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Sample records for oil agglomeration techniques

  1. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from October 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental test procedures and the results related to the processing of coal fines originating from process streams generated at the Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant, owned and operated by the Drummond Company Inc. of Alabama, are described. Two samples of coal fines, namely Cyclone Overflow and Pond Fines were investigated. The batch test results showed that by applying the Aglofloat technology a significant ash removal might be achieved at a very high combustible matter recovery: · for the Cyclone Overflow sample the ash reduction was in the range 50 to 55% at combustible matter recovery about 98% · for the Pond Fines sample the ash reduction was up to 48% at combustible matter recovery up to 85%. Additional tests were carried out with the Alberta origin Luscar Mine coal, which will be used for the parametric studies of agglomeration equipment at the 250 kg/h pilot plant. The Luscar coal is very similar to the Mary Lee Coal Group (processed at Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant) in terms of rank and chemical composition.

  2. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 01, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  3. Ukrainian experience of oil agglomeration of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biletskyi, V.S. [Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk (Ukraine). Dept. of Coal Preparation

    1997-12-31

    During the years 1980-1996 a series of investigations related to the applied and theoretical aspects of the coal oil agglomeration processing were carried out in the Ukraine at the Donetsk State Technical University and Coal Chemistry National Academy of Sciences (NAN) of Ukraine, institutes UralVTI, VNIIPIHidrotruboprovod, LenNIlkhimmash, Kharkiv polytechnical Institute, Institute of Biocolloide Chemistry NAN of Ukraine and also at coal preparation plants and thermoelectric power stations in the Donbas. Theoretical bases of the process of selective oil agglomeration are developed on the basis of modern physical chemistry, physical-chemical hydrodynamics, adhesion theory, and solid fuel chemistry. The necessary sufficient conditions for aggregate forming coal and oil components in water have been formulated. The central problem of `coal-reagent` interaction during coal aggregation has been solved, and a mathematical description of processes for forming coal-oil aggregates including kinetics has been made. Analysis of factors which influence the process and its mathematical models have been realized. Rational conditions of pelletising of energetic and coking coal, coal raw material and products of coal preparation plants, electric power stations, and hydrotransport systems have been determined. Results of the complex study of technological properties of coal aggregates as objects of dewatering, hydrotransportation, consumption, coking, pyrolysis and carriers at gold adhesive preparation are presented. The theoretical principles and experimental data served as a basis for creating about 40 new methods and devices for the process of coal selective oil agglomeration. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Engineering of Piroxicam Agglomerates by Additives Using Wet Agglomeration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi 1 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wet agglomeration is a method wherein the crystals of dispersion are held together in aggregates by small amount of a liquid acting as an intercrystal binder. In present study, in order to study the possible modification of agglomerate structure, low concentrations of additives (0.1-1% were added to binder liquid. Methods: Piroxicam agglomerates were produced by wet agglomeration method by three solvent systems including a good solvent (dimethylformamide or acetone, antisolvent (water and a binder liquid (ethylacetate or isopropylacetate. Span 80, talc, ethylcellulose and Eudragit RS in different concentrations were used as additives. The agglomerates were evaluated for production yield of agglomerates, size, friability and drug release properties. Results: The results showed that formation of agglomerates was possible in presence of span and talc. However, no agglomerates could be obtained with polymers tested (ethylcellulose and Eudragit RS. Talc increased agglomerate size, whereas the obtained agglomerates were more susceptible to breakup. However, using span as opposed to talc resulted in agglomerates with higher strength but smaller particle size. The dissolution tests showed that both additives adversely affected the dissolution rate of piroxicam from the agglomerates. Conclusion: Result of this study suggested that additives even in small amounts played a major role in agglomerate properties.

  5. Amenability of Muzret bituminous coal to oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinoglu, E.; Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mining Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory scale agglomeration tests were undertaken to investigate the amenability of Muzret (Yusufeli-Artvin) bituminous coal to oil agglomeration. Kerosene was extensively used as oil in the tests. In addition, fuel oil, diesel oil, and hazelnut oil were also used in order to determine the effect of oil type. The effects of the parameters including coal content, kerosene content, agglomeration time, coal particle size, pH, oil type, and agitation rate, on the combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction, were investigated. It was found that Muzret bituminous coal could be readily cleaned by oil agglomeration with substantial reductions in ash and pyritic sulphur content. Maximum combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction were achieved to be 85.54%, 59.98%, and 85.17%, respectively. (author)

  6. Incipient Motion of Sand and Oil Agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T. R.; Dalyander, S.; Jenkins, R. L., III; Penko, A.; Long, J.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Calantoni, J.

    2016-12-01

    Weathered oil mixed with sediment in the surf zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, forming large mats of sand and oil. Wave action fragmented the mats into sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) with diameters of about 1 to 10 cm. These SOAs were transported by waves and currents along the Gulf Coast, and have been observed on beaches for years following the spill. SOAs are composed of 70%-95% sand by mass, with an approximate density of 2107 kg/m³. To measure the incipient motion of SOAs, experiments using artificial SOAs were conducted in the Small-Oscillatory Flow Tunnel at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory under a range of hydrodynamic forcing. Spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs ranging in size from 0.5 to 10 cm were deployed on a fixed flat bed, a fixed rippled bed, and a movable sand bed. In the case of the movable sand bed, SOAs were placed both proud and partially buried. Motion was tracked with high-definition video and with inertial measurement units embedded in some of the SOAs. Shear stress and horizontal pressure gradients, estimated from velocity measurements made with a Nortek Vectrino Profiler, were compared with observed mobility to assess formulations for incipient motion. For SOAs smaller than 1 cm in diameter, incipient motion of spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs was consistent with predicted critical stress values. The measured shear stress at incipient motion of larger, spherical SOAs was lower than predicted, indicating an increased dependence on the horizontal pressure gradient. In contrast, the measured shear stress required to move ellipsoidal SOAs was higher than predicted, even compared to values modified for larger particles in mixed-grain riverine environments. The laboratory observations will be used to improve the prediction of incipient motion, transport, and seafloor interaction of SOAs.

  7. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  8. Optimization of some parameters on agglomeration performance of Zonguldak bituminous coal by oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Aslan; I. Unal [Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the optimization of some parameters on agglomeration performance of Zonguldak bituminous coal by oil agglomeration was discussed. A three-level Box-Behnken design combining with a response surface methodology (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) were employed for modeling and optimization some operations parameters on oil agglomeration performance. The relationship between the responses, i.e., grade and recovery, and four process parameters, i.e., amount of oil, agitation time, agitation rate and solid content were presented as empirical model equations for both grade and recovery on oil agglomeration. The model equations were then optimized individually using the quadratic programming method to maximize both for grade and recovery within the experimental range studied. The optimum conditions were found to be 14.61% for amount of oil, 8.94 min for agitation time, 1554 rpm for agitation rate and 5% for solid content to achieve the maximum grade. The maximum model prediction of 0.650 grade at these optimum conditions is higher than any value obtained in the initial tests conducted. Similarly, the conditions for maximum recovery were found to be 20.60% for amount of oil, 5 min for agitation time, 1800 rpm for agitation rate and 19.48% for solid content with a prediction of 96.90% recovery, which is also higher than any other recovery obtained in the initial tests conducted. 34 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.

    1997-12-31

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  10. Laboratory Observations of Artificial Sand and Oil Agglomerates: Video and Velocity Data: Sea Floor Interaction Experiment Video (GoPro)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Weathered oil in the surf-zone after an oil spill may mix with suspended sediments to form sand and oil agglomerates (SOA). Sand and oil agglomerates may form in...

  11. Laboratory Observations of Artificial Sand and Oil Agglomerates Video and Velocity Data: Sea Floor Interaction Experiment Flow Velocity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Weathered oil in the surf-zone after an oil spill may mix with suspended sediments to form sand and oil agglomerates (SOA). Sand and oil agglomerates may form in...

  12. Laboratory Observations of Artificial Sand and Oil Agglomerates Video and Velocity Data: False-Floor Experiment Interpretive Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Weathered oil in the surf-zone after an oil spill may mix with suspended sediments to form sand and oil agglomerates (SOA). Sand and oil agglomerates may form in...

  13. Laboratory Observations of Artificial Sand and Oil Agglomerates Video and Velocity Data: Sea Floor Interaction Experiment Interpretive Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Weathered oil in the surf-zone after an oil spill may mix with suspended sediments to form sand and oil agglomerates (SOA). Sand and oil agglomerates may form in...

  14. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  15. Crystallo-co-agglomeration: A novel particle engineering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradkar Anant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA is a novel particle engineering/design technique developed by Kadam et al, to overcome the limitations of spherical crystallization (SC. Basically, it′s single step process used for size enlargement of single, two or more, small dose or large dose drugs, in combination with or without diluent. The process of CCA involves simultaneous crystallization and agglomeration of drug/s with/without excipients/s from good solvent and/or bridging liquid by addition of a non-solvent. Till date CCA has been applied for spherical agglomeration of talc, bromhexine hydrochloride-talc, ibuprofen-talc, ibuprofen-paracetamol, and naproxen-starch. The spherical agglomerates obtained by CCA can be used as intact beads (encapsulated spansules or directly compressible tablet intermediates having satisfactory micromeritic (flowability, mechanical (friability, crushing, compressional (compressibility, compactibility, and drug release properties. Modified drug release from agglomerates and compacts thereof can be achieved using suitable polymer composition in the process design. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCA is a simple and cost effective process, which can be tailor-made for particle design of all majority of drugs and combinations thereof.

  16. Laboratory Observations of Artificial Sand and Oil Agglomerates Video and Velocity Data: False-Floor Experiment Flow Velocity and Shear Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Weathered oil in the surf-zone after an oil spill may mix with suspended sediments to form sand and oil agglomerates (SOA). Sand and oil agglomerates may form in...

  17. Laboratory Observations of Artificial Sand and Oil Agglomerates: Video and Velocity Data: Sea Floor Interaction Experiment Preview Video (GoPro)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Weathered oil in the surf-zone after an oil spill may mix with suspended sediments to form sand and oil agglomerates (SOA). Sand and oil agglomerates may form in...

  18. New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines and seabed oil capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minwei; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2013-07-15

    Anti-agglomeration is a promising solution for gas hydrate risks in deepsea hydrocarbon flowlines and oil leak captures. Currently ineffectiveness at high water to oil ratios limits such applications. We present experimental results of a new surfactant in rocking cell tests, which show high efficiency at a full range of water to oil ratios; there is no need for presence of the oil phase. We find that our surfactant at a very low concentration (0.2 wt.% of water) keeps the hydrate particles in anti-agglomeration state. We propose a mechanism different from the established water-in-oil emulsion theory in the literature that the process is effective without the oil phase. There is no need to emulsify the water phase in the oil phase for hydrate anti-agglomeration; with oil-in-water emulsion and without emulsion hydrate anti-agglomeration is presented in our research. We expect our work to pave the way for broad applications in offshore natural gas production and seabed oil capture with very small quantities of an eco-friendly surfactant.

  19. Remediation of oil-contaminated sand by coal agglomeration using ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2011-10-01

    The mechanical shear force provided by a less energy intensive device (usually operating at 20-200 rpm), a ball mill, was used toperform coal agglomeration and its effects on remediation of a model fuel oil-contaminated sand were evaluated. Important process parameters such as the amount of coal added, milling time, milling speed and the size of milling elements are discussed. The results suggested that highly hydrophobic oil-coal agglomerates, formed by adding suitable amounts of coal into the oil-contaminated sand, could be mechanically liberated from cleaned sand during ball milling and recovered as a surface coating on the steel balls. Over 90% removal of oil from oil-contaminated sand was achieved with 6 wt% of coal addition and an optimum ball milling time of 20 min and speed of 200 rpm. This novel process has considerable potential for cleaning oil-contaminated sands.

  20. APPLICATION OF SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE MICROMERITIC PROPERTIES AND DISSOLUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF NABUMETONE

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    Pradnya Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of Nabumetone, 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphalenyl-2-butanone water insoluble anti-inflammatory drug by spherical agglomeration technique using a solvent change method consisting of acetone, water and dichloromethane as solvent, non solvent and bridging liquid respectively. The hydrophilic polymers like poly vinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP and sodium alginate were used in the agglomeration process. Infrared (I.R spectroscopic studies, Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used for characterization of pure drug and its agglomerates. The I.R spectroscopy revealed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and polymers, also indicated that no chemical changes in the crystallized agglomerates .The agglomerates exhibited significantly improved solubility, dissolution rate and micromeritic properties (angle of repose, Carr’s index, bulk density, tapped density. Hausner’s ratio compared with pure drug Nabumetone. The aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of the drug from spherical agglomerates was significantly (p < 0.05 increased (nearly two times. SEM studies revealed that the agglomerates possess a good spherical shape. The study revealed that Micromeritic Properties, Solubility and Invitro drug release rate is increased with increase in PVP concentration from 0.25% to 1% as compared to sodium alginate.

  1. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration. Fossil energy interim report, October 1, 1983--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1992-12-31

    Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with several types of low-ash coal and graphite, high grade mineral pyrite, and other materials. Relatively pure hydrocarbons, including heptane and hexadecane, were used as agglomerants. Access of air to the system was controlled. Particle recovery by agglomeration was observed to depend on a number of system parameters. Among the most important parameters are the hydrophobicity of the particles and the oil dosage, so that the, recovery of solids per unit of oil administered is proportional to the hydrophobicity. The pH and ionic strength of the aqueous suspension affect particle recovery in different ways depending on the surface properties of the particles. On the other hand, the presence of air in the system generally improves particle recovery. The greatest effect of air was observed in a closely related study which showed that air had to be present to produce good agglomerates from a moderately hydrophobic coal in a mixer producing a lower shear rate. The rate of agglomeration was found to be much greater for a strongly hydrophobic coal than for a moderately hydrophobic coal, and the rate was observed to be proportional to the oil dosage. Also the rate was enhanced by the presence of air in the, system. For hydrophobic coals, the rate increased with increasing ionic strength of the aqueous medium, but it was not affected greatly by pH over a wide range. The separation of coal and pyrite particles by selective agglomeration was found to depend on the relative hydrophobicity of the materials, the oil dosage, and the properties of the aqueous medium.

  2. A 3D hybrid grid generation technique and a multigrid/parallel algorithm based on anisotropic agglomeration approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Laiping; Zhao Zhong; Chang Xinghua; He Xin

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid grid generation technique and a multigrid/parallel algorithm are presented in this paper for turbulence flow simulations over three-dimensional (3D) complex geometries.The hybrid grid generation technique is based on an agglomeration method of anisotropic tetrahedrons.Firstly,the complex computational domain is covered by pure tetrahedral grids,in which anisotropic tetrahedrons are adopted to discrete the boundary layer and isotropic tetrahedrons in the outer field.Then,the anisotropic tetrahedrons in the boundary layer are agglomerated to generate prismatic grids.The agglomeration method can improve the grid quality in boundary layer and reduce the grid quantity to enhance the numerical accuracy and efficiency.In order to accelerate the convergence history,a multigrid/parallel algorithm is developed also based on anisotropic agglomeration approach.The numerical results demonstrate the excellent accelerating capability of this multigrid method.

  3. Formulation of SrO-MBCUS Agglomerates for Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Vegetable Oil

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    Prashant Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana Colla Underground Stem (MBCUS catalyst was treated thermally mixing with 5:1 w/w of Strontium Oxide (SrO and the dynamic sites were reformed. The MBCUS-SrO showed sharper crystalline phases as evidence from XRD and TEM analysis. The composition and morphology were characterized from BET, SEM, EDX thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and XRF analysis. The optimization process for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L oil (JCO having high percentage of free fatty acids was carried out using orthogonal arrays adopting the Taguchi method. The linear equation was obtained from the analysis and subsequent biodiesel production (96% FAME was taken away from the JCO under optimal reaction conditions. The biodiesel so prepared had identical characteristics to that with MBCUS alone, but at a lower temperature (200˚C and internal vapour pressure. Metal leaching was much lower while reusability of the catalyst was enhanced. It was also confirmed that the particle size has little impact upon the conversion efficacy, but the basic active sites are more important. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 19th August 2015; Revised: 8th December 2015; Accepted: 1st January 2016 How to Cite: Kumar, P., Sarma, A.K., Bansal, A., Jha, M.K. (2016. Formulation of SrO-MBCUS Agglomerates for Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Vegetable Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 140-150 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.540.140-150 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.540.140-150

  4. Preparation of agglomerated crystals for direct tabletting and microencapsulation by the spherical crystallization technique with a continuous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, T; Takeuchi, H; Hino, T; Itoh, A; Kawashima, Y; Kiuchi, K

    1994-04-01

    Adhesive and cohesive properties of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP) crystals were modified to improve their powder processing, e.g., direct tabletting and microencapsulation, by agglomeration. Moreover, sustained-released gelling microcapsules of CP were devised to prolong the pharmacological effect. The spherical crystallization technique was applied to prepare agglomerates for direct tabletting and microencapsulation to use them as core materials. The ethanolic solution dissolving CP was poured into a stirred cyclohexane, yielding spherically agglomerated crystals. The resultant agglomerates were free-flowing and easily packable spheres with average diameters of 200 to 1000 microns. The agglomerates reserved the high compressibility of the original powder having a small particle size (14 microns). The compression behavior represented by Heckel's equation suggested that the agglomerates were disintegrated to individual primary crystals at low compression pressures, and then they were closely repacked and plastically deformed at higher pressures. After agglomeration, microencapsulation was continuously performed in the same batch by a phase separation method. Coacervate droplets produced by pouring cyclohexane into a dichloromethane solution, dissolving polyvinyl acetate as a coating polymer, were added to the crystallization system under stirring, to prepare the microcapsules. By filling the microcapsules in gelatin hard capsules or tabletting them, their drug release rates became retarded compared with the physical mixture treated in the same way, having the same formulation as the microcapsules. This phenomenon was due to the gelation of polyvinyl acetate of the microcapsules in the dissolution medium, whose glass transition temperature is very low. This novel sustained-release dosage form is termed "gelled microcapsules."

  5. Relationship between attachment probability and surface energy in adhesion process of gold particles to oil-carbon agglomerates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xi-qing(伍喜庆); A.J. Monhemius; R.J. Gochin

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analyses, the adhesion process of fine gold particles to oil-carbon agglomerates in a dynamic system was quantitatively investigated in terms of the relationship between the attachment probability and the surface energy. The proposed way to establish this relationship is to firstly theoretically derive the formula to evaluate the surface energy change of the system by analyzing the adhesion process of a gold particle on an oil-carbon agglomerate in a mathematic and thermodynamic way. The obtained formula of the maximum energy change of unit surface area is, △ω'max =-1/2σhw (cosθ-1), which involves two measurable elements: interfacial tension and contact angle. In a well-quantified system, based on the related model it is also possible to calculate the complicated concept, namely, the attachment probability by transferring other measurable indices. In this way, after some adhesion experiments and measurements of relevant parameters, the empirical relationship between the attachment probability and the surface energy change was established in an exponential function, Pa =Aexp(-△Gsurf/k).

  6. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  7. Controlling Agglomeration of Protein Aggregates for Structure Formation in Liquid Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Auke; Lopez Gomez, Yuly; Jansen, Bas; Linden, van der Erik; Scholten, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are known to be effective building blocks when it comes to structure formation in aqueous environments. Recently, we have shown that submicron colloidal protein particles can also be used to provide structure to liquid oil and form so-called oleogels (de Vries, A. J. Colloid Interface

  8. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  9. Advances in China's Oil Reservoir Description Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Longxin; Huang Shiyan; Jia Ailin; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oil reservoir description in China has undergone rapid development in recent years. Extensive research carried out at various oilfields and petroleum universities has resulted in the formulation of comprehensive oil reservoir description techniques and methods uniquely suited to the various development phases of China's continental facies. The new techniques have the following characteristics:

  10. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Dispersed in Palm Oil Using Laser Ablation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles have more applications in biology, medicine, and industry. In this study, gold nanoparticles were synthesized in pure palm oil using laser ablation technique. Gold nanoparticles were fabricated in different temperature, and the effect of the temperature on the particle size was investigated. Consequently, the tail of the carbonyl band of fatty acids was capped gold nanoparticles, and spherically shaped gold nanoparticles with size range of 8.92 to 19.73 nm were formed in palm oil. The temperature caused the agglomeration of nanoparticles while the particle size increased with an increase in the temperature.

  11. Oil core microcapsules by inverse gelation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Evandro; Renard, Denis; Davy, Joëlle; Marquis, Mélanie; Poncelet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    A promising technique for oil encapsulation in Ca-alginate capsules by inverse gelation was proposed by Abang et al. This method consists of emulsifying calcium chloride solution in oil and then adding it dropwise in an alginate solution to produce Ca-alginate capsules. Spherical capsules with diameters around 3 mm were produced by this technique, however the production of smaller capsules was not demonstrated. The objective of this study is to propose a new method of oil encapsulation in a Ca-alginate membrane by inverse gelation. The optimisation of the method leads to microcapsules with diameters around 500 μm. In a search of microcapsules with improved diffusion characteristics, the size reduction is an essential factor to broaden the applications in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals areas. This work contributes to a better understanding of the inverse gelation technique and allows the production of microcapsules with a well-defined shell-core structure.

  12. Mode-switching: a new technique for electronically varying the agglomeration position in an acoustic particle manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynne-Jones, Peter; Boltryk, Rosemary J; Harris, Nicholas R; Cranny, Andy W J; Hill, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic radiation forces offer a means of manipulating particles within a fluid. Much interest in recent years has focussed on the use of radiation forces in microfluidic (or "lab on a chip") devices. Such devices are well matched to the use of ultrasonic standing waves in which the resonant dimensions of the chamber are smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength in use. However, such devices have typically been limited to moving particles to one or two predetermined planes, whose positions are determined by acoustic pressure nodes/anti-nodes set up in the ultrasonic standing wave. In most cases devices have been designed to move particles to either the centre or (more recently) the side of a flow channel using ultrasonic frequencies that produce a half or quarter wavelength over the channel, respectively. It is demonstrated here that by rapidly switching back and forth between half and quarter wavelength frequencies - mode-switching - a new agglomeration position is established that permits beads to be brought to any arbitrary point between the half and quarter-wave nodes. This new agglomeration position is effectively a position of stable equilibrium. This has many potential applications, particularly in cell sorting and manipulation. It should also enable precise control of agglomeration position to be maintained regardless of manufacturing tolerances, temperature variations, fluid medium characteristics and particle concentration.

  13. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1999-07-01

    The information presented in this manual is solely for the purpose of operating the POC-scale equipment for fine coal processing as described herein. This manual provides a general description of the process technology and guidelines for plant operating procedures. It is intended for use by the operators and maintenance personnel who will be responsible for the operations of the plant. No attempt should be made to operate the plant until the principles of the process and operating instructions contained in this manual are fully understood. Operating personnel should thoroughly familiarize themselves with all processing equipment prior to commencing plant operation. All equipment is skid mounted to provide a self-contained unit. The dimensions of the unit are comply with standard guidelines. A minimum distance of 2 feet is provided between equipment for walkway and maintenance.

  14. Silica nanoparticle sols. Part 3: Monitoring the state of agglomeration at the air/water interface using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Irena; Pugh, Robert J; van de Pas, John; Callaghan, Ian

    2009-08-15

    Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared at the air/water interface from dispersions of hydrophilic and partially, hydrophobically modified industrially manufactured silica nanoparticles. The hydrophilic particles featured expanded, fairly easily compressible, surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherms with well defined collapse pressures which appeared to be caused by the formation of loosely structured agglomerates which exhibited elastic behavior at low surface pressure and inelastic behavior at high surface pressure. Lateral electrostatic interparticle interactions seemingly played an important role in this hydrophilic system. This contrasted with the hydrophobically modified particles which were more difficult to disperse in the ethanol/chloroform spreading solvent and appeared to be in the semi-agglomerated state at low surface pressures and exhibited a more difficult to compress compacted film. Both types of particulate films were shown to be sensitive to the spreading environment and changes in pH were found to increase particle agglomeration which drastically reduced the particulate area for the hydrophilic sol but less so, in the case of the moderately hydrophobically modified sol. In general, the LB technique proved to be a useful method to monitor changes in the state of aggregation of nanosized silica particles at the air/water interface. These results also appear to give some support of our ideas, presented in earlier publications in which it was suggested that the major role of the hydrophobically modified hydrophilic particles in foaming was to produce an aggregated particulate film surrounding the air/water interface which provides a physical barrier preventing coalescence of bubbles.

  15. The influence of the preparation of lignin bio-resins used in oil spilled agglomeration; A influencia do uso da lignina na preparacao de bio-resinas utilizadas na aglomeracao de oleo derramado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Felipe T.; Pereira, Thaissa; Ferreira, Leticia P.; Delazare, Thais; Souza Junior, Fernando G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj

    2011-07-01

    Locate the oil, a source of energy that took millions of years to be formed is a task that requires much knowledge and technology, and large investments. However, during its operation, storage or transportation of oil, the risk of spills occurring in potential that can cause extensive damage to the environment. Experience of major accidental oil spills has shown the importance of damage to the environment, harming marine life, fishing and tourism. Thus this study aims to evaluate the use of renewable sources to create an 'absorbent green' by using the lignin, furfural and cardanol, being catalyzed by sulfuric acid. This bio-resin synthesized shows good chemical similarity with oil, because it has both aromatic and aliphatic compounds, thereby facilitating the strong physical interaction between the resin and oil, allowing the agglomeration process in the same lake environments. (author)

  16. The influence of the preparation of lignin bio-resins used in oil spilled agglomeration; A influencia do uso da lignina na preparacao de bioresinas utilizadas na aglomeracao de oleo derramado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Felipe T.; Silva, Thaissa P.; Ferreira, Leticia P.; Delazare, Thais; Souza Junior, Fernando G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Locate petroleum, an energy source which spent millions of years to be formed, requires a lot of knowledge and technology, beyond large investments. However, along extraction, storage or transport of oil, there is a real risk of spills take place, causing extensive damage to the environment. Experience acquired due to accidental oil spills shows the large extension of damage imposed to the environment, impacting marine life, fishing and even tourism. Thus this study proposes the use of renewable sources, aiming to create an {sup g}reen absorbent material{sup .} This material is obtained through a polycondensation among lignin, furfural and cardanol, catalyzed by a strong acid. Synthesized bio-resin presents a good chemical similarity with oil, due to the tuning of its aromatic / aliphatic compounds, producing a strong physical interaction between the resin and oil, making the agglomeration process easy and contributing for the cleanup of oil spilled on water. (author)

  17. Defining urban agglomerations to detect agglomeration economies

    CERN Document Server

    Cottineau, Clementine; Hatna, Erez; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Agglomeration economies are a persistent subject of debate among economists and urban planners. Their definition turns on whether or not larger cities and regions are more efficient and more productive than smaller ones. We complement existing discussion on agglomeration economies and the urban wage premium here by providing a sensitivity analysis of estimated coefficients to different delineations of urban agglomeration as well as to different definitions of the economic measure that summarises the urban premium. This quantity can consist of total wages measured at the place of work, or of income registered at the place of residence. The chosen option influences the scaling behaviour of city size as well as the spatial distribution of the phenomenon at the city level. Spatial discrepancies between the distribution of jobs and the distribution of households at different economic levels makes city definitions crucial to the estimation of economic relations which vary with city size. We argue this point by regr...

  18. The mechanical properties of nanofilled resin-based composites: characterizing discrete filler particles and agglomerates using a micromanipulation technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curtis, Andrew R

    2009-02-01

    To assess the mechanical properties of discrete filler particles representative of several inorganic fillers in modern dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to assess the validity of a novel micromanipulation technique.

  19. Understanding Lateritic Ore Agglomeration Behaviour as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    istics, low grade lateritic ores require more aggressive but costly chemical and hydrometallurgical techniques (e.g., leaching in ... Isothermal, batch agglomeration tests involving 30 and 44 % w/w sulphuric acid ... *Loss of ignition. Table 2: ...

  20. Development of Layered Treatment Technique for Multiple Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhimian; Wu Dehua

    1995-01-01

    @@ In order to solve the problems that there is steam absorbing inhomogeneity in various layers of well in heavy oil reservoirs during steam injection, and upperlayers and high permeability layers repeat steam absorption, as well as middle or low permeability layers absorb little steam or no steam, we have studied and developed seperate-layer treatment techniques for huff and puff wells in recent years. By test and application,these techniques have been proved successful in increasing steam stimulated effect and recovery efficiency in the period of cyclic steam stimulations of oil wells in multilayer heavy oil reservoirs.

  1. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROPHOBIC AGGLOMERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF EASY DEGRADATION COAL FINES IN WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏

    1997-01-01

    The separation of ultrafine coal from three Chinese coal samples of easy degradation coal fines in water has been investigated by the application of a hydrophobic agglomeration process. In addition to yielding clean coal with high recovery, this process requires significantly less oil concentration for agglomeration (less than 0.4% in oil-water weight ratio) and produces stabler agglomerates than general oil agglomeration process, the cost of the oil would no longer be an important consideration for its commercial application. Neutral diesel oil was used to make oleophilic coal particles agglomerated with good rejection of clay minerals under little oil consumption and certain agitation speed at 2000 r/min. An important advantage of this process compared with other cleaning fine coal methods is that it can extremely reduce or eliminate the effects of coal degradation and some clay minerals on coal preparation.

  2. Multifrequency scanning probe microscopy study of nanodiamond agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lippold, Stephen; Li, Qian; Strelcov, Evgheny; Okatan, Baris; Legum, Benjamin; Kalinin, Sergei; Clarion University Team; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Team

    Due to their rich surface chemistry and excellent mechanical properties and non-toxic nature, nanodiamond particles have found applications such as biomedicine, tribology and lubrication, targeted drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. Although single nanodiamond particles have diameters about 4-5nm, they tend to form agglomerates. While these agglomerates can be useful for some purposes, many applications of nanodiamonds require single particle, disaggregated nanodiamonds. This work is oriented towards studying forces and interactions that contribute to agglomeration in nanodiamonds. In this work, using multifrequency scanning probe microscopy techniques, we show that agglomerate sizes can vary between 50-100nm in raw nanodiamonds. Extremeties of particles and Interfaces between agglomerates show dissipative forces with scanning probe microscope tip, indicating agglomerates could act as points of increased adhesion, thus reducing lubricating efficiency when nanodiamonds are used as lubricant additives. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  3. Literature review and binder and coal selection for research studies on coal agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Girimont, J.A.; peterson, C.A.; Saller, E.

    1982-02-26

    This report discusses the results of a literature survey on coal agglomeration and the approaches that were employed in selecting binders and coals to be studied in a process development program currently being performed for the Department of Energy. The survey is the first step toward the development of a useful process for the agglomeration of coal fines for use in a fixed-bed gasifier. Literature was found and reviewed on the effects of coal composition and physical properties, on agglomeration techniques and operating variables, on binders or additives to promote agglomeration, on pretreatment techniques on agglomerate feedstocks and post-treatment techniques on formed agglomerates, and on test results obtained by researchers in the past using various additives, treatments and agglomeration techniques. Much of this information did not deal directly with agglomerates for fixed-bed gasifiers, but the reported observations and results could be extrapolated to give useful guidelines for research plans. Conclusions and plans for further work are presented.

  4. Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. Samples were extracted by stirring in dichloromethane at 40-50 degree for 10 hours. The saturated, aromatic and resin fractions of the extract were obtained using thin layer chromatograms. The relative abundance of normal alkane fraction of the samples is low except lowest interval, which is probably due to the biodegradation. The bio-marker assemblage of hopanoids and steranes has been characterized. According to the analysis of saturated hydrocarbons and bio-markers, the sedimentary environment of the Pohang core samples is marine and transitional zone except the terrestrial environment of the lowest samples such as 610.5 m from E core and 667.2 m from F core. The thermal maturity through the studied interval did not reach oil window even though slight increase in thermal maturity with depth, which coincide with Rock Eval pyrolysis data. In order to check the validation of analysis of the bio-markers, same samples were analyzed by the University of Louis Pasteur, France. The distribution and relative peak area of the bio-markers were identical with those by laboratory of KIGAM. For the 2 nd stage of the research, analysis of bio-markers other than hopanoids and steranes should be continued. (author). 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Seismic techniques of enhanced oil recovery: experimental and field results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, O.L.; Simkin, E.M.; Chilingar, G.V.; Gorfunkel, M.V.; Robertson, J.O. Jr.

    2002-09-15

    Application of secondary and tertiary oil recovery techniques during late field development stages usually yields poor results. The reasons are principally due to the low efficiency of these technologies, probably because the gravity and capillary forces are not properly considered. Improved efficiency for hydrocarbon recovery produced by seismic vibration is discussed. (author)

  6. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  7. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de, E-mail: andressa@ctaa.embrapa.br [Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Sergio Machado [Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Glauco Correa da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The engine lubricating oil drags all kinds of impurities generated by wear of internal components. Thus, it is necessary to monitor the physical and chemical properties and concentration of metals in lubricants used to determine the appropriate time to replace them. Moreover, one can monitor the wear of the engines through the levels of metals in oils. To achieve these goals, some detection techniques such as Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), have been widely used to determine metals in lubricating oils and also in other oil derivatives. Thus, some of these techniques were used in this study. Also the technique used was Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC / MS) for characterization of chromatographic profile of the engine lubricating oil after use. Through the technique of ICP-OES for method of United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) METHOD 6010B - Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was performed to characterize metals in lubricating oil motor, using equipment from ICP-OES Perkin-Elmer{sup R} OPTIMA 3000 ICP-Winlab and software, obtaining the following identification of metals: barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn). Using the XRF technique, through the equipment EDFRX Shimadzu{sup R} model 800HS EDX, Rh tube, applied voltage of 50kV, amperage 100{mu}A, detector Si (Li) cooled with liquid nitrogen and collimator 10mm, we analyzed all the components comprised in the range of Ti to U and Na to SC, identified the following metals: calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni). The characterization was performed by chromatographic methods: USEPA METHOD 5021A - Volatile organic compounds in various sample matrices using equilibrium headspace analysis, USEPA METHOD 8015B - Nonhalogenated Organics

  8. A new technique for the solution of references problem in oil pollution measurement by UVF technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım Cemal Güven

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problems of references used for oil pollution measurement by UVF method were discussed. The main problem of this method is that the origin of the reference for pollutant oil is unknown. The proposed solution for this problem was based on sea water sample which was taken from contaminated area, extracted by DCM, the organic phase was distilled, its calibration curve was plotted with this residue oil and measurement was made on its equation. The oil pollution results for the sea water of K0 station by using this equation for 2013 was 15.21 mg/L and for 2014 15.25 mg/L. for the same samples determination of oil pollution by using crude oil references varies between 0.11 and 1.15 various crude oils and using chrysene reference 0.11-0.19 mg/L. These results show that pollution level varied depending on references used. The proposed method more realistically determines the oil pollution level. The proposed technique is the first for oil pollution measurement by UVF.

  9. Thermal Characterization of Edible Oils by Using Photopyroelectric Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Hernández, G.; Suaste-Gómez, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.; Sánchez-Sinéncio, F.; Valcárcel, J. P.; García-Quiroz, A.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal properties of several edible oils such as olive, sesame, and grape seed oils were obtained by using the photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. Also, the back photopyroelectric configuration was used to obtain the thermal diffusivity of these oils; this thermal parameter was obtained by fitting the theoretical equation for this configuration, as a function of the sample thickness (called the thermal wave resonator cavity), to the experimental data. All measurements were done at room temperature. A complete thermal characterization of these edible oils was achieved by the relationship between the obtained thermal diffusivities and thermal effusivities with their thermal conductivities and volumetric heat capacities. The obtained results are in agreement with the thermal properties reported for the case of the olive oil.

  10. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  11. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Mineral and Mineral Process Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Selective flocculation tests were run on three types of coal and three additives in tests on a new hydrophobic agglomeration process using hydrophobic latices. The coals differed widely in surface wettability. The additives were hydrophobic latexes, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant, and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte. The results show that coal wettability is very important in selective flocculation. UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated hydrophobic coal particles only, while the polyelectrolyte flocculated all the coal samples and minerals that were tested. Tests of oil agglomeration using kerosene emulsified with surfactants of various ionic properties show that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated, if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. The hydrophobic latex and emulsified oils also significantly increase filtration rate and reduce filter cake moisture content.

  12. Thermal Stability of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Effects of post-treatment of oven drying and solvent exchange techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indarti, E.; Marwan; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystallinecellulose (NCC) from biomass is a promising material with huge potentials in various applications. A big challenge in its utilization is the agglomeration of the NCC's during processing due to hydrogen bonding among the cellulose chains when in close proximity to each other. Obtaining NCC's in a non-agglomerated and non-aqueous condition is challenging. In the present work NCC's was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) using TEMPO-oxidation reaction method. To obtain non-agglomerated and non-aqueous products, the NCC's underwent post-treatment using oven drying (OD) and solvent exchanged (SE) techniques. The thermal stability of all samples was determined from TGA and DTG profiles whilst FTIR was used to analyzethe chemical modifications that occurred under these conditions. NCC-SE has better thermal stability than the NCC-OD and its on-set degradation temperature and residue are also higher. FTIR analysis shows that NCC-SE has a slightly different chemical composition whereby the absorption band at 1300 cm-1 (due to C-O symmetric stretching) is absent as compared to NCC-OD indicating that in NCC-SE the carboxylate group is in acid form which contribute to its thermal stability

  13. Effect of polymers on crystallo-co-agglomeration of ibuprofen-paracetamol: Factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of concentration of polyethylene glycol and ethyl cellulose on the properties of agglomerates of ibuprofen-paracetamol obtained by crystallo-co-agglomeration technique. The process of crystallo-co-agglomeration involved recrystallization of ibuprofen and its simultaneous agglomeration with paracetamol in presence polymers. The effect of combination of polyethylene glycol and ethylcellulose was studied by 2 2 factorial design. Ibuprofen content of the agglomerate increased with increase in ethyl cellulose while paracetamol content was decreased with increase in polyethylene glycol. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of agglomerates showed the unchanged endotherm for ibuprofen melting, whereas paracetamol endotherm was diffused with low enthalpy. The agglomerates were spherical but increase in polyethylene glycol caused its deformation. Agglomerates containing ethylcellulose with polyethylene glycol have higher resistance for fragmentation, modulus of elasticity but impart high tensile strength.

  14. Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciello, D.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    Discharge of oil into the sea is one of the most dangerous, among technological hazards, for the maritime environment. In the last years maritime transport and exploitation of marine resources continued to increase; as a result, tanker accidents are nowadays increasingly frequent, continuously menacing the maritime security and safety. Satellite remote sensing could contribute in multiple ways, in particular for what concerns early warning and real-time (or near real-time) monitoring. Several satellite techniques exist, mainly based on the use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology, which are able to recognise, with sufficient accuracy, oil spills discharged into the sea. Unfortunately, such methods cannot be profitably used for real-time detection, because of the low observational frequency assured by present satellite platforms carrying SAR sensors (the mean repetition rate is something like 30 days). On the other hand, potential of optical sensors aboard meteorological satellites, was not yet fully exploited and no reliable techniques have been developed until now for this purpose. Main limit of proposed techniques can be found in the ``fixed threshold'' approach which makes such techniques difficult to implement without operator supervision and, generally, without an independent information on the oil spill presence that could drive the choice of the best threshold. A different methodological approach (RAT, Robust AVHRR Techniques) proposed by Tramutoli (1998) and already successfully applied to several natural and environmental emergencies related to volcanic eruptions, forest fires and seismic activity. In this paper its extension to near real-time detection and monitoring of oil spills by means of NOAA-AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) records will be described. Briefly, RAT approach is an automatic change-detection scheme that considers a satellite image as a space-time process, described at each place (x,y) and time t, by the value of

  15. Spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polowczyk Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper spherical agglomeration of acetylsalicylic acid was described. In the first step, the system of good and poor solvents as well as bridging liquid was selected. As a result of a preliminary study, ethyl alcohol, water and carbon tetrachloride were used as the good solvent, poor one, and bridging liquid, respectively. Then, the amount of acetylsalicylic acid and the ratio of the solvents as well as the volume of the bridging liquid were examined. In the last step, the agglomeration conditions, such as mixing intensity and time, were investigated. The spherical agglomerates obtained under optimum conditions could be subjected to a tableting process afterwards.

  16. Development and Achievements of Drilling Techniques in Sichuan Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Shuming; Cheng Changxiu

    1995-01-01

    @@ Drilling Techniques Design methods for special wellbore structure The wellbore structure which suits all of the complicated conditions can be designed by special methods.The shut-in pressure is high when gas well is under well control and ell testing, in order to raise the pressure resistant capacity of the casing,and to control oil/gas pressure effectively,not only the inside compression strcngth and scaling property of the casing should be enhanced,but also the cement slurry should be retumed to the surface during each cementing job.

  17. Agglomeration, Inequality and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    David Castells; Vicente Royuela

    2014-01-01

    The impact of income inequality on economic growth is dependent on several factors, including the time horizon considered, the initial level of income and its initial distribution. Yet, as growth and inequality are also uneven across space, it is also pertinent to consider the effects of the geographical agglomeration of economic activity. Moreover, it would also seem pertinent to consider not just the levels of inequality and agglomeration, but also the changes they undergo (i.e., their with...

  18. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Loth, J.L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  19. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs.

  20. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  1. State-of-the-art on ultrasonic oil production technique for EOR in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Yin, Congbo

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasonic oil production technique for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) attracts more attention due to its high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution to the oil reservoir. In this paper, recent new downhole tools used for enhanced oil recovery developed in China are summarized. Furthermore, research advance on some key problems that affect the widespread application of ultrasonic oil production technique in China are also summarized in view of what are the primary factors that influence crude oil paraffin inhibition and viscosity reduction, whether ultrasonic excitation is better than chemical agent for any plugs removal and whether ultrasound-chemical combination plug removal technology has the best plugs removal effect. The purpose of this paper is to provide reference for the broad application of ultrasonic oil production for enhance oil recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.

    2000-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...... of the water droplets are shown to be strong. Despite the strong influence of the water phase, the NIR technique is still capable of predicting the composition of the investigated oil phase....

  3. Metabolic responses of fish following exposure to two different oil spill remediation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A; Nugegoda, D; Gagnon, M M

    2001-03-01

    To assess the impacts of two oil spill remediation techniques on fish metabolism, change in aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activities in juvenile Australian Bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, was examined. Changes in cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were investigated following exposure to the crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically dispersed crude oil WAF. There was a significant stimulation in CCO activity in the gills and livers of fish exposed to the WAF of Bass Strait crude oil and chemically dispersed crude oil, compared to the control treatment. In addition, LDH activity was significantly stimulated in the liver of fish exposed to dispersed crude oil WAF, compared to the crude oil WAF. Fish exposed to the dispersed crude oil WAF treatment had significantly higher oxygen consumption, as measured by oxygen depletion in a sealed chamber, than fish exposed to the crude oil WAF and control treatments.

  4. Multivariate Time Series Forecasting of Crude Palm Oil Price Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchymalay, Kasturi; Salim, N.; Sukprasert, Anupong; Krishnan, Ramesh; Raba'ah Hashim, Ummi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between crude palm oil (CPO) price, selected vegetable oil prices (such as soybean oil, coconut oil, and olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil), crude oil and the monthly exchange rate. Comparative analysis was then performed on CPO price forecasting results using the machine learning techniques. Monthly CPO prices, selected vegetable oil prices, crude oil prices and monthly exchange rate data from January 1987 to February 2017 were utilized. Preliminary analysis showed a positive and high correlation between the CPO price and soy bean oil price and also between CPO price and crude oil price. Experiments were conducted using multi-layer perception, support vector regression and Holt Winter exponential smoothing techniques. The results were assessed by using criteria of root mean square error (RMSE), means absolute error (MAE), means absolute percentage error (MAPE) and Direction of accuracy (DA). Among these three techniques, support vector regression(SVR) with Sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm showed relatively better results compared to multi-layer perceptron and Holt Winters exponential smoothing method.

  5. Agglomeration behaviour of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in river waters: A multi-method approach combining light scattering and field-flow fractionation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekli, L; Roy, M; Tijing, L D; Donner, E; Lombi, E; Shon, H K

    2015-08-15

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are currently one of the most prolifically used nanomaterials, resulting in an increasing likelihood of release to the environment. This is of concern as the potential toxicity of TiO2 NPs has been investigated in several recent studies. Research into their fate and behaviour once entering the environment is urgently needed to support risk assessment and policy development. In this study, we used a multi-method approach combining light scattering and field-flow fractionation techniques to assess both the aggregation behaviour and aggregate structure of TiO2 NPs in different river waters. Results showed that both the aggregate size and surface-adsorbed dissolved organic matter (DOM) were strongly related to the initial DOM concentration of the tested waters (i.e. R(2) > 0.90) suggesting that aggregation of TiO2 NPs is controlled by the presence and concentration of DOM. The conformation of the formed aggregates was also found to be strongly related to the surface-adsorbed DOM (i.e. R(2) > 0.95) with increasing surface-adsorbed DOM leading to more compact structures. Finally, the concentration of TiO2 NPs remaining in the supernatant after sedimentation of the larger aggregates was found to decrease proportionally with both increasing IS and decreasing DOM concentration, resulting in more than 95% sedimentation in the highest IS sample.

  6. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  7. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  8. A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Convergence rates of multigrid cycles are verified with quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the two-grid cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

  9. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  10. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  11. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...... using historical data on composers and employ a unique instrumental variable – a measure of birth centrality, calculated as the average distance between a composer’s birthplace and the birthplace of his peers. I find a strong causal impact of peer group size on the number of important compositions......’ productivity, and across different estimations in which also time-varying birth centrality measures are used as instrumental variables....

  12. Microstickies agglomeration by electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaotang Tony; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2016-01-01

    Microstickies deposits on both paper machine and paper products when it agglomerates under step change in ionic strength, pH, temperature and chemical additives. These stickies increase the down time of the paper mill and decrease the quality of paper. The key property of microstickies is its smaller size, which leads to low removal efficiency and difficulties in measurement. Thus the increase of microstickies size help improve both removal efficiency and reduce measurement difficulty. In this paper, a new agglomeration technology based on electric field was investigated. The electric treatment could also increase the size of stickies particles by around 100 times. The synergetic effect between electric field treatment and detacky chemicals/dispersants, including polyvinyl alcohol, poly(diallylmethylammonium chloride) and lignosulfonate, was also studied.

  13. Urban agglomeration and CEO compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; John, Kose; Waisman , Maya

    2012-01-01

    An underlying assumption in the executive compensation literature is that there is a national labor market for CEOs. The urban economics literature, however, documents higher ability among workers in large metropolitans, which results in a real and stable urban wage premium. In this paper, we investigate the link between the spatial clustering of firms in big, central cities (i.e., urban agglomeration) and the level and structure of CEO compensation. Using CEO compensation data for the period...

