WorldWideScience

Sample records for off-limb line widths

  1. Solar off-limb line widths with SUMER: revised value of the non-thermal velocity and new results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dolla

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfvén waves and ion-cyclotron absorption of high-frequency waves are frequently brought into models devoted to coronal heating and fast solar-wind acceleration. Signatures of ion-cyclotron resonance have already been observed in situ in the solar wind and in the upper corona. In the lower corona, one can use the line profiles to infer the ion temperatures. But the value of the so-called "non-thermal" (or "unresolved" velocity, potentially related to the amplitude of Alfvén waves propagating in the corona, is critical in firmly identifying ion-cyclotron preferential heating. In a previous paper, we proposed a method to constrain both the Alfvén wave amplitude and the preferential heating, above a polar coronal hole observed with the SUMER/SOHO spectrometer. Taking into account the effect of instrumental stray light before analysing the line profiles, we ruled out any direct evidence of damping of the Alfvén waves and showed that ions with the lowest charge-to-mass ratios were preferentially heated. We re-analyse these data here to correct the derived non-thermal velocity, and we discuss the consequences on the main results. We also include a measure of the Fe VIII 1442.56 Å line width (second order, thus extending the charge-to-mass ratio domain towards ions more likely to experience cyclotron resonance.

  2. Comparison of the large muscle group widths of the pelvic limb in seven breeds of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Seyyid Said; Ocal, Mehmet Kamil

    2018-05-14

    Orthopaedic diseases are common in the pelvic limbs of dogs, and reference values for large muscle groups of the pelvic limb may aid in diagnosis such diseases. As such, the objective of this study was to compare the large muscle groups of the pelvic limb in seven breeds of dogs. A total of 126 dogs from different breeds were included, and the widths of the quadriceps, hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were measured from images of the lateral radiographies. The width of the quadriceps was not different between the breeds, but the widths of the hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were significantly different between the breeds. The widest hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were seen in the Rottweilers and the Boxers, respectively. The narrowest hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were seen in the Belgian Malinois and the Golden retrievers, respectively. All ratios between the measured muscles differed significantly between the breeds. Doberman pinschers and Belgian Malinois had the highest ratio of gastrocnemius width:hamstring width. Doberman pinschers had also the highest ratio of quadriceps width:hamstring width. German shepherds had the highest ratio of gastrocnemius width:quadriceps width. The lowest ratios of quadriceps width:hamstring width were determined in the German shepherds. The ratios of the muscle widths may be used as reference values to assess muscular atrophy or hypertrophy in cases of bilateral or unilateral orthopaedic diseases of the pelvic limbs. Further studies are required to determine the widths and ratios of the large muscle groups of the pelvic limbs in other dog breeds. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Stokes line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  4. Spectroscopic Evidence of Alfvén Wave Damping in the Off-limb Solar Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G. R., E-mail: girjesh@iucaa.in [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag-4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2017-02-10

    We investigate the off-limb active-region and quiet-Sun corona using spectroscopic data. The active region is clearly visible in several spectral lines formed in the temperature range of 1.1–2.8 MK. We derive the electron number density using the line ratio method, and the nonthermal velocity in the off-limb region up to the distance of 140 Mm. We compare density scale heights derived from several spectral line pairs with expected scale heights per the hydrostatic equilibrium model. Using several isolated and unblended spectral line profiles, we estimate nonthermal velocities in the active region and quiet Sun. Nonthermal velocities obtained from warm lines in the active region first show an increase and then later either a decrease or remain almost constant with height in the far off-limb region, whereas nonthermal velocities obtained from hot lines show consistent decrease. However, in the quiet-Sun region, nonthermal velocities obtained from various spectral lines show either a gradual decrease or remain almost constant with height. Using these obtained parameters, we further calculate Alfvén wave energy flux in both active and quiet-Sun regions. We find a significant decrease in wave energy fluxes with height, and hence provide evidence of Alfvén wave damping. Furthermore, we derive damping lengths of Alfvén waves in the both regions and find them to be in the range of 25–170 Mm. Different damping lengths obtained at different temperatures may be explained as either possible temperature-dependent damping or by measurements obtained in different coronal structures formed at different temperatures along the line of sight. Temperature-dependent damping may suggest some role of thermal conduction in the damping of Alfvén waves in the lower corona.

  5. Solar off-limb emission of the O I 7772 Å line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazira, H.; Kiselman, D.; Leenaarts, J.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand the formation of the O I line at 7772 Å in the solar chromosphere. Methods: We used SST/CRISP observations to observe O I 7772 Å in several places around the solar limb. We compared the observations with synthetic spectra calculated with the RH code in the one-dimension spherical geometry mode. New accurate hydrogen collisional rates were included for the RH calculations. Results: The observations reveal a dark gap in the lower chromosphere, which is caused by variations in the line opacity as shown by our models. The lower level of the 7772 Å transition is populated by a downward cascade from the continuum. We study the effect of Lyman-β pumping and hydrogen collisions between the triplet and quintet system in O I. Both have a small but non-negligible influence on the line intensity.

