to - 3.9‰ VPDB) as well as by nil salinity and low temperature in fluid inclusions of late columnar calcite cement. This study demonstrates that linking fluid flux history and related diagenesis to the tectonic evolution of the basin provides important clues to the timing of oil migration, degradation and reservoir evolution.

  6. Natural and bioremediated selective degradation of polycyclic aromatic alkyl isomers in oil-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; McCarthy, K.; Uhler, A.; Porta, A.

    1995-01-01

    In studies where 2- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are determined as part of characterizing released oil constituents in environmental samples, the changes in composition of PAHs from weathering (e.g., evaporation, dissolution) and biodegradation are most often represented by PAH alkyl homologue distributions. Concentrations of PAH alkyl groups are the sum of individual PAH isomers of similar carbon number; such as for C2-naphthalenes, the C2 alkyl group consists of dimethyl and ethyl substitutions on the parent naphthalene. In weathering and degradation studies, the changes in relative concentration of the individual isomers within an alkyl group are rarely reported. In a field study of oiled soils, the authors looked at the selective losses, for a period of a year, of individual PAH alkyl isomers that occur both naturally by weathering processes and through the use of bioremediation technology. Results showed that decreases in alkyl group concentrations were not always represented by similar losses of each isomer in the alkyl group, but were often due to the preferential or selective loss of certain isomers in the group

  7. Co-metabolic formation of substituted phenylacetic acids by styrene-degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Oelschlägel

    2015-06-01

    The styrene-degrading strains Rhodococcus opacus 1CP, Pseudomonas fluorescens ST, and the novel isolates Sphingopyxis sp. Kp5.2 and Gordonia sp. CWB2 were investigated with respect to their applicability to co-metabolically produce substituted phenylacetic acids. Isolates were found to differ significantly in substrate tolerance and biotransformation yields. Especially, P. fluorescens ST was identified as a promising candidate for the production of several phenylacetic acids. The biotransformation of 4-chlorostyrene with cells of strain ST was shown to be stable over a period of more than 200 days and yielded about 38 mmolproduct gcelldryweight−1 after nearly 350 days. Moreover, 4-chloro-α-methylstyrene was predominantly converted to the (S-enantiomer of the acid with 40% enantiomeric excess.

  8. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  9. Effects of Model Salivary Esterases and MMP Inhibition on the Restoration's Marginal Integrity and Potential Degradative Contribution of Cariogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo

    Enzyme-catalyzed degradation of the restoration-tooth interface compromises interfacial integrity, thereby contributing to secondary caries, which is a major cause of resin-based restoration failure. It is hypothesized that in addition to salivary esterases, the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans has specific esterases that degrade the resin-dentin interface, releasing biodegradation by- products (BBPs) such as bis-hydroxy-propoxy-phenyl-propane (BisHPPP). In turn, BisHPPP affects S. mutans by stimulating the expression of esterases. Another hypothesis is that the biostability of the resin-dentin interface is affected by simulated salivary esterases, dentinal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition, and restorative materials. To test the first hypothesis, putative esterase genes in S. mutans UA159 were identified, purified, and characterized. SMU_118c was identified as the dominant esterase in S. mutans UA159 and showed a similar hydrolytic activity profile to salivary esterases. BisHPPP upregulated expression of the SMU_118c gene and related protein in a concentration-dependent manner. This positive feedback process could accelerate the degradation of the restoration-tooth interface and lead to premature restoration failure. To test the second hypothesis, an in vitro model was established to evaluate the effects of salivary esterases, MMP inhibition and restorative materials on interfacial integrity. It was confirmed that interfacial integrity was compromised with time and was further deteriorated by simulated salivary esterases, as indicated by the greater depth of bacterial ingress and more bacterial biomass of biofilm along the interface. However, this process could be modulated by using different restorative materials and MMPs inhibition. This project elucidated the mechanistic interaction between oral bacteria and restorative materials and established a new, in vitro, and physiologically relevant model to assess the effect of material chemistry