  14. Techniques used in reducing oil impact on bird populations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper deals with methods for deterring birds from oil spill areas. This subject has been exhaustively reviewed by Koski and Richardson (1976) and succinctly...

  15. [Rapid discriminating hogwash oil and edible vegetable oil using near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Kong, Qing-Ming; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Bing-Xiu; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a new method using near infrared spectroscopy combined with optical fiber sensing technology was applied to the analysis of hogwash oil in blended oil. The 50 samples were a blend of frying oil and "nine three" soybean oil according to a certain volume ratio. The near infrared transmission spectroscopies were collected and the quantitative analysis model of frying oil was established by partial least squares (PLS) and BP artificial neural network The coefficients of determina- tion of calibration sets were 0.908 and 0.934 respectively. The coefficients of determination of validation sets were 0.961 and 0.952, the root mean square error of calibrations (RMSEC) was 0.184 and 0.136, and the root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) was all 0.111 6. They conform to the model application requirement. At the same time, frying oil and qualified edible oil were identified with the principal component analysis (PCA), and the accurate rate was 100%. The experiment proved that near infrared spectral technology not only can quickly and accurately identify hogwash oil, but also can quantitatively detect hog- wash oil. This method has a wide application prospect in the detection of oil.

  16. A technique for evaluating the oil/heavy-oil viscosity changes under ultrasound in a simulated porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Hossein; Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Manan, Mohammad; Azdarpour, Amin; Junid, Mundzir

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation

  17. A proposed measurement method for void fraction in lubricant oil based on the image processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwen; An, Qi

    2008-02-01

    A new method for measuring void fraction in lubricating oils is presented based on the image processing technique. The problem here differs from the bubbles detection problem in two-phase fluids in that our interest lies in the gross amount of gas voids in oils. Our method is based on an observation that gas voids in oils change the color of the mixed gas-oil material. Therefore, a measurement technique was established based on the change in color. In particular, the relationship between the change in color and amount of voids was established experimentally. The experiment and testing were performed on a particular setup which consists of a pipe, oil, and air. The test result has shown that this method is effective. The method is the simplest and most accurate one among the existing methods.

  18. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  19. Analyzing Agricultural Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been little scholarly research on Chinese agriculture’s geographic pattern of agglomeration and its evolutionary mechanisms, which are essential to sustainable development in China. By calculating the barycenter coordinates, the Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and specialization indices for 11 crops during 1981–2012, we analyze the evolutionary pattern and mechanisms of agricultural agglomeration. We argue that the degree of spatial concentration of Chinese planting has been gradually increasing and that regional specialization and diversification have progressively been strengthened. Furthermore, Chinese crop production is moving from the eastern provinces to the central and western provinces. This is in contrast to Chinese manufacturing growth which has continued to be concentrated in the coastal and southeastern regions. In Northeast China, the Sanjiang and Songnen plains have become agricultural clustering regions, and the earlier domination of aquaculture and rice production in Southeast China has gradually decreased. In summary, this paper provides a political economy framework for understanding the regionalization of Chinese agriculture, focusing on the interaction among the objectives, decisionmaking behavior, path dependencies and spatial effects.

  20. Tests of absorbents and solidification techniques for oil wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.; MacKenzie, D. R.

    1983-11-01

    A representative of each of six classes of commonly used adsorbents was chosen for a series of tests. After reviewing ASTM and other related standard tests, uncomplicated procedures were developed for carrying out specific tests to determine absorbency for simulated oil waste and for water, under static and simulated transportation (repetitive shock) conditions. The tests were then applied to the six representative absorbents. Solidification tests were performed using these absorbents saturated with oil and loaded to 50% of saturation. The binders used were Portland I cement and Delaware Custom Material (DCM) cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, and the amounts of free liquid were measured. Another series of tests was performed on samples of simulated oil waste without absorbent, using Portland cement and DCM cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, free liquid was measured, and compressive strengths were determined. The state-of-the-art parameters were identified which satisfy NRC disposal criteria for solidified radioactive waste. The literature was reviewed for alternative methods of managing oil wastes. Conclusions are drawn on the relative utility of the various methods. 17 references, 3 tables.

  1. Economic analysis of secondary and enhanced oil recovery techniques in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Erdal

    This dissertation primarily aims to theoretically analyze a firm's optimization of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon dioxide sequestration under different social policies and empirically analyze the firm's optimization of enhanced oil recovery. The final part of the dissertation empirically analyzes how geological factors and water injection management influence oil recovery. The first chapter builds a theoretical model to analyze economic optimization of EOR and geological carbon sequestration under different social policies. Specifically, it analyzes how social policies on sequestration influence the extent of oil operations, optimal oil production and CO2 sequestration. The theoretical results show that the socially optimal policy is a subsidy on the net CO2 sequestration, assuming negative net emissions from EOR. Such a policy is expected to increase a firm's total carbon dioxide sequestration. The second chapter statistically estimates the theoretical oil production model and its different versions. Empirical results are not robust over different estimation techniques and not in line with the theoretical production model. The last part of the second chapter utilizes a simplified version of theoretical model and concludes that EOR via CO2 injection improves oil recovery. The final chapter analyzes how a contemporary oil recovery technology (water flooding of oil reservoirs) and various reservoir-specific geological factors influence oil recovery in Wyoming. The results show that there is a positive concave relationship between cumulative water injection and cumulative oil recovery and also show that certain geological factors affect the oil recovery. Moreover, the curvature of the concave functional relationship between cumulative water injection and oil recovery is reservoir-specific due to heterogeneities among different reservoirs.

  2. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  3. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  4. Non-thermal plasma as preparative technique to evaluate olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Jim; Vandamme, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years adulteration of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with other types of vegetable oils has become an important issue. In this study, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is investigated as an innovative preparative analytical technique enabling classification of adulterated olive oil from an ascertained authentic batch of olive oil in a more sensitive manner. Non-thermal plasma discharges are a source of highly oxidative species such as singlet oxygen, and atomic oxygen. It was assumed that NTP-induced oxidation triggers unique lipid oxidation mechanisms depending on the specific composition of the oil matrix and minor constituents. In this work EVOO samples were adulterated with sunflower oil (1-3%) and submitted to NTP treatment. Results showed that while untreated samples could not be classified from the authentic olive oil reference, NTP treatments of 60min (Ar/O2 0.1%) on the oil batches resulted in the formation of a unique set of secondary volatile lipid oxidation products enabling classification of adulterated oil samples.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES AT COUNTY LEVEL IN JIANGSU PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ying; PU Ying-xia; YAO Shi-mou

    2005-01-01

    Agglomeration economies are the important factors for the regional development. However, the common indicators to measure them, such as Gini Coefficients neglect the spatial ingredient of data, leading to a-spatial estimates. In order to assess spatial neighbor effects of agglomeration economies, this study makes the new attempts by applying a series of techniques of spatial autocorrelation analysis, specifically, measuring the economies of urbanization and localization at the county level in the secondary and tertiary industries of Jiangsu Province in 1999 and 2002. The conclusions in this study reveal that on the whole, the localization effects on the economies of the secondary industry might be stronger than urbanization effects for that period, and highly agglomerative economies were limited within the southern Jiangsu and parts of middle along the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. Moreover, the tertiary industry has been strong urbanization rather than localization economies in the whole Jiangsu. Unlike the secondary industry, the tertiary industry held the high levels of agglomeration economies can be also found in the poor northern Jiangsu, and then the spatial clusters of trade and services might be basically seen in each of urban districts in 13 cities. All in all, spatial autocorrelation analysis is a better method to test agglomeration economies.

  6. Quantitative characterization of nanoparticle agglomeration within biological media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondow, Nicole, E-mail: n.hondow@leeds.ac.uk; Brydson, Rik [University of Leeds, Institute for Materials Research (United Kingdom); Wang, Peiyi [University of Leeds, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology (United Kingdom); Holton, Mark D.; Brown, M. Rowan; Rees, Paul; Summers, Huw D. [Swansea University, Centre for Nanohealth, College of Engineering (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy [University of Leeds, Institute for Materials Research (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle dispersion state within biological media is essential to understanding cellular uptake and the roles of diffusion, sedimentation, and endocytosis in determining nanoparticle dose. The dispersion of polymer-coated CdTe/ZnS quantum dots in water and cell growth medium with and without fetal bovine serum was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. Characterization by TEM of samples prepared by plunge freezing the blotted solutions into liquid ethane was sensitive to the dispersion state of the quantum dots and enabled measurement of agglomerate size distributions even in the presence of serum proteins where DLS failed. In addition, TEM showed a reduced packing fraction of quantum dots per agglomerate when dispersed in biological media and serum compared to just water, highlighting the effect of interactions between the media, serum proteins, and the quantum dots. The identification of a heterogeneous distribution of quantum dots and quantum dot agglomerates in cell growth medium and serum by TEM will enable correlation with the previously reported optical metrology of in vitro cellular uptake of this quantum dot dispersion. In this paper, we present a comparative study of TEM and DLS and show that plunge-freeze TEM provides a robust assessment of nanoparticle agglomeration state.

  7. Eco-spatial Structure of Urban Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Rongchao; MIAO Changhong; LI Xuexin; CHEN Deguang

    2007-01-01

    In terms of ecological theory, this paper makes a comprehensive analysis of the mutualism and coevolutionary mechanism between the eco-spatial structure and socio-economic development ofthe urban agglomeration,and maps out optimized modes of the eco-spatial structure of the urban agglomeration. The analysis is a case study of the urban agglomeration on different levels of global, national, provincial and local scales, on the basis of those conclusions are drawn: 1) Within the scope of the urban agglomeration, the cities should be reasonably sized and appropriately densified; the spatial combination of the urban agglomeration ought to be orderly, and its eco-spatial structure ought to be optimized and efficient; the relationship between the economic society and eco-spatial environment ought to be that of mutual benefit and co-evolution. 2) "The mode of corridor group network" is a certain trend evoked from the spatial structure of urban agglomeration. 3) The eco-spatial structure of urban agglomeration under "the mode of corridor group network" can further increase the environmental capacity of urban agglomeration, and is in favor of the harmonious relationship between man and nature.

  8. On the mechanism of agglomeration in suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Agglomeration in suspension is a size enlargement method that facilitates operation of solid processing and preserves the solubilization properties of fine particles. A small quantity of binder liquid is added into a suspension of microparticles, directly in the stirred vessel where the precipitation or crystallization took place. This study deals with the evaluation of the effect of agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid on agglomerates properties in order to give some insights into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Methods: Carbamazepine is used as a model drug and isopropyl acetate is used as binder liquid. The agglomerates characterization includes the particle size, morphology and density. Results: The results showed that, by increasing the agitation time before addition of binder liquid, smaller agglomerates with less density and irregular forms composed of larger crystals were obtained. However, with increasing agitation time after addition of binder liquid the agglomerates size and density increases and morphology improves. Indeed, by continuing agitation along the course of agglomeration the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Conclusion: With optimized agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid, spherical and dense agglomerates can be obtained.

  9. Progress of Space Charge Research on Oil-Paper Insulation Using Pulsed Electroacoustic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems used in power transformers. It begins with the importance of understanding the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems, followed by the introduction of the pulsed electrostatic technique (PEA. After that, the research progress on the space charge behavior of oil-paper insulation during the recent twenty years is critically reviewed. Some important aspects such as the environmental conditions and the acoustic wave recovery need to be addressed to acquire more accurate space charge measurement results. Some breakthroughs on the space charge behavior of oil-paper insulation materials by the research team at the University of Southampton are presented. Finally, future work on space charge measurement of oil-paper insulation materials is proposed.

  10. A NEW TECHNIQUE OF OIL TRANSPORTATION IN PIPELINE BY STEAM INJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The direct contact heating of crude oil with steam is promising technique for improving crude oil transportation in pipelines. Crude oil temperature is increased greatly by a small quantity of steam due to the high steam latent heat and direct contact heat transfer. A jet pump was developed for injecting steam into oil in order to get a high efficiency by transferring momentum and energy from a high-velocity jet to ambient fluid. The jet pump was designed based on the free injection principle, which has no rotation parts and no converging mixing chamber, therefore it would not be blocked by the viscous crude oil. The technical feasibility of this method has been tested in the Liaohe Oilfeld, China.

  11. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1997-01-15

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 {micro}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In this investigation a hybrid process--Micro-agglomerate flotation--which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation was studied. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles and to use froth flotation to separate these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units will be relatively large agglomerates (30--50 {micro}m in size) rather than fine coal particles (1--10 {micro}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is demonstrated in this study that the process is very sensitive to fluctuations in operating parameters. It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases as well as the agitation conditions in order to promote selectivity. Both kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors play a critical role in determining overall system response.

  12. Nuclear energy as a subsurface heavy oil recovery technique (Project Athabasca). [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear energy may become an acceptable thermal recovery technique in the subsurface heavy oil deposits of N. Alberta. The subterranean detonation cavern also may facilitate secondary and tertiary in situ recovery methods, steam injection, and fireflood. Less than 5% of Canada's heavy oil reserves, variously estimated at up to 600-billion bbl, are producible by surface mining. Recovery theory is simple--the nuclear detonation releases both thermal and shock energy to convert otherwise immobile viscous heavy oil deposits into conventionally recoverable hydrocarbons. The proposed Project Athabaska, to employ a 10-kt device, requires exhaustive planning to overcome formidable technical, political, and environmental concerns. Technically, precedent shows that project cost is practically indepencent of yield. The crude oil production unit will comprise a central detonation or emplacement well and several peripheral production wells. Each successive recovery technique will benefit from vastly improved permeability resulting from the prior recovery method.

  13. A MODIS-Based Robust Satellite Technique (RST for Timely Detection of Oil Spilled Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodosio Lacava

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural crude-oil seepages, together with the oil released into seawater as a consequence of oil exploration/production/transportation activities, and operational discharges from tankers (i.e., oil dumped during cleaning actions represent the main sources of sea oil pollution. Satellite remote sensing can be a useful tool for the management of such types of marine hazards, namely oil spills, mainly owing to the synoptic view and the good trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution, depending on the specific platform/sensor system used. In this paper, an innovative satellite-based technique for oil spill detection, based on the general robust satellite technique (RST approach, is presented. It exploits the multi-temporal analysis of data acquired in the visible channels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board the Aqua satellite in order to automatically and quickly detect the presence of oil spills on the sea surface, with an attempt to minimize “false detections” caused by spurious effects associated with, for instance, cloud edges, sun/satellite geometries, sea currents, etc. The oil spill event that occurred in June 2007 off the south coast of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea has been considered as a test case. The resulting data, the reliability of which has been evaluated by both carrying out a confutation analysis and comparing them with those provided by the application of another independent MODIS-based method, showcase the potential of RST in identifying the presence of oil with a high level of accuracy.

  14. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report presents the findings of the project entitled ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration.`` The purpose is to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1993. Engineering development included bench-scale process development, component development adaptation or modification of existing unit operations, proof-of-concept (POC) module design, fabrication, testing, data evaluation, and conceptual design of a commercial facility. The information obtained during POC operation resulted in a technical and economic design base sufficient to support construction and operation of a commercial plant. Throughout this project performance targets for the engineering development of selective agglomeration process were to achieve 85% or greater Btu recovery at 85% or greater pyritic sulfur rejection (PSR). Additional objectives included producing a final clean-coal product with an ash content of 6% or less which is suitable for conventional coal handling systems. The selective agglomeration process, as applied to coal cleaning, is based on differences in the surface chemistry of coal and its associated impurities. Coal particles are hydrophobic (i.e., repel water) while the majority of its impurities are hydrophilic (i.e., stabilized in water). During selective agglomeration, a liquid (the agglomerant) that is immiscible with water is introduced into a coal-water slurry and agitated to disperse it in the slurry, thereby allowing it to come into contact with all particles in the slurry. The coal particles, due to their hydrophobic nature, are attracted to the agglomerant phase. The hydrophilic mineral impurities remain in the water phase. Continued agitation of the agglomerant-coated coal particles causes them to coalesce to form agglomerates. Once the agglomerates are formed, they are separated from the mineral matter-bearing aqueous phase by subsequent processing steps.

  15. DETERMINATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN MAIZE OIL USING UV-VIS SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Kahrıman, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Inthis study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of chemometric techniques onthe detection of some fatty acids in crude maize oil by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Inthe study, oleic acid, linoleic acid, total polyunsaturated fatty acids andtotal polyunsaturated fatty acids were determined on the oil samples of 50different maize genotypes. The absorbance values ​​(190-320 nm) of the same oilsamples were recorded using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Prediction models wereconstructed according to Partia...

  16. Thermal Effusivity Measurement of Virgin Coconut Oil-Methanol Mixtures using Photoacoustic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas K.M. Al-asfoor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal effusivity of virgin coconut oil-methanol mixtures were measured using open photoacoustic cell technique. The samples were prepared by simply mixing virgin coconut oil and methanol using similar procedure applied for preparation of biodisel. Thermal effusivity of the sample was obtained by fitting the experimental data of photoacoustic amplitude signal to the expression of photoacoustic signal as a function of chopping frequency. Thermal effusivity of mixtures decrease between 0.0851 W s1/2 K-1 cm-2 (pure virgin coconut oil and 0.0644 W s1/2 K-1 cm-2 (pure methanol with the increasing of methanol in the mixture.

  17. An Effective Ostrich Oil Bleaching Technique Using Peroxide Value as an Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Seng Chiew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness.

  18. Emerging Techniques in Vegetable Oil Analysis Using Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, S. D.; Rhodes, C.

    2002-07-01

    As the practice of vegetable oil adulteration becomes more sophisticated, the possibility to subvert detection using established techniques such as capillary gas chromatography is increasing. One of the most powerful techniques to be used in food authenticity studies is stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SIRMS) which utilises differences in the natural abundance of the stable isotopes of the light bio elements hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and sulfur to detect food fraud. SIRMS has found application in the authentication of a wide range of foodstuffs, including fruit juices, wines, spirits, honey and to detect the adulteration of flavour compounds with synthetic analogues. This papers reviews the current state-of-the-art for the authentication of vegetable oils using SIRMS and highlights emergent techniques such as compound-an position specific-isotope mass spectrometry. These latter developments offer the potential to provide more rapid and improved detection of the economic adulteration of vegetable oils. (Author) 38 refs.

  19. Different techniques for the production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refaat, A.A. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-01-01

    The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil offers a triple-facet solution: economic, environmental and waste management. The new process technologies developed during the last years made it possible to produce biodiesel from recycled frying oils comparable in quality to that of virgin vegetable oil biodiesel with an added attractive advantage of being lower in price. Thus, biodiesel produced from recycled frying oils has the same possibilities to be utilized. Producing biodiesel from used frying oil is environmentally beneficial since it provides a cleaner way for disposing these products, and can yield valuable cuts in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the main contributor of global warming and climate change. While transesterification is well-established and becoming increasingly important, there remains considerable inefficiencies in existing transesterification processes. There is an imperative need to improve the existing biodiesel production methods from both economic and environmental viewpoints and to investigate alternative and innovative production processes. This study highlights the main changes occurring in the oil during frying in order to identify the characteristics of oil after frying and the anticipated effects of the products formed in the frying process on biodiesel quality and attempts to review the different techniques used in the production of biodiesel from recycled oils, stressing the advantages and limitations of each technique and the optimization conditions for each process. The emerging technologies which can be utilized in this field are also investigated. The quality of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil in previous studies is also reviewed and the performance of engines fueled with this biodiesel and the characteristics of the exhaust emissions resulting from it are highlighted. The overarching goal is to stimulate further activities in the field.

  20. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, 19W Memorial Dr, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Mohapatra, S. [Dynalene Inc., 5250W Coplay Rd, Whitehall, Pennsylvania 18052 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  1. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  2. Oil and Gas Exploration Planning using VOI Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskova, D. N.; Sizykh, A. V.; Rukavishnikov, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Paper deals with actual problem about making decisions during field development. The main aim was to apply method “Value of information” in order to estimate the necessity of field exploration works and show the effectiveness of this method. The object of analysis - field X, which is located in the Eastern Siberia. The reservoir is B13 formation of Vend age. The Field has complex structure, and divided into blocks by faults. During evaluation of the project, main uncertainties and oil in place were obtained for three blocks of the field. According to uncertainty analysis, it was suggested to drill a new exploration well, and value of information method was applied to estimate results from this exploration works. Economic evaluation of the value of information method was made by choosing optimal development strategy. According to the obtained results, drilling of the exploration wells for blocks 1 and 3 of the field X is a good decision, while drilling a well in the second block is risky and not recommended. Also using the value of information, optimal well locations were advised - well l_le for the first block, and well 33 for the third block.

  3. Investigation of self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderlin, W I; Downing, J P; Enderlin, C W; Sanquist, T F; Pope, W S

    1992-06-01

    The US Coast Guard commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct this study of 45 self-help oil-spill response techniques and equipment for oceangoing tankers and inland tank barges to assess the potential effectiveness of the proposed countermeasure categories. This study considers the hypothetical outflow of oil in the case of side damage and bottom damage to single-hull designs. The results will be considered by the Coast Guard in drafting regulations pertaining to the requirement for tanker vessels to carry oil pollution response equipment (i.e., in response to the oil Pollution Act of 1990). PNL's approach to this investigation included: assessing time-dependent oil outflow in the cases of collision and grounding of both tankers and barges; identifying environmental constraints on self-help countermeasure operation; identifying human factor issues, such as crew performance, safety, and training requirements for the self-help countermeasures considered; and assessing each self-help countermeasure with respect to its potential for minimizing oil loss to the environment. Results from the time-dependent oil outflow, environmental limitations, and human factors requirements were input into a simulation model.

  4. Novel Chromatic Technique Based on Optical Absorbance in Characterizing Mineral Hydraulic Oil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Ossia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A low cost, compact, real-time, and quick measurement optical device based on the absorbance of white light, which comprised of photodiodes in a 3-element color-sensor, feedback diodes, water and temperature sensing element, and so on, was developed and tested in low absorption mineral oil. The device, a deviation from conventional electrical, mechanical, and electrochemical techniques, uses color ratio (CR and total contamination index (TCI parameters based on transmitted light intensity in RGB wavelengths for oil condition monitoring. Test results showed that CR corroborated CIE chromaticity (- Coordinates and increased with oil degradation unlike Saturation and Hue . CR was found to be independent of the particulate contaminants of oil, but dependent on chemical degradation. TCI depended on both chemical degradation and particulate contaminants in oil, being most sensitive in the blue wavelength range and least in the green. Furthermore, results agreed with those of viscometry, total acid number (TAN, and UV-VIS photospectrometry. CR and TCI gave clearer indication of oil degradation than key monitoring parameters like TAN and were found to be effective criteria for characterizing the degradation of hydraulic mineral oils.

  5. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new technique for extraction of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Maryline Abert; Fernandez, Xavier; Visinoni, Franco; Chemat, Farid

    2008-05-09

    A new process design and operation for the extraction of essential oils was developed. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) is a combination of microwaves for hydrodiffusion of essential oils from the inside to the exterior of biological material and earth gravity to collect and separate. MHG is performed at atmospheric pressure without adding any solvent or water. MHG has been compared with a conventional technique, hydrodistillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from two aromatic herbs: spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) belonging to the Labiatae family. The essential oils extracted by MHG for 15 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 90 min. MHG also prevents pollution through potential 90% of energy saved which can lead to greenhouse gas emission benefits.

  6. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

  7. An Agglomeration Law for Sorting Networks and its Application in Functional Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Immanuel Schiller

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we will present a general agglomeration law for sorting networks. Agglomeration is a common technique when designing parallel programmes to control the granularity of the computation thereby finding a better fit between the algorithm and the machine on which the algorithm runs. Usually this is done by grouping smaller tasks and computing them en bloc within one parallel process. In the case of sorting networks this could be done by computing bigger parts of the network with one ...

  8. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Ivlev, Alexei; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong dust density waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilising the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  9. Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

    2013-01-01

    Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale.

  10. Cost-Effective ERT Technique for Oil-in-Water Measurement for Offshore Hydrocyclone Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... principle is to measure the resistivity of substances from multiple electrodes and from these measurements create a 2-D image of the oil and gas component in the water. This technique requires the measured components to have different electrical resistances, such as seawater which has a lower electrical...... resistance than hydrocarbon oil and gas. This work involves construction of a pilot plant, for testing the feasibility of ERT for OiW measurements, and further exploring if this measured signal can be applied as a reliable feedback signal in optimization of the hydrocyclone's efficiency. Different algorithms...

  11. Study of Metal Agglomeration and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-02

    of agglomerating particles in SL which, in turn, depends on the level of adhesion ( Fadh ) and aerodynamic (Faer) forces, discontinuity of SL and...influences the value of Fadh . On the whole, the FL properties might be determined by the ratio between Tign and the degradation temperature of...drop in Fadh contributes to decreasing the intensity of «inter-pocket» fusion and increasing the agglomerate dispersity. Hence, in spite of the

  12. Study on a New Technique of On-line Monitoring of Oil Contamination Level Using Computer Vision Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Qun-zhang; ZUO Hong-fu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,a new technique of capturing the images of debris in lubrication or hydraulic oil using micro-imaging and computer vision techniques is introduced.By way of image processing,the size and distribution of debris are obtained,and then the oil contamination level is also obtained.Because the information of oil contamination is obtained directly from the images of debris by this method,the monitoring result is more intuitive and reliable.

  13. Atomic absorption techniques for determining vanadium and nickel in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grizzle, P.L.; Wilson, C.A.; Ferrero, E.P.; Coleman, H.J.

    1977-05-01

    Four different techniques for sample preparation were evaluated for determining vanadium and nickel in crude oils by atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy: (1) The flame-analyzed dilution method which consists of direct-flame AA analysis after diluting the sample with a suitable organic solvent; (2) the flame-analyzed, wet-ashing method in which the sample is combusted and the residue is then dissolved before flame analysis; (3) the flameless, dilution method which involves flameless AA analysis of the sample following dilution with a suitable organic solvent; and (4) the direct, flameless method in which the crude oil or residue is directly analyzed by flameless AA. The flame-analyzed dilution method yielded erratic and inaccurate analytical results for samples of crude oils as well as for a residual sample containing standard amounts of vanadium and nickel; hence, it is unsatisfactory for oil-identification. Similarly, the direct, flameless method is unsatisfactory owing to the small concentration range available for analysis (less than approximately 15 ppM). Both the flame-analyzed, wet-ashing and flameless-dilution methods yield reliable and reproducible (better than 10%) quantitative data for nickel and vanadium in crude oils and crude oil residues. Results demonstrate that the error associated with the loss of volatile metal containing compounds upon wet-ashing is within the reproducibility of the technique. Although wet-ashing may be slightly more reproducible, the flameless-dilution method is much simpler and faster and is recommended as the better of the two procedures for routine determinations of trace metals for oil identification.

  14. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  15. Agglomeration Evolution of Nano-Particles Aluminium in Normal Incident Shock Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zheng-Xin; WU Jing-He; HU Dong; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Agglomeration behaviour of nano-particle aluminium (nano-Al) in normal incident shock waves is investigated by our devised shock tube technology. The morphology, particle size, agglomeration process of nano-Al studied in normal incident shock waves are comprehensible evaluated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The above-mentioned techniques show that the high strength and temperature of incident shock wave give a chance for activity of nano-Al in the reactions and decrease the agglomeration, and the morphology of agglomeration is affected by the temperature of nano-Al reaction region. The dynamic temperature of reaction region determined by the intensity ratio of two AlO bands is 2602K, which is closer to nano-Al actual reacted temperature than the determined temperature of ordinary methods (i.e. six channel instantaneous optical pyrometer; plank black body radiation law, etc.)

  16. Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles Using an Automated Millikan Oil Drop Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, V.; Kim, P.; Lee, E. R.; Lee, I. T.; Loomba, D.; Perl, M. L.

    2000-03-20

    We have carried out a direct search in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied--about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71x10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  17. Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles Using an Automated Millikan Oil Drop Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, V.; Kim, P.; Lee, E. R.; Lee, I. T.; Loomba, D.; Perl, M. L.

    2000-03-01

    We have carried out a direct search in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied-about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16e ( e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71×10-22 particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  18. Diffusion and reaction in microbead agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Träuble, Markus; Wittstock, Gunther

    2010-04-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy has been used to analyze the flux of p-aminonophenol (PAP) produced by agglomerates of polymeric microbeads modified with galactosidase as a model system for the bead-based heterogeneous immunoassays. With the use of mixtures of enzyme-modified and bare beads in defined ratio, agglomerates with different saturation levels of the enzyme modification were produced. The PAP flux depends on the intrinsic kinetics of the galactosidase, the local availability of the substrate p-aminophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (PAPG), and the external mass transport conditions in the surrounding of the agglomerate and the internal mass transport within the bead agglomerate. The internal mass transport is influenced by the diffusional shielding of the modified beads by unmodified beads. SECM in combination with optical microscopy was used to determine experimentally the external flux. These data are in quantitative agreement with boundary element simulation considering the SECM microelectrode as an interacting probe and treating the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzyme as nonlinear boundary conditions with two independent concentration variables [PAP] and [PAPG]. The PAPG concentration at the surface of the bead agglomerate was taken as a boundary condition for the analysis of the internal mass transport condition as a function of the enzyme saturation in the bead agglomerate. The results of this analysis are represented as PAP flux per contributing modified bead and the flux from freely suspended galactosidase-modified beads. These numbers are compared to the same number from the SECM experiments. It is shown that depending on the enzyme saturation level a different situation can arise where either beads located at the outer surface of the agglomerate dominate the contribution to the measured external flux or where the contribution of buried beads cannot be neglected for explaining the measured external flux.

  19. Kinetic energy density and agglomerate abrasion rate during blending of agglomerates into powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Rubingh, Carina M; Tran, Thanh N; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2012-01-23

    Problems related to the blending of a cohesive powder with a free flowing bulk powder are frequently encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. The cohesive powder often forms lumps or agglomerates which are not dispersed during the mixing process and are therefore detrimental to blend uniformity. Achieving sufficient blend uniformity requires that the blending conditions are able to break up agglomerates, which is often an abrasion process. This study was based on the assumption that the abrasion rate of agglomerates determines the required blending time. It is shown that the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed is a relevant parameter which correlates with the abrasion rate of agglomerates. However, aspects related to the strength of agglomerates should also be considered. For this reason the Stokes abrasion number (St(Abr)) has been defined. This parameter describes the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. The St(Abr) number is shown to predict the abrasion potential of agglomerates in the dry-mixing process. It appeared possible to include effects of filler particle size and impeller rotational rate into this concept. A clear relationship between abrasion rate of agglomerates and the value of St(Abr) was demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, Maria Loredana; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cobzac, Simona Codruta, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: {alpha} and {beta}-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  1. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  2. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method.

  3. Vegetable oil as fuel for electric power generation at Rondonia, BR, small agglomerate as way of revenue generation; Oleo vegetal como combustivel para energia eletrica em pequenos aglomerados de Rondonia como forma de geracao de renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, Artur de Souza [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UNIR), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)]. E-mail: amoret@unir.br

    2006-07-01

    This text approaches the question energy having as based alternative combustible reference in vegetal oils and the Decentralized Generation of Energy, for attendance of isolated systems and with small load, having as conceptual base the partner-economic-ambient sustain ability, being the economic chain of the entailed and conditional energy to the ambient, social aspects, technician, politicians, financiers and economics. This text intends to demonstrate to the mechanisms used in a research and development project (P and D) for the determination and domain of energy generation, electricity and power, from vegetal oils of suitable oleaginous to the State of Rondonia for a Extractive Reserve. Having as reference the contribution for the local and sustainable development of isolated localities, for the generation of job and income, for the energy self-sufficiency of isolated localities and to make available alternative to the companies of the electric sector of energy availability of isolated communities. (author)

  4. A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

    2010-05-01

    The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are

  5. An overview of uncertainty quantification techniques with application to oceanic and oil-spill simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Iskandarani, Mohamed

    2016-04-22

    We give an overview of four different ensemble-based techniques for uncertainty quantification and illustrate their application in the context of oil plume simulations. These techniques share the common paradigm of constructing a model proxy that efficiently captures the functional dependence of the model output on uncertain model inputs. This proxy is then used to explore the space of uncertain inputs using a large number of samples, so that reliable estimates of the model\\'s output statistics can be calculated. Three of these techniques use polynomial chaos (PC) expansions to construct the model proxy, but they differ in their approach to determining the expansions\\' coefficients; the fourth technique uses Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). An integral plume model for simulating the Deepwater Horizon oil-gas blowout provides examples for illustrating the different techniques. A Monte Carlo ensemble of 50,000 model simulations is used for gauging the performance of the different proxies. The examples illustrate how regression-based techniques can outperform projection-based techniques when the model output is noisy. They also demonstrate that robust uncertainty analysis can be performed at a fraction of the cost of the Monte Carlo calculation.

  6. Applying CFD in the Analysis of Heavy-Oil Transportation in Curved Pipes Using Core-Flow Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Conceição

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase flow of oil, gas and water occurs in the petroleum industry from the reservoir to the processing units. The occurrence of heavy oils in the world is increasing significantly and points to the need for greater investment in the reservoirs exploitation and, consequently, to the development of new technologies for the production and transport of this oil. Therefore, it is interesting improve techniques to ensure an increase in energy efficiency in the transport of this oil. The core-flow technique is one of the most advantageous methods of lifting and transporting of oil. The core-flow technique does not alter the oil viscosity, but change the flow pattern and thus, reducing friction during heavy oil transportation. This flow pattern is characterized by a fine water pellicle that is formed close to the inner wall of the pipe, aging as lubricant of the oil flowing in the core of the pipe. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to study the isothermal flow of heavy oil in curved pipelines, employing the core-flow technique. A three-dimensional, transient and isothermal mathematical model that considers the mixture and k-e  turbulence models to address the gas-water-heavy oil three-phase flow in the pipe was applied for analysis. Simulations with different flow patterns of the involved phases (oil-gas-water have been done, in order to optimize the transport of heavy oils. Results of pressure and volumetric fraction distribution of the involved phases are presented and analyzed. It was verified that the oil core lubricated by a fine water layer flowing in the pipe considerably decreases pressure drop.

  7. Compression Behaviour of Porous Dust Agglomerates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    The early planetesimal growth proceeds through a sequence of sticking collisions of dust agglomerates. Very uncertain is still the relative velocity regime in which growth rather than destruction can take place. The outcome of a collision depends on the bulk properties of the porous dust agglomerates. Continuum models of dust agglomerates require a set of material parameters that are often difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments. Here, we aim at determining those parameters from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our goal is to improveon the existing model that describe the interaction of individual monomers. We use a molecular dynamics approach featuring a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. The model includes normal forces, rolling, twisting and sliding between the dust grains. We present a new treatment of wall-particle interaction that allows us to perform customized simulations that directly correspond to laboratory experiments. We find that the existing i...

  8. Comparing Parameter Estimation Techniques for an Electrical Power Transformer Oil Temperature Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines various sources of error in MIT's improved top oil temperature rise over ambient temperature model and estimation process. The sources of error are the current parameter estimation technique, quantization noise, and post-processing of the transformer data. Results from this paper will show that an output error parameter estimation technique should be selected to replace the current least squares estimation technique. The output error technique obtained accurate predictions of transformer behavior, revealed the best error covariance, obtained consistent parameter estimates, and provided for valid and sensible parameters. This paper will also show that the output error technique should be used to minimize errors attributed to post-processing (decimation) of the transformer data. Models used in this paper are validated using data from a large transformer in service.

  9. Developmental research study of coal-fines agglomeration for fixed-bed gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmquist, S.A.; Girimont, J.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Kuby, O.A.; Nelson, S.G.; Paulin, M.O.; Peterson, C.A.; Baker, R.L.; Saller, E.

    1983-05-31

    This report presents the results of an intensive program to develop and evaluate agglomerates made from coal fines for use in a fixed-bed gasifier. There were several tasks completed earlier and their results published prior to this final report. These included: Task 1-A, a literature survey of coal agglomeration, binders and techniques used in coal agglomeration, coal and binder treatments and the results of work done by others; Task 1-B, an examination of performance of lump coals in coal gasification, testing and evaluation of the properties of these coals, and evaluation of mine site coal upgrading methods; and Task 1-C/D, a laboratory investigation of coal agglomerates, including wafers, briquettes and pellets, in which the agglomerated coal fines were formed and tested, and the performance of various coal/binder combinations was recorded and evaluated, and factors affecting commercial scale coal agglomeration and gasification were evaluated. These three prior tasks are presented in this report in condensed form.

  10. AGGLOMERATIONS BENEFITS OF THE CULTURE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Ludwiczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to find another interpretation of culture, an economic one as a significant local asset development conducive to the formation of agglomeration benefits through the mechanism of the presence of the creative class. The paper presented below provides a framework for thinking about this matter on the basis of economics. The article is a research hypothesis, yet nowhere formulated. Therefore, further empirical re-search is needed, particularly in relation to the villages of average size, indicating how culture is one factor contributing to the formation of the benefits of agglomeration.

  11. Novel Chromatic Technique Based on Optical Absorbance in Characterizing Mineral Hydraulic Oil Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Ossia, C. V.; Kong, H

    2012-01-01

    A low cost, compact, real-time, and quick measurement optical device based on the absorbance of white light, which comprised of photodiodes in a 3-element color-sensor, feedback diodes, water and temperature sensing element, and so on, was developed and tested in low absorption mineral oil. The device, a deviation from conventional electrical, mechanical, and electrochemical techniques, uses color ratio (CR) and total contamination index (TCI) parameters based on transmitted light intensity i...

  12. Integrated Analysis of the Wood Oil from Xanthocyparis vietnamensis Farjon & Hiep. by Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophélie Bazzali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to get better knowledge about the volatiles produced by Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, a species recently discovered in Vietnam, its wood oil has been analyzed by a combination of chromatographic (GC, CC and spectroscopic (GC-MS, 13C-NMR techniques. Forty components that accounted for 87.9% of the oil composition have been identified. The composition is dominated by nootkatene (20.7%, 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10-en-7-one (17.2%, γ-eudesmol (5.1%, nootkatone (4.7%, valencene (3.5% and 13-nor-eremophil-1(10-en-11-one (2.6%. The structure of two new compounds—10-epi-nor-γ-eudesmen-11-one and 12-hydroxy-isodihydroagarofuran—has been elucidated, while 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10-en-7-ol is reported as a natural product for the first time. The composition of X. vietnamensis wood oil varied drastically from those of leaf oils, dominated by hedycaryol (34.4%, phyllocladene (37.8% or by pimara-6(14-15-diene (19.4%.

  13. Integrated Analysis of the Wood Oil from Xanthocyparis vietnamensis Farjon & Hiep. by Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzali, Ophélie; Thai, Tran Huy; Hoi, Tran Minh; Khang, Nguyen Sinh; Hien, Nguyen Thi; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange; Tomi, Félix

    2016-06-27

    In order to get better knowledge about the volatiles produced by Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, a species recently discovered in Vietnam, its wood oil has been analyzed by a combination of chromatographic (GC, CC) and spectroscopic (GC-MS, (13)C-NMR) techniques. Forty components that accounted for 87.9% of the oil composition have been identified. The composition is dominated by nootkatene (20.7%), 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10)-en-7-one (17.2%), γ-eudesmol (5.1%), nootkatone (4.7%), valencene (3.5%) and 13-nor-eremophil-1(10)-en-11-one (2.6%). The structure of two new compounds-10-epi-nor-γ-eudesmen-11-one and 12-hydroxy-isodihydroagarofuran-has been elucidated, while 11,12,13-tri-nor-eremophil-1(10)-en-7-ol is reported as a natural product for the first time. The composition of X. vietnamensis wood oil varied drastically from those of leaf oils, dominated by hedycaryol (34.4%), phyllocladene (37.8%) or by pimara-6(14)-15-diene (19.4%).

  14. NMR analysis of aldehydes in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by DPFGSE techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rotondo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The DPFGSE NMR sequences open new perspectives in the volatile compounds analysis of food matrices. Many fresh extra-virgin Sicilian olive oils, analyzed by this technique, show two main resonances in the aldehydic spectral region (9–10 ppm, at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm. The former was never reported so far, the latter was sometime highlighted as a minor aldehydic component signal of spectra showing stronger resonances at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm. Thermal treatment at 220°C of extra virgin olive oil samples lead to the complete transformation of the resonances at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm into those at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm in 50 minutes. Analogous transformation takes place place in CDCl3 at rt in several weeks. These results suggest the transformation of relatively unstable compounds into thermodynamically more stable products whose resonances are commonly reported in the literature. Even though these chemical changes involve minimal amount of product, they are of crucial importance to define: i organoleptic extra virgin olive oil properties; ii fraudulent chemical or thermal treatment detection; iii extra virgin oil ageing.

  15. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC; An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 5220, respectively and temperature values varied between 10-50ºC were used for the experiment. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 40 min of adsorption time. Partition coefficients, kd (L/kg for various samples reacted inversely with temperature and were in the ranges of 0.37-0.69, 0.65-1.11, 1.28-2.04, 1.17-1.39 and 1.23-4.53 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. percentage of crude oil samples on the AOMC decreased with low crude oil hydrocarbons and the trend was shown as follows D>C >A>E>B. Percentage ranges for samples A, B, C,D and E were given to be 86.8-88%, 60.5-72.4, 52.5-55.2, 47.9-55.4 and 45.3-49.2%, respectively. Sorption of the crude oil samples to AOMC was found to be spontaneous, exothermic, and physio-sorption controlled with G values being in the ranges of -71.49 to -21.29, -18.25 to -5.43, -30.24 to -21.11, -28.55 to -11.33 and -50.74 to -50.12 KJ/mol for samples A ,B , C , D and E, respectively. Enthalpy(H and Entropy changes(S were also found to be -10.28, -12.24, -8.92, -6.9, -50.28 J/mol/K and -2.92, -0.32, -0.50, -0.44, -0.01 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Activated orange meso-carp provides a veritable environmentally remediation technique for crude oil spillage.

  16. Oil Spill Detection and Tracking Using Lipschitz Regularity and Multiscale Techniques in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Automatic oil spill detection and tracking from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is a difficult task, due in large part to the inhomogeneous properties of the sea surface, the high level of speckle inherent in SAR data, the complexity and the highly non-Gaussian nature of amplitude information, and the low temporal sampling that is often achieved with SAR systems. This research presents a promising new oil spill detection and tracking method that is based on time series of SAR images. Through the combination of a number of advanced image processing techniques, the develop approach is able to mitigate some of these previously mentioned limitations of SAR-based oil-spill detection and enables fully automatic spill detection and tracking across a wide range of spatial scales. The method combines an initial automatic texture analysis with a consecutive change detection approach based on multi-scale image decomposition. The first step of the approach, a texture transformation of the original SAR images, is performed in order to normalize the ocean background and enhance the contrast between oil-covered and oil-free ocean surfaces. The Lipschitz regularity (LR), a local texture parameter, is used here due to its proven ability to normalize the reflectivity properties of ocean water and maximize the visibly of oil in water. To calculate LR, the images are decomposed using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D-CWT), and transformed into Holder space to measure LR. After texture transformation, the now normalized images are inserted into our multi-temporal change detection algorithm. The multi-temporal change detection approach is a two-step procedure including (1) data enhancement and filtering and (2) multi-scale automatic change detection. The performance of the developed approach is demonstrated by an application to oil spill areas in the Gulf of Mexico. In this example, areas affected by oil spills were identified from a series of ALOS PALSAR images

  17. Bipolar charged aerosol agglomeration and collection by a two zone agglomerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In older to collect fine particles more efficiently, a new-type electrostatic agglomerator with two sones was developed. The distinguishing feature of this electrostatic agglomerator is that the particles are bipolarly charged and coagulated in the same alternating electric field simultaneously. The silica flour with 2 μm mass median diameter and the smoke from burning wood powder were used as test aerosol. The comparison experimental results have shown that when the mean electric field is 4 kV/cm the collection efficiency of the new electrostatic agglomerator was 98.2% for silica flour and 67.4% for wood powder smoke. Under the same experimental condition, the collection efficiency of the electrostatic agglomerator with three zones was 97.4% for collecting silica flour and the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator was 56.3% for wood powder smoke.

  18. Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods: Bio-oil Analytical Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Christensen, Earl D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge TN USA; Stankovikj, Filip [Washington State University (WSU), Pullman WA USA; Meier, Dietrich [Thünen Institute of Wood Research (TI), Hamburg Germany; Paasikallio, Ville [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (VTT), Espoo Finland

    2016-07-05

    In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 degrees C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.

  19. Direct technique for monitoring lipid oxidation in water-in-oil emulsions based on micro-calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Wafa; Toutain, Jean; Sommier, Alain; Essafi, Wafa; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Cansell, Maud

    2017-09-01

    An experimental device based on the measurement of the heat flux dissipated during chemical reactions, previously validated for monitoring lipid oxidation in plant oils, was extended to follow lipid oxidation in water-in-oil emulsions. Firstly, validation of the approach was performed by correlating conjugated diene concentrations measured by spectrophotometry and the heat flux dissipated by oxidation reactions and measured directly in water-in-oil emulsions, in isothermal conditions at 60°C. Secondly, several emulsions based on plant oils differing in their n-3 fatty acid content were compared. The oxidability parameter derived from the enthalpy curves reflected the α-linolenic acid proportion in the oils. On the whole, the micro-calorimetry technique provides a sensitive method to assess lipid oxidation in water-in-oil emulsions without requiring any phase extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Water migration mechanisms in amorphous powder material and related agglomeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renzetti, S.; Voogt, J.A.; Oliver, L.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    The agglomeration phenomenon of amorphous particulate material is a major problem in the food industry. Currently, the glass transition temperature (Tg) is used as a fundamental parameter to describe and control agglomeration. Models are available that describe the kinetics of the agglomeration proc

  1. Investigation of coalescence kinetics of microcristalline cellulose in fluidised bed spray agglomeration: experimental studies and modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peglow

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a model for fluidized bed spray agglomeration is presented. To describe the processes of heat and mass transfer, a physical based model is derived. The model takes evaporation process from the wetted particles as well as the effects of transfer phenomena between suspension gas and bypass gas into account. The change of particle size distribution during agglomeration, modeled by population balances, is linked to the heat and mass transfer model. A new technique is derived to extract agglomeration and nucleation rates from experimental data. Comparisons of experiments and simulations are presented.

  2. Aplication of AVO Technique to Gas Exploration in Liaohe Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changqing; Zhou Faping

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) technique uses prestack seismic data to predict reservoirs and detect hydrocarbon. We used AVO to find gas for the first time in Liaohe Oil Fields. Both real and synthetic data show that the typical AVO characteristics of gas reservoirs in Liaohe Basin appears dominantly as dim spots and occasionally bright spots. But the bright spot reservoirs are only restricted at depths less than 1 000 m These features can function as detection criteria for the application of AVO to gas exploration in Damintun Depression. which have been proved by real data to be right and reliable.