  6. Solar center-limb variation of the Ca II K line and the Wilson-Bappu effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvold, O.; Marstad, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    New observations of the quiet Sun Ca II K line center-to-limb (C-L) have been made. The separation of the K 2 intensity peaks, the K 1 intensity minima and the intermediate width W 0 (the Wilson-Bappu width) are presented. It is shown that the C-L variation of all three parameters can be accounted for as a dependence on chromospheric column mass. The corresponding Ca II K line with parameters of 41 late type stars are also shown to vary in accordance with the inferred chromospheric column mass of the stars. The solar C-L and the stellar variation of the widths ΔK 1 and W 0 are found to have nearly indentical factors of proportionality with respect to log (column mass)

  7. Line Width Recovery after Vectorization of Engineering Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramblička Matúš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vectorization is the conversion process of a raster image representation into a vector representation. The contemporary commercial vectorization software applications do not provide sufficiently high quality outputs for such images as do mechanical engineering drawings. Line width preservation is one of the problems. There are applications which need to know the line width after vectorization because this line attribute carries the important semantic information for the next 3D model generation. This article describes the algorithm that is able to recover line width of individual lines in the vectorized engineering drawings. Two approaches are proposed, one examines the line width at three points, whereas the second uses a variable number of points depending on the line length. The algorithm is tested on real mechanical engineering drawings.

  8. Optimization of temperature-programmed GC separations. II. Off-line simplex optimization and column selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, H.M.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Sandra, P; Bertsch, W.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a method is described which allows off-line optimization of temperature programmed GC separations. Recently, we described a new numerical method to predict off-line retention times and peak widths of a mixture containing components with known identities in capillary GC. In the present

  9. Heuristic Drift-based Model of the Power Scrape-off width in H-mode Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    An heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the SOL are balanced against sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall particle flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch-Shlueter flows to include sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of ∼ 2αρ p /R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, defined above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Haerm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in a heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in reasonable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data from deuterium plasmas. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.

  10. Genetic regulation of canine skeletal traits: trade-offs between the hind limbs and forelimbs in the fox and dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, Anastasia V.; Trut, Lyudmila N.; Carrier, David R.; Chase, Kevin; Lark, Karl G.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Genetic variation in functionally integrated skeletal traits can be maintained over 10 million years despite bottlenecks and stringent selection. Here, we describe an analysis of the genetic architecture of the canid axial skeleton using populations of the Portuguese Water Dog Canis familiaris) and silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). Twenty-one skeletal metrics taken from radiographs of the forelimbs and hind limbs of the fox and dog were used to construct separate anatomical principal component (PC) matrices of the two species. In both species, 15 of the 21 PCs exhibited significant heritability, ranging from 25% to 70%. The second PC, in both species, represents a trade-off in which limb-bone width is inversely correlated with limb-bone length. PC2 accounts for approximately 15% of the observed skeletal variation, ~30% of the variation in shape. Many of the other significant PCs affect very small amounts of variation (e.g., 0.2–2%) along trade-off axes that partition function between the forelimbs and hind limbs. These PCs represent shape axes in which an increase in size of an element of the forelimb is associated with a decrease in size of an element of the hind limb and vice versa. In most cases, these trade-offs are heritable in both species and genetic loci have been identified in the Portuguese Water Dog for many of these. These PCs, present in both the dog and the fox, include ones that affect lengths of the forelimb versus the hind limb, length of the forefoot versus that of the hind foot, muscle moment (i.e., lever) arms of the forelimb versus hind limb, and cortical thickness of the bones of the forelimb versus hind limb. These inverse relationships suggest that genetic regulation of the axial skeleton results, in part, from the action of genes that influence suites of functionally integrated traits. Their presence in both dogs and foxes suggests that the genes controlling the regulation of these PCs of the forelimb versus hind limb may be found in

  11. An Heuristic Drift-Based Model of the Power Scrape-Off Width in H-Mode Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    An heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the SOL are balanced against sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall mass flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch-Shlueter flows to include sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of 2αρ p /R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, defined above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Haerm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in an heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in remarkable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.

  12. Heuristic drift-based model of the power scrape-off width in low-gas-puff H-mode tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    A heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in low-gas-puff tokamak H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the scrape-off layer (SOL) are balanced against near-sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall particle flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch–Schlüter flows to include order-unity sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of ∼2aρ p /R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, derived above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer–Härm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in a heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in reasonable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.