  10. Enrichment and Characterization of PCB-Degrading Bacteria as Potential Seed Cultures for Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Hršak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of our study was to obtain seed cultures for enhancing the transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in contaminated soil of the transformer station in Zadar, Croatia, damaged during warfare activities in 1991. For enrichment, six soil samples were collected from different polluted areas and microcosm approach, stimulating the growth of biphenyl-degrading bacteria, was employed. Enrichment experiments resulted in the selection of two fast growing mixed cultures TSZ7 and AIR1, originating from the soil of the transformer station and the airport area, respectively. Both cultures showed significant PCB-degrading activity (56 to 60 % of PCB50 mixture was reduced after a two-week cultivation. Furthermore, the cultures displayed similar PCB-degrading competence and reduced di-to tetrachlorobiphenyls more effectively than penta- to hepta-chlorobiphenyls. Strain Z6, identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, was found to be the only culture member showing PCB-transformation potential similar to that of the mixed culture TSZ7, from which it was isolated. Based on the metabolites identified in the assay with the single congener 2,4,4’-chlorobiphenyl, we proposed that the strain Z6 was able to use both the 2,3-and 3,4-dioxygenase pathways. Furthermore, the identified metabolites suggested that beside these pathways another unidentified pathway might also be active in strain Z6. Based on the obtained results, the culture TSZ7 and the strain Z6 were designated as potential seed cultures for bioremediation of the contaminated soil.

  11. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (Pgoats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  12. Distribution of PAHs and the PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea sediments of the high-latitude Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bai, X.; Sheng, H.; Jiao, L.; Zhou, H.; Shao, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common organic pollutants that can be transferred long distances and tend to accumulate in marine sediments. However, less is known regarding the distribution of PAHs and their natural bioattenuation in the open sea, especially the Arctic Ocean. In this report, sediment samples were collected at four sites from the Chukchi Plateau to the Makarov Basin in the summer of 2010. PAH compositions and total concentrations were examined with GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 EPA-priority PAHs varied from 2.0 to 41.6 ng g-1 dry weight and decreased with sediment depth and movement from the southern to the northern sites. Among the targeted PAHs, phenanthrene was relatively abundant in all sediments. The 16S rRNA gene of the total environmental DNA was analyzed with Illumina high-throughput sequencing (IHTS) to determine the diversity of bacteria involved in PAH degradation in situ. The potential degraders including Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, Colwellia, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Salinisphaera and Shewanella, with Dietzia as the most abundant, occurred in all sediment samples. Meanwhile, enrichment with PAHs was initiated onboard and transferred to the laboratory for further enrichment and to obtain the degrading consortia. Most of the abovementioned bacteria in addition to Hahella, Oleispira, Oceanobacter and Hyphomonas occurred alternately as predominant members in the enrichment cultures from different sediments based on IHTS and PCR-DGGE analysis. To reconfirm their role in PAH degradation, 40 different bacteria were isolated and characterized, among which Cycloclasticus Pseudomonas showed the best degradation capability under low temperatures. Taken together, PAHs and PAH-degrading bacteria were widespread in the deep-sea sediments of the Arctic Ocean. We propose that bacteria of Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinomonas and Dietzia may

  13. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  14. Sterilization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Deep-Sea Bacteria: Impact on Their Stability and Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Colliec-Jouault

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are highly heat-sensitive macromolecules, so high temperature treatments are greatly destructive and cause considerable damage, such as a great decrease in both viscosity and molecular weight of the polymer. The technical feasibility of the production of exopolysaccharides by deep-sea bacteria Vibrio diabolicus and Alteromonas infernus was previously demonstrated using a bioproduct manufacturing process. The objective of this study was to determine which sterilization method, other than heat sterilization, was the most appropriate for these marine exopolysaccharides and was in accordance with bioprocess engineering requirements. Chemical sterilization using low-temperature ethylene oxide and a mixture of ionized gases (plasmas was compared to the sterilization methods using gamma and beta radiations. The changes to both the physical and chemical properties of the sterilized exopolysaccharides were analyzed. The use of ethylene oxide can be recommended for the sterilization of polysaccharides as a weak effect on both rheological and structural properties was observed. This low-temperature gas sterilizing process is very efficient, giving a good Sterility Assurance Level (SAL, and is also well suited to large-scale compound manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Evaluation of Crude Oil Biodegradation Efficiency and Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Increase in biomass enhanced degradation efficiency above 80 % after 10 days for all concentration of crude oil studied. Peroxidase ... compounds by various bacteria and fungi (Gianfreda et al, 1999) ... into a clean plastic container. Microbial.