  3. Labor market pooling and occupational agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe, Todd M.; Jaison R. Abel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the micro-foundations of occupational agglomeration in U.S. metropolitan areas, with an emphasis on labor market pooling. Controlling for a wide range of occupational attributes, including proxies for the use of specialized machinery and for the importance of knowledge spillovers, we find that jobs characterized by a unique knowledge base exhibit higher levels of geographic concentration than do occupations with generic knowledge requirements. Further, by analyzing co-aggl...

  4. Specialization and Agglomeration Patterns in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman, Sheila A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates specialization and agglomeration trends in EU-27 NUTS2 regions over 1991-2011 by means of two versions of the relative Theil indicator that use employment data. The paper’s main focus is on Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs regions. As a legacy of central planning, in the early ‘Nineties these regions presented significantly above-average specialization and agglomeration. The paper shows that over 1991-2011 these features change very little; moreover, while disproportions fall in the other EU members, they rise in CEECs, implying growing divergence among the two groups in real terms, notwithstanding EU emphasis on real convergence. Indicators disaggregated by sectors show that for CEECs specialization/agglomeration change most in agriculture, market services and manufacturing. The paper focuses on the last two sectors. It argues that performance in the service sector is largely due to capital regions catching up on previous underdevelopment in the sector, therefore getting closer to Western regions. Non-capital regions instead lag behind, moving away from the EU sectoral average. As far as manufacturing is concerned, CEECs regions continue to specialize in the more traditional lines of production, for which also agglomeration remains extremely high. Consideration of the changes over time gives a partially different picture and shows that the higher specialization in overall manufacturing results from the development of a small but dynamic medium-high technology sub-sector that is significantly disseminated across regions, thus appearing to result from successful industrial restructuring and reconversion.

  5. Chemical variability and biological activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils depending on geographic variation and extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Souhila, Terfi; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. GC and GC-MS analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors influencing particle agglomeration during solid-state sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Shao-Hua Chen

    2012-01-01

    Discrete element method (DEM) is used to study the factors affecting agglomeration in three-dimensional copper particle systems during solid-state sintering.A new parameter is proposed to characterize agglomeration.The effects of a series of factors are studied,including particle size,size distribution,inter-particle tangential viscosity,temperature,initial density and initial distribution of particles on agglomeration.We find that the systems with smaller particles,broader particle size distribution,smaller viscosity,higher sintering temperature and smaller initial density have stronger particle agglomeration and different distributions of particles induce different agglomerations.This study should be very useful for understanding the phenomenon of agglomeration and the micro-structural evolution during sintering and guiding sintering routes to avoid detrimental agglomeration.

  7. Numerical Modelling of Agglomeration and Deagglomeration in Dry Powder Inhalers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Numerical modelling using computational fluid mechanics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) becomes increasingly prevalent for the exploration of agglomeration and deagglomeration in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). These techniques provide detailed information on air flow and particle-particle/wall interaction, respectively. Coupling of CFD and DEM enables an in-depth investigation of the mechanisms at the microscopic level. This paper reviews the applications of CFD and DEM in DPI development and optimisation. The recent progress in modelling of two key processes in DPIs, i.e. agglomeration and deagglomeration, is presented. It has been demonstrated that DEM-CFD is a promising numerical approach to investigate the underlying agglomeration and deagglomeration mechanisms for DPIs. With further advances in computing capacity, it is expected that DEM-CFD will be capable of addressing more realistic and complicated issues in DPI improvement.

  8. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  9. High-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique in deep-well oil shale roadways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Bai Jianbiao; Wang Xiangyu; Wang Junde; Xue Shizhi; Xu Ke

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the deep-well oil shale roadway being deformed, damaged, or difficult to maintain after excavating and supporting in Haishiwan coal mine, this paper has analyzed the characteristics of the deformed roadway and revealed its failure mechanism by taking comprehensively the methods of field geological investigation, displacement monitoring of surrounding rock, rock properties and hydration properties experiments and field application tests. Based on this work, the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting principle is proposed, which is:to‘resist’ by high pre-tightening force and high stiff-ness in the early stage, to‘yield’ by making use of the controlled deformation of a yielding tube in the middle stage, and to‘fix’ by applying total-section Gunite in the later stage. A high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique of‘high pre-tightening force yielding anchor bolt+small-bore pre-tight-ening force anchor cable+rebar ladder beam+rhombic metal mesh+lagging gunite’ has been estab-lished, and industrial on site testing implemented. The practical results show that the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique can effectively control the large deformation and long-time rhe-ology of deep-well oil shale roadways and can provide beneficial references for the maintenance of other con-generic roadways.

  10. Agglomeration rate and action forces between atomized particles of agglomerator and inhaled-particles from coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng; ZHANG Jun-ying; ZHENG Chu-guang

    2005-01-01

    In order to remove efficiently haled-particles emissions from coal combustions, a new way was used to put forward the process of agglomeration and the atomization was produced by the nozzle and then sprayed into the flue before precipitation devices of power station boiler in order to make inhaled-particles agglomerate into bigger particles, which can be easily removed but not change existing running conditions of boiler. According to this idea, a model is set up to study agglomeration rate and effect forces between fly ash inhaledparticles and atomized agglomerator particles. The developed agglomeration rate was expressed by relative particle number decreasing speed per unit volume. The result showed that viscosity force and flow resistance force give main influences on agglomeration effect of inhaled particles, while springiness force and gravity have little effect on agglomeration effect of theirs. Factors influencing the agglomeration rate and effect forces are studied, including agglomerator concentration, agglomerator flux and agglomerator density,atomized-particles diameters and inhaled-particles diameter and so on.

  11. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec

  12. Hyperspectral Imagery for Mapping Disease Infection in Oil Palm PlantationUsing Vegetation Indices and Red Edge Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Z.M. Shafri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Large scale plantation of oil palm trees requires on-time detection of diseases as the ganoderma basal stem rot disease was present in more than 50% of the oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. Approach: To deal with this problem, airborne hyperspectral imagery offers a better solution in order to detect and map the oil palm trees that were affected by the disease on time. Airborne hyperspectral can provide data on user requirement and has the capability of acquiring data in narrow and contiguous spectral bands which makes it possible to discriminate between healthy and diseased plants better compared to multispectral imagery. By using vegetation indices and red edge techniques, the condition of oil palm trees could be determined accurately. Results: Generally, all of these techniques showed better results as they could give accuracy between 73 and 84%. The highest accuracy was achieved by using Lagrangian interpolation technique with 84% of overall accuracy. Conclusions/Recommendations: The red edge based techniques were more effective than vegetation indices in detecting Ganoderma-infected oil palm trees plantation since there were three out of four techniques that could yield high accuracy results.

  13. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF MIXED XEROGRAPHIC TONER AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuixia Wang,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Agglomeration phenomena of two mixed xerographic toners were investigated using 1-octadecanol as the agglomeration agent and a cationic surfactant as the co-agglomeration agent. One toner carrying no surface charge agglomerated well under most conditions, while the other toner carrying a negative surface charge performed worse. It was found that when mixing these two toners together during pulping and when using 1-octadecanol as the agglomeration agent alone, there was an additive effect on agglomeration. On the other hand, addition of a small amount of cationic surfactant dramatically enhanced the mixed toner agglomeration efficiency and generated an obvious synergistic effect. The particle number after agglomeration was significantly reduced, and the particle size was greatly increased compared to the single toner agglomeration. The optimal amount of the cationic surfactant was close to the optimal cationic surfactant demand of the negatively charged toner. Based on these findings it can be recommended that the cationic surfactant should be added during agglomeration of the mixed office waste paper, and its optimal dosage needs to be chosen to reach the best performance.

  14. Best available techniques (BATs) for oil spill response in the Mediterranean Sea: calm sea and presence of economic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Giambattista; Sliskovic, Merica; Violante, Anna Carmela; Vukic, Luka

    2016-01-01

    An oil spill is the accidental or intentional discharge of petroleum products into the environment due to human activities. Although oil spills are actually just a little percent of the total world oil pollution problem, they represent the most visible form of it. The impact on the ecosystems can be severe as well as the impact on economic activities. Oil spill cleanup is a very difficult and expensive activity, and many techniques are available for it. In previous works, a methodology based on different kinds of criteria in order to come to the most satisfactory technique was proposed and the relative importance of each impact criterion on the basis of the Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was also evaluated. After a review of the best available techniques (BATs) available for oil spill response, this work suggests criteria for BATs' selection when oil spills occur in the Mediterranean Sea under well-defined circumstances: calm sea and presence of economic activities in the affected area. A group of experts with different specializations evaluated the alternative BATs by means of AHP method taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used.Methods and Results: Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented...... with 100 and 250 mu l l(-1) essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 mu l l(-1) volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage...... and rosemary oils had very limited effects. Mustard and lemongrass were the most effective oils by the volatile method, and orange, sage and one rosemary showed some effects. Oil compositions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrography.Conclusions: Antifungal effects of the essential oils depended...

  16. Models of agglomeration and glass transition

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This book is for any physicist interested in new vistas in the domain of non-crystalline condensed matter, aperiodic and quasi-crystalline networks and especially glass physics and chemistry. Students with an elementary background in thermodynamics and statistical physics will find the book accessible. The physics of glasses is extensively covered, focusing on their thermal and mechanical properties, as well as various models leading to the formation of the glassy states of matter from overcooled liquids. The models of agglomeration and growth are also applied to describe the formation of quasicrystals, fullerenes and, in biology, to describe virus assembly pathways.

  17. The soundscape dynamics of human agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V; De Souza, Rodolfo T; Lenzi, Ervin K; Mendes, Renio S; Evangelista, Luiz R, E-mail: hvr@dfi.uem.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    We report on a statistical analysis of the people agglomeration soundscape. Specifically, we investigate the normalized sound amplitudes and intensities that emerge from human collective meetings. Our findings support the existence of non-trivial dynamics characterized by heavy tail distributions in the sound amplitudes, long-range correlations in the sound intensity and non-exponential distributions in the return interval distributions. Additionally, motivated by the time-dependent behavior present in the volatility/variance series, we compare the observational data with those obtained from a minimalist autoregressive stochastic model, namely the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic process (the GARCH process), and find that there is good agreement.

  18. Comparison of oil refining and biodiesel production process between screw press and n-hexane techniques from beauty leaf feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.

    2016-07-01

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.

  19. Isolation of palm oil-utilising, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing bacteria by an enrichment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Zazali; Tan, Irene K P

    2005-07-01

    In early attempts to isolate palm oil-utilising bacteria from palm oil mill effluent (POME), diluted liquid samples of POME were spread on agar containing POME as primary nutrient. 45 purified colonies were screened for intracellular lipids by staining with Sudan Black B. Of these, 10 isolates were positively stained. The latter were grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium with palm olein (a triglyceride) or saponified palm olein (salts of fatty acids) as carbon source. None of the isolates grew in the palm olein medium but all grew well in the saponified palm olein medium. Of the latter however, only one isolate was positively stained with Nile Blue A, indicating the presence of PHA. This method did not successfully generate bacterial isolates which could metabolise palm olein to produce PHA. An enrichment technique was therefore developed whereby a selective medium was designed. The latter comprised minerals and palm olein (1% w/v) as sole carbon source to which POME (2.5% v/v) was added as the source of bacteria. The culture was incubated with shaking at 30 degrees C for 4 weeks. Out of seven isolates obtained from the selective medium, two isolates, FLP1 and FLP2, could utilise palm olein for growth and production of the homopolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). FLP1 is gram-negative and is identified (BIOLOG) to have 80% similarity to Burkholderia cepacia. When grown with propionate or valerate, FLP1 produced a copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).

  20. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils.

  1. Increased Oil Production and Reserves From Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.; Deo, M.D.

    1998-04-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Colton (Wasatch) Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in the ancestral Lake Uinta. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1000 to 3000 vertical ft (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. Completion techniques used in the Bluebell field were discussed in detail in the Second Annual Report (Curtice, 1996). The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more

  2. Constructing Political Region Agglomerations for Effective Science Communcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Often political regions form a better scale for modeling than regulargrids, since they are used for collecting socioeconomic data and aremore relevant to stakeholders and policy-makers. However, differentpolitical regions can enclose very different areas, populations,ranges of climatic variability, and for many countries there are anundesireable number of regions available at any administrative level.We provide a solution to this problem, by providing a general systemfor agglomerating regions to a larger scale, to approximately optimizearbitrary objectives. These regions provide an intermediate scale formodeling and greater comparability than unagglomerated regions. Wefirst apply the approach to the US, producing region agglomerationsthat normalize region size, population, income, and climaticvariability. We then apply the technique globally, generating acononical collection of regions for studying the impacts of climatechange.

  3. Kinetic energy density and agglomerate abrasion rate during blending of agglomerates into powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Rubingh, Carina M; Tran, Thanh N; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the blending of a cohesive powder with a free flowing bulk powder are frequently encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. The cohesive powder often forms lumps or agglomerates which are not dispersed during the mixing process and are therefore detrimental to blend uniformity.

  4. Evaluation of cross correlation technique to measure flow in pipes of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilan, Eddie J., E-mail: eddieavilan@gmail.com [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Reis, Verginia, E-mail: verginia@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Barreira, Luis E.; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Radiofarmacos

    2013-07-01

    The present work is concerned with the use of the cross correlation technique to measure delay time between two simulated signals displaced with respect to time, in order to develop a cross correlator system that will be used to measure the water and oil pipes flowrate in which the detection system is composed by two external low intensity radiation sources located along the tube and two NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detectors. The final purpose of the correlator system is to use the natural disturbances, as the turbulence in the own flow rather than to inject radioactive tracers to the fluid flow as usually is carried out. In the design of this correlator is evaluated the point-by-point calculation method for the cross correlation function in order to produce a system accurate and fast. This method is divided at the same time in three modes of operation: direct, relay and polarity. (author)

  5. APPLIED PHYTO-REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES USING HALOPHYTES FOR OIL AND BRINE SPILL SCARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Korphage; Bruce G. Langhus; Scott Campbell

    2003-03-01

    Produced salt water from historical oil and gas production was often managed with inadequate care and unfortunate consequences. In Kansas, the production practices in the 1930's and 1940's--before statewide anti-pollution laws--were such that fluids were often produced to surface impoundments where the oil would segregate from the salt water. The oil was pumped off the pits and the salt water was able to infiltrate into the subsurface soil zones and underlying bedrock. Over the years, oil producing practices were changed so that segregation of fluids was accomplished in steel tanks and salt water was isolated from the natural environment. But before that could happen, significant areas of the state were scarred by salt water. These areas are now in need of economical remediation. Remediation of salt scarred land can be facilitated with soil amendments, land management, and selection of appropriate salt tolerant plants. Current research on the salt scars around the old Leon Waterflood, in Butler County, Kansas show the relative efficiency of remediation options. Based upon these research findings, it is possible to recommend cost efficient remediation techniques for slight, medium, and heavy salt water damaged soil. Slight salt damage includes soils with Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of 4.0 mS/cm or less. Operators can treat these soils with sufficient amounts of gypsum, install irrigation systems, and till the soil. Appropriate plants can be introduced via transplants or seeded. Medium salt damage includes soils with EC values between 4.0 and 16 mS/cm. Operators will add amendments of gypsum, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. Some particularly salt tolerant plants can be added but most planting ought to be reserved until the second season of remediation. Severe salt damage includes soil with EC values in excess of 16 mS/cm. Operators will add at least part of the gypsum required, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. The following

  6. Determination of melting point of vegetable oils and fats by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassu, Renata Tieko

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Melting point of fats is used to characterize oils and fats and is related to their physical properties, such as hardness and thermal behaviour. The present work shows the utilization of DSC technique on the determination of melting point of fats. In a comparison with softening point (AOCS method Cc 3-25, DSC values were higher than those obtained by AOCS method. It has occurred due to the fact that values obtained by DSC technique were taken when the fat had melted completely. DSC was also useful for determining melting point of liquid oils, such as soybean and cottonseed ones.

    El punto de fusión de grasas es usado para caracterizar aceites y grasas, y está relacionado con sus propiedades físicas, tales como dureza y comportamiento térmico. El presente trabajo muestra la utilización de la técnica de Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC en la determinación del punto de fusión de grasas. En comparación con el punto de ablandamiento (AOCS método Cc 3-25, los valores de DSC fueron más altos que los obtenidos por los métodos de AOCS. Esto ha ocurrido debido al hecho que los valores obtenidos por la técnica de DSC fueron tomados cuando la grasa había fundido completamente. DSC fue también útil para determinar puntos de fusión de aceites líquidos, tales como los de soya y algodón.

  7. Agglomeration of Celecoxib by Quasi Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method: Effect of Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion (QESD has evolved into an effective technique to manufacture agglomerates of API crystals. Although, the proposed technique showed benefits, such as cost effectiveness, that is considerably sensitive to the choice of a stabilizer, which agonizes from a absence of systemic understanding in this field. In the present study, the combination of different solvents and stabilizers were compared to investigate any connections between the solvents and stabilizers. Methods: Agglomerates of celecoxib were prepared by QESD method using four different stabilizers (Tween 80, HPMC, PVP and SLS and three different solvents (methyl acetate, ethyl acetate and isopropyl acetate. The solid state of obtained particles was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The agglomerated were also evaluated in term of production yield, distribution of particles and dissolution behavior. Results: The results showed that the effectiveness of stabilizer in terms of particle size and particle size distribution is specific to each solvent candidate. A stabilizer with a lower HLB value is preferred which actually increased its effectiveness with the solvent candidates with higher lipophilicity. HPMC appeared to be the most versatile stabilizer because it showed a better stabilizing effect compared to other stabilizers in all solvents used. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the efficiency of stabilizers in forming the celecoxib agglomerates by QESD was influenced by the HLB of the stabilizer and lipophilicity of the solvents.

  8. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.

    2000-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering of the wa......Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...

  9. Evaluation of the performance of Frying Oils using an ultrasonic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izbaim, D.; Faiz, B.; Moudden, A.; Taifi, N.; Aboudaoud, I.

    2010-07-01

    The performance of un hydrogenated soybean oil (USBO) and partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) was evaluated by comparing their frying stability. Ultrasonic velocity was used to evaluate the oils. Measurements of free fatty acids (FFA) and total polar compounds (TPC) are typical indexes of oil degradation. Oils were heated at 180 degree centigrade for periods of 8 h per day for 4 consecutive days. The results from the ultrasonic analyses show different influences of thermo-oxidation on USBO and PHSBO. The ultrasonic measurements had strong correlations with chemical changes. Consequently, the ultrasonic method is useful to obtain information on the quality of the used frying oils. (Author)

  10. Investigation about the efficiency of the bioaugmentation technique when applied to diesel oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the efficiency of the bioaugmentation technique when applied to diesel oil contaminated soils collected at three service stations. Batch biodegradation experiments were carried out in Bartha biometer flasks (250 mL used to measure the microbial CO2 production. Biodegradation efficiency was also measured by quantifying the concentration of hydrocarbons. In addition to the biodegradation experiments, the capability of the studied cultures and the native microorganisms to biodegrade the diesel oil purchased from a local service station, was verified using a technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP. Results obtained with this test showed that the inocula used in the biodegradation experiments were able to degrade the diesel oil and the tests carried out with the native microorganisms indicated that these soils had a microbiota adapted to degrade the hydrocarbons. In general, no gain was obtained with the addition of microorganisms or even negative effects were observed in the biodegradation experiments.Este trabalho investigou a eficiência da técnica do bioaumento quando aplicada a solos contaminados com óleo diesel coletados em três postos de combustíveis. Experimentos de biodegradação foram realizados em frascos de Bartha (250 mL, usados para medir a produção microbiana de CO2. A eficiência de biodegradação também foi quantificada pela concentração de hidrocarbonetos. Conjuntamente aos experimentos de biodegradação, a capacidade das culturas estudadas e dos microrganismos nativos em biodegradar óleo diesel comprado de um posto de combustíveis local, foi verificada utilizando-se a técnica baseada no indicador redox 2,6 - diclorofenol indofenol (DCPIP. Resultados obtidos com esse teste mostraram que os inóculos empregados nos experimentos de biodegradação foram capazes de biodegradar óleo diesel e os testes com os microrganismos nativos indicaram que estes solos

  11. The effect of different oil spill remediation techniques on petroleum hydrocarbon elimination in Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Nugegoda, D; Gagnon, M M

    2001-02-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated in juvenile Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, following exposure to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil, chemically dispersed crude oil, and burnt crude oil. Each treatment was administered for 16 days either through the water column or through the diet (amphipod, Allorchestes compressa). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) elimination was determined by measuring biliary benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and naphthalene-type metabolites. Biliary PAH-type metabolite concentrations varied with the type of oil spill remediation technique, route of exposure (food versus water), and exposure concentration. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil via the water exhibited the highest PAH-type biliary metabolite concentrations, relative to fish exposed to other treatments. In fish exposed via the diet, the highest concentration of both types of biliary metabolites also appeared in the dispersed oil-exposed individuals. The results suggest that chemically dispersing oil may have the greatest effect on bioavailability of hydrocarbons, both through waterborne and food chain exposures.

  12. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  13. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  14. Effect of agglomeration on flowability of baby food powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Karolina; Lenart, Andrzej

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the wet agglomeration in a fluidized bed on flowability of agglomerated products, such as baby food powders. The agglomeration process was performed in the fluidized bed. The wetting liquid used to the process was: water, 2% lecithin solution, and 50% sugar solution. Food powders flowability was expressed as: Hausner Ratio, pouring time, angles of sliding and of repose and flow function. The composition of materials, used to prepare mixtures, has a significant influence on tested properties. The higher milk powder of the mixtures caused decreasing of their flowability. Wet agglomeration of baby food powders caused an increase in the mean diameter of particles, which made it possible to receive agglomerates with good flowability and decreased bulk density. The increase of milk powder content from 0 to 73% in the mixture before the agglomeration contributed to improve its flowability. Wet agglomeration with 2% lecithin solution and 50% sugar solution reduced particle size and bulk density, improved flowability of received agglomerates in relation to agglomerates received with water as a wetting liquid.

  15. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health.

  16. Experience of molecular monitoring techniques in upstream oil and gas operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Anthony F.; Anfindsen, Hilde; Liengen, Turid; Molid, Solfrid [Statoil ASA (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    For a numbers of years, molecular monitoring tools have been used in upstream oil and gas operations but the results have given only limited added value. This paper discusses the various techniques available for upstream molecular monitoring which provides scope for identification of microbial influenced problems. The methodology, which consists of analyzing solid samples using traditional as well as molecular techniques, is detailed. Two cases were studied with the objective of determining if microbial contamination was contributing to the problem. The first case was a study of amorphous deposits in production wells and mainly iron sulphide was found. The second study was of amorphous deposits in water injection wells and the analysis showed typical components of drilling and completion fluids with some organic material. Two more cases, corrosion of tubing in a water injection well and flow line corrosion, are discussed and the results are given. From the study, it can be concluded that failure can be due to several factors, chemical and biological.

  17. Process and formulation variables in the preparation of wax microparticles by a melt dispersion technique. I. Oil-in-water technique for water-insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmeier, R; Wang, J; Bhagwatwar, H

    1992-01-01

    Ibuprofen-wax (carnauba, paraffin, beeswax, and the semisynthetic glyceryl esters--Gelucire 64/02 and Precirol ATO5) microparticles were prepared without organic solvents as an alternative to polymeric microparticles. In the melt dispersion technique, the drug-wax melt was emulsified into a heated aqueous phase followed by cooling to form the microparticles. The microparticles were characterized with respect to their drug loading, and morphological and release properties. They were spherical and non-agglomerated and drug loading close to 60 per cent were achieved. The more hydrophilic waxes (Gelucire 64/02 or Precirol ATO5) could be prepared without the use of surfactants. With the other waxes, increasing amounts of sodium lauryl sulphate in the external aqueous phase decreased the drug loading because of drug solubilization when compared to the polymeric stabilizer, poly(vinyl alcohol). The type of wax, the rate of cooling, and the temperature of the aqueous phase had no significant effect on the drug loading because of the low solubility of the drug in the external aqueous phase. The drug release was controlled by the hydrophobicity of the wax. Besides ibuprofen, other water-soluble drugs (ketoprofen, indomethacin, hydrocortisone) were also encapsulated by this method. The wax microparticles could be formulated into an aqueous sustained-release oral suspension dosage form.

  18. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  19. An Agglomeration Law for Sorting Networks and its Application in Functional Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Immanuel Schiller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present a general agglomeration law for sorting networks. Agglomeration is a common technique when designing parallel programmes to control the granularity of the computation thereby finding a better fit between the algorithm and the machine on which the algorithm runs. Usually this is done by grouping smaller tasks and computing them en bloc within one parallel process. In the case of sorting networks this could be done by computing bigger parts of the network with one process. The agglomeration law in this paper pursues a different strategy: The input data is grouped and the algorithm is generalized to work on the agglomerated input while the original structure of the algorithm remains. This will result in a new access opportunity to sorting networks well-suited for efficient parallelization on modern multicore computers, computer networks or GPGPU programming. Additionally this enables us to use sorting networks as (parallel or distributed merging stages for arbitrary sorting algorithms, thereby creating new hybrid sorting algorithms with ease. The expressiveness of functional programming languages helps us to apply this law to systematically constructed sorting networks, leading to efficient and easily adaptable sorting algorithms. An application example is given, using the Eden programming language to show the effectiveness of the law. The implementation is compared with different parallel sorting algorithms by runtime behaviour.

  20. Emerging techniques in vegetable oil analysis using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes, Christopher

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As the practice of vegetable oil adulteration becomes more sophisticated, the possibility to subvert detection using established techniques such as capillary gas chromatography is increasing. One of the most powerful techniques to be used in food authenticity studies is stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SIRMS which utilises differences in the natural abundance of the stable isotopes of the ‘light’ bio-elements hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and sulfur to detect food fraud. SIRMS has found application in the authentication of a wide range of foodstuffs, including fruit juices, wines, spirits, honey and to detect the adulteration of flavour compounds with synthetic analogues. This papers reviews the current state-of-the-art for the authentication of vegetable oils using SIRMS and highlights emergent techniques such as compound- and position specific-isotope mass spectrometry. These latter developments offer the potential to provide more rapid and improved detection of the economic adulteration of vegetable oils.A medida que la práctica de la adulteración de aceites vegetales se hace más sofisticada, las posibilidades de evitar la detección utilizando técnicas tradicionales como la cromatografía de gases en columna capilar aumentan. Una de las técnicas más poderosas que más se utilizan en los estudios de autentificación de alimentos es la espectrometría de masas de relaciones isotópicas, que utiliza diferencias en la abundancia natural de isótopos estables de elementos ligeros biológicos hidrógeno, nitrógeno, carbón, oxigeno y azufre para detectar fraude en los alimentos. La espectrometría de masas de relaciones isotópicas ha encontrado aplicación en la autentificación de una amplia gama de alimentos, incluyendo zumos de frutas, vinos, bebidas alcohólicas de alta graduación, miel, y en la detección de la adulteración de los compuestos aromáticos con sus análogos de origen sintético. Este trabajo

  1. Negative polarization of agglomerate particles with various densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shkuratov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the negative polarization produced by agglomerate particles of various density. We found that all types of agglomerates studied reveal similar dependence of negative polarization minimum Pmin and its location αmin on particle size and refractive index.

  2. WP/084 Measuring Industry Agglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Tarp, Finn; Newman, Carol

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance of transp...

  3. Numerical study of agglomerate abrasion in a tumbling mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh Nguyen, [No Value; Willemsz, Tofan; Frijlink, Henderik; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort

    2014-01-01

    A numerical simulation using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) was performed to investigate the phenomena concerning the abrasion and breakage of agglomerates in a diffusion powder mixer. Agglomerates were created by defining a single structure of particles with bonds of different strengths using th

  4. Overpopulated, Underdeveloped Urban Agglomerations: Tomorrow’s Unstable Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Overpopulated , Underdeveloped Urban Agglomerations: Tomorrow’s 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT This paper asserts that a unique future operational environment is developing: overpopulated , underdeveloped urban agglomerations. A...proposed definition for this operating environment is (or would be) an overpopulated urban area which is located within a developing or underdeveloped

  5. Urban Agglomerations in Regional Development: Theoretical, Methodological and Applied Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shmidt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of the major process of modern socio-economic development, such as the functioning of urban agglomerations. A short background of the economic literature on this phenomenon is given. There are the traditional (the concentration of urban types of activities, the grouping of urban settlements by the intensive production and labour communications and modern (cluster theories, theories of network society conceptions. Two methodological principles of studying the agglomeration are emphasized: the principle of the unity of the spatial concentration of economic activity and the principle of compact living of the population. The positive and negative effects of agglomeration in the economic and social spheres are studied. Therefore, it is concluded that the agglomeration is helpful in the case when it brings the agglomerative economy (the positive benefits from it exceed the additional costs. A methodology for examination the urban agglomeration and its role in the regional development is offered. The approbation of this methodology on the example of Chelyabinsk and Chelyabinsk region has allowed to carry out the comparative analysis of the regional centre and the whole region by the main socio-economic indexes under static and dynamic conditions, to draw the conclusions on a position of the city and the region based on such socio-economic indexes as an average monthly nominal accrued wage, the cost of fixed assets, the investments into fixed capital, new housing supply, a retail turnover, the volume of self-produced shipped goods, the works and services performed in the region. In the study, the analysis of a launching site of the Chelyabinsk agglomeration is carried out. It has revealed the following main characteristics of the core of the agglomeration in Chelyabinsk (structure feature, population, level of centralization of the core as well as the Chelyabinsk agglomeration in general (coefficient of agglomeration

  6. WP/084 Measuring Industry Agglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Tarp, Finn; Newman, Carol

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance of transp......Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance...... of transport costs, labour market pooling, and technology transfer for agglomeration processes. We contrast this analysis with insights from existing measures in the literature and find very different underlying stories at work. An exceptionally rich set of data from Vietnam makes us confident that our measure...

  7. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  8. Analysis of Paraho oil shale products and effluents: an example of the multi-technique approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Wilkerson, C. L.; Evans, J. C.; Sanders, R. W.

    1979-06-10

    Inorganic analysis of solid, liquid and gaseous samples from the Paraho Semiworks Retort was completed using a multitechnique approach. The data were statistically analyzed to determine both the precision of each method and to see how closely the various techniques compared. The data were also used to determine the redistribution of 31 trace and major elements in the various effluents, including the offgas for the Paraho Retort operating in the direct mode. The computed mass balances show that approximately 1% or greater fractions of the As, Co, Hg, N, Ni, S and Se are released during retorting and redistributed to the product shale oil, retort water or product offgas. The fraction for these seven elements ranged from almost 1% for Co and Ni to 50 to 60% for Hg and N. Approximately 20% of the S and 5% of the As and Se are released. The mass balance redistribution during retorting for Al, Fe, Mg, V and Zn was observed to be no greater than .05%. These redistribution figures are generally in agreement with previous mass balance studies made for a limited number of elements on laboratory or smaller scale pilot retorts. 7 tables.

  9. Comparison Between Different Flavored Olive Oil Production Techniques: Healthy Value and Process Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Durante, Viviana; Pesce, Vito; Maiellaro, Isabella; Lovece, Angelo; Mercurio, Annalisa; Laghezza, Antonio; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Three different flavoring methods of olive oil were tested employing two different herbs, thyme and oregano. The traditional method consist in the infusion of herbs into the oil. A second scarcely diffused method is based on the addition of herbs to the crushed olives before the malaxation step during the extraction process. The third innovative method is the implementation of the ultrasound before the olive paste malaxation. The objective of the study is to verify the effect of the treatments on the quality of the product, assessed by means of the chemical characteristics, the phenol composition and the radical scavenging activity of the resulting oils. The less favorable method was the addition of herbs directly to the oil. A positive effect was achieved by the addition of herbs to the olive paste and other advantages were attained by the employment of ultrasound. These last two methods allow to produce oils "ready to sell", instead the infused oils need to be filtered. Moreover, the flavoring methods applied during the extraction process determine a significant increment of phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of olive oils. The increments were higher when oregano is used instead of thyme. Ultrasound inhibited the olive polyphenoloxidase, the endogenous enzyme responsible for olive oil phenol oxidation. This treatment of olive paste mixed with herbs before malaxation was revealed as the most favorable method due to the best efficiency, reduced time consumption and minor labor, enhancing the product quality of flavored olive oil.

  10. Microencapsulation of Oils: A Comprehensive Review of Benefits, Techniques, and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakry, Amr M; Abbas, Shabbar; Ali, Barkat; Majeed, Hamid; Abouelwafa, Mohamed Y; Mousa, Ahmed; Liang, Li

    2016-01-01

    ..., and physicochemical properties of core materials. Microencapsulation of marine, vegetable, and essential oils has been conducted and commercialized by employing different methods including emulsification, spray...

  11. Toxicity of three oil spill remediation techniques to the Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Nugegoda, D

    2000-10-01

    Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, were exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil, dispersed crude oil, burnt crude oil, and 4-chlorophenol. The WAF of dispersed crude oil was the most toxic treatment with 96-h LC(50) values of 7. 15% (7.94% upper and 6.42% lower 95% CI) and 7.45% (8.26% upper and 6.71% lower 95% CI). The WAF of crude oil was less toxic, with 96-h LC(50) values of 43.72% (49.21% upper and 38.87% lower 95% CI) and 45.87% (51.51% upper and 40.97% lower 95% CI). The WAF of burnt crude oil was the least toxic treatment with 96-h LC(50) values of 49.81% (63.33% upper and 39.44% lower 95% CI) and 47.28% (59.72% upper and 37.62% lower 95% CI). Sublethal toxicity of the crude oil WAF and burnt crude oil WAF was observed at dilutions seven to eight times less than in the dispersed crude oil WAF.

  12. An Empirical Analysis of Industrial Agglomeration in the Western Ethnic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xionglang; ZHANG Huiyin

    2014-01-01

    Industrial agglomeration refers to a high concentration of the same industry or related industries in a particular geographic area , and a process of gradual concentration of industrial cap-ital elements within a space .The new economic geography considers that industrial agglomeration is caused by circulating cumulative cause and effect . Accidental disturbance destroys the original bal-ance of the symmetrical area , which in turn brings about the expansion of the market in a concentrated industrial area , which then causes the effect of market expansion.This, accordingly, induces the factors of production to begin to concentrate in the area.The concentration of elements and industries brings about the “regional price index effect”.The concentration of manufacturers in the region is helpful in reducing both transportation costs and living costs of the labor .Accordingly , the elements become further concentrated , which causes the ex-pansion of market scale and the concentration of el-ements.Finally, a kind of industrial agglomeration forms.Industrial agglomeration is not only a kind of group concentration of similar enterprises in a specific region , but most importantly it is a kind of common growth among the enterprises .Therefore, the degree of concentration of an industry reflects the competiveness of an industry , which in turn re-flects the economic strength of a region or a coun-try.The concept that industrial concentration could promote the relative competiveness of the industries in the region has already been accepted by most e-conomists .Hence , it has an important meaning re-garding the study of industrial agglomeration in the western ethnic region . There are two ways to measure industrial ag-glomeration.One is the Gini Coefficient index and the other is the Industrial Agglomeration Index of location quotient .The author thinks that the degree of regional industrial agglomeration could either be examined with a static stock index , or a dynamic

  13. Impact of agglomeration state of nano- and submicron sized gold particles on pulmonary inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassee Flemming R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticle (NP toxicity testing comes with many challenges. Characterization of the test substance is of crucial importance and in the case of NPs, agglomeration/aggregation state in physiological media needs to be considered. In this study, we have addressed the effect of agglomerated versus single particle suspensions of nano- and submicron sized gold on the inflammatory response in the lung. Rats were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 mg/kg body weight (bw of spherical gold particles with geometric diameters of 50 nm or 250 nm diluted either by ultrapure water or by adding phosphate buffered saline (PBS. A single dose of 1.6 mg/kg bw DQ12 quartz was used as a positive control for pulmonary inflammation. Extensive characterization of the particle suspensions has been performed by determining the zetapotential, pH, gold concentration and particle size distribution. Primary particle size and particle purity has been verified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. Pulmonary inflammation (total cell number, differential cell count and pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell damage (total protein and albumin and cytotoxicity (alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and acute systemic effects in blood (total cell number, differential cell counts, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein 3 and 24 hours post exposure. Uptake of gold particles in alveolar macrophages has been determined by TEM. Results Particles diluted in ultrapure water are well dispersed, while agglomerates are formed when diluting in PBS. The particle size of the 50 nm particles was confirmed, while the 250 nm particles appear to be 200 nm using tracking analysis and 210 nm using TEM. No major differences in pulmonary and systemic toxicity markers were observed after instillation of agglomerated versus single gold particles of different sizes. Both agglomerated as well as single nanoparticles were

  14. Operational source receptor calculations for large agglomerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Michael; Shamsudheen, Semeena V.; Valdebenito, Alvaro; Pommier, Matthieu; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    For Air quality policy an important question is how much of the air pollution within an urbanized region can be attributed to local sources and how much of it is imported through long-range transport. This is critical information for a correct assessment of the effectiveness of potential emission measures. The ratio between indigenous and long-range transported air pollution for a given region depends on its geographic location, the size of its area, the strength and spatial distribution of emission sources, the time of the year, but also - very strongly - on the current meteorological conditions, which change from day to day and thus make it important to provide such calculations in near-real-time to support short-term legislation. Similarly, long-term analysis over longer periods (e.g. one year), or of specific air quality episodes in the past, can help to scientifically underpin multi-regional agreements and long-term legislation. Within the European MACC projects (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and the transition to the operational CAMS service (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) the computationally efficient EMEP MSC-W air quality model has been applied with detailed emission data, comprehensive calculations of chemistry and microphysics, driven by high quality meteorological forecast data (up to 96-hour forecasts), to provide source-receptor calculations on a regular basis in forecast mode. In its current state, the product allows the user to choose among different regions and regulatory pollutants (e.g. ozone and PM) to assess the effectiveness of fictive emission reductions in air pollutant emissions that are implemented immediately, either within the agglomeration or outside. The effects are visualized as bar charts, showing resulting changes in air pollution levels within the agglomeration as a function of time (hourly resolution, 0 to 4 days into the future). The bar charts not only allow assessing the effects of emission

  15. Effects of process variables on the encapsulation of oil in ca-alginate capsules using an inverse gelation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abang, Sariah; Chan, Eng-Seng; Poncelet, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of process variables on the encapsulation of oil in a calcium alginate membrane using an inverse gelation technique. A dispersion of calcium chloride solution in sunflower oil (water-in-oil emulsion) was added dropwise to the alginate solution. The migration of calcium ions to the alginate solution initiates the formation of a ca-alginate membrane around the emulsion droplets. The membrane thickness of wet capsules and the elastic modulus of dry capsules increased following first-order kinetics with an increasing curing time. An increase in the calcium chloride concentration increased the membrane thickness of wet capsules and the elastic modulus of dry capsules. An increase in the alginate concentration decreased the mean diameter of wet capsules but increased the elastic modulus of dry capsules.

  16. Manufacturing techniques and excipients used during the formulation of oil-in-water type nanosized emulsions for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunmugaperumal Tamilvanan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Medically, the oil-in-water nanosized emulsions are used mainly as delivery carriers for lipophilic drug molecules which show therapeutic activity when administered via parenteral, ocular and transdermal routes. To extract multifunctional activities, the nanosized emulsions containing neutral, anionic and cationic charges over dispersed oil droplets are designed with the help of variety of excipients especially emulsifiers. This type of decoration on the dispersed oil droplet’s surface allows the nanosized emulsions to be useful for drug delivery and/or drug targeting to otherwise inaccessible internal organs of human body. The aim of this review is to address the various manufacturing techniques and excipients used during the formulation of the multifunctional o/w nanosized emulsions for medical applications.

  17. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  18. Spatial Linkage and Urban Expansion: AN Urban Agglomeration View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L. M.; Tang, X.; Liu, X. P.

    2017-09-01

    Urban expansion displays different characteristics in each period. From the perspective of the urban agglomeration, studying the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban expansion plays an important role in understanding the complex relationship between urban expansion and network structure of urban agglomeration. We analyze urban expansion in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRD) through accessibility to and spatial interaction intensity from core cities as well as accessibility of road network. Results show that: (1) Correlation between urban expansion intensity and spatial indicators such as location and space syntax variables is remarkable and positive, while it decreases after rapid expansion. (2) Urban expansion velocity displays a positive correlation with spatial indicators mentioned above in the first (1980-1990) and second (1990-2000) period. However, it exhibits a negative relationship in the third period (2000-2010), i.e., cities located in the periphery of urban agglomeration developing more quickly. Consequently, the hypothesis of convergence of urban expansion in rapid expansion stage is put forward. (3) Results of Zipf's law and Gibrat's law show urban expansion in YRD displays a convergent trend in rapid expansion stage, small and medium-sized cities growing faster. This study shows that spatial linkage plays an important but evolving role in urban expansion within the urban agglomeration. In addition, it serves as a reference to the planning of Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration and regulation of urban expansion of other urban agglomerations.

  19. Liquid Level Measurement in Oil Tanks Based on Double-differential Pressure Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The system principle and configuration of the double-differential pressure method for measuring oil tank level are presented. The fundamental method and circuit of fiber optic transmission are analyzed .The accuracy and security of level measurement in the oil tanks have been greatly improved.

  20. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tres, A.; Ruiz - Samblas, C.; Veer, van der G.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been appl

  1. Comparative study of two techniques for assessing fat intake in a Mediterranean diet. The influence of culinary oils changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, B; Cuesta, I; Varela-Moreiras, G; Carmena, R; Pérez-Olleros, L

    2000-07-01

    The diet usually consumed by a community of 18 normolipemic monks was studied. It included olive oil as cooking fat (basal period BP). This diet was modified by substituting olive oil for sunflower oil during a 21-day period (experimental period EP). The precise individual weighing technique was utilised for the determination of intake, and by means of the food composition tables (FCTs) the energy and nutrient of the diet were calculated. By chemical analysis of the duplicate sample (CA) of the cooked dishes the lipid intake was also determined. Total serum cholesterol HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, AI and B-100 apolipoproteins and Lp(a) were also analysed. Similarly the absolute and relative values for SFA, MUFA and PUFA obtained by both techniques were also different and these were maintained when the (PUFA + MUFA)/SFA ratio was calculated by both techniques and in the two periods. The correction of the lipid intake by means of the CA technique did not improve either the correlation between the intake or the plasma lipid concentration or the cholesterolemia prediction (r = 0.83 for FCT and CA).

  2. Differentiation of lemon essential oil based on volatile and non-volatile fractions with various analytical techniques: a metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Florence; Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Debrus, Benjamin; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Raymo, Vilfredo; Velazco, Maria Inés; Sommer, Horst; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge

    2014-01-15

    Due to the importance of citrus lemon oil for the industry, fast and reliable analytical methods that allow the authentication and/or classification of such oil, using the origin of production or extraction process, are necessary. To evaluate the potential of volatile and non-volatile fractions for classification purposes, volatile compounds of cold-pressed lemon oils were analyzed, using GC-FID/MS and FT-MIR, while the non-volatile residues were studied, using FT-MIR, (1)H-NMR and UHPLC-TOF-MS. 64 Lemon oil samples from Argentina, Spain and Italy were considered. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses were sequentially performed on various data blocks obtained by the above techniques. Successful data treatments led to statistically significant models that discriminated and classified cold-pressed lemon oils according to their geographic origin, as well as their production processes. Studying the loadings allowed highlighting of important classes of discriminant variables that corresponded to putative or identified chemical functions and compounds.

  3. Agglomerates containing pantoprazole microparticles: modulating the drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Renata P; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Jornada, Denise S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2009-01-01

    Pantoprazole-loaded microparticles were prepared using a blend of Eudragit S100 and Methocel F4M. The accelerated stability was carried out during 6 months at 40 degrees C and 75% relative humidity. In order to improve technological characteristics of the pantoprazole-loaded microparticles, soft agglomerates were prepared viewing an oral delayed release and gastro-resistant solid dosage form. The agglomeration was performed by mixing the pantoprazole microparticles with spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders. The effects of factors such as the amount of lecithin in the spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders and the ratio between pantoprazole microparticles and spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders were evaluated. The pantoprazole-loaded microparticles present no significant degradation in 6 months. The agglomerates presented spherical shape, with smooth surface and very small quantity of non-agglomerated particles. The agglomerates presented different yields (35.5-79.0%), drug loading (58-101%), and mechanical properties (tensile strength varied from 44 to 69 mN mm(-2)), when the spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders with different lecithin amounts were used. The biopharmaceutical characteristics of pantoprazole microparticles, i.e., their delayed-release properties, were not affected by the agglomeration process. The gastro-resistance of the agglomerates was affected by the amount of spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders. The ratio of lecithin in the spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders was the key factor in the agglomerate formation and in the drug release profiles. The agglomerates presenting better mechanical and biopharmaceutical characteristics were prepared with 1:2 (w/w) ratio of pantoprazole-loaded microparticles and mannitol/lecithin (80:20) powder.

  4. KEY TECHNIQUES IN R&D OF OUT-SIZE EXTRUSION PRESS WITH OIL-DRIVEN DOUBLE ACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; YANG He; XIE Donggang; HAN Bingtao

    2007-01-01

    A modern design method, in which traditional design formulas are conjoined with numerical simulation and optimization, is successfully used to design the out-size extrusion frame precisely so that the press cost can be saved. A new technology used for decompressing by a multi-steps dynamical mode is put forward, which makes it possible to decompress the large flow-volume high-pressure oil in the main cylinders. In addition, a method for realizing the fixed mandrel process by hydraulic support is proposed and its control equation is established. Pre-tightening frame tests are carried out by over-operating pressure on 100 MN aluminium extrusion press with oil-driven double action, which is developed based on the above key techniques and is the largest press so far in the world, and the results show that the frame structure designed is reasonable and reliable, and the modem design method used is an useful tool for designing large and out-size heavy plastic forming machinery. The results of decompressing curve in main cylinder and noise inspection indicate that multi-steps dynamical mode for decompressing the large flow-volume high pressure oil is valid and reliable. Meanwhile, the fixed mandrel process is well realized based on the control equation. These key techniques have been used in the development of 125 MN aluminium extrusion press with oil-driven double action.