  13. On the Nature of Off-limb Flare Continuum Sources Detected by SDO /HMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, P.; Kašparová, J. [Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Kleint, L.; Krucker, S., E-mail: pheinzel@asu.cas.cz [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2017-09-20

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unique observations of off-limb flare emission. White-light continuum enhancements were detected in the “continuum” channel of the Fe 6173 Å line during the impulsive phase of the observed flares. In this paper we aim to determine which radiation mechanism is responsible for such enhancement being seen above the limb, at chromospheric heights around or below 1000 km. Using a simple analytical approach, we compare two candidate mechanisms, the hydrogen recombination continuum (Paschen) and the Thomson continuum due to scattering of disk radiation on flare electrons. Both mechanisms depend on the electron density, which is typically enhanced during the impulsive phase of a flare as the result of collisional ionization (both thermal and also non-thermal due to electron beams). We conclude that for electron densities higher than 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, the Paschen recombination continuum significantly dominates the Thomson scattering continuum and there is some contribution from the hydrogen free–free emission. This is further supported by detailed radiation-hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations of the flare chromosphere heated by the electron beams. We use the RHD code FLARIX to compute the temporal evolution of the flare-heating in a semi-circular loop. The synthesized continuum structure above the limb resembles the off-limb flare structures detected by HMI, namely their height above the limb, as well as the radiation intensity. These results are consistent with recent findings related to hydrogen Balmer continuum enhancements, which were clearly detected in disk flares by the IRIS near-ultraviolet spectrometer.

  14. An OCD perspective of line edge and line width roughness metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonam, Ravi; Muthinti, Raja; Breton, Mary; Liu, Chi-Chun; Sieg, Stuart; Seshadri, Indira; Saulnier, Nicole; Shearer, Jeffrey; Patlolla, Raghuveer; Huang, Huai

    2017-03-01

    Metrology of nanoscale patterns poses multiple challenges that range from measurement noise, metrology errors, probe size etc. Optical Metrology has gained a lot of significance in the semiconductor industry due to its fast turn around and reliable accuracy, particularly to monitor in-line process variations. Apart from monitoring critical dimension, thickness of films, there are multiple parameters that can be extracted from Optical Metrology models3. Sidewall angles, material compositions etc., can also be modeled to acceptable accuracy. Line edge and Line Width roughness are much sought of metrology following critical dimension and its uniformity, although there has not been much development in them with optical metrology. Scanning Electron Microscopy is still used as a standard metrology technique for assessment of Line Edge and Line Width roughness. In this work we present an assessment of Optical Metrology and its ability to model roughness from a set of structures with intentional jogs to simulate both Line edge and Line width roughness at multiple amplitudes and frequencies. We also present multiple models to represent roughness and extract relevant parameters from Optical metrology. Another critical aspect of optical metrology setup is correlation of measurement to a complementary technique to calibrate models. In this work, we also present comparison of roughness parameters extracted and measured with variation of image processing conditions on a commercially available CD-SEM tool.

  15. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  16. Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    to be proven before one initiates real FFO applications. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of line width measurements of the FFO operating in different regimes has been performed. FFOs with tapered shape have been successfully implemented in order to avoid the superfine resonant structure with voltage...... spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...

  17. Development and operation of an off-limb solar AO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory Edward

    2014-01-01

    An Adaptive Optics system capable of locking-on to off-limb prominence structure has been proven successful. It has been shown to allow for diffraction limited spectroscopy and polarimetry of prominence structure. Spectroscopic data obtained using the Off-Limb AO system have been shown to contain a trove of information regarding the nature of solar prominences. In particular a Rayleigh-Taylor instability was seen in part of this data set. Such instabilities, and the rising plumes that result from them, are thought to be critical clues to the longterm persistence of quiescent solar prominences. This adaptive optics system will allow scientists to come one step closer to understanding the true nature of solar prominences.

  18. Evaluation of width and width uniformity of near-field electrospinning printed micro and sub-micrometer lines based on optical image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Libo; Xia, Yong; Hebibul, Rahman; Wang, Jiuhong; Zhou, Xiangyang; Hu, Yingjie; Li, Zhikang; Luo, Guoxi; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study using image processing to investigate width and width uniformity of sub-micrometer polyethylene oxide (PEO) lines fabricated by near-filed electrospinning (NFES) technique. An adaptive thresholding method was developed to determine the optimal gray values to accurately extract profiles of printed lines from original optical images. And it was proved with good feasibility. The mechanism of the proposed thresholding method was believed to take advantage of statistic property and get rid of halo induced errors. Triangular method and relative standard deviation (RSD) were introduced to calculate line width and width uniformity, respectively. Based on these image processing methods, the effects of process parameters including substrate speed (v), applied voltage (U), nozzle-to-collector distance (H), and syringe pump flow rate (Q) on width and width uniformity of printed lines were discussed. The research results are helpful to promote the NFES technique for fabricating high resolution micro and sub-micro lines and also helpful to optical image processing at sub-micro level.