  16. Comparative study of biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of soil samples treated with 10% (v/w) Escravos light crude oil and amended with chicken droppings and NPK fertilizer revealed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts were depressed while the proliferation of crude oil degrading bacteria (CDB) in the soil was encouraged. The counts of CDB in oil free ...

  17. Biological degradation of oil sludge: A review of the current state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse effects of oil sludge on soil ecology and fertility have been of ... of contaminated land, with a view to making such land available for further use. Oil ... on the biological remediation technologies employed in the treatment oil sludge.

  18. Isolation of Inositol Hexaphosphate (IHP)-Degrading Bacteria from Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphal Compartments Using a Modified Baiting Method Involving Alginate Beads Containing IHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shintaro; Saito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate; IHP)-degrading microbes have been suggested to contribute to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-mediated P transfer from IHP to plants; however, no IHP degrader involved in AMF-mediated P transfer has been isolated to date. We herein report the isolation of IHP-degrading bacteria using a modified baiting method. We applied alginate beads as carriers of IHP powder, and used them as recoverable IHP in the AM fungal compartment of plant cultivation experiments. P transfer from IHP in alginate beads via AMF was confirmed, and extracted DNA from alginate beads was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis targeting the 16S rRNA gene and a clone library method for the beta-propeller phytase (BPP) gene. The diversities of the 16S rRNA and BPP genes of microbes growing on IHP beads were simple and those of Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter spp. dominated. A total of 187 IHP-utilizing bacteria were isolated and identified, and they were consistent with the results of DNA analysis. Furthermore, some isolated Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter sp. showed IHP-degrading activity. Therefore, we successfully isolated dominant IHP-degrading bacteria from IHP in an AMF hyphal compartment. These strains may contribute to P transfer from IHP via AMF. PMID:27383681

  19. Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

    2009-07-01

    The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

  20. Xylan utilization in human gut commensal bacteria is orchestrated by unique modular organization of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Chekan, Jonathan R; Dodd, Dylan; Hong, Pei-Ying; Radlinski, Lauren; Revindran, Vanessa; Nair, Satish K; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2014-09-02

    Enzymes that degrade dietary and host-derived glycans represent the most abundant functional activities encoded by genes unique to the human gut microbiome. However, the biochemical activities of a vast majority of the glycan-degrading enzymes are poorly understood. Here, we use transcriptome sequencing to understand the diversity of genes expressed by the human gut bacteria Bacteroides intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus grown in monoculture with the abundant dietary polysaccharide xylan. The most highly induced carbohydrate active genes encode a unique glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanase (BiXyn10A or BACINT_04215 and BACOVA_04390) that is highly conserved in the Bacteroidetes xylan utilization system. The BiXyn10A modular architecture consists of a GH10 catalytic module disrupted by a 250 amino acid sequence of unknown function. Biochemical analysis of BiXyn10A demonstrated that such insertion sequences encode a new family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that binds to xylose-configured oligosaccharide/polysaccharide ligands, the substrate of the BiXyn10A enzymatic activity. The crystal structures of CBM1 from BiXyn10A (1.8 Å), a cocomplex of BiXyn10A CBM1 with xylohexaose (1.14 Å), and the CBM from its homolog in the Prevotella bryantii B14 Xyn10C (1.68 Å) reveal an unanticipated mode for ligand binding. A minimal enzyme mix, composed of the gene products of four of the most highly up-regulated genes during growth on wheat arabinoxylan, depolymerizes the polysaccharide into its component sugars. The combined biochemical and biophysical studies presented here provide a framework for understanding fiber metabolism by an important group within the commensal bacterial population known to influence human health.