  5. Externalities, Floating Population and Spatial Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Yu; Wang Chuansheng; Fan Jie

    2007-01-01

    With the further development of socialist market economy,the mobility of factor markets in China,especially the labor market.is strengthened.Extemalities interacts with the agglomeration of productive factors.Under the framework of new economic geographg this article presents a theoretical model involving the endogenous population density affected by urban externalities.Results show that the population density is more concentrated around the center because the degree and extent of interaction between individuals intensifies when the distance from the center decreases.When there are several extemalifies resonurces,the aggregation of externalities changes the configuration of spatial factor allocation.These results fit well with the empirical facts about the decreasing density of floating population along the cities of Guangzhou,Dongguan and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province which is situat d in the eastern coast of the Pearl River Delta.We find that under the impacts of externalities released from Hong Kong into the coast,floating population Was more concentrated around Shenzhen and Dongguan,which are more adjacent to Hong Kong compared with Guangzhou City.

  6. Physical properties of soils in Rostov agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Tagiverdiev, S. S.; Morozov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Physical properties of natural and anthropogenically transformed soils of Rostov agglomeration were examined. The data obtained by conventional methods and new approaches to the study of soil physical properties (in particular, tomographic study of soil monoliths) were used for comparing the soils of different functional zones of the urban area. For urban territories in the steppe zone, a comparison of humus-accumulative horizons (A, Asod, Ap, and buried [A] horizons) made it possible to trace tendencies of changes in surface soils under different anthropogenic impacts and in the buried and sealed soils. The microtomographic study demonstrated differences in the bulk density and aggregation of urban soils from different functional zones. The A horizon in the forest-park zone is characterized by good aggregation and high porosity, whereas buried humus-accumulative horizons of anthropogenically transformed soils are characterized by poor aggregation and low porosity. The traditional parameters of soil structure and texture also proved to be informative for the identification of urban pedogenesis.

  7. Evolution of Zipf's Law for Indian Urban Agglomerations Vis-à-Vis Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik; Basu, Banasri

    We investigate into the rank-size distributions of urban agglomerations for India between 1981 to 2011. The incidence of a power law tail is prominent. A relevant question persists regarding the evolution of the power tail coefficient. We have developed a methodology to meaningfully track the power law coefficient over time, when a country experience population growth. A relevant dynamic law, Gibrat's law, is empirically tested in this connection. We argue that these empirical findings for India are in contrast with the findings in case of China, another country with population growth but monolithic political system.

  8. Evolution of Zipf's Law for Indian Urban Agglomerations vis-\\`{a}-vis Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2012-01-01

    We investigate into the rank-size distributions of urban agglomerations for India between 1981 to 2011. The incidence of a power law tail is prominent. A relevant question persists regarding the evolution of the power tail coefficient. We have developed a methodology to meaningfully track the power law coefficient over time, when a country experience population growth. A relevant dynamic law, Gibrat's law, is empirically tested in this connection. We argue that these empirical findings for India goes in contrast with the findings in case of China, another country with population growth but monolithic political system.

  9. Techniques for Determining Small Fractions of Oil Components in the Sea Water Flow by Rotation of Vibration Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the results of the effect of water-flow rate and air fraction component on intensity, I, are presented and discussed. The study which was carried out at Bergen University in Norway, presents the impact of monochromatic defects on polarization and measurements of small oil fractions of various crude oils are presented. When there was refraction, it was observed that in static sea-water &mustatic = 0.38 and in running water &muflow = 0.42 When refraction was eliminated by grafting windows in the pipe, &mustatic = 0, &muflow = 0.11 and in both cases &muflow was independent of the flow rate. Air fraction component, &alpha> = 0.12 reduced light intensity. With rate flow Q = 13.6m3/h and Q = 27.2 m3/h critical air fraction was found at &alphac = 0.18 and &alphac = 0.12 respectively. For &alphac = 0.18 up to &alpha 0.87 at Q = 13.6m3/h and &alphac = 0.12 up to &alpha = 0.78 at Q = 27.2 m3/h light intensity was found independent of &alpha. The highest rotation was found in Gullfaks crude oil, followed by Heidrun, the rotation is Statfjord crude oil was less than one in Heidrun and the least rotation was observed in 0A sg 0a rd crude oil. At 40ppm, the rotation was as follows: Gullfaks &empty = 27.0±0.20, Heidrun &empty = 23.9±0.20, Statfjord &empty = 20.0±0.20 and 0Asg 0ard &empty = 10.0±0.10. This method studys very well when small oil fractions from 5.0-70 ppm are in sea-water flow. This technique can be deployed to monitor the environment and to control the re-injected process water.

  10. Using Raster Based Solutions to Identify Spatial Economic Agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficient economic activities incline to be concentrated in space, and therefore there is an increased attention over the forces of spatial economic agglomerations and the role of location in economic development. This paper proposes some solutions to automate the identification of spatial agglomerations and their intensities, function on the spatial distribution of items in the geographical areas. The software components developed to accomplish this task are Geographic Information Systems specific tools.

  11. Agglomeration economies and global activities: impact on firm survival

    OpenAIRE

    FERRAGINA, Anna Maria; Mazzotta, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The focus of our contribution is to shed light on the importance of firm agglomerations and FDI as drivers of firm survival in Italy. We focus upon different types of agglomeration economies related to the geographical context checking how these economies impact differently on heterogeneous firms survival and whether effects are robust to different estimators (Probit, Cox hazard models, Probit Heckman) and to different assumptions about inter-and intra-regional spillovers. The novelty our pap...

  12. Defect agglomeration in ferroelectric ceramics under cyclic electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG LiMing; YANG Wei

    2008-01-01

    The agglomeration of point defects in ferroelectric ceramics could be driven by repeated domain switching under cyclic electric field. The evolution equation of pore concentration under cyclic electric field is derived, with the help of a relation between the pore concentration and the extent of pore agglomeration. The results of the simulation agree quantitatively with the experimental data. An integrated framework about the mechanisms of electrically induced fatigue is proposed, which links the mechanisms at different scales.

  13. Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reethof, G.; McDaniel, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    The work has shown that acoustic agglomeration at practical acoustic intensities and frequencies is technically and most likely economically viable. The following studies were performed with the listed results: The physics of acoustic agglomeration is complex particularly at the needed high acoustic intensities in the range of 150 to 160 dB and frequencies in the 2500 Hz range. The analytical model which we developed, although not including nonlinear acoustic efforts, agreed with the trends observed. We concentrated our efforts on clarifying the impact of high acoustic intensities on the generation of turbulence. Results from a special set of tests show that although some acoustically generated turbulence of sorts exists in the 150 to 170 dB range with acoustic streaming present, such turbulence will not be a significant factor in acoustic agglomeration compared to the dominant effect of the acoustic velocities at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Studies of the robustness of the agglomerated particles using the Anderson Mark III impactor as the source of the shear stresses on the particles show that the agglomerates should be able to withstand the rigors of flow through commercial cyclones without significant break-up. We designed and developed a 700/sup 0/F tubular agglomerator of 8'' internal diameter. The electrically heated system functioned well and provided very encouraging agglomeration results at acoustic levels in the 150 to 160 dB and 2000 to 3000 Hz ranges. We confirmed earlier results that an optimum frequency exists at about 2500 Hz and that larger dust loadings will give better results. Studies of the absorption of acoustic energy by various common gases as a function of temperature and humidity showed the need to pursue such an investigation for flue gas constituents in order to provide necessary data for the design of agglomerators. 65 references, 56 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Agglomeration Control during Ultrasonic Crystallization of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Gielen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of ultrasound during crystallization can efficiently inhibit agglomeration. However, the mechanism is unclear and sonication is usually enabled throughout the entire process, which increases the energy demand. Additionally, improper operation results in significant crystal damage. Therefore, the present work addresses these issues by identifying the stage in which sonication impacts agglomeration without eroding the crystals. This study was performed using a commercially available API that showed a high tendency to agglomerate during seeded crystallization. The crystallization progress was monitored using process analytical tools (PAT, including focus beam reflectance measurements (FBRM to track to crystal size and number and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to quantify the supersaturation level. These tools provided insight in the mechanism by which ultrasound inhibits agglomeration. A combination of improved micromixing, fast crystal formation which accelerates depletion of the supersaturation and a higher collision frequency prevent crystal cementation to occur. The use of ultrasound as a post-treatment can break some of the agglomerates, but resulted in fractured crystals. Alternatively, sonication during the initial seeding stage could assist in generating nuclei and prevent agglomeration, provided that ultrasound was enabled until complete desupersaturation at the seeding temperature. FTIR and FBRM can be used to determine this end point.

  15. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  16. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-03-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised.

  17. Determination of Characteristic Components in Essential Oils from Wisteria brachybotrys Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Incremental Dilution Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Miyazawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of flowers, leaves and stems from Wisteria brachybotrys Sieb.et Zucc, collected in Japan was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-MS. The important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-MS/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA. As a result, sixty-eight compounds from flowers of W. brachybotrys, accounting for 96.3%, were identified, and benzyl cyanide (31.7%, palmitic acid (8.7%, and (Z- g -bisabolene (8.4% as the main compounds. Thirty compounds from leaves, accounting for 97.3%, were identified, and phytol (46.0%, palmitic acid (8.2%, and nonanal (5.7% as the main compounds. Twenty-eight compounds from stems, accounting for 98.7%, were identified, and geraniol (32.8%, linalool (22.1%, and nerol (10.4% as the main compounds. A preliminary analysis by GC-MS and using Kovats’ retention indexes, lead to characterize and quantify the oil constituents, while GC-MS/O was then applied for the identification of the main odorants. By the incremental dilution method (AEDA, applied to the GC-MS/O technique, the flavor dilution (FD factor was obtained. To our knowledge, the composition of these parts of essential oils is described here for the first time, both from the chemical and olfactometric viewpoints.

  18. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

  19. The Thin-Layer Microchromatography (μTLC) and TLC-FID Technique as a New Methodology in the Study of Lubricating Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Paulina; Kosińska, Judyta; Glinka, Marta; Kamiński, Marian

    2017-07-01

    This paper concerns the possibility of using TLC coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID) and micro-TLC (μTLC) as precursors for microfluidized devices of analytical techniques to identify and determine the presence and content of the petroleum/vegetable oil base in the lubricating oils applied in cutting devices (chainsaws). This research is related to the problem of ensuring, in compliance with the requirements of environmental protection, a sufficient level of biodegradability of lubricating oils emitted to the environment during operation of equipment lubricated with these oils. Such oils include those mainly used in cutting devices and emitted in the form of a mist into the environment during the operation of those devices. When oil components are eco-toxic, contamination of the environment occurs. New methodologies for the identification and determination of the petroleum oil base, which is very difficult to biodegrade, as well as the easily biodegradable ingredients of vegetable origin in the lubricating oils, are presented. The described procedures indicate in an indisputable way whether the oil contains the oil base originating from crude oil and whether it contains adequate enriching additives. The procedures also allow the assessment of the content of particular groups of constituents (μTLC) or the determination of the group composition (TLC-FID).

  20. Lipase immobilized by different techniques on various support materials applied in oil hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILMA MINOVSKA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch hydrolysis of olive oil was performed by Candida rugosa lipase immobilized on Amberlite IRC-50 and Al2O3. These two supports were selected out of 16 carriers: inorganic materials (sand, silica gel, infusorial earth, Al2O3, inorganic salts (CaCO3, CaSO4, ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-50 and IR-4B, Dowex 2X8, a natural resin (colophony, a natural biopolymer (sodium alginate, synthetic polymers (polypropylene, polyethylene and zeolites. Lipase immobilization was carried out by simple adsorption, adsorption followed by cross-linking, adsorption on ion-exchange resins, combined adsorption and precipitation, pure precipitation and gel entrapment. The suitability of the supports and techniques for the immobilization of lipase was evaluated by estimating the enzyme activity, protein loading, immobilization efficiency and reusability of the immobilizates. Most of the immobilizates exhibited either a low enzyme activity or difficulties during the hydrolytic reaction. Only those prepared by ionic adsorption on Amberlite IRC-50 and by combined adsorption and precipitation on Al2O3 showed better activity, 2000 and 430 U/g support, respectively, and demonstrated satisfactory behavior when used repeatedly. The hydrolysis was studied as a function of several parameters: surfactant concentration, enzyme concentration, pH and temperature. The immobilized preparation with Amberlite IRC-50 was stable and active in the whole range of pH (4 to 9 and temperature (20 to 50 °C, demonstrating a 99% degree of hydrolysis. In repeated usage, it was stable and active having a half-life of 16 batches, which corresponds to an operation time of 384 h. Its storage stability was remarkable too, since after 9 months it had lost only 25 % of the initial activity. The immobilizate with Al22O3 was less stable and less active. At optimal environmental conditions, the degree of hydrolysis did not exceed 79 %. In repeated usage, after the fourth batch, the degree of

  1. Determination of the threshold odor concentration of main odorants in essential oils using gas chromatography-olfactometry incremental dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Gandini, Carlo; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni; Abdo, Susana; Layedra, Patricia

    2007-05-25

    An essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of Clinopodium tomentosum (Kunth) Govaerts (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador, was analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-MS techniques. To our knowledge, the composition of this essential oil is described here for the first time, both from the chemical and olfactometric viewpoints. A preliminary analysis by GC-MS and using Kovats' retention indexes, lead to characterize and quantify the oil constituents, while GC-O was then applied for the identification of the main odorants. By the incremental dilution method (AEDA, CHARM Analysis), applied to the GC-O technique, the flavor dilution (FD) chromatogram was obtained. In order to calculate the TOC values of the main odorants, the relationship between the odorant concentration at the sniffing port and that one in the injected solution was established. This relationship was calculated by comparing the injected amount with the TOC value of a reference compound (limonene), obtained by dynamic dilution olfactometry. A good agreement was found between calculated and measured TOC values of few odorants.

  2. Establishing structure-property correlations and classification of base oils using statistical techniques and artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, G.S.; Sastry, M.I.S.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Sarpal, A.S

    2004-03-17

    The present paper describes various classification techniques like cluster analysis, principal component (PC)/factor analysis to classify different types of base stocks. The API classification of base oils (Group I-III) has been compared to a more detailed NMR derived chemical compositional and molecular structural parameters based classification in order to point out the similarities of the base oils in the same group and the differences between the oils placed in different groups. The detailed compositional parameters have been generated using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods. Further, oxidation stability, measured in terms of rotating bomb oxidation test (RBOT) life, of non-conventional base stocks and their blends with conventional base stocks, has been quantitatively correlated with their {sup 1}H NMR and elemental (sulphur and nitrogen) data with the help of multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) techniques. The MLR based model developed using NMR and elemental data showed a high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for both training (R=0.859) and validation (R=0.880) data sets. The ANN based model, developed using fewer number of input variables (only {sup 1}H NMR data) also showed high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for training (R=0.881), validation (R=0.860) and test (R=0.955) data sets.

  3. Nanostructured micro-raspberries from superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Studying agglomeration degree and redispersibility of nanoparticulate powders via magnetisation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, Claudia; Späth, Stephan; Ballweg, Thomas; Luxenhofer, Robert; Mandel, Karl

    2017-11-01

    Surface modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are assembled into nanostructured micro-raspberry particles via spray drying. The micro-raspberry powder is readily redispersed to individual nanoparticles or nanostructured sub-units, depending on the initially adjusted nanoparticle modification. In this work, it is demonstrated how the technique of magnetic zero-field-cooled/field-cooled (ZFC/FC) measurements can be used to judge the degree of agglomeration, i.e. the extent of hard-agglomerates and soft-agglomerates in a system and predict the redispersibility of the powder particles. Furthermore, the uniformity of surface modification of the individual nanoparticles can be judged via this method. In addition, the technique can be applied to characterise complex nanostructured particle systems composed of iron oxide nanoparticles mixed with another type of nanoparticulate building-block. Thus, this work shows that magnetic measurement techniques are a promising approach to characterise agglomeration states of nanoparticles, their degree of surface modification and their distribution in complex particle and composite systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...... of this study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein.......g. homogenization pressure can affect how proteins locate themselves at the interface of an emulsion. The hypothesis is therefore that emulsions produced with different emulsification equipments differ in their oxidative stability due to differences in the behaviour of the proteins at the interface. The aim...

  5. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...... of this study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey.......g. homogenization pressure can affect how proteins locate themselves at the interface of an emulsion. The hypothesis is therefore that emulsions produced with different emulsification equipments differ in their oxidative stability due to differences in the behaviour of the proteins at the interface. The aim...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Samuel Ameri

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the research and development work reported in this document was to develop a Virtual Intelligence Technique for optimization of the Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) for the upstream oil industry. The work included the development of a software tool for identification and optimization of the most influential parameters in upstream common practices as well as geological, geophysical and reservoir engineering studies. The work was performed in cooperation with three independent producing companies--Newfield Exploration, Chesapeake Energy, and Triad Energy--operating in the Golden Trend, Oklahoma. In order to protect data confidentiality, these companies are referred to as Company One, Two, Three in a randomly selected order. These producing companies provided geological, completion, and production data on 320 wells and participated in frequent technical discussions throughout the project. Research and development work was performed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI), West Virginia University (WVU), and Intelligent Solutions Inc. (ISI). Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA) participated in technology transfer and data acquisition efforts. Deliverables from the project are the present final report and a user-friendly software package (Appendix D) with two distinct functions: a characterization tool that identifies the most influential parameters in the upstream operations, and an optimization tool that seeks optimization by varying a number of influential parameters and investigating the coupled effects of these variations. The electronic version of this report is also included in Appendix D. The Golden Trend data were used for the first cut optimization of completion procedures. In the subsequent step, results from soft computing runs were used as the guide for detailed geophysical and reservoir engineering studies that characterize the cause-and-effect relationships between various parameters. The general workflow and the main

  7. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Terriary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    1998-04-08

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO -) 2 flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. Two activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of productive carbonate buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) diagenetic characterization of project field reservoirs, and (2) technology transfer.

  8. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-11-02

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  9. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA) and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The r...

  10. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  11. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  12. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  13. Anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques for pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) suspected of exposure to crude oil in marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degernes, L.A.; Harms, C.A.; Golet, G.H.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques used in adult and nestling pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) to test for continued exposure to residual crude oil in the marine environment. Populations of pigeon guillemots have declined significantly in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, possibly because of residual effects of crude oil in the environment after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989. Measurement of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) is currently the best way to assess crude oil exposure from food sources; however, lethal sampling to obtain adequate liver tissue was not desirable in this declining population of birds. As part of a larger study to identify factors limiting the recovery of pigeon guillemots and other seabird populations, we surgically collected liver samples from adult and nestling guillemots to provide samples for measurement of hepatic CYP1A concentrations. Results from the larger study were reported elsewhere. Liver samples were taken from 26 nestling (1998) and 24 adult (1999) guillemots from a previously oiled site (Naked Island; 12 chicks, 13 adults) and from a nonoiled site (Jackpot Island/Icy Bay; 14 chicks, 11 adults). The birds were anesthetized with isoflurane. No surgical complications occurred with any of the birds and all adult and nestling birds survived after surgery to the point of release or return to the nest. Thirteen out of 14 chicks from the Jackpot Island/Icy Bay and 8 out of 12 chicks from Naked Island fledged. Four chicks at Naked Island were depredated before fledging. All adults abandoned their nests after surgery, so the study sites were revisited the following summer (2000) in an attempt to assess overwinter survival of the adults. All but 1 adult biopsied bird at the nonoiled site (Icy Bay) was found renesting, whereas only 2 birds at the previously oiled site (Naked Island) were similarly observed. The percent of 1999 breeders at Naked Island that returned to their nest sites to breed

  14. Characterization of triacylglycerol composition of fish oils by using chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaesa, Ángela García; Bucio, Silvia Liliana; Sanz, María Teresa; Beltrán, Sagrario; Rebolleda, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) of two different refined fish oils from sardine and a mixture of tuna and sardine oil were separated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with a binary solvent gradient of acetone/acetonitrile. Different fractions were observed in the chromatogram and TAG species were tentatively identified by subsequent analysis of the fatty acid (FA) profile in each fraction by capillary Gas Chromatography (GC). Peak identities were assigned on the basis of a multiple linear regression analysis by using factors such as carbon number, number of double bonds, number of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and number of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the molecule as predictors for TAG retention time. A successful correlation was obtained between retention times and the equivalent carbon number (ECN) of triacylglycerols. Regiospecific analysis of fatty acids in the TAG has been conducted by ethanolysis of the fish oil by using an immobilized lipase. The subsequent separation of 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) by TLC (thin layer chromatography) analysis showed that ethanolysis system is effective for analysis of FA composition at the 2-position in oils containing PUFA. Principal components analysis (PCA) has been also applied to establish correlations between the different fatty acids in the TAG.

  15. Skin friction measurements by a new nonintrusive double-laser-beam oil viscosity balance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low-speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a 'law-of-the-wall' coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.

  16. Protection of fish oil from oxidation by microencapsulation using freeze-drying techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzelmann, K.; Franke, K.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    (N-3)-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Cold sea water plankton and plankton- consuming fish are known sources of (n-3)-PUFAs. Enriching normal food components with fish oil is a tool for increasing the intake of (n-3)-PUFAs. Due to the high sensitivity...

  17. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  18. AMG by element agglomeration and constrained energy minimization interpolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, T V; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-02-17

    This paper studies AMG (algebraic multigrid) methods that utilize energy minimization construction of the interpolation matrices locally, in the setting of element agglomeration AMG. The coarsening in element agglomeration AMG is done by agglomerating fine-grid elements, with coarse element matrices defined by a local Galerkin procedure applied to the matrix assembled from the individual fine-grid element matrices. This local Galerkin procedure involves only the coarse basis restricted to the agglomerated element. To construct the coarse basis, one exploits previously proposed constraint energy minimization procedures now applied to the local matrix. The constraints are that a given set of vectors should be interpolated exactly, not only globally, but also locally on every agglomerated element. The paper provides algorithmic details, as well as a convergence result based on a ''local-to-global'' energy bound of the resulting multiple-vector fitting AMG interpolation mappings. A particular implementation of the method is illustrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  19. Comparison of biostimulation and bioaugmentation techniques for the remediation of used motor oil contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajudeen Abdulsalam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on the bioremediation of used motor oil contaminated soil artificially contaminated to a pollutant level of 40,000ppm using biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation techniques for 42 days. Four treatment options were investigated in wooden microcosms: Control (T1, water amended (T2, biostimulation (T3 and hybrid of biostimulation and bioaugmentation (T4. The effectiveness of bioremediation processes were monitored using the total petroleum hydrocarbon removal (TPH and total bacterial count (TBC. T3 had the highest TPH removal rate (69.2±0.05%, followed by T4 (65.2±0.25% and T2 (58.4±0.5%; the control (T1 had the lowest TPH removal rate (43.2±1.5%. TBC revealed that bioremediation actually took place; T4 had the highest maximum bacterial growth of 9.6E+07CFU/g, followed by T3 (7.2E+07CFU/g, T2 (1.7E+05CFU/g and T1 (1.65E+05CFU/g. In addition, T3 had the highest metal removal rate (2.172% and T4 had the lowest metal removal rate (0.203%.O presente estudo trata da biorremediação usandose solo contaminado artificialmente com óleo de motor a um nível de poluente de 40.000 ppm usando técnicas de remediação por bioestimulação e por bioagumentação durante 42 dias. Quatro opções de tratamento foram investigadas no microcosmo de madeira: Controle (T1, água alterada (T2, bioestimulação (T3 e híbrido de bioestimulação e bioaugmentação (T4. A eficácia dos processos de biorremediação foram monitoradas usando a remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais petróleo (TPH e contagem bacteriana total (TBC. T3 teve a maior taxa de remoção de TPH (69,2 ±; 0,05%, seguido por T4 (65,2 ±; 0,25% e T2 (58,4 ±; 0,5%; o controle (T1 apresentou a menor taxa de remoção de TPH (43,2 ±; 1,5%. TBC revelou que a biorremediação efectivamente ocorreu; T4 teve o maior crescimento de bactérias 9,6E+07CFU/g, seguido pelo T3 (7.2E+07CFU/g, T2 (1.7E+05CFU/g e T1 (1.65E+05CFU/g. Além disso, T3 apresentou a maior taxa de

  20. Nanoemulsion of orange oil with non ionic surfactant produced emulsion using ultrasonication technique: evaluating against food spoilage yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, Saranya; Singh, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, food industries have shown great interest in developing nanoemulsion (NE) using essential oils (EOs) to prevent food spoilage caused by microorganisms. The hydrophobic properties of EOs have lead to reduced solubilization effect of food, which in turn, created a negative impact on the quality of food and its antimicrobial efficacy. Focusing this issue, we attempted a unique NE preparation using orange oil, Tween 80 (organic phase) and water (aqueous phase) by sonication technique. Based on thermodynamic stability studies, the effective diameter was reported to be in the size range from 20 to 30 nm. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in testing the anti-yeast effect. Their activity was studied in both growth medium and apple juice. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this NE was determined using broth dilution method. At 2 μl/ml, orange oil NE demonstrated inhibition of tested microorganisms. The kinetics of killing curve, have shown that the NE treated cells had lost its viability within 30 min of interaction. Also, SEM image revealed that the treated cells became distorted in comparison to their control cells. NE treated apple juice showed complete loss of viability even on dilution as compared to their controls.

  1. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  2. Assessment and Enhancement of {SAR} non-coherent Change Detection Techniques Following Oil Spills

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan; Barnes, Christopher F

    2016-01-01

    In this study the detection of the oil spill using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is considered. Detection of the oil spill is performed using change detection algorithms between imagery acquired at different times. The specific algorithms used are the correlation coefficient change statistic and the intensity ratio change statistic algorithms. Therefore these algorithms and the probabilistic selection of the threshold criteria is reviewed and discussed. A recently offered change detection method which depends on the idea of generating two different final change maps of two images in a sequence, is used. First final change map is obtained by cumulatively adding the sequences of change maps in such a manner that common change areas are excluded and uncommon change areas are included. The second final change map is obtained by comparing the first and the last images in the temporal sequence. This method requires at least three images to be employed and can be generalized to longer temporal image sequenc...

  3. Review of Slug Detection, Modeling and Control Techniques for Offshore Oil & Gas Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The current offshore oil & gas multi-phase production and transportation installations have big challenges related with the slugging flow: An unstable multi-phase flow regime where the flow rates, pressures and temperatures oscillate in the considered processes. Slug can be caused by different...... of these methods can simultaneously reduce the oil & gas production, which is a very big concern as the production rate is the key evaluation parameter for offshore production. We conclude that the slugging flow is a well-defined phenomenon, even though this subject has been extensively investigated in the past...... operating conditions and installation structures. The most severe slugs are often induced in long vertical risers or production wells, where liquid blocks gas at the riser/well base and correspondingly it causes the pressure to accumulate and hence originates the oscillating performance. There are many...

  4. THE SPATIAL AGGLOMERATION OF EDUCATED PEOPLE IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tomás Sayago Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, Colombia's education system has been growing in terms of access and coverage. However, this development has taken place mainly in bigger cities, and displays an agglomeration of graduates in tertiary education. The purpose of this article is to test this hypothesis of agglomeration and attempt to find out which factors are associated to this phenomena: quality of life, the effects of income, political safety, and supply of education. Using empirical evidence derived from real data obtained by DANE in the 2005 Census and a variable of violence from the IEPRI, spatial econometric models are set out to understand its dynamics, to stop and reverse this agglomeration, and to create benefits for smaller municipalities.

  5. Reconstruction of Industrial Location in View of Industrial Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Huayou; DING Sibao

    2006-01-01

    The Industrial Agglomeration Theory has been evolving all the time. The study on the industrial location has become the focus of the massive theoretical location problems about agglomeration since the 1970s. The authors here analyze the evolution and the characteristics of the Industrial Agglomeration Theory and study its effect on the reconstruction of industrial location. The study suggests that the new idea of reconstruction of industrial location is to cultivate regional innovative system. On this basis, the authors analyze two cases of old industrial bases on their construction-Tiexi Industrial District in Shenyang City and Changchun Industrial Economic Development Zone. Finally, the authors put forward some suggestions that should be regarded, which include: 1) to combine industrial location reconstruction and enterprises' inner reform; 2) to speed up adjustment of resources and opening to the world; 3) to combine government mechanism with the market mechanism properly.

  6. Microdialysis as a New Technique for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzu, Gianfranco; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Dore, Antonio; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The amount and composition of the phenolic components play a major role in determining the quality of olive oil. The traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method requires a time-consuming sample preparation to obtain the "phenolic profile" of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This study aimed to develop a microdialysis extraction (MDE) as an alternative to the LLE method to evaluate the phenolic components of EVOO. To this purpose, a microdialysis device and dialysis procedure were developed. "Dynamic-oil" microdialysis was performed using an extracting solution (80:20 methanol/water) flow rate of 2 μL min(-1) and a constant EVOO stream of 4 μL min(-1). The results indicated a strong positive correlation between MDE and the LLE method, providing a very similar phenolic profile obtained with traditional LLE. In conclusion, the MDE approach, easier and quicker in comparison to LLE, provided a reliable procedure to determine the phenolic components used as a marker of the quality and traceability of EVOO.

  7. Monitoring of olive oil mills' wastes using electrical resistivity tomography techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simyrdanis, Kleanthis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Kirkou, Stella; Sarris, Apostolos; Tsourlos, Panagiotis

    2014-08-01

    Olive oil mills' wastes (OOMW) are one of the byproducts of the oil production that can lead to serious environmental pollution when they are deposited in ponds dug on the ground surface. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can provide a valuable tool in order to monitor through time the physical flow of the wastes into the subsurface. ERT could potentially locate the electrical signature due to lower resistivity values resulting from the leakage of OOMW to the subsurface. For this purpose, two vertical boreholes were installed (12m depth, 9 m apart) in the vicinity of an existing pond which is filled with OOMW during the oil production period. The test site is situated in Saint Andreas village about 15km south of the city of Rethymno (Crete, Greece). Surface ERT measurements were collected along multiple lines in order to reconstruct the subsurface resistivity models. Data acquisition was performed with standard and optimized electrode configuration protocols. The monitoring survey includes the ERT data collection for a period of time. The study was initiated before the OOMW were deposited in the pond, so resistivity fluctuations are expected due to the flow of OOMW in the porous subsurface media through time. Preliminary results show the good correlation of the ERT images with the drilled geological formations and the identification of low resistivity subsurface zone that could be attributed to the flow of the wastes within the porous layers.

  8. Phototoxicity of bergamot oil assessed by in vitro techniques in combination with human patch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejlová, K; Jírová, D; Bendová, H; Kandárová, H; Weidenhoffer, Z; Kolárová, H; Liebsch, M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in the phototoxicity of bergamot oil obtained from four different suppliers. Spectral and chemical analyses were performed to identify presence of photoactive compounds in the test samples. The phototoxicity was assessed in vitro by the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (PT) and subsequently in a phototoxicity test on reconstructed human skin model (H3D PT). Confirmatory photopatch tests in a group of volunteers were performed using the first non-phototoxic concentration determined in the H3D PT. The spectral and chemical analyses revealed, that two samples of bergamot oil exhibited a potential for photoactivation. These oils were subsequently classified as phototoxic in the 3T3 NRU PT, however, only on the basis of borderline results and depending on the solvent used. H3D PT revealed clear classifications, correlating well with the findings of spectral and chemical analysis. The test was, however, not yet capable of precise prediction of safe, non-phototoxic concentrations. Additional endpoints, e.g. interleukin determination might be employed to increase the sensitivity of the test. Although the study showed the usefulness of the tiered testing strategy, currently, the extrapolation of in vitro results to human situation may be performed only to a limited extent.

  9. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  10. In situ measurement of the rheological properties and agglomeration on cementitious pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hong [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 50 UNIST-gil, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hong Jae, E-mail: yimhj@knu.ac.kr [Department of Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 2559 Gyeongsang-daero, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Ferron, Raissa Douglas [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 301 East Dean Keeton Street, C1748, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Various factors influence the rheology of cementitious pastes, with the most important being the mixing protocol, mixture proportions, and mixture composition. This study investigated the influence of ground-granulated blast-furnace slag, on the rheological behavior of cementitious pastes. In tandem with the rheological measurements, fresh state microstructural measurements were conducted using three different techniques: A coupled stroboscope-rheometer, a coupled laser backscattering-rheometer, and a conventional laser diffraction technique. Laser diffraction and the coupled stroboscope-rheometer were not good measures of the in situ state of flocculation of a sample. Rather, only the laser backscattering technique allowed for in situ measurement on a highly concentrated suspension (cementitious paste). Using the coupled laser backscattering-rheometer technique, a link between the particle system and rheological behavior was determined through a modeling approach that takes into account agglomeration properties. A higher degree of agglomeration was seen in the ordinary Portland cement paste than pastes containing the slag and this was related to the degree of capillary pressure in the paste systems.

  11. Reservoir engineering optimized techniques and applications research in initial development stage of a super shallow sea marginal oil field : Development case of Chengdao Oil Field in Bohai Bay, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, D.; Ren, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, D. [Shengli Oil field Inc. (China). SINOPEC Corp.

    2002-06-01

    One of the greatest Chinese neritic marginal oil fields is the Chengdao oil field, located north of Dongying City, Shandong Province, China in the southern part of Bohai Bay. The depth of the seawater is less than 15 metres, even though the field lies 5 kilometres from shore. It falls in the category of super shallow sea marginal oil field, due to a number of reasons: peculiar geographical location, abominable environment and climate, complex reservoir characteristics and high economic risk of exploration and development. The major oil-bearing series of the Chengdao oil field is upper Guantao sandstones. The establishment of a three-dimensional conceptual model and static model in initial development stage were completed using Log-Constrained Seismic Inversion technique combined with three-dimensional visual geological model establishment technique. The optimization and determination of reservoir engineering technical limits, namely development scheme, well pattern and spacing, timing of water injection, water injection scheme and injection-to-production ratio was accomplished with the application of geostatistics, numerical simulation and economic evaluation techniques. For the period 1996-2001, the cumulative oil productivity of upper Guantao reservoir in pure natural energy development increased substantially. The results were presented in this paper. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar

  13. A numerical/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchyshyn, Theodore Henry

    The oil sands of Alberta contain some one trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place, most contained in the McMurray, Wabiskaw, Clearwater, and Grand Rapids formations. Depth of burial is 0--550 m, 10% of which is surface mineable, the rest recoverable by in-situ technology-driven enhanced oil recovery schemes. To date, significant commercial recovery has been attributed to Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) using vertical wellbores. Other techniques, such as Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are proving superior to other recovery methods for increasing early oil production but at initial higher development and/or operating costs. Successful optimization of bitumen production rates from the entire reservoir is ultimately decided by the operator's understanding of the reservoir in its original state and/or the positive and negative changes which occur in oil sands and heavy oil deposits upon heat stimulation. Reservoir description is the single most important factor in attaining satisfactory history matches and forecasts for optimized production of the commercially-operated processes. Reservoir characterization which lacks understanding can destroy a project. For example, incorrect assumptions in the geological model for the Wolf Lake Project in northeast Alberta resulted in only about one-half of the predicted recovery by the original field process. It will be shown here why the presence of thin calcite streaks within oil sands can determine the success or failure of a commercial cyclic steam project. A vast amount of field data, mostly from the Primrose Heavy Oil Project (PHOP) near Cold Lake, Alberta, enabled the development a simple set of correlation curves for predicting bitumen production using CSS. A previously calibtrated thermal numerical simulation model was used in its simplist form, that is, a single layer, radial grid blocks, "fingering" or " dilation" adjusted permeability curves, and no simulated fracture, to generate the first cycle production

  14. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  15. Applying monitoring, verification, and accounting techniques to a real-world, enhanced oil recovery operational CO2 leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, B.T.; Krapac, I.G.; Locke, R.; Iranmanesh, A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being tested for oil fields in the Illinois Basin, USA. While this technology has shown promise for improving oil production, it has raised some issues about the safety of CO2 injection and storage. The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) organized a Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) team to develop and deploy monitoring programs at three EOR sites in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. MVA goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. This paper focuses on the use of MVA techniques in monitoring a small CO2 leak from a supply line at an EOR facility under real-world conditions. The ability of shallow monitoring techniques to detect and quantify a CO2 leak under real-world conditions has been largely unproven. In July of 2009, a leak in the pipe supplying pressurized CO2 to an injection well was observed at an MGSC EOR site located in west-central Kentucky. Carbon dioxide was escaping from the supply pipe located approximately 1 m underground. The leak was discovered visually by site personnel and injection was halted immediately. At its largest extent, the hole created by the leak was approximately 1.9 m long by 1.7 m wide and 0.7 m deep in the land surface. This circumstance provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the performance of several monitoring techniques including soil CO2 flux measurements, portable infrared gas analysis, thermal infrared imagery, and aerial hyperspectral imagery. Valuable experience was gained during this effort. Lessons learned included determining 1) hyperspectral imagery was not effective in detecting this relatively small, short-term CO2 leak, 2) even though injection was halted, the leak remained dynamic and presented a safety risk concern

  16. The Overcoat Oil Lubrication of Microarc Oxidation Coating on Al Alloy by Liquid Plasma Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhuang-zi; ZHANG Zhao-zhu; LIU Wei-ming; WANG Wen-jing; TIAN Jun

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic coatings were deposited on 2Al2 alloy with a 100 kW micro-arc oxidation equipment consisting of a potential adjustable ac power supply and alkali electrolyte. The structure of the micro-arc oxidiation coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The tribological properties of the coatings sliding against steel under the drop and adsorption lubrication of liquid paraffin were evaluated with a Timken tester. The lower friction coefficient of 0.14 and longer wear life of 2450 m of overcoat were observed for the polished micro-arc oxidation coating of 180μm thick at a sliding speed 2. 50 m/s and load 1500 N. This is because the coating has an interlayer of suitable porosity and thickness, which helps to improve the deposition of lubricants and endure the higher load. In other words, the oil is able to adsorb in the porous holes of the overcoat and provided the lubrication of micro reservoir during friction, and the compact and relatively hard interlayer of oxidation coating is able to support heavy load and prevent the oil lubricating film from damage.

  17. Spherical agglomerates of lactose with enhanced mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamešić, Dejan; Planinšek, Odon; Lavrič, Zoran; Ilić, Ilija

    2017-01-10

    The aim of this study was to prepare spherical agglomerates of lactose and to evaluate their physicochemical properties, flow properties, particle friability and compaction properties, and to compare them to commercially available types of lactose for direct compression (spray-dried, granulated and anhydrous β-lactose). Porous spherical agglomerates of α-lactose monohydrate with radially arranged prism-like primary particles were prepared exhibiting a high specific surface area. All types of lactose analysed had passable or better flow properties, except for anhydrous β-lactose, which had poor flowability. Particle friability was more pronounced in larger granulated lactose particles; however, particle structure was retained in all samples analysed. The mechanical properties of spherical agglomerates of lactose, in terms of compressibility, established with Walker analysis, and compactibility, established with a compactibility profile, were found to be superior to any commercially available types of lactose. Higher compactibility of spherical agglomerates of lactose is ascribed to significantly higher particle surface area due to a unique internal structure with higher susceptibility to fragmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhong Liu; Jie Wang; Guangxue Zhang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution.The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment.Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration.The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors.The most important and controversial factor is frequency.Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coalfired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency.Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis,experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined.The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash.Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 μm the particles agglomerated to adhere together,and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 μm.The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%,and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased.Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition.According to the results of orthogonal analysis,frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz.

  19. Phosphate-enhanced cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles and agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, W Neil; Chern, Christina; Sun, Dazhi; McMahon, Rebecca E; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Hahn, Mariah S; Sue, H-J

    2014-02-10

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to readily react with phosphate ions to form zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) crystallites. Because phosphates are ubiquitous in physiological fluids as well as waste water streams, it is important to examine the potential effects that the formation of Zn3(PO4)2 crystallites may have on cell viability. Thus, the cytotoxic response of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells was assessed following 24h of exposure to ZnO NPs suspended in media with and without the standard phosphate salt supplement. Both particle dosage and size have been shown to impact the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs, so doses ranging from 5 to 50 μg/mL were examined and agglomerate size effects were investigated by using the bioinert amphiphilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to generate water-soluble ZnO ranging from individually dispersed 4 nm NPs up to micron-sized agglomerates. Cell metabolic activity measures indicated that the presence of phosphate in the suspension media can led to significantly reduced cell viability at all agglomerate sizes and at lower ZnO dosages. In addition, a reduction in cell viability was observed when agglomerate size was decreased, but only in the phosphate-containing media. These metabolic activity results were reflected in separate measures of cell death via the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Our results suggest that, while higher doses of water-soluble ZnO NPs are cytotoxic, the presence of phosphates in the surrounding fluid can lead to significantly elevated levels of cell death at lower ZnO NP doses. Moreover, the extent of this death can potentially be modulated or offset by tuning the agglomerate size. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how nanoscale materials can interact with the components of surrounding fluids so that potential adverse effects of such interactions can be controlled.

  20. Monitoring North Sea oil production discharges using passive sampling devices coupled with in vitro bioassay techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Christopher; Farmen, Eivind; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2010-09-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic integrative chemical samplers (POCIS) were deployed in vicinity of an offshore oil production platform discharging production water (produced water) to the North Sea. Extracts from SPMDs and POCIS were subjected to chemical analysis for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols (APs) respectively, and also assessed for acute toxicity (cytotoxicity), estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated production of vitellogenin (Vtg) and induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in primary hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Chemical analysis of the extracts revealed a gradient of exposure away from the platform for low molecular weight PAH and AP, whereas no exposure gradient was apparent for high molecular weight PAH, as expected. These data coupled with earlier work allowed a tentative general exposure scenario to be determined. The passive sampler extracts also caused modulation of the bioassay toxicity endpoints, although a clear gradient of response relative to the discharge point could not be identified.

  1. Comments on an Analytical Thermal Agglomeration for Problems with Surface Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, N. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Up until Dec 2016, the thermal agglomeration was very heuristic, and as such, difficult to define. The lack of predictability became problematic, and the current notes represent the first real attempt to systematize the specification of the agglomerated process parameters.

  2. The effect of hydrodistillation technique on the yield and composition of essential oil from the seed of petroselinum crispum (mill. Nym. Ex. A.W. Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mihajlo Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil was isolated from the seed of Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nym. ex. A.W. Hill by using different techniques of Clevenger-type hydrodistillation. The highest yield of oil, after five consecutive hydrodistillation runs (3.9 mL/100 g of plant material, was obtained by the technique in which water from the still flask was separated by filtration and used together with fresh water for immersing the plant material in a subsequent distillation. Regardless of the technique used, the oil contained different amounts of α-pinene, ß-p/nene, limonene, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxy-1-allylbenzene, apiole and 1,2-benzenedicarbonic acid.

  3. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1997-10-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide- (CO{sub 2}-) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  4. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas

    1999-11-03

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  5. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Signal Feature Extraction and Quantitative Evaluation of Metal Magnetic Memory Testing for Oil Well Casing Based on Data Preprocessing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal magnetic memory (MMM technique is an effective method to achieve the detection of stress concentration (SC zone for oil well casing. It can provide an early diagnosis of microdamages for preventive protection. MMM is a natural space domain signal which is weak and vulnerable to noise interference. So, it is difficult to achieve effective feature extraction of MMM signal especially under the hostile subsurface environment of high temperature, high pressure, high humidity, and multiple interfering sources. In this paper, a method of median filter preprocessing based on data preprocessing technique is proposed to eliminate the outliers point of MMM. And, based on wavelet transform (WT, the adaptive wavelet denoising method and data smoothing arithmetic are applied in testing the system of MMM. By using data preprocessing technique, the data are reserved and the noises of the signal are reduced. Therefore, the correct localization of SC zone can be achieved. In the meantime, characteristic parameters in new diagnostic approach are put forward to ensure the reliable determination of casing danger level through least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM and nonlinear quantitative mapping relationship. The effectiveness and feasibility of this method are verified through experiments.

  7. Water migration mechanisms in amorphous powder material and related agglomeration propensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renzetti, S.; Voogt, J.A.; Oliver, L.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    The agglomeration phenomenon of amorphous particulate material is a major problem in the food industry. Currently, the glass transition temperature (Tg) is used as a fundamental parameter to describe and control agglomeration. Models are available that describe the kinetics of the agglomeration proc

  8. Using Essential Oils to Teach Advanced-Level Organic Chemistry Separation Techniques and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Tina M.; Wan, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty grasping the importance of when and how basic distillation techniques, column chromatography, TLC, and basic spectroscopy (IR and NMR) can be used to identify unknown compounds within a mixture. This two-part experiment uses mixtures of pleasant-smelling, readily available terpenoid compounds as unknowns to…

  9. Using Essential Oils to Teach Advanced-Level Organic Chemistry Separation Techniques and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Tina M.; Wan, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty grasping the importance of when and how basic distillation techniques, column chromatography, TLC, and basic spectroscopy (IR and NMR) can be used to identify unknown compounds within a mixture. This two-part experiment uses mixtures of pleasant-smelling, readily available terpenoid compounds as unknowns to…

  10. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-09-15

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  11. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lozano-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled to diode array detection (DAD and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product, secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones, flavones (luteolin and apigenin and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  12. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  13. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.

    1993-12-01

    This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application, and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. This report describes work performed during the first year of the project. Following the introduction, Chapters 2 through 5 present several surveys concerning field applications of gel treatments. Based on the results of the surveys, guidelines are proposed in Chapter 5 for the selection of candidates for gel treatments (both injection wells and production wells). Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 11 discuss theoretical work that was performed during the project. Chapter 6 examines whether Hall plots indicated selectivity during gelant placement. Chapter 7 discusses several important theoretical aspects of gel treatments in production wells with water-coning problems. Chapter 8 considers exploitation of density differences during gelant placement. Chapter 11 presents a preliminary consideration of the use of precipitates as blocking agents. Chapters 9 and 10 detail the experimental work for the project. Chapter 9 describes an experimental investigation of gelant placement in fractured systems. Chapter 10 describes experiments that probe the mechanisms for disproportionate permeability reduction by gels.

  14. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  15. Bifurcation theory for hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    This book contributes to an understanding of how bifurcation theory adapts to the analysis of economic geography. It is easily accessible not only to mathematicians and economists, but also to upper-level undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in nonlinear mathematics. The self-organization of hexagonal agglomeration patterns of industrial regions was first predicted by the central place theory in economic geography based on investigations of southern Germany. The emergence of hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography models was envisaged by Krugman. In this book, after a brief introduction of central place theory and new economic geography, the missing link between them is discovered by elucidating the mechanism of the evolution of bifurcating hexagonal patterns. Pattern formation by such bifurcation is a well-studied topic in nonlinear mathematics, and group-theoretic bifurcation analysis is a well-developed theoretical tool. A finite hexagonal lattice is used to express uniformly distri...