  19. Natural widths of atomic K and L levels, Kα X-ray lines and several KLL Auger lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.; Oliver, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Semi-empirical values of the natural widths of K, L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 levels, Kα 1 and Kα 2 x-ray lines, and KL 1 L 1 , KL 1 L 2 and KL 2 L 3 Auger lines for the elements 10 1 ,L 2 , L 3 ) is obtained from the relation GAMMA/sub i/=GAMMA/sub R/,i/ω/sub i/, using the theoretical radiative rate GAMMA/sub R/,i from Scofield's relativistic, relaxed Hartree-Fock calculation and the fluorescence yield ω/sub i/ from Krause's evaluation. X-ray and Auger lines widths are calculated as the sums of pertinent level widths. This tabulation of natural level and line widths is internally consistent, and is compatible with all relevant experimental and theoretical information. Present semi-empirical widths, especially those of Kα 1 and Kα 2 x-rays, are compared with measured widths. Uncertainties of semi-empirical values are estimated

  20. Real-time line-width measurements: a new feature for reticle inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eran, Yair; Greenberg, Gad; Joseph, Amnon; Lustig, Cornel; Mizrahi, Eyal

    1997-07-01

    The significance of line width control in mask production has become greater with the lessening of defect size. There are two conventional methods used for controlling line widths dimensions which employed in the manufacturing of masks for sub micron devices. These two methods are the critical dimensions (CD) measurement and the detection of edge defects. Achieving reliable and accurate control of line width errors is one of the most challenging tasks in mask production. Neither of the two methods cited above (namely CD measurement and the detection of edge defects) guarantees the detection of line width errors with good sensitivity over the whole mask area. This stems from the fact that CD measurement provides only statistical data on the mask features whereas applying edge defect detection method checks defects on each edge by itself, and does not supply information on the combined result of error detection on two adjacent edges. For example, a combination of a small edge defect together with a CD non- uniformity which are both within the allowed tolerance, may yield a significant line width error, which will not be detected using the conventional methods (see figure 1). A new approach for the detection of line width errors which overcomes this difficulty is presented. Based on this approach, a new sensitive line width error detector was developed and added to Orbot's RT-8000 die-to-database reticle inspection system. This innovative detector operates continuously during the mask inspection process and scans (inspects) the entire area of the reticle for line width errors. The detection is based on a comparison of measured line width that are taken on both the design database and the scanned image of the reticle. In section 2, the motivation for developing this new detector is presented. The section covers an analysis of various defect types, which are difficult to detect using conventional edge detection methods or, alternatively, CD measurements. In section 3

  1. Differences in kinematics of the support limb depends on specific movement tasks of take-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hojka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many sport activities are a sequence of jumps (running, jumping, hurdling etc.. Each jump flight phase is the result of the execution of the previous support phase. Objective: The goal of the research was to identify differences in adjustment of the support lower limb and differences in take-off kinematics in specific take-off movement task. Methods: 14 male athletes (22.6 ± 4.4 years; 182.4 ± 5.3 cm; 74.7 ± 6.2 kg took part in a laboratory experiment. Each athlete performed five different take-off movements (running, acceleration running - second step, long jump take-off, high jump take-off and take-off to the hurdle. System Qualisys was used to analyze the kinematics of the support limb. Dynamics of the support phase was monitored via force plate. ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used to measure the significance of the differences between different take off tasks. Results: Dynamic characteristic showed significant differences in take-off (p < .001. This variability is caused by differences in kinematic parameters at the instant of touch-down, minimum joint angles and take-off. The most important finding was different variability in range of motion in eccentric or concentric phases of each jump. Vertically orientated jumps are terminated in a higher degree of extension. Horizontal take-off types are characterized by the highest ranges of motion especially in the ankle joint. Conclusions: The support lower limb compliance is adjusted to the required task, which is related to lower limb kinematics during the support phase. High range of motion in each joint refers to more compliant adjustment of the joint.

  2. Line width and line shape analysis in the inductively coupled plasma by high resolution Fourier transform spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faires, L.M.; Palmer, B.A.; Brault, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    High resolution Fourier transform spectrometry has been used to perform line width and line shape analysis of eighty-one iron I emision lines in the spectral range 290 to 390nm originating in the normal analytical zone of an inductively coupled plasma. Computer programs using non-linear least squares fitting techniques for line shape analysis were applied to the fully resolved spectra to determine Gaussian and Lorentzian components of the total observed line width. The effect of noise in the spectrum on the precision of the line fitting technique was assessed, and the importance of signal to noise ratio for line shape analysis is discussed. Translational (Doppler) temperatures were calculated from the Gaussian components of the line width and were found to be on the order of 6300 0 K. The excitation temperature of iron I was also determined from the same spectral data by the spectroscopic slope method based on the Einstein-Boltzmann expression for spectral intensity and was found to be on the order of 4700 0 K. 31 references

  3. Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments.