  1. Xylan utilization in human gut commensal bacteria is orchestrated by unique modular organization of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Meiling

    2014-08-18

    Enzymes that degrade dietary and host-derived glycans represent the most abundant functional activities encoded by genes unique to the human gut microbiome. However, the biochemical activities of a vast majority of the glycan-degrading enzymes are poorly understood. Here, we use transcriptome sequencing to understand the diversity of genes expressed by the human gut bacteria Bacteroides intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus grown in monoculture with the abundant dietary polysaccharide xylan. The most highly induced carbohydrate active genes encode a unique glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanase (BiXyn10A or BACINT-04215 and BACOVA-04390) that is highly conserved in the Bacteroidetes xylan utilization system. The BiXyn10A modular architecture consists of a GH10 catalytic module disrupted by a 250 amino acid sequence of unknown function. Biochemical analysis of BiXyn10A demonstrated that such insertion sequences encode a new family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that binds to xy-lose- configured oligosaccharide/polysaccharide ligands, the substrate of the BiXyn10A enzymatic activity. The crystal structures of CBM1 from BiXyn10A (1.8 Å), a cocomplex of BiXyn10A CBM1 with xylohexaose (1.14 Å), and the CBM fromits homolog in the Prevotella bryantii B 14 Xyn10C (1.68 Å) reveal an unanticipated mode for ligand binding. Aminimal enzyme mix, composed of the gene products of four of the most highly up-regulated genes during growth on wheat arabinoxylan, depolymerizes the polysaccharide into its component sugars. The combined biochemical and biophysical studies presented here provide a framework for understanding fiber metabolism by an important group within the commensal bacterial population known to influence human health.

  2. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamella Macedo de; Goulart, Fátima Regina de Vasconcelos; Marques, Joana Montezano; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Groposo, Claudia; Sousa, Maíra Paula de; Vólaro, Vanessa; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Seldin, Lucy

    2017-04-19

    Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO) produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium , Geotoga petraea , and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans . EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia , Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus , as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 78 µg/mL) the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral) and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  3. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Macedo de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 78 µg/mL the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  4. The effect of food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on oil blend degradation during repeated frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Álvarez, María Del Carmen; Molina-Hernández, Erika F; Hernández-Raya, José Concepción; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2012-11-01

    Oil that is reused multiple times for deep frying goes through changes in chemical composition and physical characteristics, affecting the quality of the fried foods. In this study, the effect of the food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on the degradation of an oil blend during the deep-fat frying of each food at 180°C during 12 days was determined, and the characteristics of the fried products were evaluated. The degradation of oil during repeated use was relatively faster when fish nuggets were fried than when French fries were fried, as higher values of total polar compounds were obtained. The results are useful for producers of French fries and fish nuggets, such as restaurants or fast foods sellers, providing them with practical guidelines within the permitted values established by the regulatory authorities. The studied foods have high economic importance and are different in their composition. Under the studied conditions, the tested oil blend may be used during 4 d (4 h per day) with a daily replenishment, without discarding the oil when frying fish nuggets, and must be discarded after 8 d when French fries are processed. This suggestion allows preparing safe fried foods for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Time-dependent stability of used engine oil degradation by cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas fragi and Achromobacter aerogenes isolated from used engine oil polluted soils were grown in minimal salts medium (MSM) supplemented with used engine oil as sole carbon and energy source to evaluate their ability to biodegrade used engine oil. The two organisms utilized 73.3 and 80.0% of the oil with ...

  6. Flue-gas desulfurization gypsum effects on urea-degrading bacteria and ammonia volatilization from broiler litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Christopher D; Cabrera, Miguel L; Rothrock, Michael J; Kissel, D E

    2017-08-01

    A major concern of the broiler industry is the volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from the mixture of bedding material and broiler excretion that covers the floor of broiler houses. Gyps