  16. Functionally graded porous scaffolds made of Ti-based agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Keivan A; Hilditch, Tim; Dargusch, Matthew S; Nouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Mono- and double-layer porous scaffolds were successfully fabricated using ball-milled agglomerates of Ti and Ti-10Nb-3Mo alloy. For selectively controlling the level of porosity and pore size, the agglomerates were sieved into two different size fractions of 100-300μm and 300-500μm. Compressive mechanical properties were measured on a series of cylindrical sintered compacts with different ratios of solid core diameter to porous layer width. The graded porous scaffolds exhibited stress-strain curves typical for metallic foams with a defined plateau region after yielding. The compressive strengths and elastic moduli ranged from 300 to 700MPa and 14 to 55GPa, respectively, depending on the core diameter and the material used. The obtained properties make these materials suitable for load-bearing implant applications.

  17. Public Action and Innovationsupport Institutions in New Technological Agglomerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana; Bacaria, Jordi; Fernandez-Ribas, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    In all industrial and technological agglomerations several types of public and semi-public actors coexist. The same happens with the levels of government. Consequently, the daily reality of agglomerations is characterized by a wide diversity of innovation-support institutions more or less actively...... on the major efforts of different public actors in the territory since the 1980s, mainly through the establishment and enhancement of innovation-support institutions, and analyses succinctly their effects through selected successful and failed cases. Two normative statements are suggested from the analysis...... into an open explicit option for the economic performance of the territory. The conclusions include a final plea for further research about the industrial dynamics and knowledge flows in the Vallès Occidental County, an important growth pole of Catalonia....

  18. AGGLOMERATION AND RADIATION EFFECT OF THE PULL OF URBANIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jin-li

    2003-01-01

    In order to explore the train of thought for China's urbanizing development and coordinated rural eco-nomic development, and to find good ways of solving rural problems through urbanization, this paper absorbs the push-and-pull forces theory and the systematic dynamic theory in the traditional population migration theories, views urbanization as a dynamic system, makes research on the push-and-pull mechanism of urbanization. The pull ingpower of urbanization is analyzed according to two aspects, the agglomeration effect and the radiation effect of cities. The agglomeration effect provides continuous propelling force for urbanization, and the radiation effect furtheraccelerates the urbanization process by pushing forward the development of rural economy. Of course, the slow de-velopment of urbanization can result in the hindrance to rural economic development.

  19. On Some Versions of the Element Agglomeration AMGe Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashuk, I; Vassilevski, P

    2007-08-09

    The present paper deals with element-based AMG methods that target linear systems of equations coming from finite element discretizations of elliptic PDEs. The individual element information (element matrices and element topology) is the main input to construct the AMG hierarchy. We study a number of variants of the spectral agglomerate element based AMG method. The core of the algorithms relies on element agglomeration utilizing the element topology (built recursively from fine to coarse levels). The actual selection of the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is based on solving large number of local eigenvalue problems. Additionally, we investigate strategies for adaptive AMG as well as multigrid cycles that are more expensive than the V-cycle utilizing simple interpolation matrices and nested conjugate gradient (CG) based recursive calls between the levels. The presented algorithms are illustrated with an extensive set of experiments based on a matlab implementation of the methods.

  20. Estimation of VOC emissions from produced-water treatment ponds in Uintah Basin oil and gas field using modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; O'Neil, T.; Jones, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions from produced-water treatment ponds are poorly characterized sources in oil and gas emission inventories that play a critical role in studying elevated winter ozone events in the Uintah Basin, Utah, U.S. Information gaps include un-quantified amounts and compositions of gases emitted from these facilities. The emitted gases are often known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which, beside nitrogen oxides (NOX), are major precursors for ozone formation in the near-surface layer. Field measurement campaigns using the flux-chamber technique have been performed to measure VOC emissions from a limited number of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah. Although the flux chamber provides accurate measurements at the point of sampling, it covers just a limited area of the ponds and is prone to altering environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure). This fact raises the need to validate flux chamber measurements. In this study, we apply an inverse-dispersion modeling technique with evacuated canister sampling to validate the flux-chamber measurements. This modeling technique applies an initial and arbitrary emission rate to estimate pollutant concentrations at pre-defined receptors, and adjusts the emission rate until the estimated pollutant concentrations approximates measured concentrations at the receptors. The derived emission rates are then compared with flux-chamber measurements and differences are analyzed. Additionally, we investigate the applicability of the WATER9 wastewater emission model for the estimation of VOC emissions from produced-water ponds in the Uintah Basin. WATER9 estimates the emission of each gas based on properties of the gas, its concentration in the waste water, and the characteristics of the influent and treatment units. Results of VOC emission estimations using inverse-dispersion and WATER9 modeling techniques will be reported.

  1. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  2. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

  3. 工艺差异对油茶籽油品质的影响%The Effect of Techniques on Quality of Oil-tea Camellia Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力; 陈永忠; 钟海雁; 周波; 彭邵锋; 李志钢; 王湘南; 王保明; 彭映赫

    2016-01-01

    By studying the quality of hot-pressed and cold-pressed oil-tea camellia seed oil, the volatile com-ponents in hot-pressed oil-tea camellia seed oil were analyzed by using SPME-GC/MS. The results indicated that compared with hot-pressed oil-tea camellia seed oil, cold-pressed one has lower acid value, peroxide value and lighter color, with better-preserved oleic acid, vitamin E and squalene. The isolated 65 components comprising of 10 categories of chemical compounds including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, phenols, acids, esters, hydrocar-bons, ethers, amines and heterocyclic compounds. Among these, heterocyclic compounds and aldehydes were of relatively higher contents, occupying 67. 52% of all volatile components, contributing to the main flavor substance that constituted hot oil-tea camellia seed oil. The varieties and relative content of volatile substances in hot oil-tea oil significantly surpassed those in cold oil-tea camellia seed oil.%通过对热榨和冷榨2种目前主要压榨工艺生产的油茶籽油品质进行研究,采用SPME-GC/MS联用法对热榨油茶籽油中的挥发性成分进行分析.结果表明:冷榨油茶籽油的酸值和过氧化值比热榨油茶籽油低,且颜色较浅,油酸及维生素E、 角鲨烯等活性物质保存较好.共分离出的65个成分,包括醛类、 醇类、 酮类、 酚类、 酸类、 酯类、 烃类、 醚类、 胺类和杂环类共10类化合物.其中,相对质量含量较高的是杂环类化合物和醛类化合物,占总挥发性成分的67.52%,是构成热榨油茶籽油的主要风味物质.热榨油茶籽油挥发性物质的种类及相对含量明显高于冷榨油茶籽油.

  4. Technique of Oil Jet Tank Cleaning Equipment%以油洗油的清罐设备与技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛胜雄; 王永强; 巴胜富; 陈正文; 朱华清

    2011-01-01

    Basd on crude oil storage tank cleaning & recovery technique, the writer' s innovation achievements of oil jet tank cleaning equipment technique was introduced, as followings: the routing of oil jet cleaning sludge; technique characteristic of tank cleaning equipment; design & test of cavitation jet nozzle tips; key technique of 3-D rotary nozzle; making effective use of oil jet force. The test results of cavitation jet, produced through inserting the nozzle core into nozzle tips, shows that the jet effective range of Organ model nozzle tips is increased by 20%. It enhances the cleaning efficiency of tank bottom sludge.%基于原油储罐清洗与回收技术,介绍了清罐设备成套技术和关键点,其中包括:以油洗油的工艺路线、清罐成套设备的技术特点、空化射流喷嘴的设计与试验研究和三维旋转喷枪油射流打击力的有效利用等.通过对喷嘴中置入喷嘴芯形成的空化射流试验证实:将传统管风琴式喷嘴的射流射程提高了20%以上,仅此一点,极大地提高了罐底油泥的破碎效率.

  5. A novel multi-band SAR data technique for fully automatic oil spill detection in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Frate, Fabio; Latini, Daniele; Taravat, Alireza; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2013-10-01

    With the launch of the Italian constellation of small satellites for the Mediterranean basin observation COSMO-SkyMed and the German TerraSAR-X missions, the delivery of very high-resolution SAR data to observe the Earth day or night has remarkably increased. In particular, also taking into account other ongoing missions such as Radarsat or those no longer working such as ALOS PALSAR, ERS-SAR and ENVISAT the amount of information, at different bands, available for users interested in oil spill analysis has become highly massive. Moreover, future SAR missions such as Sentinel-1 are scheduled for launch in the very next years while additional support can be provided by Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) SAR systems. Considering the opportunity represented by all these missions, the challenge is to find suitable and adequate image processing multi-band procedures able to fully exploit the huge amount of data available. In this paper we present a new fast, robust and effective automated approach for oil-spill monitoring starting from data collected at different bands, polarizations and spatial resolutions. A combination of Weibull Multiplicative Model (WMM), Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) techniques is proposed for achieving the aforementioned goals. One of the most innovative ideas is to separate the dark spot detection process into two main steps, WMM enhancement and PCNN segmentation. The complete processing chain has been applied to a data set containing C-band (ERS-SAR, ENVISAT ASAR), X-band images (Cosmo-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) and L-band images (UAVSAR) for an overall number of more than 200 images considered.

  6. Analysis on the Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of Financial Agglomeration with Markov Chain Approach in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard approach to studying financial industrial agglomeration is to construct measures of the degree of agglomeration within financial industry. But such measures often fail to exploit the convergence or divergence of financial agglomeration. In this paper, we apply Markov chain approach to diagnose the convergence of financial agglomeration in China based on the location quotient coefficients across the provincial regions over 1993–2011. The estimation of Markov transition probability matrix offers more detailed insights into the mechanics of financial agglomeration evolution process in China during the research period. The results show that the spatial evolution of financial agglomeration changes faster in the period of 2003–2011 than that in the period of 1993–2002. Furthermore, there exists a very uneven financial development patterns, but there is regional convergence for financial agglomeration in China.

  7. Development of Impregnated Agglomerate Pelletization (IAP) process for fabrication of (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, P. M.; Nehete, Y. G.; Fulzele, A. K.; Baghra, Chetan; Mishra, A. K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J. P.; Kamath, H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Impregnated Agglomerate Pelletization (IAP) technique has been developed at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF), BARC, Tarapur, for manufacturing (Th, 233U)O 2 mixed oxide fuel pellets, which are remotely fabricated in hot cell or shielded glove box facilities to reduce man-rem problem associated with 232U daughter radionuclides. This technique is being investigated to fabricate the fuel for Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). In the IAP process, ThO 2 is converted to free flowing spheroids by powder extrusion route in an unshielded facility which are then coated with uranyl nitrate solution in a shielded facility. The dried coated agglomerate is finally compacted and then sintered in oxidizing/reducing atmosphere to obtain high density (Th,U)O 2 pellets. In this study, fabrication of (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide pellets containing 3-5 wt.% UO 2 was carried out by IAP process. The pellets obtained were characterized using optical microscopy, XRD and alpha autoradiography. The results obtained were compared with the results for the pellets fabricated by other routes such as Coated Agglomerate Pelletization (CAP) and Powder Oxide Pelletization (POP) route.

  8. On the flexibility of agglomeration based physical space discontinuous Galerkin discretizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, F.; Botti, L.; Colombo, A.; Di Pietro, D. A.; Tesini, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we show that the flexibility of the discontinuous Galerkin (dG) discretization can be fruitfully exploited to implement numerical solution strategies based on the use of elements with very general shapes. Thanks to the freedom in defining the mesh topology, we propose a new h-adaptive technique based on agglomeration coarsening of a fine mesh. The possibility to enhance the error distribution over the computational domain is investigated on a Poisson problem with the goal of obtaining a mesh independent discretization. The main building block of our dG method consists of defining discrete polynomial spaces directly on physical frame elements. For this purpose we orthonormalize with respect to the L2-product a set of monomials relocated in a specific element frame and we introduce an easy way to reduce the cost related to numerical integration on agglomerated meshes. To complete the dG formulation for second order problems, two extensions of the BR2 scheme to arbitrary polyhedral grids, including an estimate of the stabilization parameter ensuring the coercivity property, are here proposed.

  9. Wear Characterizations of Polyoxymethylene (POM) Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes (POM/CNTs) Using the Paraffin Oil Dispersion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Samy; Visco, A. M.; Galtieri, G.; Njuguna, James

    2016-01-01

    The wear of polyoxymethylene (POM) is considered a key design parameter of polymer gears and some mechanical applications, and it determines the service time span. This work investigates the influence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the specific wear rate of POM/CNT nanocomposites by using a pin-on-disk test rig (sliding only). The CNTs were synthesized with a fully automatic machine via the arc-discharge multi-electrode technique and subsequently dispersed in a POM matrix to manufacture test specimens. The CNT weight percentages were varied within the range 0-0.03 wt.% in three different operating media (air, distilled water, and mineral oil). The wear mechanism was examined by microscopy. The mechanical and thermal properties of POM/CNT were studied by using calorimetric analysis and by mechanical tensile testing. In addition, the thermal and mechanical properties were improved to an optimum CNT ratio of 0.02 wt.% due to the improvement in crystallinity of POM and a decrease in the fusion defects. The crystallinity degree increased by 7%, and the melting temperature also increased. The results further indicate that the specific wear rate (Ws) for POM/CNT containing 0.03 wt.% CNT in air and water media was improved by 73% and 66%, respectively, compared with virgin POM. In addition, the tensile strength of the mechanical properties and Young's modulus increased by 31% and 29%, respectively.

  10. Agglomeration processes sustained by dust density waves in Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} plasma: From C{sub 2}H{sub 2} injection to the formation of an organized structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dap, Simon; Hugon, Robert; Poucques, Ludovic de; Briancon, Jean-Luc; Bougdira, Jamal [Universite de Lorraine-Institut Jean Lamour, Dpt CP2S UMR 7198 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Lacroix, David [Universite de Lorraine-LEMTA, UMR 7563 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, an experimental investigation of dust particle agglomeration in a capacitively coupled RF discharge is reported. Carbonaceous particles are produced in an argon plasma using acetylene. As soon as the particle density becomes sufficient, dust density waves (DDWs) are spontaneously excited within the cathode sheath. Recently, it was proven that DDWs can significantly enhance the agglomeration rate between particles by transferring them a significant kinetic energy. Thus, it helps them to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The influence of this mechanism is studied from acetylene injection to the formation of very large agglomerates forming an organized structure after a few dozens of seconds. For this purpose, three diagnostic tools are used: extinction measurements to probe nanometer-sized particles, fast imaging for large agglomerates and a dust extraction technique developed for ex-situ analysis.

  11. Novel Application of the Flotation Technique To Measure the Wettability Changes by Ionically Modified Water for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    imbibition tests take months, and chromatographic separation is feasible only for core flooding in sulfate free carbonates at low temperature. A novel application of the well-established technique known as flotation was used in this study to measure the oil-wet and water-wet percent of pure biogenic chalk (Dan...... Chalk from Denmark). It is an accurate, fast, and most reliable method to quantitatively measure the water-wet and oil-wet fractions of a reservoir rock. It determines the potential of advanced water to improve wettability within days, instead of measurements that can take months and require expensive...... alteration and the amount of oil attached to the water-wet percent of rock was also determined....

  12. Greek Salvia sclarea L. Essential Oils: Effect of Hydrodistillation Time, Comparison of the Aroma Chemicals Using Hydrodistillation and HS-SPME Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Koutsaviti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the essential oil of Salvia sclarea is used as a flavouring agent, the effect of different extraction techniques (hydrodistillation & HS-SPME and duration of hydrodistillation (2, 3 and 4 h with respect to yield, composition and identification rate of extracted essential oils from Greek cultivated S. sclarea aerial blooming parts were investigated. Linalool and linalyl acetate levels seemed to decrease with increasing duration of hydrodistillation, while diterpenes increased dramatically, while the head space analysis showed significantly lower levels of linalool in comparison to its ester. Thus, linalool (5.1-35.8%, linalyl acetate (11.3-37.6% and sclareol (0.0-41.8%, concerning the oils obtained by hydrodistillation, were the most important metabolites. Solid-phase microextraction yielded mainly oxygenated monoterpenes, especially linalyl acetate (59.3%, followed by cis-linalool oxide (8.6% and linalool (7.8%.

  13. Evaluation of optical and electronic properties of silicon nano-agglomerates embedded in SRO: applying density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Torres, Néstor D; la Luz, David Hernández-de; Flores-Gracia, José Francisco J; Luna-López, José A; Martínez-Juárez, Javier; Vázquez-Valerdi, Diana E

    2014-01-01

    In systems in atomic scale and nanoscale such as clusters or agglomerates constituted by particles from a few to less than 100 atoms, quantum confinement effects are very important. Their optical and electronic properties are often dependent on the size of the systems and the way in which the atoms in these clusters are bonded. Generally, these nanostructures display optical and electronic properties significantly different to those found in corresponding bulk materials. Silicon agglomerates embedded in silicon rich oxide (SRO) films have optical properties, which have been reported to be directly dependent on silicon nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of SRO has repeatedly generated a huge interest due to its possible applications in optoelectronic devices. However, a plausible emission mechanism has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. In this work, we present a short review about the experimental results on silicon nanoclusters in SRO considering different techniques of growth. We focus mainly on their size, Raman spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. With this as background, we employed the density functional theory with a functional B3LYP and a basis set 6-31G* to calculate the optical and electronic properties of clusters of silicon (constituted by 15 to 20 silicon atoms). With the theoretical calculation of the structural and optical properties of silicon clusters, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of silicon agglomerates in the luminescent emission mechanism, experimentally found in thin SRO films.

  14. Effect of process variables on the oil extraction from passion fruit seeds by conventional and non-conventional techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.15217

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardoso de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of process variables on the oil extraction from passion fruit seeds by three techniques, ultrasound shaker, and soxhlet, and of environment-friendly solvents are evaluated. Ratio variables of seed weight, solvent volume (R, time of extraction (T, and type of solvent (S were evaluated. The significant variables for oil extraction from passion fruit seeds were R and S by ultrasound and shaker techniques and T for soxhlet extraction. Comparison of the three techniques showed that the soxhlet technique had the highest yield with 65% of total oil in the initial matrix.

  15. A Review of Techniques for Fish Oil Application in Food Products%鱼油在食品领域中的应用技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏树华; 姜元荣; 张余权; 牛付欢

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of tehcniques for the application of fish oil in foods products. Fish oil has been widely used in food products due to its special health benefit. It is necessary to add fish oil in food products because of deficient intake of docesahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in China. Nowadays, there are many foods rich in fish oil avabiale in the market. The oxidative stability of fish oil has been a concern for a long time during this application. The addition styles such as direct addition, emulsion or microcapsulation, and new processing techniques can effectively improve the oxidative stability of fish oil. Therefore, the application of fish oil in daily food will be developed widely in future both technologically and commercially.%对鱼油在食品领域中的应用技术进行综述。由于具有独特的营养功能,鱼油的应用十分广泛。中国居民目前对二十碳五烯酸(EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)摄入不足,因而鱼油在食品中的应用十分必要。目前市场上已有多种鱼油应用于各类食品中。在应用过程中,鱼油的氧化稳定性问题一直是研究热点,选择不同的添加形式(纯鱼油、乳状液和微胶囊)并采用某些新工艺可有效提高氧化稳定性。鱼油应用于食品在技术和商业方面的发展前景均十分广阔。

  16. Research on Paraffin Removal and Control Techniques for Oil Pipelines%输油管道清防蜡技术研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官琳悦; 王卫强

    2014-01-01

    产自我国的原油大多属于石蜡基原油,在输送过程中,原油中的蜡不断结晶析出,沉积在管道内壁上,结蜡层厚度逐渐增加,导致管道内的有效通流截面减小,使输油过程变得困难,这不仅会降低输量,而且严重时还会堵塞管道,存在一定的安全隐患。在本文中,根据影响蜡沉积的因素,并结合油田清防蜡措施,总结了几种有关输油管道的清、防蜡技术。%Most of the crude oil produced in China is paraffin-base d oil. In its transportation process, wax in the crude oil crystallizes and separates out from the crude oil continuously, and deposits on the pipe wall, the wax layer thickness is increasing gradually, which reduce the pipe effective flowing cross-section, so that the oil transportation process becomes difficult, which will not only reduce the transportation quantity, but also stop up the pipe when it’s serious, so there are some security risks. In this paper, based on the factors affecting the wax deposition, combined with measures of paraffin removal and control in the oil field, several techniques of paraffin removal and control for the crude oil pipeline were summed up.

  17. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; Vannavanich, Danai; Keattikunpairoj, Sunisa; Chittasupho, Chuda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and Japanese mint were cultivated in four different nutrient formulas: plant standard nutrient, plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture, plant standard nutrient with a sulphur compound, and a combination of plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture and a sulphur compound. We observed that cultivation of spearmint and Japanese mint in nutrient solution using DFT is an effective method to provide high production of volatile oil, since it results in an earlier harvest period and higher quantity of volatile oil. We determined that for spearmint an amino acid mixture is an appropriate nutrient supplement to enhance production of volatile oil with optimum carvone content. Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil.

  18. Study on the connectivity of heavy oil reservoirs by ultraviolet spectrum technique in the western part of the QHD32-6 oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yaohui; CHEN Dan

    2008-01-01

    As a new method, the ultraviolet spectrum technique is applied to studying the connectivity of biodegradable heavy oil reservoirs. The similarity of crude oils can be judged according to the extinction coefficient (E)because aromatic hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbons have conjugated bonds and obvious absorption in the ultraviolet range, and different materials have different characteristics and additives. The relationship diagram is made in terms of the extinction coefficients (E) of the samples by taking E as the Y-axis and wavelength as the X-axis. The connectivity of oil reservoirs is estimated according to the curve positions and characteristic fingerprints of the samples. The connectivity of part of the reservoirs in the western part of the QHD32-6 oilfieid was studied with this method. The results showed that the connectivity of samples from wells F7 and F8 in the Nm-2 oil reservoir zone is good, that of samples from wells F17 and F20 in the Nm-1 oil reservoir zone also is good, and that of samples from wells F17, F19, and F20 is poor.

  19. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Oliveri, P; Casolino, C; Sinelli, N; Zunin, P; Armanino, C; Forina, M; Lanteri, S

    2012-01-27

    An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Applying CFD in the analysis of heavy oil - water two-phase flow in joints by using core annular flow technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Andrade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the oil industry the multiphase flow occur throughout the production chain, from reservoir rock until separation units through the production column, risers and pipelines. During the whole process the fluid flows through the horizontal pipes, curves, connections and T joints. Today, technological and economic challenges facing the oil industry is related to heavy oil transportation due to its unfavourable characteristics such as high viscosity and high density that provokes high pressure drop along the flow. The coreflow technique consists in the injection of small amounts of water into the pipe to form a ring of water between the oil and the wall of the pipe which provides the reduction of friction pressure drop along the flow. This paper aim to model and simulate the transient two-phase flow (water-heavy oil in a horizontal pipe and T joint by numerical simulation using the software ANSYS CFX® Release 12.0. Results of pressure and volumetric fraction distribution inside the horizontal pipe and T joint are presented and analysed.

  1. A phenomenological model for improving understanding of the ammonium nitrate agglomeration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videla Leiva Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate is intensively used as explosive in the mining industry as the main component of ANFO. The ammonium nitrate is known to be a strong hygroscopic crystal matter which generates problems due to the creation of water bridges between crystals leading later to nucleation and crystallization forming an agglomerated solid cake. The agglomeration process damages the ammonium nitrate performance and is undesirable. Usually either organic or inorganic coatings are used to control agglomeration. In the present work a characterization method of humidity adsorption of the ammonium nitrate crystal was performed under laboratory conditions. Several samples were exposed into a defined humidity in a controlled chamber during 5 hours after which the samples were tested to measure agglomeration as the resistance force to compression. A clear relation was found between coating protection level, humidity and agglomeration. Agglomeration can be then predicted by a phenomenological model based of combination of the mono-layer BET adsorption and CNT nucleation models.

  2. Influences of seed size and number on agglomeration in synthetic Bayer liquors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; ZHOU Ke-chao; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2006-01-01

    By means of Malvern laser particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy, the influences of seed size and number on agglomeration in Bayer process were investigated. Agglomeration is almost finished in 8 h,seeds, below 5 μm, especially below 2 μm, gather together rapidly and almost disappear in 8 h. In the same supersaturation of aluminate solution and seed size, the smaller the number of seed is, the bigger the degree of agglomeration is. With the same primary number of seed, the agglomeration of larger seed is superior to that of small seed,and the agglomeration does not happen among the coarse seeds. The agglomeration mainly happens among fine particles, and the combinations among the fine particles are unconsolidated.

  3. Flue Dust Agglomeration in the Secondary Lead Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, Klaus

    1981-01-01

    A secondary lead smelter produces several tons of bag-house dust a day. Appropriate handling of this dust is mandatory to meet the proposed OSHA and EPA workroom and ambient standards. Dust agglomeration proved a successful approach. Dusts with a high concentration of PbCl2, or compounds containing PbCl2 can be agglomerated at much lower temperatures than samples with low PbCl2 concentrations. The chlorine sources are polyvinyl chloride (PVC) battery plate separators. Since PVC is used in Europe to a much greater extent than in the U.S., the composition of feedstock must be considered in equipment selection at U.S. secondary smelters. The vapor pressure characteristics of PbCl2 favor its evaporation at blast furnace temperatures. Condensation occurs in the gas cooling system. Recycling of baghouse dust leads to a buildup of PbCl2 in the smelter. Its removal from the system is eventually necessary through leaching, if charges with a high PVC content are processed.

  4. Agglomeration of Luminescent Porous Silicon Nanoparticles in Colloidal Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herynková, Kateřina; Šlechta, Miroslav; Šimáková, Petra; Fučíková, Anna; Cibulka, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    We have prepared colloidal solutions of clusters composed from porous silicon nanoparticles in methanol, water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Even if the size of the nanoclusters is between 60 and 500 nm, due to their highly porous "cauliflower"-like structure, the porous silicon nanoparticles are composed of interconnected nanocrystals having around 2.5 nm in size and showing strong visible luminescence in the orange-red spectral region (centred at 600-700 nm). Hydrophilic behaviour and good solubility of the nanoclusters in water and water-based solutions were obtained by adding hydrogen peroxide into the etching solution during preparation and 16 min long after-bath in hydrogen peroxide. By simple filtration of the solutions with syringe filters, we have extracted smaller nanoclusters with sizes of approx. 60-70 nm; however, these nanoclusters in water and PBS solution (pH neutral) are prone to agglomeration, as was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. When the samples were left at ambient conditions for several weeks, the typical nanocluster size increased to approx. 330-400 nm and then remained stable. However, both freshly filtered and aged samples (with agglomerated porous silicon nanoparticles) of porous silicon in water and PBS solutions can be further used for biological studies or as luminescent markers in living cells.

  5. Agglomeration of Luminescent Porous Silicon Nanoparticles in Colloidal Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herynková, Kateřina; Šlechta, Miroslav; Šimáková, Petra; Fučíková, Anna; Cibulka, Ondřej

    2016-08-01

    We have prepared colloidal solutions of clusters composed from porous silicon nanoparticles in methanol, water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Even if the size of the nanoclusters is between 60 and 500 nm, due to their highly porous "cauliflower"-like structure, the porous silicon nanoparticles are composed of interconnected nanocrystals having around 2.5 nm in size and showing strong visible luminescence in the orange-red spectral region (centred at 600-700 nm). Hydrophilic behaviour and good solubility of the nanoclusters in water and water-based solutions were obtained by adding hydrogen peroxide into the etching solution during preparation and 16 min long after-bath in hydrogen peroxide. By simple filtration of the solutions with syringe filters, we have extracted smaller nanoclusters with sizes of approx. 60-70 nm; however, these nanoclusters in water and PBS solution (pH neutral) are prone to agglomeration, as was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. When the samples were left at ambient conditions for several weeks, the typical nanocluster size increased to approx. 330-400 nm and then remained stable. However, both freshly filtered and aged samples (with agglomerated porous silicon nanoparticles) of porous silicon in water and PBS solutions can be further used for biological studies or as luminescent markers in living cells.

  6. Automated Manufacture of Fertilizing Agglomerates from Burnt Wood Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svantesson, Thomas

    2002-12-01

    In Sweden, extensive research is conducted to find alternative sources of energy that should partly replace the electric power production from nuclear power. With the ambition to create a sustainable system for producing energy, the use of renewable energy is expected to grow further and biofuels are expected to account for a significant part of this increase. However, when biofuels are burned or gasified, ash appears as a by-product. In order to overcome the problems related to deposition in land fills, the idea is to transform the ashes into a product - agglomerates - that easily could be recycled back to the forest grounds; as a fertilizer, or as a tool to reduce the acidification in the forest soil at the spreading area. This work considers the control of a transformation process, which transforms wood ash produced at a district heating plant into fertilizing agglomerates. A robust machine, built to comply with the industrial requirements for continuous operation, has been developed and is controlled by an industrial control system in order to enable an automated manufacture.

  7. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Technical progress for this quarter are discussed for subsurface and engineering studies.

  8. Research Progress of Extraction Techniques of Essential Oils from Onion%洋葱精油提取技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鑫光; 廖传华; 陈海军; 朱跃钊

    2014-01-01

    The principles of water extraction,solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction techniques are expounded;the application of various methods for onion essential oils extraction is introduced.Aiming at the existing problems of various extraction methods,the relevant intensified extraction techniques are put forward to achieve the efficient extraction of onion essential oils.%阐述了水提法、溶剂提取法、超临界流体萃取技术的原理,介绍了各种方法在洋葱精油提取中的应用。针对各提取方法存在的问题,提出了相关的强化提取技术,为实现洋葱精油的高效提取提供指导。

  9. Determination of the analytical performance of a headspace capillary gas chromatographic technique and karl Fischer coulometric titration by system calibration using oil samples containing known amounts of moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, J; Gilbert, R; Tétreault, P

    1999-08-01

    Over the past few years, concerns have been raised in the literature about the accuracy of the Karl Fischer (KF) method for assessing moisture in transformer mineral oils. To better understand this issue, the performance of a static headspace capillary gas chromatographic (HS-CGC) technique was compared to that of KF coulometric titration by analyzing moisture in samples containing known amounts of water and various samples obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Two modes of adding samples into the KF vessel were used:  direct injection and indirect injection via an azeotropic distillation of the moisture with toluene. Under the conditions used for direct injection, the oil matrix was totally dissolved in the anolyte, which allowed the moisture to be titrated in a single-phase solution rather than in a suspension. The results have shown that when HS-CGC and combined azeotropic distillation/KF titration are calibrated with moisture-in-oil standards, a linear relation is observed over 0-60 ppm H(2)O with a correlation coefficient better than 0.9994 (95% confidence), with the regression line crossing through zero. A similar relation can also be observed when calibration is achieved by direct KF addition of standards prepared with octanol-1, but in this case an intercept of 4-5 ppm is noted. The amount of moisture determined by curve interpolation in NIST reference materials by the three calibrated systems ranges from 13.0 to 14.8 ppm for RM 8506 and 42.5 to 46.4 ppm for RM 8507, and in any case, the results were as high as those reported in the literature with volumetric KF titration. However, titration of various dehydrated oil and solvent samples showed that direct KF titration is affected by a small bias when samples contain very little moisture. The source of error after correction for the large sample volume used for the determination (8 mL) is about 6 ppm for Voltesso naphthenic oil and 4 ppm for toluene, revealing a matrix

  10. Bioinspired, roughness-induced, water and oil super-philic and super-phobic coatings prepared by adaptable layer-by-layer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-09-01

    Coatings with specific surface wetting properties are of interest for anti-fouling, anti-fogging, anti-icing, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, and oil-water separation applications. Many previous bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. Here, a layer-by-layer technique is utilized to create coatings with four combinations of water and oil repellency and affinity. An adapted layer-by-layer approach is tailored to yield specific surface properties, resulting in a durable, functional coating. This technique provides necessary flexibility to improve substrate adhesion combined with desirable surface chemistry. Polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and silane or fluorosurfactant layers are deposited, combining surface roughness and necessary chemistry to result in four different coatings: superhydrophilic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophobic, and superhydrophilic/superoleophobic. The superoleophobic coatings display hexadecane contact angles >150° with tilt angles 160° with tilt angles <2°. One coating combines both oleophobic and hydrophobic properties, whilst others mix and match oil and water repellency and affinity. Coating durability was examined through the use of micro/macrowear experiments. These coatings display transparency acceptable for some applications. Fabrication via this novel combination of techniques results in durable, functional coatings displaying improved performance compared to existing work where either durability or functionality is compromised.

  11. Bioinspired, roughness-induced, water and oil super-philic and super-phobic coatings prepared by adaptable layer-by-layer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Coatings with specific surface wetting properties are of interest for anti-fouling, anti-fogging, anti-icing, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, and oil-water separation applications. Many previous bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. Here, a layer-by-layer technique is utilized to create coatings with four combinations of water and oil repellency and affinity. An adapted layer-by-layer approach is tailored to yield specific surface properties, resulting in a durable, functional coating. This technique provides necessary flexibility to improve substrate adhesion combined with desirable surface chemistry. Polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and silane or fluorosurfactant layers are deposited, combining surface roughness and necessary chemistry to result in four different coatings: superhydrophilic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophobic, and superhydrophilic/superoleophobic. The superoleophobic coatings display hexadecane contact angles >150° with tilt angles 160° with tilt angles oleophobic and hydrophobic properties, whilst others mix and match oil and water repellency and affinity. Coating durability was examined through the use of micro/macrowear experiments. These coatings display transparency acceptable for some applications. Fabrication via this novel combination of techniques results in durable, functional coatings displaying improved performance compared to existing work where either durability or functionality is compromised. PMID:26353971

  12. Biosurfactant-biopolymer driven microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and its optimization by an ANN-GA hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Rangarajan, Vivek; Bandi, Chandrakanth; Dixit, Abhivyakti; Das, Susmita; Ale, Kranthikiran; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2017-08-20

    A lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Bacillus megaterium and a biopolymer produced by thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis were tested for their application potential in the enhanced oil recovery. The crude biosurfactant obtained after acid precipitation effectively reduced the surface tension of deionized water from 70.5 to 28.25mN/m and the interfacial tension between lube oil and water from 18.6 to 1.5mN/m at a concentration of 250mgL(-1). The biosurfactant exhibited a maximum emulsification activity (E24) of 81.66% against lube oil. The lipopeptide micelles were stabilized by addition of Ca(2+) ions to the biosurfactant solution. The oil recovery efficiency of Ca(2+) conditioned lipopeptide solution from a sand-packed column was optimized by using artificial neural network (ANN) modelling coupled with genetic algorithm (GA) optimization. Three important parameters namely lipopeptide concentration, Ca(2+) concentration and solution pH were considered for optimization studies. In order to further improve the recovery efficiency, a water soluble biopolymer produced by Bacillus licheniformis was used as a flooding agent after biosurfactant incubation. Upon ANN-GA optimization, 45% tertiary oil recovery was achieved, when biopolymer at a concentration of 3gL(-1) was used as a flooding agent. Oil recovery was only 29% at optimal conditions predicted by ANN-GA, when only water was used as flooding solution. The important characteristics of biopolymers such as its viscosity, pore plugging capabilities and bio-cementing ability have also been tested. Thus, as a result of biosurfactant incubation and biopolymer flooding under the optimal process conditions, a maximum oil recovery of 45% was achieved. Therefore, this study is novel, timely and interesting for it showed the combined influence of biosurfactant and biopolymer on solubilisation and mobilization of oil from the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On minimal energy dipole moment distributions in regular polygonal agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Adriano Possebon; Cunha, Francisco Ricardo; Ceniceros, Hector Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Static, regular polygonal and close-packed clusters of spherical magnetic particles and their energy-minimizing magnetic moments are investigated in a two-dimensional setting. This study focuses on a simple particle system which is solely described by the dipole-dipole interaction energy, both without and in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. For a regular polygonal structure of n sides with n ≥ 3 , and in the absence of an external field, it is proved rigorously that the magnetic moments given by the roots of unity, i.e. tangential to the polygon, are a minimizer of the dipole-dipole interaction energy. Also, for zero external field, new multiple local minima are discovered for the regular polygonal agglomerates. The number of found local extrema is proportional to [ n / 2 ] and these critical points are characterized by the presence of a pair of magnetic moments with a large deviation from the tangential configuration and whose particles are at least three diameters apart. The changes induced by an in-plane external magnetic field on the minimal energy, tangential configurations are investigated numerically. The two critical fields, which correspond to a crossover with the linear chain minimal energy and with the break-up of the agglomerate, respectively are examined in detail. In particular, the numerical results are compared directly with the asymptotic formulas of Danilov et al. (2012) [23] and a remarkable agreement is found even for moderate to large fields. Finally, three examples of close-packed structures are investigated: a triangle, a centered hexagon, and a 19-particle close packed cluster. The numerical study reveals novel, illuminating characteristics of these compact clusters often seen in ferrofluids. The centered hexagon is energetically favorable to the regular hexagon and the minimal energy for the larger 19-particle cluster is even lower than that of the close packed hexagon. In addition, this larger close packed agglomerate has two

  14. Discussion on the dispersion & agglomeration of aircraft industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Chu

    2009-01-01

    The aircraft industry is crucial to the economy and security of a nation. In this paper, the spatial characteristics and patterns of the aircraft industry are analyzed on different spatial scales. It is found that there is a 'Matthew effect' in the global aircraft industry and the spatial evolution of the industry is consistent with the industrialization process of the whole country. It is also revealed that the spatial evolution of the country is driven by both the centripetal forces including capital, talents, technology and agglomeration economies and the centrifugal forces including the comparative advantage, cost &risk sharing, emerging markets, development policy for less-developed regions and the military imperative. These forces have both market-stabilizing and market-disrupting effects on the spatial evolution of the aircraft industry. The study suggests that lessons drawn from the experiences in the United States and France are expected to be conducive to the rise of China's aircraft industry in the future.

  15. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Hjuler, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    Waste-derived fuels, such as solid recovered fuel (SRF), are increasingly being used in, e.g., the cement industry as a means to reduce cost. The inhomogeneous nature of SRF makes it difficult to combust, and many problems may arise within, e.g., combustion control, feeding of fuel, deposit...... formation, or accumulation of impurities. The combustion of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), wood, and SRF were studied in a rotary drum furnace. The combustion was recorded on a camera (60 frames per second), so that any agglomeration or deposition of fuel or ash...... could be monitored. PE and PP pose no significant risk of forming deposits in a combustion environment (T > 800 °C) as a result of a rapid devolatilization, while PET may cause deposits as a result of a sticky char residue. The deposition tendency of the investigated SRF is low, and it may be managed...

  16. Agglomeration and Deposition Behaviour of Solid Recovered Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    contains significant quantities of common plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Fluidized bed experiments to examine the pyrolysis of polymers have shown that bed agglomeration can result from melting plastics or sticky char residues in the case...... materials such as plastic and paper than mixed MSW [2]. The inhomogeneous nature of SRF [3] makes it difficult to combust and many problems may arise concerning e.g. combustion control, feeding of fuel [2,4], deposit formation [5], or accumulation of impurities [3]. Laboratory ash fusion tests typically...... of PET [11,12]. The main objective of this study was to characterize the combustion of SRF and especially the deposition propensity of SRF and the main constituents of SRF. This relates both to the low temperature deposits formed during plastic pyrolysis and the high temperature deposits formed by ash...

  17. Fluidization and mixing of nanoparticle agglomerates assisted via magnetic impaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scicolone, James V.; Lepek, Daniel; Louie, Lin; Dave, Rajesh N., E-mail: dave@adm.njit.edu [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical, Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Mixing of nanopowders in an environmentally benign magnetically assisted fluidized bed (MAFB) system was studied. Examination of fluidization behavior of agglomerate particulate fluidization (APF; silica R974 or R972) and agglomerate bubbling fluidization (ABF; alumina or titania) nano-powders in un-assisted and MAFB systems confirmed previous results on decreased minimum fluidization velocity and increased bed expansion of APF and ABF powders due to magnetic assistance. APF and ABF powder mixtures behaved like APF powders with the bed expansions in between those of individual constituents. Unlike previous MAFB studies, fluidization as a function of time was studied to examine its influence on nano-mixing. With time, the bed expansion reduced, and reduction was faster as magnet-to-powder ratio increased from 0:1 to 5:1, although fluidization was sustained, confirmed via the pressure drop measurements. Reduction in bed expansion was attributed to change in the nature of nanoagglomerates, which showed increased density as a function of processing time, ruling out electrostatics or elutriation as major factors. Mixtures of silica (APF) and alumina (ABF), processed at various magnet-to-powder ratios, were characterized via statistical analysis from energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy using field emission scanning electron microscope to compute homogeneity of mixing (HoM). Magnetic assistance improved the HoM as a function of time, and was strongly related to the product of number of magnets and time, similar to previous results in magnetically assisted impaction mixing (MAIM). The best achievable HoM was significantly better than unassisted fluidization and comparable to previous results for rapid expansion of high-pressure suspensions and MAIM.

  18. Design of sustained release fine particles using two-step mechanical powder processing: particle shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with polymer nanoparticle agglomerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Ito, Natsuki; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2013-09-10

    We attempted to prepare sustained release fine particles using a two-step mechanical powder processing method; particle-shape modification and dry particle coating. First, particle shape of bulk drug was modified by mechanical treatment to yield drug crystals suitable for the coating process. Drug crystals became more rounded with increasing rotation speed, which demonstrates that powerful mechanical stress yields spherical drug crystals with narrow size distribution. This process is the result of destruction, granulation and refinement of drug crystals. Second, the modified drug particles and polymer coating powder were mechanically treated to prepare composite particles. Polymer nanoparticle agglomerate obtained by drying poly(meth)acrylate aqueous dispersion was used as a coating powder. The porous nanoparticle agglomerate has superior coating performance, because it is completely deagglomerated under mechanical stress to form fine fragments that act as guest particles. As a result, spherical drug crystals treated with porous agglomerate were effectively coated by poly(meth)acrylate powder, showing sustained release after curing. From these findings, particle-shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with nanoparticle agglomerate using a mechanical powder processor is expected as an innovative technique for preparing controlled-release coated particles having high drug content and size smaller than 100 μm.

  19. Compound Stimulation Techniques for Heavy Oil Reservoirs with Bottom Water%底水稠油油藏水平井复合增产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜勇

    2016-01-01

    针对桩西油田强底水稠油油藏水平井单井产液量高、含水率高、开发效果差、剩余油动用难度大的问题,进行了底水稠油油藏复合增产技术研究。利用水平井二氧化碳吞吐可视化试验,分析了底水油藏水平井二氧化碳吞吐提高采收率的机理,同时针对单一二氧化碳驱易指进的问题,优选发泡剂和稳泡剂,研制了增黏型泡沫体系,并配制了乳化沥青堵水剂以封堵高渗透通道,形成了包括二氧化碳吞吐、增黏型泡沫体系和乳化沥青堵水剂的水平井复合增产技术。复合增产技术在桩1块底水稠油油藏应用7井次,平均含水率降低27.5百分点,累计增油量3205 t ,取得了明显的降水增油效果。现场应用表明,复合增产技术可以解决底水稠油油藏水平井含水率高、剩余油动用难度大的问题。%In the Zhuangxi Oilfield ,horizontal wells in heavy oil reservoirs with strong bottom water are characterized by high liquid production ,high water cut ,poor development output and difficulty in pro-ducing the remaining .In order to solve these problems ,a series of studies was carried out to develop com-pound stimulation techniques for heavy oil reservoirs with bottom water .First ,the mechanisms of carbon dioxide huff and puff for improving oil recovery of horizontal wells with bottom-water were analyzed through visualization experiments .Secondly ,a viscosity increasing foam system was prepared by optimi-zing foaming agent and foam stabilizer so as to deal with carbon dioxide flooding fingering .And thirdly e-mulsified asphalt blocking agent was prepared by optimizing emulsifier so as to blocking high-permeability paths .The compound stimulation techniques were designed based on carbon dioxide huff and puff ,viscosi-ty increasing foam system and the development of an emulsified asphalt blocking agent .T hese techniques were applied seven times in heavy oil reservoirs

  20. Productive Places : The influence of technological change and relatedness on agglomeration externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neffke, F.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the topic of agglomeration externalities. Agglomeration externalities can roughly be defined as advantages and disadvantages local firms experience when locating close to other firms. An old debate exists over the question whether firms benefit more from being close to firms in

  1. Productive Places : The influence of technological change and relatedness on agglomeration externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neffke, F.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the topic of agglomeration externalities. Agglomeration externalities can roughly be defined as advantages and disadvantages local firms experience when locating close to other firms. An old debate exists over the question whether firms benefit more from being close to firms in

  2. Agglomeration in fluidized beds at high temperatures: Mechanisms, detection and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malte Bartels; Weigang Lin; John Nijenhuis; Freek Kapteijn; J. Ruud van Ommen [Delft University of Technology - DelftChemTech, Delft (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    Fluidized-bed conversion of solid fuels is a well-established and widely used technology. Yet, operational problems are encountered in industrial practice. One of the most important problems is the occurrence of agglomeration at high temperature, meaning that bed particles adhere to each other to form larger entities (agglomerates). This process is often not recognized until sudden defluidization and often leads to a costly shutdown of the whole installation. In particular, the thermal conversion of certain biomass fuels, which is becoming increasingly popular, increases the risk of agglomeration. This paper critically reviews the current research status of this topic in terms of agglomeration mechanisms, detection and counteraction strategies. To understand the complex phenomenon of agglomeration in fluidized beds at high temperatures different areas are distinguished viz. hydrodynamics, chemical reaction mechanisms, particle interaction mechanisms and molecular cramming. Special emphasis is given to the detection of agglomeration. The range of detection methods is comprised of fuel ash analysis methods to predict potential agglomeration as well as analysis methods based on (on-line) process measurements, such as pressure and temperature. Finally, different methods to counteract agglomeration phenomena are presented; they comprise operational measures, utilization of additives, alternative bed materials and improved reactor design. 176 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A model to estimate the size of nanoparticle agglomerates in gas−solid fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín, Lilian de, E-mail: L.DeMartinMonton@tudelft.nl; Ommen, J. Ruud van [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    The estimation of nanoparticle agglomerates’ size in fluidized beds remains an open challenge, mainly due to the difficulty of characterizing the inter-agglomerate van der Waals force. The current approach is to describe micron-sized nanoparticle agglomerates as micron-sized particles with 0.1–0.2-μm asperities. This simplification does not capture the influence of the particle size on the van der Waals attraction between agglomerates. In this paper, we propose a new description where the agglomerates are micron-sized particles with nanoparticles on the surface, acting as asperities. As opposed to previous models, here the van der Waals force between agglomerates decreases with an increase in the particle size. We have also included an additional force due to the hydrogen bond formation between the surfaces of hydrophilic and dry nanoparticles. The average size of the fluidized agglomerates has been estimated equating the attractive force obtained from this method to the weight of the individual agglomerates. The results have been compared to 54 experimental values, most of them collected from the literature. Our model approximates without a systematic error the size of most of the nanopowders, both in conventional and centrifugal fluidized beds, outperforming current models. Although simple, the model is able to capture the influence of the nanoparticle size, particle density, and Hamaker coefficient on the inter-agglomerate forces.