  4. Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments

  5. Is Atherectomy the Best First-Line Therapy for Limb Salvage in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Gabriel; Skelly, Christopher L.; Wahlgren, Carl-Magnus; Bassiouny, Hisham S.; Piano, Giancarlo; Shaalan, Wael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of atherectomy for limb salvage compared with open bypass in patients with critical limb ischemia. Methods Ninety-nine consecutive bypass and atherectomy procedures performed for critical limb ischemia between January 2003 and October 2006 were reviewed. Results A total of 99 cases involving TASC C (n = 43, 44%) and D (n = 56, 56%) lesions were treated with surgical bypass in 59 patients and atherectomy in 33 patients. Bypass and atherectomy achieved similar 1-year primary patency (64% vs 63%; P = .2). However, the 1-year limb salvage rate was greater in the bypass group (87% vs 69%; P = .004). In the tissue loss subgroup, there was a greater limb salvage rate for bypass patients versus atherectomy (79% vs 60%; P = .04). Conclusions Patients with critical limb ischemia may do better with open bypass compared with atherectomy as first-line therapy for limb salvage. PMID:19640919

  6. Drift-based scrape-off particle width in X-point geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, D.; Eich, T.

    2017-04-01

    The Goldston heuristic estimate of the scrape-off layer width (Goldston 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 013009) is reconsidered using a fluid description for the plasma dynamics. The basic ingredient is the inclusion of a compressible diamagnetic drift for the particle cross field transport. Instead of testing the heuristic model in a sophisticated numerical simulation including several physical mechanisms working together, the purpose of this work is to point out basic consequences for a drift-dominated cross field transport using a reduced fluid model. To evaluate the model equations and prepare them for subsequent numerical solution a specific analytical model for 2D magnetic field configurations with X-points is employed. In a first step parameter scans in high-resolution grids for isothermal plasmas are done to assess the basic formulas of the heuristic model with respect to the functional dependence of the scrape-off width on the poloidal magnetic field and plasma temperature. Particular features in the 2D-fluid calculations—especially the appearance of supersonic parallel flows and shock wave like bifurcational jumps—are discussed and can be understood partly in the framework of a reduced 1D model. The resulting semi-analytical findings might give hints for experimental proof and implementation in more elaborated fluid simulations.

  7. The effect of the negative binomial distribution on the line-width of the micromaser cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremid, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of negative binomial distribution (NBD) on the line-width of the negative binomial distribution (NBD) on the line-width of the micromaser is considered. The threshold of the micromaser is shifted towards higher values of the pumping parameter q. Moreover the line-width exhibits sharp dips 'resonances' when the cavity temperature reduces to a very low value. These dips are very clear evidence for the occurrence of the so-called trapping states regime in the micromaser. This statistics prevents the appearance of these trapping states, namely by increasing the negative binomial parameter q these dips wash out and the line-width becomes more broadening. For small values of the parameter q the line-width at large values of q randomly oscillates around its transition line. As q becomes large this oscillatory behavior occurs at rarely values of q. (author)

  8. A study to assess whether fixed-width beam walking provides sufficient challenge to assess balance ability across lower limb prosthesis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Hafner, Brian J

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of fixed-width beam walking for assessing balance in lower limb prosthesis users. Cross-sectional. Laboratory. Lower limb prosthesis users. Participants attempted 10 walking trials on three fixed-width beams (18.6, 8.60, and 4.01 wide; 5.5 m long; 3.8 cm high). Beam-walking performance was quantified using the distance walked to balance failure. Heuristic rules applied to each participant's beam-walking distance to classify each beam as "too easy," "too hard," or "appropriately challenging" and determine whether any single beam provided an appropriate challenge to all participants. The number of trials needed to achieve stable beam-walking performance was quantified for appropriately challenging beams by identifying the last inflection point in the slope of each participant's trial-by-trial cumulative performance record. In all, 30 unilateral lower limb prosthesis users participated in the study. Each of the fixed-width beams was either too easy or too hard for at least 33% of the sample. Thus, no single beam was appropriately challenging for all participants. Beam-walking performance was stable by trial 8 for all participants and by trial 6 for 90% of participants. There was no significant difference in the number of trials needed to achieve stable performance among beams ( P = 0.74). Results suggest that a clinical beam-walking test would require multiple beams to evaluate balance across a range of lower limb prosthesis users, emphasizing the need for adaptive or progressively challenging balance tests. While the administrative burden of a multiple-beam balance test may limit clinical feasibility, alternatives to ease this administrative burden are proposed.

  9. Lower limb joint kinetics and ankle joint stiffness in the sprint start push-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Laura; Irwin, Gareth; Bezodis, Ian N; Kerwin, David

    2012-01-01

    Sprint push-off technique is fundamental to sprint performance and joint stiffness has been identified as a performance-related variable during dynamic movements. However, joint stiffness for the push-off and its relationship with performance (times and velocities) has not been reported. The aim of this study was to quantify and explain lower limb net joint moments and mechanical powers, and ankle stiffness during the first stance phase of the push-off. One elite sprinter performed 10 maximal sprint starts. An automatic motion analysis system (CODA, 200 Hz) with synchronized force plates (Kistler, 1000 Hz) collected kinematic profiles at the hip, knee, and ankle and ground reaction forces, providing input for inverse dynamics analyses. The lower-limb joints predominately extended and revealed a proximal-to-distal sequential pattern of maximal extensor angular velocity and positive power production. Pearson correlations revealed relationships (P push-off in different ways, depending on the phase of stance considered.