  4. A MODEL FOR FINE PARTICLE AGGLOMERATION IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED ABSORBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model for fine particle agglomeration in circulating fluidized bed absorbers (CFBAS) has been developed. It can model the influence of different factors on agglomeration, such as the geometry of CFBAs, superficial gas velocity, initial particle size distribution, and type of ag...

  5. Statistical Evaluation of Non-Agglomerating Coating for Granulated Natural Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorde Walmiki Samadhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agglomeration of granulated Buton natural asphalt during storage is of major concern in its large-scale commercial application. This work develops a simple test method to evaluate the performance of agglomeration-resistant coating for granulated Buton asphalt, consisting of water-based polymeric primary coating and mineral-based secondary coating. The method uses a static load cell to measure the agglomerated granule count fraction under simulated storage conditions. A 24-1 fractional factorial experiment with two replications is employed to evaluate the effect of coating drying temperature, drying time, asphalt to secondary coating mass ratio, and secondary coating type on the agglomerated count fraction at ambient temperature and 60 oC. The test is able to measure a statistically significant increase in agglomeration resistance when the coating is applied, with an agglomerated fraction of 17.5% at 60 oC. The test identifies asphalt to secondary coating weight ratio as a significant factor, with an ANOVA p-value much lower than other effects. A decrease in this mass ratio from 5:1 to 5:2 increases the agglomeration, which is hypothesized to be attributed to the hydrated cementitious phase between granular external surfaces. More work is needed to identify the acceptable fraction of agglomerated granules.

  6. Humid storage conditions increase the dissolution rate of diazepam from solid dispersions prepared by melt agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Torstenson, Anette Seo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling mode and storage conditions on the dissolution rate of a solid dispersion prepared by melt agglomeration. The aim has been to relate this effect to the solid state properties of the agglomerates. The cooling mode had an effect on t...

  7. Crude oil price forecasting based on hybridizing wavelet multiple linear regression model, particle swarm optimization techniques, and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series.

  8. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils Obtained from Mentha longifolia L. Hudson, Dryed by Three Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stanisavljević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of drying the fresh herbal material influences the chemical content and the biological activities of their essential oils. The influence of the different drying methods of the herb Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracted essential oils has been analyzed in this study. Drying has been carried out in three ways: in the natural way, in the laboratory oven (45°C and in the absorptional low-temperature condensational drier (35°C. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil has been estimated by FRAP and DPPH assays, while the antimicrobial activity has been estimated by the diffusible and micro-delusional method, testing on the nine types of bacteria and two types of fungi. The essential oil obtained from the herb dried in the natural way has shown the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest from the herb dried in the laboratory oven. Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis have shown the highest sensitivity on the three samples. The oil obtained from the herb dried in the absorptional low-temperature drier has shown the strongest antimicrobial effect.

  9. Influence of extraction techniques on physical-chemical characteristics and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maria Grazia; De Cunzo, Fausta; Siano, Francesco; Paolucci, Marina; Barbarisi, Costantina; Cammarota, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three types of extraction methods of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from the same cultivar (Ortice olive cultivar): traditional or pressing (T) system, decanter centrifugation (DC) system and a patented horizontal axis decanter centrifugation (HADC) system. Oil samples were subjected to chemical analyses: free acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K232 and K270, total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds and olfactory characteristics by electronic nose. The two centrifugation systems showed better free acidity and peroxides value but total polyphenol content was particularly high in extra virgin olive oil produced by patented HADC system. Same volatile substances that positively characterize the oil aroma were found in higher amount in the two centrifugation systems, although some differences have been detected between DC and HADC system, other were found in higher amount in extra virgin olive oil produced by T system. The electronic nose analysis confirmed these results, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix showed the major differences between EVOO produced by T and HADC system. Taken together the results showed that DC and HADC systems produce EVOO with better characteristics than T system and patented HADC is the best extraction system.

  10. Crude Oil Price Forecasting Based on Hybridizing Wavelet Multiple Linear Regression Model, Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques, and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI, has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series.

  11. Analysis of river pollution data from low-flow period by means of multivariate techniques: a case study from the oil-shale industry region, northeastern Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truu, Jaak; Heinaru, Eeva; Talpsep, Ene; Heinaru, Ain

    2002-01-01

    The oil-shale industry has created serious pollution problems in northeastern Estonia. Untreated, phenol-rich leachate from semi-coke mounds formed as a by-product of oil-shale processing is discharged into the Baltic Sea via channels and rivers. An exploratory analysis of water chemical and microbiological data sets from the low-flow period was carried out using different multivariate analysis techniques. Principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish different locations in the river system. The riverine microbial community response to water chemical parameters was assessed by co-inertia analysis. Water pH, COD and total nitrogen were negatively related to the number of biodegradative bacteria, while oxygen concentration promoted the abundance of these bacteria. The results demonstrate the utility of multivariate statistical techniques as tools for estimating the magnitude and extent of pollution based on river water chemical and microbiological parameters. An evaluation of river chemical and microbiological data suggests that the ambient natural attenuation mechanisms only partly eliminate pollutants from river water, and that a sufficient reduction of more recalcitrant compounds could be achieved through the reduction of wastewater discharge from the oil-shale chemical industry into the rivers.

  12. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO 2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS procedure, and semi-continuous (SC technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768% was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5° C , 120 min (static: 8×15, 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2° C , 14 min (static, 121.1 min (dynamic. Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56% solvent usage (kg CO 2 /g oil is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

  13. Derivatization technique to increase the spectral selectivity of two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared focal plane array imaging: analysis of binder composition in aged oil and tempera paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbühl, Stefan; Scherrer, Nadim C; Eggenberger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of standard Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) on oil-based paint samples often suffers from interfering bands of the different compounds, namely, binder, oxidative aging products, carboxylates formed during aging, and several pigments and fillers. The distinction of the aging products such as ketone and carboxylic acid functional groups pose the next problem, as these interfere with the triglyceride esters of the oil. A sample preparation and derivatization technique using gaseous sulfur tetrafluoride (SF4), was thus developed with the aim to discriminate overlapping signals and achieve a signal enhancement on superposed compounds. Of particular interest in this context is the signal elimination of the broad carboxylate bands of the typical reaction products developing during the aging processes in oil-based paints, as well as signal interference originating from several typical pigments in this spectral range. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish the different carbonyl-containing functional groups upon selective alteration. The derivatization treatment can be applied to both microsamples and polished cross sections. It increases the selectivity of the infrared spectroscopy technique in a fundamental manner and permits the identification and two-dimensional (2D) localization of binder components in aged paint samples at the micrometer scale. The combination of SF4 derivatization with high-resolution 2D FT-IR focal plane array (FPA) imaging delivers considerable advances to the study of micro-morphological processes involving organic compounds.

  14. Fractal and agglomeration behavior in Gd and Sm doped CeO{sub 2} nano-crystalline powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, S.V. [Applied Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sastry, P.U. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Applied Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: aktyagi@barc.gov.in

    2008-06-12

    Nanocrystalline Gd, Sm doped ceria powders were synthesized by a combustion technique, using glycine as the fuel. These powders, after calcination at 600 {sup o}C, were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and were found to be phase pure. The crystallite sizes, as calculated from X-ray line broadening were in the range of 11-13 nm, which were in close agreement with those obtained from the SAXS studies. The TEM studies also showed the particle sizes to be in the range of 10-15 nm. These powders showed a high surface area as observed from BET technique. The extent and nature of agglomeration was studied by a particle size analyzer. The fractal behaviour of these nano-sized powders prepared by combustion synthesis, has also been investigated by small angle X-ray scattering technique. Results showed that the powders contain aggregates with rough fractal surfaces above a length scale of 20 nm. These parameters of the powders and their agglomerates were found to play a significant role in the sintering behavior.

  15. Morphological characterization of diesel soot agglomerates based on the Beer-Lambert law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapuerta, Magín; Martos, Francisco J.; José Expósito, Juan

    2013-03-01

    A new method is proposed for the determination of the number of primary particles composing soot agglomerates emitted from diesel engines as well as their individual fractal dimension. The method is based on the Beer-Lambert law and it is applied to micro-photographs taken in high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Differences in the grey levels of the images lead to a more accurate estimation of the geometry of the agglomerate (in this case radius of gyration) than other methods based exclusively on the planar projections of the agglomerates. The method was validated by applying it to different images of the same agglomerate observed from different angles of incidence, and proving that the effect of the angle of incidence is minor, contrary to other methods. Finally, the comparisons with other methods showed that the size, number of primary particles and fractal dimension (the latter depending on the particle size) are usually underestimated when only planar projections of the agglomerates are considered.

  16. Automatic Techniques for generation of environmental sensitivity index map to oil spill in the Guajará Bay , Belém-PA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pellon de Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A routine of techniques and procedures was established in order to produce Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI maps for oil spill based on optical (Landsat ETM+ 7 and radar (Radarsat-1 Wide 1 remote sensing, multi-sensor data fusion and geographic information system. Seven landscape units were recognized related to high-land (coastal plateaus with artificial structures - ISA 8B and Estuarine wall - ISA 1B and recent coastal environments, as well as their ESI (flood -plain - ISA 10B ; Mangrove - ISA 10A; Vegeted muddy banks - ISA 9B; Estuarine beach - ISA 4; Cliff - ISA 3. The results obtained in the investigation have opened new perspectives in oil industry regarding the operational security and environmental protection, social-environmental assessment, technology for emergencies, coastal management and environmental information system.

  17. Analysis of Information of Oil-bearing Reservoir Using Seismic Attributes Technique--A Case Study of HD4 Oilfield, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; LING Yun; LIU Qin-fu; WANG Xiao-ping

    2005-01-01

    The theoretical and practical analysis of reservoir thickness and oil-bearing information of thin reservoirs is performed by using seismic attributes and forward modelling. The results show that thin reservoir can be recognized using seismic attributes technique when its thickness is less than 1/4 of wavelength. Through analyzing the influence of tuning effect, the relationship between thin layer thickness and tuning amplitude is well revealed. A precise structure interpretation is conducted using relative amplitude preserved high-resolution seismic data. By taking the geologic condition and well data into account, the distribution of oil and gas of HD4 oilfield is analyzed and predicted. Based on seismic attributes. The result is helpful to promote the exploration and development in this oilfield.

  18. Ultrasonic cavitation induced water in vegetable oil emulsion droplets--a simple and easy technique to synthesize manganese zinc ferrite nanocrystals with improved magnetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Manickam; Towata, Atsuya; Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Iida, Yasuo; Maiorov, Michail M; Blums, Elmars; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Sivakumar, Neelagesi; Ashok, M

    2012-05-01

    In the present investigation, synthesis of manganese zinc ferrite (Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles with narrow size distribution have been prepared using ultrasound assisted emulsion (consisting of rapeseed oil as an oil phase and aqueous solution of Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) acetates) and evaporation processes. The as-prepared ferrite was nanocrystalline. In order to remove the small amount of oil present on the surface of the ferrite, it was subjected to heat treatment at 300 °C for 3h. Both the as-prepared and heat treated ferrites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), TGA/DTA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. As-prepared ferrite is of 20 nm, whereas the heat treated ferrite shows the size of 33 nm. In addition, magnetic properties of the as-prepared as well as the heat treated ferrites have also been carried out and the results of which show that the spontaneous magnetization (σ(s)) of the heat treated sample (24.1 emu/g) is significantly higher than that of the as-synthesized sample (1.81 emu/g). The key features of this method are avoiding (a) the cumbersome conditions that exist in the conventional methods; (b) usage of necessary additive components (stabilizers or surfactants, precipitants) and (c) calcination requirements. In addition, rapeseed oil as an oil phase has been used for the first time, replacing the toxic and troublesome organic nonpolar solvents. As a whole, this simple straightforward sonochemical approach results in more phase pure system with improved magnetization.

  19. Technique of sample preparation for analysis of gasoline and lubricating oils by X-ray fluorescence analysis; Tecnica de preparacion de muestras para analisis de gasolinas y aceites por rayos X de fluorescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila P, P

    1990-03-15

    The X-ray fluorescence laboratory of the National Institute of Nuclear Research when not having a technique for the analysis of oils it has intended, with this work, to develop a preparation technique for the analysis of the metals of Pb, Cr, Ni, V and Mo in gasolines and oils, by means of the spectrometry by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The obtained results, its will be of great utility for the one mentioned laboratory. (Author)

  20. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  1. The performance of HPMC matrix tablets using various agglomeration manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košir, Darjan; Vrečer, Franc

    2017-02-01

    The flow and compaction properties of a compaction mixture or powder and the drug-release profile of final tablets are important critical quality attributes (CQAs) that have an impact on the overall performance of hydrophilic matrix tablets. The selection of granulation method can importantly affect these CQAs. This study investigates various agglomeration methods of sustained-release formulation using HPMC K4M as a release polymer with various wet- and dry-granulation techniques. Flow properties were determined using flow time, angle of response, and the Carr index. Compaction properties were evaluated using "out of die" Heckel model. Release of carvedilol was tested as 12-h drug-dissolution profile. Compression mixtures made using the wet-granulation method exhibit better flow and compression properties than compression mixtures made using the dry-granulation method. The direct compression method proved to be the least appropriate manufacturing method because the compression mixture has very poor flow and the lowest compressibility/compactibility index. The choice of granulation technique significantly influences the swelling behavior and drug-dissolution profile of the final matrix tablets, also resulting in dissimilar release profiles. The choice of granulation method has the greatest influence on the drug-release profile. The direct compression method provides tablets with the fastest drug-release profile, followed by the dry-granulation and wet-granulation methods. The particle size of granules and porosity of tablets play an important role, contributing to differences in drug-release profiles.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES DURING THE HEATING OF SPHERICAL CALCIUM ORTHOPHOSPHATE AGGLOMERATES PREPARED BY SPRAY PYROLYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiyoshi Itatani; Mari Abe; Tomohiro Umeda; Ian J. Davies; Seiichiro Koda

    2004-01-01

    The microstructural changes taking place during heating of calcium orthophosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) agglomerates were examined in this study. The starting powder was prepared by the spray-pyrolysis of calcium phosphate (Ca/P air-liquid nozzle. The spray-pyrolyzed powder was found to be composed of dense spherical agglomerates with a mean diameter of 1.3 μm. This powder was further heat-treated at a temperature between 800 and 1400 ℃ for 10 min. When the spray-pyrolyzed powder was heated up to 900 ℃, only βCa3(PO4)2 was detected, and the mean pore size of the spherical agglomerates increased via the (i) elimination of residual water and nitrates, (ii) rearrangement of primary particles within the agglomerates, (iii) coalescence of small pores (below 0.1 μm), and (iv) coalescence of agglomerates with diameters below 1 μm into the larger agglomerates. Among the heat-treated powders, pore sizes within the spherical agglomerates were observed to be the largest (mean diameter: 1.8 μm) for the powder heat-treated at 900 ℃ for 10 min.With an increase in heat-treatment temperature up to 1000 ℃, the spherical agglomerates were composed of dense shells. Upon further heating up to 1400 ℃, the hollow spherical agglomerates collapsed as a result of sintering via the phase transformation from β- to α-Ca3(PO4)2 (1150 ℃), thus leading to the formation of a three-dimensional porous network.

  3. Research development of the new extraction techniques of plant essential oil%植物精油提取新技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡基智; 林杰

    2012-01-01

    The chemical separation technology research is unceasingly researched,the extraction of essential oils has been further development,a lot of new extraction techniques and methods appeared.The extraction of essential oils,including the supercritical CO_2,extraction,continuous subcritical extraction,microwave extraction, microcapsule aqueous two-phase extraction,ultrasonic extraction,molecular distillation,was introduced,and the development prospect of plant essential oil extraction technology was put forward.%随着化工分离技术研究的不断深入,植物精油的提取技术也得到了进一步发展,出现了很多新的提取技术和方法。介绍了植物精油的提取技术,包括超临界CO~2萃取、连续亚临界萃取、微波萃取、微胶囊双水相萃取、超声波萃取、分子蒸馏、酶法提取等方法,对这些技术进行了分析,同时展望了植物精油提取技术的发展前景。

  4. Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

    2014-01-01

    Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD).

  5. Extraction Techniques of Krill Oils Optimized with Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化南极磷虾油提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 李富威; 顾杨娟; 俞所银; 李越华; 包建强

    2014-01-01

    研究南极磷虾油有机溶剂提取工艺,探讨不同冻藏温度、提取剂比例、提取时间、干燥温度和料液比对南极磷虾油提取率的影响在单因素试验基础上,通过响应面法分析确定最佳的提取工艺条件:冻藏温度为-38.5℃、料液比为1 g∶6.7 ml干燥温度是66.8℃,此时南极磷虾油提取率为13.71%。%The research explored the extraction techniques of organic solvents of Antarctic kril oil and the effects of freezing temperature, extractant proportion, ex-traction time, drying temperature and ratio of material and liquid on extraction ratio of Antarctic kril oil. Based on single-factor experiments, optimal extraction conditions were concluded as per response surface methodology, as fol ows: freezing tempera-ture at -38.5 ℃, the ratio of material and liquid at 1 g:6.7 ml, and drying tempera-ture at 66.8 ℃, where the yield rate of crude oil reached 13.71%.

  6. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Surf-zone integrated alongshore potential flux for oil-sand balls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  7. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Surf-zone integrated alongshore potential flux for oil-sand balls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  8. Monitoring of odor nuisance in the tri-city agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebicki, Jacek; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes a principle of operation of odor nuisance monitoring network, which is being designed in the tri-city agglomeration. Moreover, it presents the preliminary results of an investigation on ambient air quality with respect to odour nuisance in a vicinity of the municipal landfill. The investigation was performed during spring-winter season using a prototype of electronic nose and the Nasal Ranger field olfactometers. The prototype was equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co. and one PID-type sensor. The field olfactometers were used to determine mean concentration of odorants, which amounted from 2.2 to 30.2 ou/m3 depending on the place of measurement. In case of the investigation with the electronic nose prototype a classification of the ambient air samples with respect to the place of sampling was performed utilizing kNN algorithm supported with a cross-validation method. Correct classification of the ambient air samples was at the level of 66.7%. Performed investigation revealed that discrimination of the ambient air samples differing in concentration of odorants and place of origin was possible.

  9. Gravitational agglomeration of post-HCDA LMFBR nonspherical aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, R. F.

    1980-12-01

    A theoretical investigation of collisional dynamics of two particle interactions in a gravitational field is reported. This research is unique in that it is the first attempt at modeling the hydrodynamic interactions between a nonspherical particle and a spherical particle undergoing gravitational collisions in an LMFBR environment. Basic definitions and expressions are developed for nonspherical particles and related to spherical particles by means of shape factors. Using volume equivalent diameter as the defining length in the gravitational collision kernel, the aerodynamic shape factor, k, the density correction factor, alpha, and the gravitational collision shape factor, beta, are used to correct the collision kernel for the case of collisions between aerosol agglomerates. The Navier-Stokes equation in oblate spheroidal coordinates is solved to model a nonspherical particle and then the dynamic equations for two particle motions are developed. A computer program NGCEFF is constructed, the Navier-Stokes equation is solved by the finite difference method, and the dynamical equations are solved by Gear's method. It is concluded that the aerosol gravitational collision shape factor can be determined by further theoretical work based on the concepts and methods developed in this dissertation.

  10. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  11. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  12. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  13. Cooperative Game Among Cities in Urban Agglomerations and Economical Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah Weidong

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses redounded profits of cooperation and non-cooperation among cities in urban agglomerations based on game theory. It discusses the problems of economical development among cities with feeble cooperation, and deduces the conclusion that only cooperation of cities produces the maximum profits and realizes Pareto efficiency for cities and urban agglomerations. The paper states that cooperation is the cornerstone of economic sustainable development in urban agglomerations in profits produced by cooperation among cities.Some suggestions to accelerate cooperation among cities are proposed.

  14. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    OpenAIRE

    Philip S. Brown; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work...

  15. An overview of emerging techniques in virgin olive oil extraction process: strategies in the development of innovative plants

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lisa Clodoveo

    2013-01-01

    Currently the systems for mechanically extracting virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: discontinuous-type systems (obsolete and dying out) and continuous-type systems. Systems defined as “continuous- type” are generally comprised of a mechanical crusher, a malaxer and a horizontal-axis centrifugal separator (decanter). The “continuous” appellation refers to the fact that two (mechanical crusher and decanter) out of the three machines making up the system operate continuously; t...

  16. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. V. Multiple Impacts of Dusty Agglomerates at Velocities Above the Fragmentation Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Stefan; Güttler, Carsten; Blum, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, a number of new experiments have advanced our knowledge on the early growth phases of protoplanetary dust aggregates. Some of these experiments have shown that collisions between porous and compacted agglomerates at velocities above the fragmentation threshold velocity can lead to growth of the compact body, when the porous collision partner fragments upon impact and transfers mass to the compact agglomerate. To obtain a deeper understanding of this potentially important growth process, we performed laboratory and drop tower experiments to study multiple impacts of small, highly porous dust-aggregate projectiles onto sintered dust targets. The projectile and target consisted of 1.5 μm monodisperse, spherical SiO2 monomers with volume filling factors of 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively. The fragile projectiles were accelerated by a solenoid magnet and combined with a projectile magazine with which 25 impacts onto the same spot on the target could be performed in vacuum. We measured the mass-accretion efficiency and the volume filling factor for different impact velocities between 1.5 and 6.0 m s^{-1}. The experiments at the lowest impact speeds were performed in the Bremen drop tower under microgravity conditions to allow partial mass transfer also for the lowest adhesion case. Within this velocity range, we found a linear increase of the accretion efficiency with increasing velocity. In the laboratory experiments, the accretion efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.21 in units of the projectile mass. The recorded images of the impacts showed that the mass transfer from the projectile to the target leads to the growth of a conical structure on the target after less than 100 impacts. From the images, we also measured the volume filling factors of the grown structures, which ranged from 0.15 (uncompacted) to 0.40 (significantly compacted) with increasing impact speed. The velocity dependency of the mass-transfer efficiency and the packing

  17. Remediation technologies for oil-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-30

    Oil-contaminated sediments pose serious environmental hazards for both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Innovative and environmentally compatible technologies are urgently required to remove oil-contaminated sediments. In this paper, various physical, chemical and biological technologies are investigated for the remediation of oil-contaminated sediments such as flotation and washing, coal agglomeration, thermal desorption, ultrasonic desorption, bioremediation, chemical oxidation and extraction using ionic liquids. The basic principles of these technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages for practical application have been discussed. A combination of two or more technologies is expected to provide an innovative solution that is economical, eco-friendly and adaptable.

  18. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Tenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-05-13

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin will is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil- bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluefell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Data (net pay thickness, porosity, and water saturation) of more than 100 individuals beds in he lower Green River and Wasatch Formations were used to generate geostatistical realization (numerical- representation) of the reservoir properties. The data set was derived from the Michelle Ute and Malnar Pike demonstration wells and 22 other wells in a 20 (52 km{sup 2}) square-mile area. Beds were studied independently of each other. Principles of sequential Gaussian simulations were used to generate geostatistical realizations of the beds.

  19. Real-time detection of dielectric anisotropy or isotropy in unconventional oil-gas reservoir rocks supported by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Kun; Lű, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Liping; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-12-01

    Current geological extraction theory and techniques are very limited to adequately characterize the unconventional oil-gas reservoirs because of the considerable complexity of the geological structures. Optical measurement has the advantages of non-interference with the earth magnetic fields, and is often useful in detecting various physical properties. One key parameter that can be detected using optical methods is the dielectric permittivity, which reflects the mineral and organic properties. Here we reported an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique that is sensitive to the dielectric and surface properties and can be applied to characterization of reservoir rocks, such as shale and sandstone core samples extracted from subsurface. The layered distribution of the dielectric properties in shales and the uniform distribution in sandstones are clearly identified using the OIRD signals. In shales, the micro-cracks and particle orientation result in directional changes of the dielectric and surface properties, and thus, the isotropy and anisotropy of the rock can be characterized by OIRD. As the dielectric and surface properties are closely related to the hydrocarbon-bearing features in oil-gas reservoirs, we believe that the precise measurement carried with OIRD can help in improving the recovery efficiency in well-drilling process.

  20. Real-time detection of dielectric anisotropy or isotropy in unconventional oil-gas reservoir rocks supported by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Kun; Lű, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Liping; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-01-01

    Current geological extraction theory and techniques are very limited to adequately characterize the unconventional oil-gas reservoirs because of the considerable complexity of the geological structures. Optical measurement has the advantages of non-interference with the earth magnetic fields, and is often useful in detecting various physical properties. One key parameter that can be detected using optical methods is the dielectric permittivity, which reflects the mineral and organic properties. Here we reported an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique that is sensitive to the dielectric and surface properties and can be applied to characterization of reservoir rocks, such as shale and sandstone core samples extracted from subsurface. The layered distribution of the dielectric properties in shales and the uniform distribution in sandstones are clearly identified using the OIRD signals. In shales, the micro-cracks and particle orientation result in directional changes of the dielectric and surface properties, and thus, the isotropy and anisotropy of the rock can be characterized by OIRD. As the dielectric and surface properties are closely related to the hydrocarbon-bearing features in oil-gas reservoirs, we believe that the precise measurement carried with OIRD can help in improving the recovery efficiency in well-drilling process. PMID:27976746

  1. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-05-01

    Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical ft, them stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more beds for stimulation. These recompletion will show which logs are most effective in identifying productive beds and what scale of completion is most cost effective. The third demonstration will be the logging and completion of a new well using the logs and completion scale or technique most effective in the previous demonstrations.

  2. Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production%Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption of equipment and exhaust emission to the uttermost, Daqing Petrochemical Company has developed pre-agglomeration production flow successfully and confirmed an optimized energy-saving method of differential pressure agglomeration. For a long time, BR equipment of 80,000 tons per year in Daqing Petrochemical Company have been adopting general isobaric technology and elutriation method to separate polymer and solvent, which caused over 10 tons of steam per ton of rubber and restricted the energy conservation and emission reduction of the enterprise.

  3. Ash agglomeration during fluidized bed gasification of high sulphur content lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, V.; Marinov, S.P.; Lazarov, L.; Stefanova, M. (SRTI Energydesign, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1992-09-01

    Intensive ash agglomeration has hampered the fluidized bed gasification of lignites from the Elhovo deposit (Bulgaria) containing 5.9 wt% sulphur in the dry state. Samples of slag and agglomerates from the pilot plant have been examined by means of chemical, X-ray analysis, IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Pyrrhotite (FeS) and wustite (FeO) have been established in the agglomerates, where junctions between ash particles have been found to consist of magnetite, spinel and garnet grains. The chemical reactions leading to garnet formation have been studied. Centres of sintering and centres of melting during the ash agglomeration process have been distinguished. The pyrite product, an eutectic of FeS and FeO melting at 924[degree]C, is assumed to be responsible for the cessation of lignite gasification with steam and air under pressure at a bed temperature of 930[degree]. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Mechanism of Agglomerating Development of Industrial Space: A Case Study on Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The agglomeration of industries refers to the concentration and aggregation of the same or different industries in a certain area. After analyzing the spatial pattern of the economic activities in the world, it can be found

  5. THE ADSORPTION OF STARCHES ON PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ADHESIVE MATERIAL AND ITS IMPACT ON AGGLOMERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Huo; Richard A.Venditti; Houmin Chang

    2004-01-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) particles, or stickies, will self-agglomerate in water with agitation.Under certain conditions, it was found that some starches and Poly-Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride prevent this agglomeration. Both cationic and neutral starches were found to adsorb onto the surface of the negatively charged stickies. This was determined by infra-red spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, contact angle measurements and charge titration methods. Cationic charge promotes the adsorption of starch onto the surface of stickies and cationic starches adsorbed on the PSA film do not desorb when exposed for 15 minutes to deionized water at room temperature. Cationic starches were found to prevent the agglomeration of stickies at lower concentrations relative to neutral starches.Stickies compete with fibers for the cationic charge in the system. Over the molecular weight (MW)range studied, the MW of the starch has no effect on the prevention of agglomeration of stickies.

  6. The Integration and Sustainable Development of Chengdu-Chongqing Urban Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie; Mao Hanying

    2006-01-01

    Urban Agglomeration is an inevitable outcome of urbanization and industrialization, and a main form of urban development. Based on the analysis of urbanization and urban system situation, this paper will discuss the integration of urban agglomeration development, using the urban area of Cheng (Chengdu)-Yu (Chongqing)Urban agglomeration (CYUA) as a case study. By means of industries, population and spatial integrations, the function, strength and competition of CYUA will be improved and this urban agglomeration will transit from a budding state to a growing and mature one in future. The sustainable development of CYUA will depend on countermeasures, such as accelerating industrialization and urbanization, building a traffic network and express roads, strengthening the ability of self-sufficiency,enlarging the ecological construction and environmental protection, and establishing the synergetic institution of cross districts.

  7. Role of Solvents in Improvement of Dissolution Rate of Drugs: Crystal Habit and Crystal Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is often used for manufacturing drug substances. Advances of crystallization have achieved control over drug identity and purity, but control over the physical form remains poor. This review discusses the influence of solvents used in crystallization process on crystal habit and agglomeration of crystals with potential implication for dissolution. According to literature it has been known that habit modification of crystals by use of proper solvents may enhance the dissolution properties by changing the size, number and the nature of crystal faces exposed to the dissolution medium. Also, the faster dissolution rate of drug from the agglomerates of crystals compared with the single crystals may be related to porous structure of the agglomerates and consequently their better wettability. It is concluded from this review that in-depth understanding of role of the solvents in crystallization process can be applied to engineering of crystal habit or crystal agglomeration, and predictably dissolution improvement in poorly soluble drugs.

  8. The capital agglomeration of the Republic of Korea as a fuzzy central place system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavel P. Em

    2016-01-01

    Explosive urbanization in the Republic of Korea from 1950 to 2010 marked by a growth in extensive urban agglomerations rendered unproductive the approach that was commonly used in the central place...

  9. Study on Agglomeration and Densification Behaviors of Gadolinium-Doped Ceria Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By synthesizing reactive powders via a self-sustaining combustion synthesis, the glycine-nitrate process, the gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) with the chemical formula Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 was prepared. The resultant powders were dispersed with the terpineol as the dispersant through different methods such as ball milling and high-shear dispersing. Coagulation factor (CF) was used to mark the degree of agglomeration on the nano-scale GDC in this work. The effect of agglomeration on the densification behavior at different sintering temperatures was investigated. The studies indicated that agglomeration retarded the densification at the sintering stage. The powders with better dispersion exhibited a higher sintered density at the same temperature. After effective dispersion treatment, GDC could be fully densified at the sintering temperature of 1300 ℃. The densification temperature was significantly lower than those reported previously. The high sintering kinetics of the ceramics was obtained based on the agglomeration control.

  10. Light-Induced Agglomeration and Diffusion of Different Particles with Optical Tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-Cong; SUN Xiu-Dong; LIU Hong-Peng; ZHANG Jian-Long

    2010-01-01

    @@ The dynamic process of light-induced agglomeration of carbon nanotubes(CNTs),C60 and Escherichia coli(E.coli)in aqueous solutions is demonstrated using an optical tweezers system.Based on the results,the diameter of the agglomerated region and the agglomeration rate increase with the increasing laser power.After the saturation-stable period,CNTs diffuse completely,C60 dusters only diffuse partially,and E.coli never diffuses in the agglomeration region.Theoretical analyses show that the molecular polarization and thermal diffusion of particles play crucial roles in the diffusion process.The results indicate the possibility of using light to aggregate and sort nanoparticles.

  11. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Second annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.

    1995-03-01

    This project is directed at reducing water production and increasing oil recovery efficiency. Today, the cost of water disposal is typically between $0.25 and $0.50 per bbl. Therefore, there is a tremendous economic incentive to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without sacrificing hydrocarbon production. Environmental considerations also provide a significant incentive to reduce water production during oilfield operations. This three-year project has two technical objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. Topics covered in this report include (1) comparisons of the use of gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates as blocking agents; (2) propagation of aluminum-citrate-HPAM gels through porous rock; (3) gel properties in fractured systems; (4) gel placement in unfractured anisotropic flow systems; and (5) an investigation of why some gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability.

  12. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  13. 油井的防砂技术研究%Research of Sand Control Technique of Oil Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 王蒙; 赵英男; 陈思; 何金钢

    2013-01-01

    随着油田进入开发后期,开采的难度不断加大,含砂井越来越多。这种现象已成为油田开发过程中的主要难题之一。各油田均存在大量的高含砂井。油井出砂的原因极其复杂,从开始钻井到采油、注水过程中,每一个环节对出砂都有影响。而人为因素造成的油井出砂,应该尽量避免。分析油井的出砂机理,应用更先进的防砂工艺技术,提高防砂效果显得尤为重要。%As the field entered the development stage, its exploitation is becoming increasingly difficult, its oil wells have more and more sand. The phenomenon has become one of the main problems in the process of oil field development. There are various oilfield with high sand content well. Sand production is very complex. From the start of drilling oil, water flooding process, each link may have an impact on the sand. We should try to avoid man-made sand. Therefore, the sand production mechanism analysis, selection of sand control technology is more advanced, improving the effect of sand control is particularly important.

  14. Compactibility of agglomerated mixtures of calcium carbonate and microcrystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón Serra, María de Lourdes; Villafuerte Robles, Leopoldo

    2003-06-04

    The tablet tensile strength (T) of agglomerated mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose-Avicel PH 102 (MC), calcium carbonate (CC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (Povidone, PVP), lubricated with magnesium stearate (MS), and formed under a compaction pressure (P(c)) ranging up to 618MPa has been determined. The compactibility was defined through: ln(-ln(1-T/T(max)))=Slope x lnP(c)+Intercept. MC/CC mixtures added of an agglutinant, before and after lubrication, show an important positive effect on their tablet tensile strength compared to a lineal relationship. This positive effect becomes smaller with decreasing compaction pressures. By different mixing methods, the higher the mixing efficiency the higher the compactibility, following the order: spray-dried>wet massing>tumble mixing. The compactibility of MC/CC/PVP spray-dried mixtures with calcium carbonate content from 20 to 60% was equal to or greater than that of pure microcrystalline cellulose. After lubrication with 2% MS the compactibility decreased, only the mixture with the maximal tablet tensile strength attained the tensile strength of pure microcrystalline cellulose. The presence of the binder, the lubricant and higher compaction pressures allow the accommodation of higher calcium carbonate proportions in the mixtures, at the maximal tablet tensile strength of the series. The lubricant decreases in a greater extent the compactibility of mixtures with a continuous phase of MC/PVP than that of CC/PVP. This is attributed to the plastic behavior of the MC/PVP continuous phase compared to a calcium carbonate continuous phase able to disrupt the Povidone and the possible lubricant coatings allowing a stronger interparticle interaction.

  15. Agglomeration and Sintering in Annealed FePt Nanoparticle Assemblies Studied by Small Angle Neutron Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, T.

    2005-01-03

    In this work we give a detailed account of the use of small angle neutron scattering to study the properties of polymer mediated, self assembled nanoparticle arrays as a function of annealing temperature. The results from neutron scattering are compared with those obtained from x-ray diffraction. Both techniques show that particle size increases with annealing temperatures of 580 C and above. They also show that the distribution of particle diameters is significant and increases with annealing temperature. The complementary nature of the two measurements allows a comprehensive structural model of the assemblies to be developed in terms of particle sintering and agglomeration. To realize the potential of nanoparticle assemblies as a monodispersed data storage medium the problem of particle separation necessary to avoid sintering and agglomeration during annealing must be addressed.

  16. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Xu; Shixin Wang; Yi Zhou; Litao Wang; Wenliang Liu

    2016-01-01

    On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020)” (NNUP). NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive sugg...

  17. Tourism agglomeration and its impact on social welfare: an empirical approach to the Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Urtasun, Ainhoa; Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    This paper measures two descriptors of tourism namely, its scale and agglomeration level and subsequently evaluates both descriptors according to their direct and joint impacts on the host communities' quality of life. The key constructs for this research are the following: (1) a tourism evaluation function that incorporates the scale and agglomeration of tourism, which is constructed for each one of the 50 Spanish provinces; and (2) a measure of the host communities' quality of life that com...

  18. Making friends with your neighbors? Agglomeration and tacit collusion in the lodging industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li Gan; Manuel A. Hernandez

    2011-01-01

    Agglomeration is a location pattern frequently observed in service industries such as hotels. This paper empirically examines if agglomeration facilitates tacit collusion in the lodging industry using a quarterly dataset of hotels that operated in rural areas across Texas between 2003 and 2005. We jointly model a price and occupancy rate equation under a switching regression model to endogenously identify a collusive and non-collusive regime. The estimation results indicate that clustered hot...

  19. Cell agglomeration in the wells of a 24-well plate using acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashina, Yuta; Takemura, Kenjiro; Friend, James

    2017-02-28

    Cell agglomeration is essential both to the success of drug testing and to the development of tissue engineering. Here, a MHz-order acoustic wave is used to generate acoustic streaming in the wells of a 24-well plate to drive particle and cell agglomeration. Acoustic streaming is known to manipulate particles in microfluidic devices, and even provide concentration in sessile droplets, but concentration of particles or cells in individual wells has never been shown, principally due to the drag present along the periphery of the fluid in such a well. The agglomeration time for a range of particle sizes suggests that shear-induced migration plays an important role in the agglomeration process. Particles with a diameter of 45 μm agglomerated into a suspended pellet under exposure to 2.134 MHz acoustic waves at 1.5 W in 30 s. Additionally, BT-474 cells also agglomerated as adherent masses at the center bottom of the wells of tissue-culture treated 24-well plates. By switching to low cell binding 24-well plates, the BT-474 cells formed suspended agglomerations that appeared to be spheroids, fully fifteen times larger than any cell agglomerates without the acoustic streaming. In either case, the viability and proliferation of the cells were maintained despite acoustic irradiation and streaming. Intermittent excitation was effective in avoiding temperature excursions, consuming only 75 mW per well on average, presenting a convenient means to form fully three-dimensional cellular masses potentially useful for tissue, cancer, and drug research.

  20. Understanding the influence of powder flowability, fluidization and de-agglomeration characteristics on the aerosolization of pharmaceutical model powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Armstrong, Brian; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2010-08-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the intrinsic inter-particulate cohesion of model pharmaceutical powders on their aerosolization from a dry powder inhaler. Two cohesive poly-disperse lactose powders with median particle sizes of around 4 and 20 microm were examined. The results showed that after dry coating with magnesium stearate, their flowability, fluidization and de-agglomeration behaviours could be substantially improved, as indicated by powder rheometry, shear testing and laser diffraction aerosol testing. This was achieved by reducing their cohesiveness via surface modification. In contrast to some previous reports, this study demonstrated how powder aerosolization may be improved more significantly and consistently (for widely varying air flow rates) by substantially reducing their inter-particulate cohesive forces. This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between intrinsic cohesive nature and bulk properties such as flowability, fluidization and de-agglomeration and its impact on their aerosolization, which is fundamental and critical in the optimal design of dry powder inhaler formulations. The intensive mechanical dry coating technique also demonstrated a promising potential to improve aerosolization efficiency of fine cohesive model powders.

  1. The surface properties of nanoparticles determine the agglomeration state and the size of the particles under physiological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bantz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the recent widespread application of nanomaterials to biological systems, a careful consideration of their physiological impact is required. This demands an understanding of the complex processes at the bio–nano interface. Therefore, a comprehensive and accurate characterization of the material under physiological conditions is crucial to correlate the observed biological impact with defined colloidal properties. As promising candidates for biomedical applications, two SiO2-based nanomaterial systems were chosen for extensive size characterization to investigate the agglomeration behavior under physiological conditions. To combine the benefits of different characterization techniques and to compensate for their respective drawbacks, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation were applied. The investigated particle systems were (i negatively charged silica particles and (ii poly(organosiloxane particles offering variable surface modification opportunities (positively charged, polymer coated. It is shown that the surface properties primarily determine the agglomeration state of the particles and therefore their effective size, especially under physiological conditions. Thus, the biological identity of a nanomaterial is clearly influenced by differentiating surface properties.

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oil by a completely automated headspace technique coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrebola, Francisco J; Frenich, A Garrido; González Rodríguez, Manuel J; Bolaños, Patricia Plaza; Martínez Vidal, José L

    2006-06-01

    A new and completely automated method for the determination of ten relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in olive oil is proposed using an extraction by the headspace (HS) technique. Quantification and confirmation steps are carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combining simultaneously selected-ion monitoring (SIM) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). This combination offers on one hand an increased sensitivity and on the other hand, selective and reliable qualitative information. Sample pretreatment or clean-up are not necessary because the olive oil sample is put directly into an HS vial, automatically processed by HS and introduced into the GC-MS instrument for analysis. Because of its high selectivity and sensitivity, a triple-quadrupole (QqQ) detector coupled with the gas chromatograph allows us to limit handling. Each sample is completely processed in approximately 63 min (45 min for HS isolation and 18 min for GC-MS determination), a reduced time compared with previously published methods. The chemical and instrumental variables were preliminarily optimized using uncontaminated olive oil samples spiked with 25 microg kg(-1) of each target compound. The final method was validated to ensure the quality of the results. The precision was satisfactory, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values in the range 3-9%. Recovery rates ranged from 96 to 99%. Limits of detection (LOD) were calculated as 0.02-0.06 microg kg(-1) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were obtained as 0.07-0.26 microg kg(-1). It must be mentioned that the LOD and LOQ are much lower than the maximum levels established by the European Union (EU) in oils and fats intended for direct human consumption or for use as an ingredient in foods, which are set at 2 microg kg(-1). All the figures of merit are completely in accordance with the latest EU legislation. This fact makes it possible to consider the proposed method as a useful tool for the control of PAHs in

  3. 油页岩地层测井解释评价技术探讨%On Oil Shale Reservoir Log Evaluation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新龙; 罗安银; 祗淑华; 李振苓

    2013-01-01

    The lithologic character,mineral composition,physical property and quality characteristics of oil shale reservoir are introduced.There are obvious differences in well logging response characteristics and interpretation evaluation methods between oil shale reservoir and conventional oil and gas reservoir.Logging data are used to study the following aspects of the reservoir:lithologic identification,mineral composition,physical parameters calculation,organic carbon content,oil content,fracture evaluation,rock mechanics parameters,and so on.And through cuttings,core data analysis and comparison,the results of quantitative evaluation of the reservoir log data,testing interval selection,and fracturing plans can meet the technical needs of reservoir exploration and development.The reservoir log evaluation technique is an important reference to further study other non-conventional oil and gas zone interpretation methods.%介绍了油页岩储层的岩性特征、矿物组成、物性和品质特征,它的测井响应特征及解释评价方法与常规油气层存在明显区别.利用测井资料,针对油页岩地层特点,在岩性判别、矿物组分处理、物性参数求取、有机碳含量、含油率、裂缝评价、岩石力学参数等方面进行了研究.通过和岩屑、岩心等资料分析对比,油页岩地层测井解释定量评价结果、试油层段选择、压裂方案制定等均能满足勘探开发等方面的技术需求.油页岩储层测井评价技术对其他非常规油气层解释技术的深入研究有着重要的参考意义.

  4. Laser-induced agglomeration of gold nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A.; Shcherbina, M.E. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, P.G., E-mail: qzzzma@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kirichenko, N.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser irradiation of dense gold nanoparticles colloidal solution can result in their agglomeration. • Gas bubbles in-phase pulsation induced by laser radiation accounts for nanoparticles agglomeration. • Time evolution of the size distribution function proceeds in activation mode. • The electrostatic-like model of nanoparticles agglomeration is in good correspondence with the experimental data. - Abstract: Dynamics of gold nanoparticles (NPs) ensemble in dense aqueous solution under exposure to picosecond laser radiation is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Properties of NPs are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, and size-measuring disk centrifuge. Theoretical investigation of NPs ensemble behavior is based on the analytical model taking into account collisions and agglomeration of particles. It is shown that in case of dense NPs colloidal solutions (above 10{sup 14} particles per milliliter) the process of laser fragmentation typical for nanosecond laser exposure turns into laser-induced agglomeration which leads to formation of the particles with larger sizes. It is shown that there is a critical concentration of NPs: at higher concentrations agglomeration rate increases tremendously. The results of mathematical simulation are in compliance with experimental data.

  5. Study on the Policy Factors of Innovative Talents Agglomeration in Jiangsu Province based on Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wenfei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative talent is the key factor to promote the development of innovative economy and realize innovative drive in Jiangsu Province. Innovative talent agglomeration can fully play the effect of innovative talents through the agglomeration efficiency. Among many factors that affect the agglomeration of innovative talents, the guiding role of government policy factors is becoming more and more important. Based on the survey of domestic and foreign literature, through questionnaire survey, this paper combines relevant analysis and regression analysis to study the mechanism between the of scientific research funds investment, household registration policy, outstanding achievement award and patent licensing and the innovative talent agglomeration. The results show that the investment of scientific research funds, the household registration policy, the outstanding achievement award and the patent authorization have remarkable influence on the innovation talent agglomeration. The conclusion of this study not only expands the theoretical research field of government policy and innovative talent agglomeration, but also provides practical guidance for the government of Jiangsu Province in the era of innovation knowledge.

  6. A Study on the Density of Agglomerates Prepared from Cork Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of black regranulate (BR) of cork and of black agglomerate (BA) and composite agglomerate (CA) prepared fromsuch a waste by different methods was investigated. The preparation of the agglomerates was undertaken by controlling thespecimen thickness for BA and the particle size for BR and the binder dosage for CA. The mass changes produced in theoven-drying treatment at 376.15 K of the agglomerates and in their subsequent stabilization under ambient conditions werealso analyzed. The density was determined by standard methods. For BR, the bulk density first decreased and then increasedwith decreasing particle size. It was much lower than the apparent density of the agglomeration products of cork. Although toa lesser extent, the density was also lower for BA than for CA. It was higher for the smaller thickness specimens of BA. In thecase of CA, the density followed the same variation trends as for BR. Furthermore it increased significantly with the increasein resin dosage. This resulted in a noticeable increase in the weight loss during the oven-drying and in a significant decreasein the degree of moisture adsorption during the stabilization period of the agglomerate.

  7. Design of Agglomerated Crystals of Ibuprofen During Crystallization: Influence of Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIbuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting, and dissolution due to its poor solubility, hydrophobicity, and tendency to stick to surface. Because of the bad compaction behavior ibuprofen has to be granulated usually before tableting. However, it would be more satisfactory to obtain directly during the crystallization step crystalline particles that can be directly compressed and quickly dissolved. Materials and Methods Crystallization of ibuprofen was carried out using the quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method in presence of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, Tween 80. The particles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD and were evaluated for particle size, flowability, drug release and tableting behavior. ResultsIbuprofen particles obtained in the presence of surfactants consisted of numerous plate- shaped crystals which had agglomerated together as near spherical shape. The obtained agglomerates exhibited significantly improved micromeritic properties as well as tableting behavior than untreated drug crystals. The agglomerates size and size distribution was largely controlled by surfactant concentration, but there was no significant influence found on the tableting properties. The dissolution tests showed that the agglomerates obtained in presence of SLS exhibited enhanced dissolution rate while the agglomerates made in the presence of Tween 80 had no significant impact on dissolution rate of ibuprofen in comparison to untreated sample. The XRPD and DSC results showed that during the agglomeration process, ibuprofen did not undergo any polymorphic changes.Conclusion The study highlights the influence of surfactants on crystallization process leading to modified performance.

  8. Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

    CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

  9. Analysis of Agglomeration of Al2O3 Particles in Liquid Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisz D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of non-metallic inclusions from liquid steel is a result of co-operation of fluctuation, adhesion and agglomeration effects, with emphasis on agglomeration which plays the most important role. It is based on a few types of collisions between non-metallic particles, where turbulent collisions are most prominent. As a result of agglomeration, nonmetallic inclusions are intensely removed through flotation and increase of different dimensions of inclusions, which manifests itself with the occurrence of clusters mainly composed of Al2O3 precipitations. Authors investigated the agglomeration effect by making computer simulations with the use of the PSG method. The calculations were performed for a definite population of spherical particles of radius r in the steel volume. The applied calculation method allows for analyzing the dynamics of the collision process. The assumed initial number of particles remains constant, only the number of particles in specific size-groups varies. It was also revealed that the process of agglomerates formation is much faster for particles having a bigger initial radius. In the case of very small precipitations (r=1 μm their removal through agglomeration is very difficult because the probability those collisions can take place between them rapidly decreases.

  10. Assessment of infrared spectroscopy and multivariate techniques for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneca, Arnobio Roberto; Pimentel, M Fernanda; Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; da Matta, Cláudia Eliane; de Carvalho, Florival Rodrigues; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pasquini, Celio; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R

    2006-09-15

    This paper presents two methodologies for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils on the basis of infrared spectra. In the first approach, oils samples are discriminated into three groups, each one associated to a given wear stage. An algorithm is proposed to select spectral variables with good discriminant power and small collinearity for the purpose of discriminant analysis classification. As a result, a classification accuracy of 93% was obtained both in the middle (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) ranges. The second approach employs multivariate calibration methods to predict the viscosity of the lubricant. In this case, the use of absorbance measurements in the NIR spectral range was not successful, because of experimental difficulties associated to the presence of particulate matter. Such a problem was circumvented by the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) measurements in the MIR spectral range, in which an RMSEP of 3.8cSt and a relative average error of 3.2% were attained.

  11. Fast and effective low-temperature freezing extraction technique to determine organotin compounds in edible vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxia; Ma, Yaqian; Wan, Yiqun; Guo, Lan; Wan, Xiaofen

    2016-06-01

    Most organotin compounds that have been widely used in food packaging materials and production process show serious toxicity effects to human health. In this study, a simple and low-cost method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of four organotins in edible vegetable oil samples was developed. Four organotins including dibutyltin dichloride, tributyltin chloride, diphenyltin dichloride, and triphenyltin chloride were simultaneously extracted with methanol using the low-temperature precipitation process. After being concentrated, the extracts were purified by matrix solid-phase dispersion using graphitized carbon black. The experimental parameters such as extraction solvent and clean-up material were optimized. To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the recoveries were investigated. In addition, a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was also proposed for comparison. The procedures of extracting and purifying samples for the analysis were simple and easy to perform batch operations, also showed good efficiency with lower relative standard deviation. The limits of detection of the four organotins were 0.28-0.59 μg/L, and the limits of quantification of the four organotins were 0.93-1.8 μg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of the four organotins in edible vegetable oil. Some analytes were detected at the level of 2.5-28.8 μg/kg.

  12. 1D versus 3D quantum confinement in 1-5 nm ZnO nanoparticle agglomerations for application in charge-trapping memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2016-07-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable interest from industry and researchers due to their excellent properties with applications in optoelectronic devices, sunscreens, photocatalysts, sensors, biomedical sciences, etc. However, the agglomeration of NPs is considered to be a limiting factor since it can affect the desirable physical and electronic properties of the NPs. In this work, 1-5 nm ZnO NPs deposited by spin- and dip-coating techniques are studied. The electronic and physical properties of the resulting agglomerations of NPs are studied using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their application in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory devices is analyzed. The results show that both dip- and spin-coating techniques lead to agglomerations of the NPs mostly in the horizontal direction. However, the width of the ZnO clusters is larger with dip-coating which leads to 1D quantum confinement, while the smaller ZnO clusters obtained by spin-coating enable 3D quantum confinement in ZnO. The ZnO NPs are used as the charge-trapping layer of a MOS-memory structure and the analysis of the high-frequency C-V measurements allow further understanding of the electronic properties of the ZnO agglomerations. A large memory window is achieved in both devices which confirms that ZnO NPs provide large charge-trapping density. In addition, ZnO confined in 3D allows for a larger memory window at lower operating voltages due to the Poole-Frenkel charge-emission mechanism.

  13. Thermal Efficiency Improvement and Energy Conservation Technique of Oil and Gas Fired Boilers%关于提高油、气炉热效率及节能技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永照

    2001-01-01

    介绍了我国油、气资源和能源利用效率情况,并阐述了提高油、气炉热效率的实用节能技术。%This paper introduced Chinese oil and gas energy sources and energy efficiency. In order to improve thermal efficiency of oil and gasfired boilers,the energy conservation technique was analyzed simultaneously.

  14. Precipitation of metal oxide nanoparticles using a miniemulsion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marion Winkelmann; Heike Petra Schuchmann

    2011-01-01

    A method to precipitate nanoparticles using a miniemulsion technique is described,in which miniemulsion droplets between 100 and 1000 nm in size serve as nanoreactors enabling both the control of particle formation and particle growth.The application ofminiemulsion droplets to synthesise nanoparticles comprises three advantages:first,the size of the precipitated particles is limited by the reactant concentration within the emulsion droplet; second,particle agglomeration is prevented as nanoparticle collision outside the nanoreactor is avoided; and third,easy technical scale up can be realized by increasing emulsion volume and thus the number of nanoreactors,while local conditions within the reactors are not changed.The miniemulsion technique is an easy scalable process which allows defined synthesis of particles by precipitation reactions.The miniemulsion technique involves first the preparation of a stable water-inoil miniemulsion by high pressure homogenisation.Whereas a water soluble reactant is provided within the aqueous droplets,another oil- as well as water-soluble reactant can be introduced to the emulsion after homogenisation.The precipitation reaction is induced by the diffusion of the second reactant into the emulsion droplet.Together with this contribution,a method is described and discussed which uses a high pressure homogenisation process to produce stable water-in-oil miniemulsions serving as a reaction medium to precipitate metal oxides.

  15. On the Secondary Cementing and Oil Recovery Technique of the Small Cannulas%浅析小套管二次固井、采油技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进财; 孙晓华

    2015-01-01

    在社会主义市场经济快速发展的大环境下,科学技术取得飞速发展,各种新技术、新设备以及新工艺在各行各业的发展建设过程中取得广泛应用,并产生了良好的应用效果。油田企业要想在激烈的市场竞争中站稳脚跟就必须结合现代科技手段不断创新和优化企业内部各种生产和开采技术,为进一步提升油田企业的综合实力打下坚实的基础。本文从小套管二次固井采油技术的思路和特点着手,对小套管二次固井、采油技术做了简单介绍。%Under the circumstances of the rapid development of socialist market economy, science and technology develop very fast, all kinds of new technologies, equipment and techniques are widely used in the development and construction process of all walks of life, and they get good application effects. The oilfield enterprise should combine with the modern means of science and technology to constantly innovate and optimize all kinds of production and exploitation technology to stand firm in the fierce market competition and lay solid foundations for the further improvement of the comprehensive strength. This paper introduces the secondary cementing and oil recovery technique of the small cannulas by the mentalities and characteristics of the secondary cementing oil recovery technique of the small cannulas.

  16. Biomass equipments. Dryers. Drying, crushing, agglomeration of agro-industrial products; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les secheurs, sechage, broyage, agglomeration de produits agro-industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, O. [Promill (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the French Promill Company activity in the design and manufacturing of complete drying-crushing-agglomerating units for agro-industrial products (pulp of beet, lucerne, etc..). The paper focusses on the thermal and mechanical efficiency of the high temperature dryer and on the pulp granulating squeezer. (J.S.)

  17. Preparation of sustained release matrix pellets by melt agglomeration in the fluidized bed: influence of formulation variables and modelling of agglomerate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Bruns, Anette; Knop, Klaus; Lippold, Bernhard C

    2010-03-01

    The one-step preparation of sustained release matrix pellets, using a melting procedure in a fluidized bed apparatus, was tested in a 2(3) full factorial design of experiments, using microcrystalline wax as lipophilic binder, theophylline as model drug and talc as additional matrix forming agent. The three influence parameters were (A) size of binder particles, (B) fraction of theophylline in solid particles and (C) fraction of microcrystalline wax in formulation. The response variables were agglomerate size and size distribution, dissolution time, agglomerate crush resistance, sphericity, yield and porosity. Nearly spherical pellets comprising a smooth, closed surface could be obtained with the used method, exhibiting the hollow core typical for the immersion and layering mechanism. The reproducibility was very good concerning all responses. The size of agglomerates is proportional to the size of the binder particles, which serve as cores for pellet formation in the molten state in the fluidized bed. Additionally, the agglomerate size is influenced by the volume of the solid particles in relation to the binder particles, with more solid particles leading to larger agglomerates and vice versa. Dissolution times vary in a very wide range, resulting from the interplay between amount of drug in relation to the meltable matrix substance microcrystalline wax and the non-meltable matrix substance talc. The change of binder particle size does not lead to a structural change of the matrix; both dissolution times and porosity are not significantly altered. Agglomerate crush resistance is low due to the hollow core of the pellets. However, it is significantly increased if the volume fraction of microcrystalline wax in the matrix is high, which means that the matrix is mechanically better stabilized. A theoretical model has been established to quantitatively explain agglomerate growth and very good accordance of the full particle size distributions between predicted and

  18. Water as a green solvent combined with different techniques for extraction of essential oil from lavender flowers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Using water as a green solvent with a variable geometry makes use of physical and chemical phenomena that are fundamentally different from those applied in conventional extraction techniques such as hydro-distillation, steam distillation or solvent extraction. Advantages and drawbacks of using water as a solvent with different physical and chemical states have been compared. A total of ten extraction techniques: hydro-distillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbo-hydro-distillation (THD),...

  19. An overview of emerging techniques in virgin olive oil extraction process: strategies in the development of innovative plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisa Clodoveo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently the systems for mechanically extracting virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: discontinuous-type systems (obsolete and dying out and continuous-type systems. Systems defined as “continuous- type” are generally comprised of a mechanical crusher, a malaxer and a horizontal-axis centrifugal separator (decanter. The “continuous” appellation refers to the fact that two (mechanical crusher and decanter out of the three machines making up the system operate continuously; the malaxer, which actually is a machine working in batches, is located between these two continuous apparatuses. Consequently the malaxation represents the bottleneck of the continuous extraction process. The entire virgin olive oil (VOO process has changed very little over the last 20 years. One of the essential challenges of VOO industrial plant manufacturing sector is to design and build advanced machines in order to transform the discontinuous malaxing step in a continuous phase and improve the working capacity of the industrial plants. In recent years, rapid progress in the application of emerging technologies in food processing has been made, also in VOO extraction process. Ultrasounds (US, microwaves (MW, and pulsed electric fields (PEF are emerging technologies that have already found application in the VOO extraction process on pilot scale plants. This paper aims to describe the basic principles of these technologies as well as the results concerning their impact on VOO yields and quality. Current and potential applications will be discussed, taking into account the relationship between the processing, the olive paste behavior and the characteristics of the resultant VOO, as well as recent advances in the process development.

  20. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/teritiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Four activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization: (1) interpretation of outcrop analogues; (2) reservoir mapping, (3) reservoir engineering analysis of the five project fields; and (4) technology transfer.

  1. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  2. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Five activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) regional facies evaluation, (2) evaluation of outcrop analogues, (3) field-scale geologic analysis, (4) reservoir analysis, and (5) technology transfer.

  3. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--september 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    Bluebell field ill tile Uinta Basin, Utah, is a rich petroleum reserve. The field has produced over 125 million barrels of oil from the lacustrine rocks of the Green River Formation. Standard completion techniques, which consist of perforating up to thousands of feet of section at one time, have resulted in opening thief, water-producing and non-productive zones. Low recoverabilitv is largely due to the lack of understanding of the relationship between heterolithic facies, reservoir fracture systems and clay migration. These areas were investigated by analyzing over 1,500 feet of core from the Bluebell area. Approximately 60% of the core consists of carbonates and 40% consists of clastics (predominantly sandstones). The carbonate rocks in general have good porosity and randomly oriented, interconnected macrofractures, whereas the macrofractures in the sandstones are more vertical and isolated. The sandstones however, do have the best reservoir capacity due to inherent interparticle porosity. Some shales display overpressured hydro-microfractures. Preliminary analysis of clay types indicates swelling illite-smectite mixed layer clays as well as kaolinite in both the clastic and carbonate rocks. These swelling, clay types combine with the high pour point waxy oils to reduce production efficiency and total recovery.

  4. Use of the DSC technique to characterize water-in-crude oil emulsions stability; Utilisation de la DSC pour la caracterisation de la stabilite des emulsions eau dans petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazzone, C.; Seris, H. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1998-07-01

    The DSC technique (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) was applied to the study of water-in-crude oil emulsions, which naturally form after an oil spill. The resulting emulsions contain between 50 and 80 % seawater and they are often heavy materials, hard recover mechanically, treat or burn. It is therefore important to assess their stability in order to optimize their treatments. A great variety of techniques are available for the assessment of emulsions stability. They are generally based on the analysis of the droplets size distribution. Unfortunately, most of the usual techniques can not be applied to opaque water-in-oil emulsions. The most useful method to characterize the stability of emulsions is of course the `bottle test`. It consists in monitoring the extent of phase separation with time. This type of test provides a significant amount of information relating to both the stability of the emulsion phase and the clarity of he separated water, but it is very empirical. The DSC technique is generally used to determine the composition of water-in-oil emulsions. It is the only technique capable of distinguishing free water from emulsified water. It was shown in this study that it is a very useful technique, which allows the study of the evolution of the droplet size distribution as well as a precise determination of the water content. (authors) 15 refs.

  5. Transport and Deposition of Welding Fume Agglomerates in a Realistic Human Nasal Airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Inthavong, Kiao; Lidén, Göran; Shang, Yidan; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Welding fume is a complex mixture containing ultra-fine particles in the nanometer range. Rather than being in the form of a singular sphere, due to the high particle concentration, welding fume particles agglomerate into long straight chains, branches, or other forms of compact shapes. Understanding the transport and deposition of these nano-agglomerates in human respiratory systems is of great interest as welding fumes are a known health hazard. The neurotoxin manganese (Mn) is a common element in welding fumes. Particulate Mn, either as soluble salts or oxides, that has deposited on the olfactory mucosa in human nasal airway is transported along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb within the brain. If this Mn is further transported to the basal ganglia of the brain, it could accumulate at the part of the brain that is the focal point of its neurotoxicity. Accounting for various dynamic shape factors due to particle agglomeration, the current computational study is focused on the exposure route, the deposition pattern, and the deposition efficiency of the inhaled welding fume particles in a realistic human nasal cavity. Particular attention is given to the deposition pattern and deposition efficiency of inhaled welding fume agglomerates in the nasal olfactory region. For particles in the nanoscale, molecular diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. Therefore, Brownian diffusion, hydrodynamic drag, Saffman lift force, and gravitational force are included in the model study. The deposition efficiencies for single spherical particles, two kinds of agglomerates of primary particles, two-dimensional planar and straight chains, are investigated for a range of primary particle sizes and a range of number of primary particles per agglomerate. A small fraction of the inhaled welding fume agglomerates is deposited on the olfactory mucosa, approximately in the range 0.1-1%, and depends on particle size and morphology. The strong size dependence of the deposition

  6. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Ratio of wave- and current-induced shear stress to critical values for oil-sand ball and sediment mobilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  7. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Ratio of the wave- and current-induced shear stress to the critical value for oil-tar balls and sediment mobilization weighted by probability of wave scenario occurrence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  8. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Ratio of the wave- and current-induced shear stress to the critical value for oil-tar balls and sediment mobilization over a tidal cycle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  9. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Surf-zone integrated alongshore potential flux for oil-sand balls of varying sizes weighted by probability of wave scenario occurrence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  10. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Ratio of wave- and current-induced shear stress to critical values for oil-sand ball and sediment mobilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  11. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Ratio of the wave- and current-induced shear stress to the critical value for oil-tar balls and sediment mobilization weighted by probability of wave scenario occurrence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  12. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Ratio of the wave- and current-induced shear stress to the critical value for oil-tar balls and sediment mobilization over a tidal cycle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  13. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Surf-zone integrated alongshore potential flux for oil-sand balls of varying sizes weighted by probability of wave scenario occurrence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  14. Novel Application of the Flotation Technique To Measure the Wettability Changes by Ionically Modified Water for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    , then there is no need for ionically modified water. A number of methods have been devised to identify the wetting conditions including contact angle measurements, spontaneous imbibition, and chromatographic separation, etc. But contact angle measurement requires surfaces that lack natural surface roughness, spontaneous...... equipment. Using this technique we were able to quantify the wettability alteration caused by low salinity and potential determining anions (PDAs) such as SO42−, BO33−, and PO43−. The wettability data show maximum oil recovery by dilution is coincident with maximum wettability alteration. The experiments...... also show that the presence of sulfate or borate enhances wettability alteration by dilution. Moreover, the combined and individual effect of potential scale forming ions (Ba2+ and Sr2+) on wettability restoration was identified. The effect of interfacial tension (IFT) on the measured wettability...

  15. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2001-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

  16. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-11-26

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

  17. Modified MODFLOW-based model for simulating the agglomeration and transport of polymer-modified Fe(0) nanoparticles in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhani, Peyman; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Shamsai, Abolfazl; Lowry, Gregory V; Phenrat, Tanapon

    2015-08-25

    The solute transport model MODFLOW has become a standard tool in risk assessment and remediation design. However, particle transport models that take into account both particle agglomeration and deposition phenomena are far less developed. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the standard code MODFLOW/MT3D to simulate the agglomeration and transport of three different types of polymer-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) in one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) saturated porous media. A first-order decay of the particle population was used to account for the agglomeration of particles. An iterative technique was used to optimize the model parameters. The model provided good matches to 1-D NZVI-breakthrough data sets, with R (2) values ranging from 0.96 to 0.99, and mass recovery differences between the experimental results and simulations ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 %. Similarly, simulations of NZVI transport in the heterogeneous 2-D model demonstrated that the model can be applied to more complicated heterogeneous domains. However, the fits were less good, with the R (2) values in the 2-D modeling cases ranging from 0.75 to 0.95, while the mass recovery differences ranged from 0.7 to 6.5 %. Nevertheless, the predicted NZVI concentration contours during transport were in good agreement with the 2-D experimental observations. The model provides insights into NZVI transport in porous media by mathematically decoupling agglomeration, attachment, and detachment, and it illustrates the importance of each phenomenon in various situations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Classification of highly similar crude oils using data sets from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and multivariate techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mispelaar, V.G. van; Smilde, A.K.; Noord, O.E. de; Blomberg, J.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) has proven to be an extremely powerful separation technique for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures. This separation power can be used to discriminate between highly similar samples. In this article we will describe the use of GC × GC

  19. Development of a Technique to Determine the Morphology and Dynamics of Agglomerates in Chemically Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    scattering measurements in sooting flame systems, can yield particle morphology information provided that they are carried out in the ultraviolet...Recently, Charalampopoulos [12] observed that depolarized light scattering measurements in sooting flame possess the potential to yield particle morphology I

  20. An application of multiple criteria decision-making techniques for ranking different national Iranian oil refining and distribution companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nazari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement plays an essential role on management of governmental agencies especially when profitability is not the primary concern and we need to consider other important factors than profitability such as customer satisfaction, etc. In this paper, we propose a multi-criteria decision making method to rank different national Iranian oil refining and distribution companies. The proposed study of this paper uses six factors including per capita supply, energy cost, physical productivity of labor, staff participation, quality control inspection of stations and education per capita. The proposed study uses Entropy to find the relative importance of each criterion and TOPSIS to rank 37 alternatives based on cities and three regions. The results of the implementation of our method indicate that central regions close to capital city of the country maintains the highest ranking (0.9122 while southern regions maintains the lowest comes in the lowest priority (0.0569 and the northern region is in the middle (0.7635.

  1. Thermoluminescence Properties of Novel Self-Agglomerating CaSO4:Eu Phosphors Obtained by an Environmentally Friendly Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. García-Haro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the thermoluminescence (TL properties of self-agglomerating CaSO4:Eu samples obtained by an environmentally friendly coprecipitation technique. No binding material is needed to form solid CaSO4:Eu samples. Samples exposed to beta particle irradiation exhibit a TL maximum at 473.15 K when a 5 K/s heating rate is used, they are two times more sensitive than the TLD-100 commercial dosimeter, and their lower detection limit was determined to be less than 0.69 mGy. The computerized glow curve deconvolution carried out fitting the residual glow curves from McKeever method revealed that the whole glow curve is composed of four individual TL peaks with intermediate-order kinetics. The main peak order kinetics is b = 1.48. This result agrees with that computed using Chen’s formula.

  2. Temperature-Switchable Agglomeration of Magnetic Particles Designed for Continuous Separation Processes in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Anja S; Heinzler, Raphael; Ooi, Huey Wen; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this work was the synthesis and characterization of thermally switchable magnetic particles for use in biotechnological applications such as protein purification and enzymatic conversions. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization was employed to synthesize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes via a "graft-from" approach on the surface of magnetic microparticles. The resulting particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their temperature-dependent agglomeration behavior was assessed. The influence of several factors on particle agglomeration (pH, temperature, salt type, and particle concentration) was evaluated. The results showed that a low pH value (pH 3-4), a kosmotropic salt (ammonium sulfate), and a high particle concentration (4 g/L) resulted in improved agglomeration at elevated temperature (40 °C). Recycling of particles and reversibility of the temperature-switchable agglomeration were successfully demonstrated for ten heating-cooling cycles. Additionally, enhanced magnetic separation was observed for the modified particles. Ionic monomers were integrated into the polymer chain to create end-group functionalized particles as well as two- and three-block copolymer particles for protein binding. The adsorption of lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme to these ion exchange particles was evaluated and showed a binding capacity of up to 135 mg/g. The dual-responsive particles combined magnetic and thermoresponsive properties for switchable agglomeration, easy separability, and efficient protein adsorption.

  3. Effect of Rubber Nanoparticle Agglomeration on Properties of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates during Dynamic Vulcanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanguang Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the dispersed rubber microparticles in ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM/polypropylene (PP thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs are actually agglomerates of rubber nanoparticles. In this study, based on this new understanding of the microstructure of TPV, we further revealed the microstructure-properties relationship of EPDM/PP TPV during dynamic vulcanization, especially the effect of the size of rubber nanoparticle agglomerates (dn, the thicknesses of PP ligaments (IDpoly and the rubber network on the properties of EPDM/PP TPV. We were able to simultaneously obtain a high tensile strength, elongation at break, elastic modulus, and elasticity for the EPDM/PP TPV by the achievement of a smaller dn, a thinner IDpoly and a denser rubber network. Interestingly, the effect of dn and IDpoly on the elastic modulus of EPDM/PP TPV composed of rubber nanoparticle agglomerates is different from that of EPDM/PP TPVs composed of rubber microparticles reported previously. The deformation behavior of the TPVs during stretching was studied to understand the mechanism for the achievement of good mechanical properties. Interestingly, the rubber nanoparticle agglomerates are oriented along the tensile direction during stretching. The TPV samples with smaller and more numerous rubber nanoparticle agglomerates can slow down the development of voids and cracks more effectively, thus leading to increase in tensile strength and elongation at break of the EPDM/PP TPV.

  4. Development of standards and a cost model for coal agglomeration and related studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Paulin, M.O.

    1982-02-26

    Several topics concerning coal agglomeration and fixed-bed coal gasification, as they relate to an agglomeration-process development program presently being performed for the Department of Energy, are discussed in this report. Specific topics include an examination of the performance of coals in fixed-bed gasifiers, the development of properties' standards by which agglomerates produced in the program may be compared, the development of a cost model to judge the economic feasibility of coal agglomeration for potential users and the maximum binder levels to be considered in the program, the definition of a suitable briquette size for coal gasification, and a study of upgrading methods at the mines to improve agglomeration. Extensive property data and the results of a number of special tests on six coals (Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Wyoming Bighorn subbituminous coal, Montana Rosebud No. 14 subbituminous coal, North Dakota Indian Head lignite and Pennsylvania Nanoth anthracite coal) and on FMC formcoke and Simplex briquettes are reported.

  5. THE EFFECT OF OFFSET PRINTING INK ON LASER TONER INK AGGLOMERATION UNDER NEUTRAL PULPING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Xie,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available 1-octadecanol is known to be a highly effective agglomerating agent for laser toner ink. However, the office waste paper used in the actual production often contains various types of inks. The effect of the offset ink and types of surfactants with different charge characteristics were studied relative to the agglomeration of the laser toner ink under neutral pulping conditions. It was found that the addition of a small amount of the offset ink printed waste paper was beneficial for the agglomeration of the laser toner ink. The optimal percentage of addition is 12.5% to 25%. The offset printed ink had a positive charge of 0.001±0.0005 mEq/g when the offset ink was treated by 70˚C water at neutral conditions. Addition of a proper amount of cationic surfactant was beneficial to improve the agglomeration at any ratio of the mixed laser printed and offset waste papers. When the percentage of offset waste paper was less than 50%, the addition of anionic surfactant and nonionic surfactant was harmful for agglomeration, and there was no significant effect at higher offset content.

  6. Updates to the dust-agglomerate collision model and implications for planetesimal formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jürgen; Brisset, Julie; Bukhari, Mohtashim; Kothe, Stefan; Landeck, Alexander; Schräpler, Rainer; Weidling, René

    2016-10-01

    Since the publication of our first dust-agglomerate collision model in 2010, several new laboratory experiments have been performed, which have led to a refinement of the model. Substantial improvement of the model has been achieved in the low-velocity regime (where we investigated the abrasion in bouncing collisions), in the high-velocity regime (where we have studied the fragmentation behavior of colliding dust aggregates), in the erosion regime (in which we extended the experiments to impacts of small projectile agglomerates into large target agglomerates), and in the very-low velocity collision regime (where we studied further sticking collisions). We also have applied the new dust-agglomerate collision model to the solar nebula conditions and can constrain the potential growth of planetesimals by mass transfer to a very small parameter space, which makes this growth path very unlikely. Experimental examples, an outline of the new collision model, and applications to dust agglomerate growth in the solar nebula will be presented.

  7. Effect of sample container morphology on agglomeration dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Dae Seong; Kim, Hack Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles have been used extensively in medical and biological applications, and agglomeration of magnetic nanoparticles is employed in the purification of water and proteins. The magnetic weight can be measured with a conventional electronic balance. Details of the experimental setup have been previously reported. That is, complex energy landscape involved in the agglomeration is changing with progress. Simulation of colloidal magnetic particles under magnetic field shows that the chain of particles is energetically more favorable than the ring and that the transition barrier between the chain and the ring is very low. The energy barriers among entangled nanoparticles of the agglomerate seem to be much more complicated than those among colloidal particles. The energy barrier distributions at 1000 min are similar for the two containers; however, the trend of blue shift and broadening is much more evident in the case of conical tube. These results indicate that the potential energy surface for agglomeration is modified more significantly in the conical tube which makes the agglomerate denser.

  8. Evaluation of oil shale from Eastern Canada by retorting and by concentration of a kerogen-rich fraction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.W.; Abbott, D.

    1981-12-16

    An apparatus was developed for testing the retorting behaviour of oil shales under pressures up to 500 psi hydrogen and 700/sup 0/C. Equipment was also constructed and brought into service for the determination of oil yields by the Fischer assay method. Six samples of Albert shale of varying oil content (<10 to 40-50 gals/ton) were tested by the Fischer method and by hydrogen retorting to determine yields of liquid distillate under different conditions of retorting. The Fischer assays gave oil yields of 2.9 to 47.5 gals/ton which corresponded to carbon conversion of 50.5 to 87.8 per cent. The hydrogen retorting tests at 700/sup 0/C and 500/sup 0/C gave carbon conversion rates of 53 to 87 per cent which are comparable to that for the Fischer retorting. Retorting at 500/sup 0/C gave oil yields similar to the Fischer assay but at 700/sup 0/C oil yields were reduced, 4 to 30 gals/ton, although gas yields increased. In the retorting tests performed, the use of hydrogen at 500 psi did not increase yields. More work is needed to understand the retorting behaviour of New Brunswick and other Canadian oil shales. Retorting tests for resource assessment purposes are also needed. These should be coupled to determining the rate of carbon conversion and hence the effectiveness of the retorting technique. Petrographic, chemical and thermogravimetric analyses of the oil shales were undertaken to characterize the materials for retorting tests. The second part of the project involved producing a kerogen concentrate by standard beneficiation methods, spherical agglomeration, gravity methods and by flotation. Only gravity separation showed promise of being a viable industrial process. Fine grinding and gravity separation gave high concetrations up to 70 gals/ton but yields were low. 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Reliability of non-destructive test techniques in the inspection of pipelines used in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A.A. [Science Technological Center, University of Fortaleza, UNIFOR, Av. Washington Soares, 1321, Edson Queiroz, CEP: 60, 811-905 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)], E-mail: alves@metalmat.ufrj.br; Rebello, J.M.A.; Souza, M.P.V. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, CEP: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sagrilo, L.V.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE/UFRJ, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Soares, S.D. [Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, CEP: 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the reliability of non-destructive test (NDT) techniques for the inspection of pipeline welds employed in the petroleum industry. Radiography, manual and automatic ultrasonic techniques using pulse-echo and time of flight diffraction (TOFD) were employed. Three classes of defects were analyzed: lack of penetration (LP), lack of fusion (LF) and undercut (UC). The tests were carried out on specimen made from pipelines containing defects, which had been artificially inserted on laying the weld bead. The results showed the superiority of the automatic ultrasonic tests for defect detection compared with the manual ultrasonic and radiographic tests. Additionally, artificial neural networks (ANN) were used in the detection and automatic classification of the defects.

  10. THE EFFECT OF CHARGE AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANTS ON LASER TONER AGGLOMERATION UNDER ALKALINE PULPING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jiang,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale agglomeration experiments followed by image analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of different cationic surfactants on the 1-octadecanol agglomeration of a negatively charged laser toner. Various types of surfactants with different geometric structures were investigated. It was found that this toner became agglomerated under neutral pulping conditions, but it did not agglomerate under alkaline conditions at all. A small amount of the cationic surfactant compensated for the agglomeration disruption caused by the negative surface charge of the toner and made this toner agglomerate very well. These cationic surfactants consist of a chemical structure of C12 to C18 saturated alkyl hydrophobic chains. The positive charge of these surfactants played the major role in alleviating agglomeration disruption. Additionally, an extra phenol group on these surfactants contributed only minor advantages for toner agglomeration in the presence of 1-octadecanol. The best co-agglomeration performance occurred within a very narrow range of similar total positive charge densities based on the total toner weight. It was also found that this positive charge effect could not be applied to the chemical compounds of high molecular weight polymeric materials.

  11. Biomass-Ash-Induced Agglomeration in a Fluidized Bed. Part 1: Experimental Study on the Effects of a Gas Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    . Understanding of the agglomeration in various atmospheres is crucial to optimize the design and operation conditions. This study focuses on the effects of gases on agglomeration tendency with different types of biomass, including corn straw, rice straw, and wheat straw. The biomass ash samples are mixed...... atmospheres are much lower than that in air. It appears that, in a steam atmosphere, the agglomeration of corn straw and rice straw ash is predominantly coating-induced. The agglomeration in both H2 and air atmospheres are melting-induced. In a H2 atmosphere, K2SO4 in the ash samples disappears, caused...

  12. Highly effective technology and technique for extraction of oils from fruit-and-vegetable stones with use of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Gafurov; Adyl Safarov

    2009-01-01

    The oil extraction processes from oil-bearing cultures’ seeds and stones is time and energy-intensive. The study shows that during processing kernels of oil-bearing cultures under influence of electromagnetic field the destruction process of cellar structure is intensified in 7-9 times than in existing moist-heat processing. Moreover, the process runs shorter and under comparatively low temperature regime that reduces the electric power expenses. Using electromagnetic processing of oil-beari...

  13. Reasons and remedies for the agglomeration of multilayered graphene and carbon nanotubes in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Rasheed; Inam, Fawad

    2016-01-01

    One of the main issues in the production of polymer nanocomposites is the dispersion state of filler as multilayered graphene (MLG) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) tend to agglomerate due to van der Waals forces. The agglomeration can be avoided by using organic solvents, selecting suitable dispersion and production methods, and functionalizing the fillers. Another proposed method is the use of hybrid fillers as synergistic effects can cause an improvement in the dispersion state of the fillers. In this review article, various aspects of each process that can help avoid filler agglomeration and improve dispersion state are discussed in detail. This review article would be helpful for both current and prospective researchers in the field of MLG- and CNT-based polymer nanocomposites to achieve maximum enhancement in mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of produced polymer nanocomposites.

  14. Effect of agglomeration during coprecipitation: Delayed spinellization of magnesium aluminate hydrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal

    2010-08-01

    Precipitation of magnesium aluminate hydrate with faster addition of ammonia at desired pH causes agglomeration. Agglomerated powder, without any further treatment, on calcination forms intermediate compounds at low temperatures (≤ 900°C). The intermediate compounds on further heat treatment (≥ 1000°C) decompose into MgO, MgAl2O4 and -Al2O3. Effect of agglomeration and absorption of foreign ions such as Cl–, SO$^{2-}_{4}$, and NH$^{+}_{4}$ in complex compounds probably cause loss of Al3+ and Mg2+ ions during heat treatment, and stoichiometry changes. Powders prepared by continuous method with better control of process parameters than batch process yields better spinellization.

  15. Reasons and remedies for the agglomeration of multilayered graphene and carbon nanotubes in polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Atif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues in the production of polymer nanocomposites is the dispersion state of filler as multilayered graphene (MLG and carbon nanotubes (CNTs tend to agglomerate due to van der Waals forces. The agglomeration can be avoided by using organic solvents, selecting suitable dispersion and production methods, and functionalizing the fillers. Another proposed method is the use of hybrid fillers as synergistic effects can cause an improvement in the dispersion state of the fillers. In this review article, various aspects of each process that can help avoid filler agglomeration and improve dispersion state are discussed in detail. This review article would be helpful for both current and prospective researchers in the field of MLG- and CNT-based polymer nanocomposites to achieve maximum enhancement in mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of produced polymer nanocomposites.

  16. Study of the temperature evolution of defect agglomerates in neutron irradiated molybdenum single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambri, O.A. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario. Member of the CONICET' s Research Staff, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: olambri@fceia.unr.edu.ar; Zelada-Lambri, G.I. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble (France); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain); Bozzano, P.B. [Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica. Unidad de Actividad Materiales, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin (Argentina); Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    Small angle neutron scattering as a function of temperature, differential thermal analysis, electrical resistivity and transmission electron microscopy studies have been performed in low rate neutron irradiated single crystalline molybdenum, at room temperature, for checking the evolution of the defects agglomerates in the temperature interval between room temperature and 1200 K. The onset of vacancies mobility was found to happen in temperatures within the stage III of recovery. At around 550 K, the agglomerates of vacancies achieve the largest size, as determined from the Guinier approximation for spherical particles. In addition, the decrease of the vacancy concentration together with the dissolution of the agglomerates at temperatures higher than around 920 K was observed, which produce the release of internal stresses in the structure.

  17. A Novel Equivalent Agglomeration Model for Heat Conduction Enhancement in Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jize; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multilevel equivalent agglomeration (MEA) model in which all particles in an irregular cluster are treated as a new particle with equivalent volume, the liquid molecules wrapping the cluster and in the gaps are considered to assemble on the surface of new particle as mixing nanolayer (MNL), the thermal conductivity in MNL is assumed to satisfy exponential distribution. Theoretical predictions for thermal conductivity enhancement are highly in agreement with the classical experimental data. Also, we first try to employ TEM information quantitatively to offer probable reference agglomeration ratio (not necessary a very precise value) to just test rational estimations range by present model. The comparison results indicate the satisfactory priori agglomeration ratio estimations range from renovated model. PMID:26777389

  18. FORMATION MECHANISM AND SPATIAL PATTERN OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN CENTRAL JILIN OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Gan; ZHANG Ping-yu; JIAO Bin

    2006-01-01

    Urban agglomeration is made up of cities with different sizes to be linked by traffic network in a given area, and it is an inevitable result when urbanization reaches a certain level. Taking urban agglomerationin central Jilin(UACJ) as an example, this article analyzes the formation mechanism and spatial pattern of urban agglomeration in the less-developed area. First, the dynamics of UACJ has been analyzed from the aspects of geographical condition, economic foundation, policy background, and traffic condition. Then the development process is divided into three stages-single city, city group and city cluster. Secondly, the central cities are identified from the aspects of city centrality, and the development axes are classified based on economic communication capacity. Finally, the urban agglomeration is divided into five urban economic regions in order to establish the reasonable distribution of industries.

  19. On the Mechanism of Ultrasound-Driven Deagglomeration of Nanoparticle Agglomerates in Aluminum Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Olga; Vorozhtsov, Sergey

    2016-05-01

    One of the promising directions in the technology of composite alloys with improved mechanical properties is reinforcement of the metallic matrix with nanopowders introduced in the liquid metal. Ultrasonic processing is known to significantly improve the introduction of submicrone particles to the metallic melt. This study focuses on the mechanisms of deagglomeration and wettability of such particles by the melt under the action of ultrasound. The suggested mechanism involves the penetration of the liquid metal into the pores and cracks of the agglomerates under the excess pressure created by imploding cavitation bubbles and further destruction of the agglomerate by the sound wave. The main dependences connecting the acoustic parameters and processing time with the physical and chemical properties of particles and the melt are obtained through analytical modeling. The mathematical description of the ultrasonic deagglomeration in liquid metal is presented; a dependence of the threshold intensity of ultrasound for the break-up of agglomerates on their size is reported.

  20. Internal migration, regional labor markets and the role of agglomeration economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2015-01-01

    for the role of space–time dynamic adjustment processes and simultaneity among migration and labor market variables and finally test for heterogeneity in the migration response to regional labor market disparities among low- and high-skilled migrants. Our results support the view that agglomeration economies......We analyze the determinants and regional implications of internal migration flows across Danish municipalities in 2006–2012. Besides assessing the role of labor market and housing market factors in driving a region’s net migration rate, we particularly focus on agglomeration factors identified...... by “new” migration theories related to regional growth models and the new economic geography. The work contributes to the field in the following way: we extend the scarce literature on the different channels through which agglomeration economies act as an attractor for mobile labor. Moreover, we account...

  1. Molecular dynamics study of self-agglomeration of charged fullerenes in solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumik

    2013-01-28

    The agglomeration of fullerenes in solvents is an important phenomenon that is relevant to controlled synthesis of fullerene-based nanowires as well as fullerene-based composites. The molecular aggregation in solvents depends on the atomistic interactions of fullerene with the solvent and is made complicated by the fact that fullerenes accrue negative surface charges when present in solvents such as water. In the present work, we simulated fullerenes of varying size and shape (C60, C180, C240, and C540) with and without surface charges in polar protic (water), polar aprotic (acetone), and nonpolar (toluene) solvents using molecular dynamics method. Our results demonstrate that uncharged fullerenes form agglomerates in polar solvents such as water and acetone and remain relatively dispersed in nonpolar toluene. The presence of surface charge significantly reduces agglomerate size in water and acetone. Additionally, the relative influence of surface charge on fullerene agglomeration depends on the size and geometry of the fullerene with larger fullerenes forming relatively smaller agglomerates. We evaluated the diffusion coefficients of solvent molecules within the solvation shell of fullerenes and observed that they are much lower than the bulk solvent and are strongly associated with the fullerenes as seen in the corresponding radial distribution functions. To correlate agglomerate size with the binding energy between fullerenes, we evaluated the potential of mean force between fullerenes in each solvent. Consistent with the solubility of fullerenes, binding energy between fullerenes is the greatest in water followed by acetone and toluene. The presence of charge decreases the binding energy of fullerenes in water and thus results in dispersed fullerenes.

  2. Agglomeration in Stripper Ash Coolers and Its Possible Remedial Solutions: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravi Inder

    2016-04-01

    The bottom ash of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler contains large amounts of physical heat. When low quality coals are used in these types of boilers, the ash content is normally more than 40 % and the physical heat loss is approximately 3 % if the bottom ash is discharged without cooling. Bottom ash cooler (BAC) is often used to treat the high temperature bottom ash to reclaim heat, and to facilitate the easily handling and transportation of ash. The CFB boiler at BLA Power, Newari, MP (India) is facing problems of clinker formation in strip ash coolers of plant since the installation of unit. These clinkers are basically agglomerates, which leads to defluidization of stripper ash cooler (BAC) units. There are two strip ash coolers in unit. Each strip ash cooler is capable of working independently. The proper functioning of both strip coolers is very important as it is going to increase the combustion efficiency of boiler by stripping of fine unburnt coal particles from ash, which are injected into the furnace. In this paper causes, characterization of agglomerates, thermo gravimetric analysis of fuel used, particular size distribution of coal and sand and possible remedial solution to overcome these agglomerates in strip ash coolers has also been presented. High temperature in compact separators, non uniform supply of coal and not removing small agglomerates from stripper ash cooler are among main causes of agglomeration in stripper ash cooler. Control of compact separator temperature, replacing 10-12 % of bed material and cleaning stripper ash cooler periodically will decrease agglomeration in stripper ash cooler of unit.

  3. 浅层弱稠油油藏主体开发技术%KEY DEVELOPING TECHNIQUES OF SHALLOW AND LIGHTLY HEAVY OIL RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程静波

    2012-01-01

    Changchunling Oilfield is shallow low-temperature and low-pressure oil reservoirs discovered in Jilin Oilfield with special characteristics. Because of the low-temperature, low-pressure and poor flowability of the crude oil, the cold damage of wax precipitation is prone to happen in the course of production. That results in low and e-ven no productivity for conventional operations, so the normal production can be seriously influenced and the effective development of the reserves can be limited. In response to this current situation, the laboratory experiments of wax precipitation, physical simulation tests and numerical simulation of thermal recovery are carried out. Integrating with the development results of huff-puff, steam flooding, fire flooding process etc. , hot water flooding is clearly determined to be the key developing technique in Changchunling Oilfield. At the mean time, it has provided valuable experiences for the development of other similar oil reservoirs.%长春岭油田为吉林油田新发现的浅层低温低压油藏.油藏性质表现出特殊的油藏特征,由于油层低温、低压、原油流动性差,开采过程中储层易受析蜡冷伤害,造成常规开采产能低,甚至无产能,严重影响油田正常生产,制约储量有效动用.针对这一现状,对该油藏开展了原油析蜡室内实验、热采物理模拟实验、热采数值模拟研究,结合现场已开展的蒸汽吞吐、蒸汽驱、火驱等多种热采试验的开发效果,明确了热水驱开发为长春岭油田主体开发技术,同时也为其他同类油藏的开发提供了宝贵经验.

  4. Highly effective technology and technique for extraction of oils from fruit-and-vegetable stones with use of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Gafurov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The oil extraction processes from oil-bearing cultures’ seeds and stones is time and energy-intensive. The study shows that during processing kernels of oil-bearing cultures under influence of electromagnetic field the destruction process of cellar structure is intensified in 7-9 times than in existing moist-heat processing. Moreover, the process runs shorter and under comparatively low temperature regime that reduces the electric power expenses. Using electromagnetic processing of oil-bearing kernels provides increase of oil output up to 20-25% as well.

  5. In-Situ Agglomeration and De-agglomeration by Milling of Nano-Engineered Lubricant Particulate Composites for Cold Spray Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshastehriz, M.; Smid, I.; Segall, A. E.

    2014-10-01

    Nano-engineered self-lubricating particles comprised of hexagonal-boron-nitride powder (hBN) encapsulated in nickel have been developed for cold spray coating of aluminum components. The nickel encapsulant consists of several nano-sized layers, which are deposited on the hBN particles by electroless plating. In the cold spray deposition, the nickel becomes the matrix in which hBN acts as the lubricant. The coating demonstrated a very promising performance by reducing the coefficient of friction by almost 50% and increasing the wear resistance more than tenfold. The coatings also exhibited higher bond strength, which was directly related to the hardenability of the particles. During the encapsulation process, the hBN particles agglomerate and form large clusters. De-agglomeration has been studied through low- and high-energy ball milling to create more uniform and consistent particle sizes and to improve the cold spray deposition efficiency. The unmilled and milled particles were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, BET, and hardness tests. It was found that in low-energy ball milling, the clusters were compacted to a noticeable extent. However, the high-energy ball milling resulted in breakup of agglomerations and destroyed the nickel encapsulant.

  6. Detailed analysis of a quench bomb for the study of aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, S.; Kratz, J.-G.; Quaglia, N.; Fouin, G.

    2016-07-01

    A standard quench bomb (QB) - widely used to characterize condensed phase from metalized solid propellant combustion - is studied in detail. Experimental and numerical investigations proved that collected particles are mostly unburned aluminum (Al) agglomerates despite large quenching distances. Particles are actually found to quench early as propellant surface is swept by inert pressurant. Further improvements of the QB are proposed which allow measuring both Al agglomerates and alumina residue with the same setup. Finally, the results obtained on a typical aluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP) / hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are briefly discussed.

  7. Mathematical modeling of pigment dispersion taking into account the full agglomerate particle size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2017-01-01

    particle size distribution was simulated. Data from two previous experimental investigations were used for model validation. The first concerns two different yellow organic pigments dispersed in nitrocellulose/ethanol vehicles in a ball mill and the second a red organic pigment dispersed in a solvent-based....... The only adjustable parameter used was an apparent rate constant for the linear agglomerate erosion rate. Model simulations, at selected values of time, for the full agglomerate particle size distribution were in good qualitative agreement with the measured values. A quantitative match of the experimental...