  10. Emission-line widths and stellar-wind flows in T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, C.; Lago, M.T.V.T.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra are reported of T Tauri stars taken with the IPCS on the Isaac Newton Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at a dispersion of l7 A mm -1 . These were taken in order to determine emission-line widths and hence flow velocities in the winds of these stars following the successful modelling of the wind from RU Lupi using such data. Line widths in RW Aur suggest a similar pattern to the wind flow as in RU Lupi with velocities rising in the inner chromosphere of the star and then entering a 'ballistic' zone. The wind from DFTau is also similar but velocities are generally much lower and the lines sharper. (author)

  11. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  12. Spectroscopic Studies of Solar Corona VI: Trend in Line-width ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cm coronagraph at the Norikura Solar Observatory on several days during the years 1997–2004. The Coude type .... Top-most panel shows the variation of FWHM of the 6374 Е and 5303 Е emission lines with height above the limb when all ...

  13. Extreme-ultraviolet limb spectra of a prominence observed from SKYLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariska, J.T.; Doschek, G.A.; Feldman, U.

    1979-01-01

    Line profiles of extreme ultraviolet emission lines observed in a solar prominence at positions above the white-light limb with the NRL slit spectrograph on Skylab are discussed. Absolute line intensities and full widths at half-maximum are presented for lines formed over the temperature range approx.1 x 10 4 to 2.2 x 10 5 K. The volume emission measures calculated using resonance line intensities are greater than quiet-Sun emission measures at the same height above the limb and indicate a somewhat different distribution of material with temperature in the prominence compared to the quiet-Sun emission measure at +8''. Electron densities in the prominence determined using the calculated emission measures and the intensities of density-sensitive intersystem lines are between the quiet-Sun electron density and half the quiet-Sun electron density. Random mass-motion velocities calculated from the measured full widths at half-maximum show a range of velocities. For T/sub e/> or approx. =4 x 10 4 K, the nonthermal velocity decreases with increasing height in the prominence. For T/sub e/ 4 K, the calculated mass motions are near zero. From the He II 1640 A line profile we derive an average temperature of 27,000 K for the region in which He II is emitted

  14. Energy flow analysis of amputee walking shows a proximally-directed transfer of energy in intact limbs, compared to a distally-directed transfer in prosthetic limbs at push-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert-Aplin, R A; Howard, D; Twiste, M; Jarvis, H L; Bennett, A N; Baker, R J

    2017-01-01

    Reduced capacity and increased metabolic cost of walking occurs in amputees, despite advances in prosthetic componentry. Joint powers can quantify deficiencies in prosthetic gait, but do not reveal how energy is exchanged between limb segments. This study aimed to quantify these energy exchanges during amputee walking. Optical motion and forceplate data collected during walking at a self-selected speed for cohorts of 10 controls, 10 unilateral trans-tibial, 10 unilateral trans-femoral and 10 bilateral trans-femoral amputees were used to determine the energy exchanges between lower limb segments. At push-off, consistent thigh and shank segment powers were observed between amputee groups (1.12W/kg vs. 1.05W/kg for intact limbs and 0.97W/kg vs. 0.99W/kg for prosthetic limbs), and reduced prosthetic ankle power, particularly in trans-femoral amputees (3.12W/kg vs. 0.87W/kg). Proximally-directed energy exchange was observed in the intact limbs of amputees and controls, while prosthetic limbs displayed distally-directed energy exchanges at the knee and hip. This study used energy flow analysis to show a reversal in the direction in which energy is exchanged between prosthetic limb segments at push-off. This reversal was required to provide sufficient energy to propel the limb segments and is likely a direct result of the lack of push-off power at the prosthetic ankle, particularly in trans-femoral amputees, and leads to their increased metabolic cost of walking. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Off-limb EUV observations of the solar corona and transients with the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope-coronagraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Slemzin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The SPIRIT telescope aboard the CORONAS-F satellite (in orbit from 26 July 2001 to 5 December 2005, observed the off-limb solar corona in the 175 Å (Fe IX, X and XI lines and 304 Å (He II and Si XI lines bands. In the coronagraphic mode the mirror was tilted to image the corona at the distance of 1.1...5 Rsun from the solar center, the outer occulter blocked the disk radiation and the detector sensitivity was enhanced. This intermediate region between the fields of view of ordinary extreme-ultraviolet (EUV telescopes and most of the white-light (WL coronagraphs is responsible for forming the streamer belt, acceleration of ejected matter and emergence of slow and fast solar wind. We present here the results of continuous coronagraphic EUV observations of the solar corona carried out during two weeks in June and December 2002. The images showed a "diffuse" (unresolved component of the corona seen in both bands, and non-radial, ray-like structures seen only in the 175 Å band, which can be associated with a streamer base. The correlations between latitudinal distributions of the EUV brightness in the corona and at the limb were found to be high in 304 Å at all distances and in 175 Å only below 1.5 Rsun. The temporal correlation of the coronal brightness along the west radial line, with the brightness at the underlying limb region was significant in both bands, independent of the distance. On 2 February 2003 SPIRIT observed an expansion of a transient associated with a prominence eruption seen only in the 304 Å band. The SPIRIT data have been compared with the corresponding data of the SOHO LASCO, EIT and UVCS instruments.