  8. The Morphology of Urban Agglomerations for Developing Countries: A Case Study with China

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two well-accepted empirical propositions regarding the distribution of population in cities, namely, Gibrat's law and Zipf's law, are rigorously examined using the Chinese census data. Our findings are quite in contrast with the most of the previous studies performed exclusively for developed countries. This motivates us to build a general environment to explain the morphology of urban agglomerations both in developed and developing countries. A dynamic process of job creation generates a particular distribution for the urban agglomerations and introduction of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in this abstract environment shows that the empirical observations are in good agreement with the proposed model.

  9. Urban agglomerations and transformations of medium-sized towns in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runge Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This analysis investigates medium-sized towns in Poland, i.e. those with a population between 20–100 thousand, located up to 100 km away from the main city of the agglomeration. The aim of this article is to compare the level of socio-economic development of Polish towns depending on their location in relation to the main city in the largest agglomerations in 1998 and 2013. Three zones of distance from the main city of each agglomeration have been taken into consideration: a. the inner zone, reaching up to 25 km from the main city; b. the outer zone located at a distance of 25 to 50 km from the main city, and c. the peripheral zone, located at a distance of 50 to 100 km from the main city and including the medium-size towns located outside the agglomeration system. This analysis of the distribution of medium-sized towns and their level of socio-economic development has shown various levels of changes which depend on the distance from the main city of the agglomeration. In 1998, the highest level of development of the medium-sized towns was recorded in towns outside of these agglomeration systems, i.e. those located most remotely from the main city (peripheral zone. Most of the medium-sized towns are situated at a distance of 50–100 km from Warszawa, Kraków, Łódź, Lublin, Gdańsk and have developed their own local, or even regional labour markets and some of them have even provided administrative functions in the past as voivodeship capitals. Only in the Poznań agglomeration, the level of development of medium-sized towns was higher in the immediate surroundings of the main city (25 km. The medium-sized towns in all zones of the distance from the main city in the Wrocław agglomeration represented a similar level of development. By 2013, the level of development of the medium-sized towns in the peripheral zone in all investigated settlement systems had decreased, with a significant improvement in the level of development of the towns in

  10. Extension of the analytical window for characterizing aromatic compounds in oils using a comprehensive suite of high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques and double bond equivalence versus carbon number plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Birdwell, Justin E.; Hur, Manhoi; Lee, Joonhee; Kim, Byungjoo; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) were used to study the aromatic fractions of crude oil and oil shale pyrolysates (shale oils). The collected data were compared and combined in the double bond equivalence (DBE) versus carbon number plot to obtain a more complete understanding of the composition of the oil fractions. The numbers of peaks observed by each technique followed the order 2D GC–MS relative to the other methods. For the aromatic fraction of an oil shale pyrolysate generated by the Fischer assay, only a few nitrogen-containing compounds were observed by 2D GC–MS but a large number of these compounds were detected by Orbitrap MS and FT-ICR MS. This comparison clearly shows that the data obtained from these three techniques can be combined to more completely characterize oil composition. The data obtained by Orbitrap MS and FT-ICR MS agreed well with one another, and the combined DBE versus carbon number plot provided more complete coverage of compounds present in the fractions. In addition, the chemical structure information provided by 2D GC–MS could be matched with the chemical formulas in the DBE versus carbon number plots, providing information not available in ultrahigh-resolution MS results. It was therefore concluded that the combination of 2D GC–MS, Orbitrap MS, and FT-ICR MS in the DBE versus carbon number space facilitates structural assignment of heavy oil components.

  11. Random Surface Texturing of Silicon Dioxide Using Gold Agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    cells work by converting sunlight (electromagnetic radiation ) into electricity. Photon absorption needs to occur inside the solar cell’s active...underneath. SEM and AFM were the primary characterization techniques used to evaluate the resulting surfaces, before and after etching, and after

  12. An empirical investigation on thermal characteristics and pressure drop of Ag-oil nanofluid in concentric annular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian Arani, A. A.; Aberoumand, H.; Aberoumand, S.; Jafari Moghaddam, A.; Dastanian, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work an experimental study on Silver-oil nanofluid was carried out in order to present the laminar convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux boundary condition. Silver-oil nanofluid prepared by Electrical Explosion of Wire technique with no nanoparticles agglomeration during nanofluid preparation process and experiments. The average sizes of particles were 20 nm. Nanofluids with various particle Volume fractions of 0.011, 0.044 and 0.171 vol% were employed. The nanofluid flowing between the tubes is heated by an electrical heating coil wrapped around it. The effects of different parameters such as flow Reynolds number, tube diameter ratio and nanofluid particle concentration on heat transfer coefficient are studied. Results show that, heat transfer coefficient increased by using nanofluid instead of pure oil. Maximum enhancement of heat transfer coefficient occurs in 0.171 vol%. In addition the results showed that, there are slight increases in pressure drop of nanofluid by increasing the nanoparticle concentration of nanofluid in compared to pure oil.

  13. Agglomeration Control of Ultrafine Y2 O3-ZrO2 and (MgO, Y2 O3)-ZrO2 Powders Synthesized by Coprecipitation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yalu; ZHANG Yu; ZHENG Junping

    2005-01-01

    Chemical coprecipitation was used to produce ultrafine and easily sinterable Y2O3-stabilized and (Y2O3,MgO)-stabilized ZrO2 powders. Six precipitation processes for preparation of ZrO2-based ultrafine powders were designed separately, meanwhile different techniques used to control the agglomeration formation were proposed. By means of TEM, SEM, Raman spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy, the mechanisms of agglomeration control in the precipitation processes and post-precipitation and drying process were investigated. The experimental results show that adding appropriate anion surface active agents (such as PAA1460) or polymer (PEG1540 matching with PEG200) in aqueous solution systems during precipitation processes could reinforce charge effect and location effect for gel particles interface. Adding wetting agents to wet gels washing with distilled water during drying process could change interface structure of gel particles and decrease surface tension between gel particles. The agglomeration control in the precipitation, post-precipitation and drying processes had remarkable influence on the characteristics of powders. By adding various macromolecules in the processes, the agglomeration state could be controlled efficiently, and the characteristics of powders were improved.

  14. Research and Demonstration on Seedling Breeding Techniques of Red Oil Toona%红油椿苗木繁育技术研究与示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹庆珍; 谷成铜; 张立永; 王国华; 郄丽娟; 赵付江

    2015-01-01

    After three years of experiment and demonstration for this project,cutting seedlings technology and container seeding technology of red oil toona were studied.The annual average of 300 000 strains seeded.Thick and survival rate of red oil toona sprouts and the quantity of red oil toona sprouts for green-house cultivation were guaranteed.In the three methods of asexual reproduction, the split-root method is best,followed by the plug root method,again cutting method,the survival rates were respectively 95%, 87%,81%.Insert root method to choose 0.5-2.5 cm diameter and 15-20 cm length root is the most appro-priate.Cutting method to choose the 1.0-2.0 cm diameter and 15-20 cm length branch is the most appro-priate.The long cuttings are better than the short cuttings.The thick cuttings are better than the thin cut-tings. Methods and techniques of nursing seedlings in nutrition bowl are determined.Seeds of red oil toona soak in cold water 24 h and sprout around 25℃. Greenhouse temperature is 20-22℃ during the day and 15℃ around at night. Seedling is planted when it has 6-8 true leaves.Planting density in open field is 120 000 strains/hm2. Seedling is promoted to grow mainly during June to July. Pinching when seedling has 60-100 cm high in late June.Seedling is controlled to grow mainly after September.%历经3 a的试验示范,研究出红油椿的扦插育苗技术、容器实生苗育苗技术,年平均育苗量30万株,且椿苗粗壮、成活率高,解决了红油椿棚室栽培批量用苗的问题。在无性繁殖的3种方法中,分根法效果最好,其次是插根法和插枝法,成活率分别为95%、87%和81%。利用插根法进行繁殖时选择粗度0.5~2.5 cm、长度15~20 cm的根为宜,利用插枝法进行繁殖时选择粗度1.0~2.0 cm、长度15~20 cm的枝条为宜,且长插穗的扦插效果优于短插穗,粗插穗的扦插效果优于细插穗。确定了温室营养钵实生苗育苗的方法与技术:凉水浸种24

  15. A Comprehensive Quantitative Evaluation of New Sustainable Urbanization Level in 20 Chinese Urban Agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 16 March 2014, the State Council of China launched its first urbanization planning initiative dubbed “National New Urbanization Planning (2014–2020” (NNUP. NNUP put forward 20 urban agglomerations and a sustainable development approach aiming to transform traditional Chinese urbanization to sustainable new urbanization. This study quantitatively evaluates the level of sustainability of the present new urbanization process in 20 Chinese urban agglomerations and provides some positive suggestions for the achievement of sustainable new urbanization. A three-level index system which is based on six fundamental elements in a city and a Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator evaluation method are adopted. The results show that China is undergoing a new urbanization process with a low level of sustainability and there are many problems remaining from traditional urbanization processes. There exists a polarized phenomenon in the urbanization of 20 urban agglomerations. Based on their own development patterns, the 20 urban agglomerations can be divided into seven categories. Every category has its own development characteristics. The analyses also show that waste of water resources, abuse of land resources, and air pollution are three big problems that are closely linked to traditional Chinese urbanization processes. To achieve sustainable new urbanization in China, four relevant suggestions and comments have been provided.

  16. Discrete element modelling of the quasi-static uniaxial compression of individual infant formula agglomerates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin J. Hanley; Catherine O'Sullivan; Edmond P. Byrne; Kevin Cronin

    2012-01-01

    Infant formula is usually produced in an agglomerated powder form.These agglomerates are subjected to many transient forces following their manufacture.These can be difficult to quantify experimentally because of their small magnitudes and short durations.Numerical models have the potential to address this gap in the experimental data.The objective of the research described here was to calibrate a discrete element model for these agglomerates using experimental data obtained for quasi-static loading,and to use this model to study the mechanics of the particle response in detail.The Taguchi method was previously proposed as a viable calibration approach for discrete element models.In this work,the method was assessed for calibration of the model parameters (e.g.,bond stiffnesses and strengths) considering three responses: the force at failure,strain at failure and agglomerate stiffness.The Weibull moduli for the simulation results and the experimental data were almost identical following calibration and the 37% characteristic stresses were similar.An analysis of the energy terms in the model provided useful insight into the model response.The bond energy and the normal force exerted on the platens were strongly correlated,and bond breakage events coincided with the highest energy dissipation rates.

  17. Environmental Regulation, Economic Network and Sustainable Growth of Urban Agglomerations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Chong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the influence of environmental regulation on sustainable economic growth from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. Our research is twofold. First, we apply a modified NEG (New Economic Geography model to analyze how environmental regulation influences firms’ location choices and cities’ sustainable economic growth. Second, we test a spatial econometric model employing panel data of the three largest urban agglomerations in China from 2003 to 2013 to study the relationship between environmental regulation and sustainable economic growth as well as the spillover channels of economic activities. The results reveal a remarkable negative effect of environmental regulation on economic growth. In addition, we find no sufficient evidence to prove the existence of long-term effects of environmental regulation on economic growth in the three urban agglomerations. Furthermore, using different weight matrices to illustrate the different economic networks of the urban agglomeration, we validate the difference in spillover mechanisms across these three urban agglomerations. Specifically, the disparity in environmental regulation acts as a spillover channel for the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, while it is not significant for Jing-Jin-Ji.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF LOGISTICS OVER THE OCCURRENCE OF SPATIAL AGGLOMERATION OF BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA S. MATICIUC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper involves an examination of the literature that refers to the various methods of spatial agglomeration of businesses where the focus is actually minimizing transportation costs. The research has a predominantly theoretical nature, based on exploratory method, being focused on the literature review to highlight the evolution of different forms of spatial organization so we can identify the advantages of acquiring further knowledge needed to the applied research, providing in this manner prospects for progress. The vicinity of the representatives of the economic, political and educational environment presents many advantages with regard to reciprocal relationships that can develop within these, whether formal or informal, highlighting the potential of flexible innovative forms of spatial organization of clusters. Spatial agglomeration theories that were developed in the course of time, is a cornerstone for new innovative forms of business spatial organization such as clusters and networks of clusters that are offering many advantages in terms of cost of transportation. The evolution of business spatial agglomerations shows that the vast majority of companies aim to ensure competitive advantage not only in close locations to increase the generation of innovation and reduced transport costs, but also through access to knowledge in a fast and easy way. The work comes in support of these ideas , proposing in the conclusions part a new model of business agglomeration which does not require physical proximity but one of cloud type.

  19. Morphological and Physicochemical Characterization of Agglomerates of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Cell Culture Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Freyre-Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP are possible carcinogenic materials (2B-IARC and their toxicity depends on shape, size, and electrical charge of primary NP and on the system formed by NP media. The aim of this work was to characterize agglomerates of three TiO2 NP by evaluating their morphometry, stability, and zeta potential (ζ in liquid media and their changes with time. Sizes of agglomerates by dynamic light scattering (DLS resulted to be 10–50 times larger than those obtained by digital image analysis (DIA given the charged zone around particles. Fractal dimension (FD was highest for agglomerates of spheres and belts in F12K, and in E171 in FBS media. E171 and belts increased FD with time. At time zero, using water as dispersant FD was larger for agglomerates of spheres than for of E171. Belts suspended in water had the smallest values of circularity (Ci which was approximately unchanged with time. All dispersions had ζ values around −30 mV at physiological pH (7.4 and dispersions of NP in water and FBS showed maximum stability (Turbiscan Lab analysis. Results help in understanding the complex NP geometry-size-stability relationships when performing in vivo and in vitro environmental-toxicity works and help in supporting decisions on the usage of TiO2 NP.

  20. Agglomeration, Innovation and Regional Development: Theoretical Perspectives and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Henri L.F.; Poot, Jacques; Smit, Martijn J.

    2007-01-01

    Innovation and technological change are central to the quest for regional development. In the globally-connected knowledge-driven economy, the relevance of agglomeration forces that rely on proximity continues to increase, paradoxically despite declining real costs of information, communication and

  1. STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AGGLOMERATION AND CYCLONE SEPARATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A particulate separation system that can be used to study the characteristics of the diesel particulate agglomeration and cyclone s eparation is developedIt includes a diesel particulate agglomerator and a cycl one separator mainlyA preliminary investigation on the cyclone separation tech nology for controlling the exhaust particulate from a diesel engine is conducted The experimental results show that the diameter distribution of the diesel par ticulate is changed after they pass through the agglomerator,almost 30%~40% o f the particulate agglomerated from less than 10μm to larger than 10μm ,this change contributes to trap diesel particulateWith this system installed on the exhaust pipe of a singlecylinder engine,the particulate separation effi ciency is around 40%~60% under typical engine running conditionThe backpres sure of this system is less than 5 kPa on full load condition,much less than tha t of other methods of particulate filtrationThis technology has the possibilit y to open a new prospect for particulate reduction because of its simplicity,rel iability and low resistance

  2. Phloem Ultrastructure and Pressure Flow: Sieve-Element-Occlusion-Related Agglomerations Do Not Affect Translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froelich, Daniel R.; Mullendore, Daniel L.; Jensen, Kåre Hartvig;

    2011-01-01

    to a discussion about the mode of phloem transport. At present, it is generally agreed that P protein agglomerations are preparation artifacts due to injury, the lumen of sieve tubes is free of obstructions, and phloem flow is driven by an osmotically generated pressure differential according to Münch’s classical...

  3. Agglomeration, Innovation and Regional Development: Theoretical Perspectives and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Henri L.F.; Poot, Jacques; Smit, Martijn J.

    2007-01-01

    Innovation and technological change are central to the quest for regional development. In the globally-connected knowledge-driven economy, the relevance of agglomeration forces that rely on proximity continues to increase, paradoxically despite declining real costs of information, communication and

  4. Combination of methanogenesis and denitrification in a UASB reactor for water reclamation applied to small agglomerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, J.M.S.; Khassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    A two-step system combining an anaerobic/anoxic UASB reactor followed by a low energy consuming rotating biological contactor might be a sustainable option for wastewater treatment and reuse in small agglomerations. This article focuses on the UASB stage. The performance of a lab-scale UASB fed with

  5. Biomass ash - bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in fluidised bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.J.M.; Hofmans, H.; Huijnen, R.; Kastelein, R.; Kiel, J.H.A. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The present study has been aimed at improving the fundamental understanding of mechanisms underlying agglomeration and defluidisation in fluidised bed combustion and gasification of biomass and waste. To this purpose dedicated lab-scale static heating and fluidisation experiments have been conducted with carefully selected and prepared ashes and bed materials, viz. straw ash/sand and willow ash/sand mixtures, mullite subjected to straw gasification and artificially coated mullite. The main conclusion is that ash/bed material interaction processes are very important and often determine the bed agglomeration and defluidisation tendency. In the static heating experiments with both ash/sand mixtures, partial melting-segregation of ash components and dissolution/reaction with the bed material are processes that determine the melt composition. This melt composition and behaviour can deviate considerably form expectations based on ash-only data. Artificially coated bed materials prove to be very useful for systematic studies on the influence of coating composition and thickness on agglomeration tendency. For the coated mullite samples, different stages in the defluidisation process are identified and the influence of coating properties (thickness, composition, morphology) and operating parameters is elucidated. The behaviour of the mullite appears to be dominated by a remnant glass phase. On the one hand, this glass phase accounts for an alkali-getter capability, while on the other hand it is mainly responsible for agglomeration at temperatures {>=} 800C. 3 refs.

  6. Phloem Ultrastructure and Pressure Flow: Sieve-Element-Occlusion-Related Agglomerations Do Not Affect Translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froelich, Daniel R.; Mullendore, Daniel L.; Jensen, Kåre Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    to a discussion about the mode of phloem transport. At present, it is generally agreed that P protein agglomerations are preparation artifacts due to injury, the lumen of sieve tubes is free of obstructions, and phloem flow is driven by an osmotically generated pressure differential according to Münch’s classical...

  7. Conversion of biomass, prediction and solution methods for ash agglomeration and related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Fuels Conversion and Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Olsen, A. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    When biomass is used as fuel for thermal conversion plants, minerals from the fuel can be responsible for major problems. Generally, these problems are associated with the existence and development of low melting compounds or eutectics, which form sticky layers. In a fluidised bed, this can result in bed-agglomeration and defluidisation. This causes local high temperature, which often accelerates the process. It ultimately can lead to a completely sintered bed content with a glassy phase gluing the bed particles together and shut-down of the plant. The main objective of the title project is to develop a methodology to predict ash/bed agglomeration and sintering problems, to indicate related problems and, furthermore, to identify solution methods to make different types of biomass streams more viable for energy production. Within the present study, selected fuels are subjected to different existing methods together with some new ones, in order to determine the agglomeration temperature. The selected fuels are verge grass, Danish wheat straw (both stored dry and partly leached due to rainfall), sewage sludge, cacao shells and willow as a reference. The methods used within the study are chemical analysis of fuel and ashes, determination of standard ash melting temperatures, compression strength measurements of the ash, DTA/TG analysis of the ash, SEM and ESEM (high temperature environmental scanning microscopy), two different lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed combustion facilities, a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed gasifier and a circulating fluidised bed gasifier. The lab-scale facilities have been used to test potential measures to reduce the problem of agglomeration. These measures are the use of additives (kaolin, magnesite, dolomite, gibbsite and sewage sludge) and non-quartz bed materials (alumina and mullite). The work performed within the project has lead to the following results. Chemical analysis of the fuel can give a first indication of whether there might

  8. Evidence that pentosans and xylanase affect the re-agglomeration of the gluten network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Vliet, T. van; Hamer, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the gluten-starch separation process gluten is formed first as a result of breakdown of the gliadin-glutelin structures during mixing followed by their re-agglomeration. To date the effect of pentosans and enzymes have not been studied separately. A simple modification of TNO Glutomatic system en

  9. Nucleocapsid protein from fig mosaic virus forms cytoplasmic agglomerates that are hauled by endoplasmic reticulum streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly throughout the cell, and we

  10. Evaluation of charge and agglomeration behavior of TiO₂ nanoparticles in ecotoxicological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Y; Lead, J R; Baalousha, M

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic nature of nanoparticle (NP) agglomeration behavior is of paramount interest to many current studies in environmental nanoscience and nano(eco)toxicology because agglomeration affects the NP bioavailability and toxicity. The present study investigates the surface charge and agglomeration behavior of TiO2 NPs in four different ecotoxicological media (OECD algae, OECD L_variegatus, hardwater and plant media) and two different electrolytes KCl (200 mM) and CaCl2 (50 mM). TiO2 NPs were positively charged, and the zeta potential varied from +1.9 mV in hardwater (at pH7.1) to +24.5 mV in CaCl2 electrolyte (at pH7.4) in all media except algae media, where the zeta potential was -6.7 mV (at pH7.7). Despite the differences in the pH and the surface charge of TiO2 NPs in the different media, an immediate agglomeration of the NPs in all standard ecotoxicological media was observed with aggregate sizes in the micrometer scale, as the measured zeta potentials were insufficient to prevent TiO2 NP agglomeration. The isoelectric point (pHiep) of TiO2 NPs in the studied media varied in the range (6.8-7.6), which was attributed to preferential association of anions and cations to TiO2; that is the pHiep decreases with the increased concentration of Cl and increases with the increased concentrations of Na and Mg. Despite the complexity of the ecotoxicological media and the presence of a mixture of different monovalent and divalent electrolytes, the agglomeration kinetics in the media follows the DVLO theory where two distinct agglomeration rates (slow, reaction limited regime and fast, diffusion limited regime) were observable. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of TiO2 NPs in the ecotoxicological media varied from 17.6 to 54.0% v/v standard media in UHPW, due to differences in media pH and TiO2 NP surface charge. In the ecotoxicological media (hardwater, L-variegatus and plant), where TiO2 NPs are positively charged, the CCC decrease with the increased divalent

  11. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Agglomeration Influences Dose-Rates and Modulates Oxidative Stress Mediated Dose-Response Profiles In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Wang, Wei; Minard, Kevin R.; Karin, Norman J.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-07-31

    Spontaneous agglomeration of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is a common problem in cell culture media which can confound interpretation of in vitro nanotoxicity studies. The authors created stable agglomerates of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in conventional culture medium, which varied in hydrodynamic size (276 nm-1.5 μm) but were composed of identical primary particles with similar surface potentials and protein coatings. Studies using C10 lung epithelial cells show that the dose rate effects of agglomeration can be substantial, varying by over an order of magnitude difference in cellular dose in some cases. Quantification by magnetic particle detection showed that small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs induced greater cytotoxicity and redox-regulated gene expression when compared with large agglomerates on an equivalent total cellular IONP mass dose basis, whereas agglomerates of amine-modified IONPs failed to induce cytotoxicity or redox-regulated gene expression despite delivery of similar cellular doses. Dosimetry modelling and experimental measurements reveal that on a delivered surface area basis, large and small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs have similar inherent potency for the generation of ROS, induction of stress-related genes and eventual cytotoxicity. The results suggest that reactive moieties on the agglomerate surface are more efficient in catalysing cellular ROS production than molecules buried within the agglomerate core. Because of the dynamic, size and density-dependent nature of ENP delivery to cells in vitro, the biological consequences of agglomeration are not discernible from static measures of exposure concentration (μg/ml) alone, highlighting the central importance of integrated physical characterisation and quantitative dosimetry for in vitro studies. The combined experimental and computational approach provides a quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their

  12. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Richardson, T.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  13. A discrete element and ray framework for rapid simulation of acoustical dispersion of microscale particulate agglomerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, T. I.

    2016-03-01

    In industry, particle-laden fluids, such as particle-functionalized inks, are constructed by adding fine-scale particles to a liquid solution, in order to achieve desired overall properties in both liquid and (cured) solid states. However, oftentimes undesirable particulate agglomerations arise due to some form of mutual-attraction stemming from near-field forces, stray electrostatic charges, process ionization and mechanical adhesion. For proper operation of industrial processes involving particle-laden fluids, it is important to carefully breakup and disperse these agglomerations. One approach is to target high-frequency acoustical pressure-pulses to breakup such agglomerations. The objective of this paper is to develop a computational model and corresponding solution algorithm to enable rapid simulation of the effect of acoustical pulses on an agglomeration composed of a collection of discrete particles. Because of the complex agglomeration microstructure, containing gaps and interfaces, this type of system is extremely difficult to mesh and simulate using continuum-based methods, such as the finite difference time domain or the finite element method. Accordingly, a computationally-amenable discrete element/discrete ray model is developed which captures the primary physical events in this process, such as the reflection and absorption of acoustical energy, and the induced forces on the particulate microstructure. The approach utilizes a staggered, iterative solution scheme to calculate the power transfer from the acoustical pulse to the particles and the subsequent changes (breakup) of the pulse due to the particles. Three-dimensional examples are provided to illustrate the approach.

  14. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  15. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  16. An integrated process for the recovery of high added-value compounds from olive oil using solid support free liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Apostolis; Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Nikou, Theodora; Michailidis, Dimitris; Gerolimatos, Panagiotis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Hubert, Jane; Halabalaki, Maria; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Léandros

    2017-03-31

    An integrated extraction and purification process for the direct recovery of high added value compounds from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is proposed by using solid support free liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography techniques. Two different extraction methods were developed on a laboratory-scale Centrifugal Partition Extractor (CPE): a sequential strategy consisting of several "extraction-recovery" cycles and a continuous strategy based on stationary phase co-current elution. In both cases, EVOO was used as mobile phase diluted in food grade n-hexane (feed mobile phase) and the required biphasic system was obtained by adding ethanol and water as polar solvents. For the sequential process, 17.5L of feed EVOO containing organic phase (i.e. 7L of EVOO treated) were extracted yielding 9.5g of total phenolic fraction corresponding to a productivity of 5.8g/h/L of CPE column. Regarding the second approach, the co-current process, 2L of the feed oil phase (containing to 0.8L of EVOO) were treated at 100mL/min yielding 1.03g of total phenolic fraction corresponding to a productivity of 8.9g/h/L of CPE column. The total phenolic fraction was then fractionated by using stepwise gradient elution Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The biphasic solvent systems were composed of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water in different proportions (X/Y/2/3, v/v). In a single run of 4h on a column with a capacity of 1L, 910mg of oleocanthal, 882mg of oleacein, 104mg of hydroxytyrosol were successfully recovered from 5g of phenolic extract with purities of 85%, 92% and 90%, respectively. CPC fractions were then submitted to orthogonal chromatographic steps (adsorption on silica gel or size exclusion chromatography) leading to the isolation of additional eleven compounds belonging to triterpens, phenolic compounds and secoiridoids. Among them, elenolic acid ethylester was found to be new compound. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) and

  17. Agglomerates, smoke oxide particles, and carbon inclusions in condensed combustion products of an aluminized GAP-based propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Peijin; Yang, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    In solid propellants, aluminum is widely used to improve the performance, however the condensed combustion products especially the large agglomerates generated from aluminum combustion significantly affect the combustion and internal flow inside the solid rocket motor. To clarify the properties of the condensed combustion products of aluminized propellants, a constant-pressure quench vessel was adopted to collect the combustion products. The morphology and chemical compositions of the collected products, were then studied by using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive (SEM-EDS) method. Various structures have been observed in the condensed combustion products. Apart from the typical agglomerates or smoke oxide particles observed before, new structures including the smoke oxide clusters, irregular agglomerates and carbon-inclusions are discovered and investigated. Smoke oxide particles have the highest amount in the products. The highly dispersed oxide particle is spherical with very smooth surface and is on the order of 1-2 μm, but due to the high temperature and long residence time, these small particles will aggregate into smoke oxide clusters which are much larger than the initial particles. Three types of spherical agglomerates have been found. As the ambient gas temperature is much higher than the boiling point of Al2O3, the condensation layer inside which the aluminum drop is burning would evaporate quickly, which result in the fact that few "hollow agglomerates" has been found compared to "cap agglomerates" and "solid agglomerates". Irregular agglomerates usually larger than spherical agglomerates. The formation of irregular agglomerates likely happens by three stages: deformation of spherical aluminum drops; combination of particles with various shape; finally production of irregular agglomerates. EDS results show the ratio of O to Al on the surface of agglomerates is lower in comparison to smoke oxide particles. C and O account for

  18. 纳滤技术在油田调驱配聚中的应用进展%Application Progress of Nanofiltration Membrance Technique in Profile Control and Preparing Polymer for Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗跃; 赵素娟; 刘清云; 李思

    2011-01-01

    Nanofilitration as a new separation technique possess has high retention for divalent ions,which can separate most divalent ions such as Ca2+,Mg2+,Ba2+、 CO32-,SO42-and so on ,the oil field water treated by nanofiltration membrance technique for preparing polymer can reduce the impact of high valence ions on the polymer gel. In this paper, the separation principle of the nanofiltration membrance technique and properties of oil field produced water were introduced, and the feasibility and research status of the nanofiltration membrance technique to treat oil water for preparing polymers were discussed.%纳滤(Nanofilitration,NF)是一种新型分离技术,对二价离子具有高截留的特性,可分离大部分油田水中的二价离子,如Ca2+、Mg2+、Ba2+、CO32-、SO42-等成垢离子.用纳滤技术处理后的注入水配聚,可减少高价离子对聚合物凝胶的影响.介绍了纳滤处理油田采出水的原理,油田采出水特性,以及纳滤软化注入水配制聚合物的的可行性及研究现状.

  19. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  20. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  1. Simulation of Solid Particle Agglomeration Process in Gas Enhanced by High Intensity Sound Field%Simulation of Solid Particle Agglomeration Process in Gas Enhanced by High Intensity Sound Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are two mechanisms in the particle agglomeration process enhanced by the high intensity sound field in the gas-solid system: the orthokinetic interaction mechanism and hydrodynamic interaction mechanism. The orthokinetic interaction mechanism, hydrodynamic interaction mechanism and the acoustic agglomeration process which included the both two mechanisms were investigated by modeling method and MATLAB program. The results showed: the value of acoustic agglomeration kernel function (AAKF) based on the orthokinetic interaction mechanism was zero when the size of two particles in the pair was the same.

  2. FUNCTIONAL, SECTORAL AND REGIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE ECONOMY OF THE MISKOLC AGGLOMERATION REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea KRISTÓF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the segments of economic development and shifts in the Miskolc agglomeration the present study introduces some characteristics of the functional, sectoral and regional differentiation of economic transformation. The functional, sectoral and geographical distribution of business corporations in the 35 settlements of the Miskolc agglomeration in 2016 may help to interpret and assess economic processes adapted to local characteristics in the past quarter-century. During the research, only those operating businesses were considered that had net sales of 20 million HUF or more in 2015. An empirical study of 640 active businesses in 35 settlements reveals the regional inequalities and sectoral concentration of the economy. The intensity of the spatial structure of the economy is uneven within the Miskolc agglomeration and spatial specialization can also be observed in the economic hinterland of Miskolc. The economic development induced significant changes in the spatial structure of three towns (Felsőzsolca, Nyékládháza, and Alsózsolca. Services (e.g. personal, distributive, and services for other businesses as well as commerce, logistics and leisure functions concentrated in these towns strengthened their positions in the spatial structure. In addition, the technological and industrial parks of these towns are playing an increasing role. However, the towns of the agglomeration cannot or can hardly be regarded as economic competitors of Miskolc, i.e. the urban region has not become polycentric, and the inhabitants of these towns are not totally independent of Miskolc. In the case of Sajóbábony (due to its special situation and Szikszó (despite its economic recovery the functional, sectoral and regional transformation is not clear yet. Of the villages, only four (Kistokaj, Mályi, Szirmabesenyő, Hernádnémeti could significantly improve their economic positions, and were able to rival the dynamically transforming three towns of the

  3. Effects of Oil Spillage on Vegetation, Land and Water Odu-Gboro Sagamu, Ogun State, South-Western Nigeria) Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseni, O.

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores the impacts of oil spill on the physical environment with particular attention paid to the NNPC/PPMC pipeline system. It focuses on the environmental impacts of oil pollution in Nigeria, and discusses the increasing environmental contradictions of the area, and its influence on global warming. Nigeria's economy is highly dependent on earnings from the oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. Since the discovery of oil in Nigeria in 1956, the country has been suffering the negative environmental consequences of oil exploration and exploitation. Between 1976 and 1996 a total of 4647 incidents resulted in the spill of approximately 2,369,470 barrels of oil into the environment. The study traces the effects of the oil spillage on the environment to determine whether oil spill is a major factor responsible for environmental pollution. By the use of remotely sensed data and other ancillary data, the major causes of oil spill in the region were identified; the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the environment, and it also determined the environmental impacts on land and water. Field observation and laboratory analysis of soil and water were used. Gas chromatography was used to determine the TPH concentration in soil extract and water extracts. Liquid-liquid extraction method was used for water and spectro-radiometer which is a very efficient process commonly used to determine spectral signature of various soil, water and plant samples obtained from the study area. Based largely on the GIS analysis, the findings showed that the main cause of oil spill is vandalism along the pipeline right of way; Vandalism which is an act of sabotage had the highest percentage compared to equipment failure, accident from oil tankers and accidental discharge during pipeline repairs. TPH were present at the site with soil samples having the high values, and the environmental impact on soil

  4. Disentangling the effects of polymer coatings on silver nanoparticle agglomeration, dissolution, and toxicity to determine mechanisms of nanotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, Justin M., E-mail: jzook@nist.gov; Halter, Melissa D.; Cleveland, Danielle; Long, Stephen E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are frequently coated with a variety of polymers, which may affect various interdependent mechanisms of toxicity or antimicrobial action, including agglomeration and dissolution rates. Here, we systematically measure how citrate, dextran, 5 and 20 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings affect AgNP agglomeration, dissolution, and toxicity. In addition, to disentangle the coatings' effects on agglomeration from their other effects, we produce multiple stable agglomerate sizes of several of the coated {approx}23 nm AgNPs ranging from singly-dispersed to mean agglomerate sizes of several hundred nanometers. These dispersions allow us to independently study the effects of agglomeration and polymer coating on dissolution rate and hemolytic toxicity. We find that both hemolytic toxicity and dissolution rate are highest for the 5 kDa PEG coating, and toxicity and dissolution rate decrease significantly with increasing agglomerate size independent of coating. This correlation between toxicity and dissolution rate suggests that both polymer coating and agglomeration may affect hemolytic toxicity largely through their effects on dissolution. Because both the AgNP dissolution rate and hemolysis decrease only moderately compared to the large increases in agglomerate size, AgNPs' hemolytic toxicity may be caused by their large surface area and consequently high dissolution rate, rather than from other size-specific effects. At the silver concentrations used in this work, silver dissolved from AgNPs is expected to be primarily in the form of AgCl NPs, which are therefore more likely than Ag{sup +} ions to be the primary drivers of hemolytic toxicity. In addition, all AgNPs we tested are much more toxic to horse red blood cells than sheep red blood cells, highlighting the complexity of toxic responses and the need to test toxicity in multiple biological systems.

  5. Olive oil authentication: A comparative analysis of regulatory frameworks with especial emphasis on quality and authenticity indices, and recent analytical techniques developed for their assessment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Bendini, Alessandra; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-09-22

    Over the last decades, olive oil quality and authenticity control has become an issue of great importance to consumers, suppliers, retailers, and regulators in both traditional and emerging olive oil producing countries, mainly due to the increasing worldwide popularity and the trade globalization of this product. Thus, in order to ensure olive oil authentication, various national and international laws and regulations have been adopted, although some of them are actually causing an enormous debate about the risk that they can represent for the harmonization of international olive oil trade standards. Within this context, this review was designed to provide a critical overview and comparative analysis of selected regulatory frameworks for olive oil authentication, with special emphasis on the quality and purity criteria considered by these regulation systems, their thresholds and the analytical methods employed for monitoring them. To complete the general overview, recent analytical advances to overcome drawbacks and limitations of the official methods to evaluate olive oil quality and to determine possible adulterations were reviewed. Furthermore, the latest trends on analytical approaches to assess the olive oil geographical and varietal origin traceability were also examined.

  6. In Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stafanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/l) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub cr) for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s,1 interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

  7. In-Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/1) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub ct),, for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s/l interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

  8. Biomass ash-bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in FBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, H.J.M.; van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    In (bubbling) fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass, several potential problems are associated with the inorganic components of the fuel. A major problem area is defluidization due to bed agglomeration. The most common found process leading to defluidization in commercial-scale ins......In (bubbling) fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass, several potential problems are associated with the inorganic components of the fuel. A major problem area is defluidization due to bed agglomeration. The most common found process leading to defluidization in commercial...... describes a fundamental study on the mechanisms of defluidization. For the studied process of bed defluidization due to sintering of grain-coating layers, it was found that the onset of the process depends on (a) a critical coating thickness, (b) on the fluidization velocity when it is below approximately...... four times the minimum fluidization velocity, and (c) on the viscosity (stickiness) of the outside of the grains (coating)....

  9. XRD and DTA Analysis of Developed Agglomerated Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique study of structural and chemical analysis of crystalline phases in developed agglomerated fluxes was carried out. Thirty-two fluxes were developed by using a mixture of oxides, halides, carbonates, silicates, and ferroalloys for submerged arc welding. The present paper focuses on only ten (out of thirty-two fluxes which were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD to know the different types of oxides formed and changed in oxidation number of metallic centers after sintering process at around 850∘C. To know the effect of temperature over phase transformation and melting of different compounds, differential thermal analysis (DTA was carried out from 1000 to 1400∘C. This study aims to know the quantity of ions present (percentage and melting behavior of developed agglomerated fluxes for submerged arc welding process.

  10. Spatial Agglomeration and Productivity of Textile and Leather Manufacturing in the Punjab Province of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Iqba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether spatial agglomeration of textile and leather industry facilitates to enhance its own productivity at establishment level in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The empirical analysis is based on the survey data for the years 1995-96, 2000-2001 and 2005-06 collected from the Punjab Bureau of Statistics (PBS. The production function framework has been utilized. The results of production function suggest that spatial agglomeration of textile and leather industry plays a vital role in determining the productivity of establishments. The impact of localization (specialization is positive and stronger than urbanization (diversification which implies that locating manufacturing establishments in a particular district leads to enhance the productivity of establishments. Therefore, government policy should be biased to promote localization of textile and leather industry.

  11. A Complex Network Approach for Nanoparticle Agglomeration Analysis in Nanoscale Images

    CERN Document Server

    Brandoli, Bruno; Orue, Jonathan; Arruda, Mauro; Goncalves, Diogo; Goncalves, Wesley; Moreira, Raphaell; Rodrigues-Jr, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks have been widely used in science and technology because of their ability to represent several systems. One of these systems is found in Biochemistry, in which the synthesis of new nanoparticles is a hot topic. However, the interpretation of experimental results in the search of new nanoparticles poses several challenges. This is due to the characteristics of nanoparticles images and due to their multiple intricate properties; one property of recurrent interest is the agglomeration of particles. Addressing this issue, this paper introduces an approach that uses complex networks to detect and describe nanoparticle agglomerates so to foster easier and more insightful analyses. In this approach, each detected particle in an image corresponds to a vertice and the distances between the particles define a criterion for creating edges. Edges are created if the distance is smaller than a radius of interest. Once this network is set, we calculate several discrete measures able to reveal the most outsta...

  12. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report: January 1993--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This 15th Quarterly Technical Progress Report presents the results of work accomplished during the period January 4, 193 through March 28, 1993 under Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC26288 entitled {open_quotes}Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture.{close_quotes} The fundamental studies conducted by West Virginia University and Pennsylvania State University are provided in subsections of this report. Shakedown testing continued through this period resulting in a series of required modifications for the coal-feed system, coal injector, installation of a water-cooling jacket at the bottom of the agglomeration chamber, and finally, the installation of an additional flow sensor and rate meter. Coal-fired bimodal tests were initiated at the end of the period. The unit was run at 2 atm pressure for 3 hours with steady-state operation for 2 hours. Then, the pressure was increased to 3 atm with steady-state operation for 2 hours.

  13. Investigation of agglomerated Cu seed on Cu oxidation after chemical mechanical planarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jeng-Yu, E-mail: jylin@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chou, Shu-Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Min-Yuan [TSMC, No. 8, Li-Hsin Rd. 6, Science-Based Industrial Park, Hsinchu 300-77, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-01

    After chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), the reason which caused the formation of Cu-oxide defects at the interface between Cu deposit and TaN barrier layer has been studied. The experimental results of atomic force microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the agglomeration phenomenon was found on Cu seed in the thickness of only 10 nm, thus resulting in the electrodeposited Cu film with more abundant C impurities at Cu/TaN interface and lower (1 1 1)/(2 0 0) ratio compared to the thick one (30 nm). Therefore it caused the Cu deposit with poor corrosion resistance and then the Cu-oxide defects were easily formed after CMP. As a result, the correlation between Cu-oxide defects at the Cu/TaN interface and the agglomeration on Cu seed layer was proposed herein.

  14. Analysis on Ecological Footprint of the Urban Agglomeration in Pearl River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Yi; CHENG; Huan; BAI; Zhong-yan; PENG; Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to calculate and analyze ecological footprint of the urban agglomeration in Pearl River Delta in 2009. [Method]9 cities in Pearl River Delta as research zone, by using calculation model of the ecological footprint, ecological footprint and security of the urban agglomeration in Pearl River Delta were calculated. Current situation and sustainable development condition of the ecological environment in Pearl River Delta were conducted quantitative analysis. [Result] Except construction land and woodland, other 4 kinds of lands were all in ecological deficit states in Pearl River Delta. Especially arable land and fossil fuel land had obvious ecological deficit. [Conclusion]Biological resource consumption level and energy consumption level in Pearl River Delta were higher. We ought to take a variety of measures to reduce ecological deficit, making development manner turn toward sustainable direction.

  15. A multi-module microfluidic platform for continuous pre-concentration of water-soluble ions and separation of oil droplets from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions using a DC-biased AC electrokinetic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman; Phan, Dinh-Tuan; Zhao, Yugang; Kang, Yuejun; Chan, Vincent; Yang, Chun

    2017-03-01

    A novel continuous flow microfluidic platform specifically designed for environmental monitoring of O/W emulsions during an aftermath of oil spills is reported herein. Ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are toxic are readily released from crude oil to the surrounding water phase through the smaller oil droplets with enhanced surface area. Hence, a multi-module microfluidic device is fabricated to form ion enrichment zones in the water phase of O/W emulsions for the ease of detection and to separate micron-sized oil droplets from the O/W emulsions. Fluorescein ions in the water phase are used to simulate the presence of these toxic ions in the O/W emulsion. A DC-biased AC electric field is employed in both modules. In the first module, a nanoporous Nafion membrane is used for activating the concentration polarization effect on the fluorescein ions, resulting in the formation of stable ion enrichment zones in the water phase of the emulsion. A 35.6% amplification of the fluorescent signal is achieved in the ion enrichment zone; corresponding to 100% enrichment of the fluorescent dye concentration. In this module, the main inlet is split into two channels by using a Y-junction so that there are two outlets for the oil droplets. The second module located downstream of the first module consists of two oil droplet entrapment zones at two outlets. By switching on the appropriate electrodes, either one of the two oil droplet entrapment zones can be activated and the droplets can be blocked in the corresponding outlet.

  16. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  17. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Entropy Weight Extension Decision Model in Urban Agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Yang; Aiwen Lin; Zhenzhen Zhao; Ling Zou; Cheng Sun

    2016-01-01

    Urban ecosystem health evaluation can assist in sustainable ecological management at a regional level. This study examined urban agglomeration ecosystem health in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River with entropy weight and extension theories. The model overcomes information omissions and subjectivity problems in the evaluation process of urban ecosystem health. Results showed that human capital and education, economic development level as well as urban infrastructure have a significant ef...

  18. Agglomeration Economies, Economic Growth and the New Economic Geography in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Diaz-Bautista

    2005-01-01

    The present study of regional economic growth in Mexico is based on the new economic geography, where distance plays an important role in explaining urban regional economic growth. The results show that distance to the northern border of Mexico and labor migration between states of Mexico, after the passage of NAFTA are important factors that explain the regional state growth and agglomerations in Mexico between 1994 and 2000. The results also indicate that job growth and FDI are not signific...

  19. Bed agglomeration in biomass fueled CFB-boilers; Sintring av baeddmaterial vid biobraensleeldning i CFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zintl, F. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    In fluidized-bed boilers fired with solid fuels operational problems caused by spontaneous defluidization are sometimes observed. This bed agglomeration can be caused by sintering phenomena where fuel components and/or bed material may be involved. In serious cases the problems can lead to expensive operation breaks. The objective in this project was to show whether this type of operational problems can be minimized by choice of other than conventional bed materials. The study was carried out as model experiments in a larger laboratory scale. In a fluidized bed fired with propane a number of both well known and more unusual bed materials were tried out. The choice of bed materials included some common sands (silver and quartz sand) and, as possible alternatives, olivine sand, zirconium sand, calcined dolomite and the synthetic materials sintered magnesite (MgO) and mullite (alumina silicate). The model experiments were started at about 700 deg C and the temperature then raised until an irreversible bed agglomeration was observed, or to a maximum of 1100 deg C. The most promising results were obtained with calcined dolomite, being an active bed material. With this material no irreversible agglomerations were observed at all. The expensive synthetic materials sintered magnesite and mullite and the zirconium sand turned out as the next best. Olivine sand, on the other hand, showed a clear sensitivity to physical agglomeration and some sensitivity also towards sintering. The common sand types based on silicon oxide clearly showed the worst results. 12 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab 12 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  20. Nucleation, wetting and agglomeration of copper and copper-alloy thin films on metal liner surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarbera, Stephanie Florence

    One of the key challenges in fabricating narrower and higher aspect ratio interconnects using damascene technology has been achieving an ultra-thin (˜2 nm) and continuous Cu seed coverage on trench sidewalls. The thin seed is prone to agglomeration because of poor Cu wetting on the Ta liner. Using in-situ conductance measurements, the effect of lowering the substrate temperature during Cu seed deposition has been studied on tantalum (Ta) and ruthenium (Ru) liner surfaces. On a Ta surface, it was found that lowering the deposition temperature to --65°C increases the nucleation rate of the Cu thin film, and reduces the minimum coalescing thickness for Cu on Ta liner from ˜4.5 nm (at room temperature) to ˜2 nm. On a Ru surface, Cu coalesces at wetting angle, coalescing thickness, and agglomeration resistance of thin Cu-3% Au, Cu-3% Mn, and Cu-3% Al layers on a Ta liner surface have been studied. It was found that the alloying increases the wetting angle of Cu on Ta at high temperature, as a result of either reduction in Cu alloy surface energy, solute surface segregation, or solute-liner interactions. In addition, the Cu alloys were found to be less agglomeration resistive as compared to pure Cu; their smaller grain size, interaction with the liner surface, and tendency to oxidize were found to accelerate their agglomeration. The coalescing thickness of the Cu alloys was found to be reduced from that of Cu (˜4.5 nm) to ˜2 nm.