  16. Retrotransposon long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is activated during salamander limb regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Kuo, Dwight; Nathanson, Jason; Satoh, Akira; Pao, Gerald M.; Yeo, Gene W.; Bryant, Susan V.; Voss, S. Randal; Gardiner, David M.; Hunter, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Salamanders possess an extraordinary capacity for tissue and organ regeneration when compared to mammals. In our effort to characterize the unique transcriptional fingerprint emerging during the early phase of salamander limb regeneration, we identified transcriptional activation of some germline-specific genes within the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that is indicative of cellular reprogramming of differentiated cells into a germline-like state. In this work, we focus on one of these genes, the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon, which is usually active in germ cells and silent in most of the somatic tissues in other organisms. LINE-1 was found to be dramatically upregulated during regeneration. In addition, higher genomic LINE-1 content was also detected in the limb regenerate when compared to that before amputation indicating that LINE-1 retrotransposition is indeed active during regeneration. Active LINE-1 retrotransposition has been suggested to have a potentially deleterious impact on genomic integrity. Silencing of activated LINE-1 by small RNAs has been reported to be part of the machinery aiming to maintain genomic integrity. Indeed, we were able to identify putative LINE-1-related piRNAs in the limb blastema. Transposable element-related piRNAs have been identified frequently in the germline in other organisms. Thus, we present here a scenario in which a unique germline-like state is established during axolotl limb regeneration, and the re-activation of LINE-1 may serve as a marker for cellular dedifferentiation in the early-stage of limb regeneration. PMID:22913491

  17. Analysis of drift effects on the tokamak power scrape-off width using SOLPS-ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E. T.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaveeva, E. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Mordijck, S.; Rozhansky, V. A.; Senichenkov, I. Yu; Voskoboynikov, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    SOLPS-ITER, a comprehensive 2D scrape-off layer modeling package, is used to examine the physical mechanisms that set the scrape-off width ({λq} ) for inter-ELM power exhaust. Guided by Goldston’s heuristic drift (HD) model, which shows remarkable quantitative agreement with experimental data, this research examines drift effects on {λq} in a DIII-D H-mode magnetic equilibrium. As a numerical expedient, a low target recycling coefficient of 0.9 is used in the simulations, resulting in outer target plasma that is sheath limited instead of conduction limited as in the experiment. Scrape-off layer (SOL) particle diffusivity (D SOL) is scanned from 1 to 0.1 m2 s-1. Across this diffusivity range, outer divertor heat flux is dominated by a narrow (˜3-4 mm when mapped to the outer midplane) electron convection channel associated with thermoelectric current through the SOL from outer to inner divertor. An order-unity up-down ion pressure asymmetry allows net ion drift flux across the separatrix, facilitated by an artificial mechanism that mimics the anomalous electron transport required for overall ambipolarity in the HD model. At {{D}\\text{SOL}}=0.1 m2 s-1, the density fall-off length is similar to the electron temperature fall-off length, as predicted by the HD model and as seen experimentally. This research represents a step toward a deeper understanding of the power scrape-off width, and serves as a basis for extending fluid modeling to more experimentally relevant, high-collisionality regimes.

  18. Writer identification using directional ink-trace width measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, A. A.; Smit, J.; Bulacu, M. L.; Schomaker, L. R. B.

    As suggested by modern paleography, the width of ink traces is a powerful source of information for off-line writer identification, particularly if combined with its direction. Such measurements can be computed using simple, fast and accurate methods based on pixel contours, the combination of which

  19. Higgs boson width from off-shell production and decay to ZZ

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Constraints on the total Higgs boson width, Gamma_H, are presented using off-shell production and decay to ZZ in the 4l and 2l2nu final states. The analysis is based on data collected in 2012 by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of L = 19.7/fb at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The combined analysis of the 4l and 2l2nu events at high mass with the 4l measurement of the Higgs boson peak at 125.6 GeV leads to an upper limit on the Higgs boson width of Gamma_H < 4.2 x Gamma_H(SM) at the 95% confidence level, assuming Gamma_H(SM) = 4.15 MeV. This result considerably improves over previous experimental constraints from direct measurements at the Higgs resonance peak.

  20. Narrow line-width Tm3+ doped double-clad silica fiber laser based on in-line cascade biconical tapers filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y; Zhao, J Q; Wang, W; Wang, Y Z; Gao, W

    2010-01-01

    Narrow line-width 793 nm laser diode cladding pumped Tm 3+ doped double cladding silica fiber laser with in-line four concatenated tapers filter was reported for the first time to our knowledge. These cascade tapers located 3.6 cm from the output end of the fiber laser was fabricated by heating and stretching method. The taper's transmitted power response as a function of wavelength was described by using local mode coupling theory and successive tapers filter model. The wavelength filter function of the in-line cascade tapers in a linear cavity fiber laser was demonstrated, and the experimental result agreed with these theories. The maximum output laser power was 736 mW, corresponding to single peak of laser spectrum with narrow line-width of ∼ 60 pm

  1. An off-line programming system for palletizing robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youdong Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Off-line programming systems are essential tools for the effective use of palletizing robots. This article presents a dedicated off-line programming system for palletizing robots. According to the user practical requirements, there are many user-defined patterns that can’t be easily generated by commercial off-line robot programming systems. This study suggests a pattern generation method that users can easily define their patterns. The proposed method has been simulation and experiment. The results have attested the effectiveness of the proposed pattern generation method.

  2. Determination of core level line widths in XPS of GeS and GeSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viljoen, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    Measured X-ray photoelectron spectra are broadened owing to several factors. They can be regarded as the sums of the instrument response functions and the finite source widths. By measuring the response function and deconvoluting the measured peak, the form of the measured peak, the instrument function and the deconvoluted line were determined. The former two seem to have a Gauss and the latter a Lorentz form. The X-ray source is known to have a Lorentz form. A simple method, using the shapes of all these lines, is proposed to determine the line width. Applied to GeS and GeSe lines it gives values that agree quite well with other determinations. Strictly speaking, the method is only applicable to our or other similar spectrometers, but it can be generally applied if the line shapes are known or can be determined [af

  3. Neonatal line width in deciduous incisors from Neolithic, mediaeval and modern skeletal samples from north-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Marta; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Sitek, Aneta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata; Rosset, Iwona; Lorkiewicz, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal line is usually the first accentuated incremental line visible on the enamel. The prenatal environment significantly contributes to the width of the neonatal line, influencing the pace of reaching post-delivery homeostasis by the newborn's organism. Studies of the enamel of the earliest developing deciduous teeth can provide an insight into the prenatal development and the perinatal conditions of children of past human populations, thus being an additional source contributing to consideration of the influence of prenatal and perinatal factors modifying growth processes. The aim of this study was to examine whether the neonatal line, reflecting the conditions of the prenatal and perinatal environment, differed between the Neolithic, the mediaeval and the modern populations from the Kujawy region in north-central Poland. The material consisted of longitudinally ground sections of 57 human deciduous incisors obtained from children aged 1.0-7.5 years representing three archaeological series from Brześć Kujawski site. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-linqual plane using a diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). Final specimens were observed with the microscope Delta Optical Evolution 300 at 10× and 40× magnifications. For each tooth, linear measurements of the neonatal line width were performed on its labial surface at the three levels from the cemento-enamel junction. No significant difference was found in the mean neonatal line width depending on the tooth type and archaeological site, although the thickest neonatal line characterised children from the Neolithic series. In all analysed series, the neonatal line width was diversified depending on the child's age at death. The value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient calculated for the correlation between the child's age at death and the neonatal line width was statistically significant. A clear increase in the width of the neonatal line was thus observed along with a decrease in the child

  4. Correlation between the line width and the line flux of the double-peaked broad Hα of 3C390.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we carefully check the correlation between the line width (second moment) and the line flux of the double-peaked broad Hα of the well-known mapped active galactic nucleus (AGN) 3C390.3 in order to show some further distinctions between double-peaked emitters and normal broad-line AGN. Based on the virialization assumption MBH ∝ RBLR × V2(BLR) and the empirical relation RBLR ∝ L˜0.5, one strong negative correlation between the line width and the line flux of the double-peaked broad lines should be expected for 3C390.3, such as the negative correlation confirmed for the mapped broad-line object NGC 5548, RBLR × V2(BLR) ∝ L˜0.5 × σ2 = constant. Moreover, based on the public spectra around 1995 from the AGN WATCH project for 3C390.3, one reliable positive correlation is found between the line width and the line flux of the double-peaked broad Hα. In the context of the proposed theoretical accretion disc model for double-peaked emitters, the unexpected positive correlation can be naturally explained, due to different time delays for the inner and outer parts of the disc-like broad-line region (BLR) of 3C390.3. Moreover, the virialization assumption is checked and found to be still available for 3C390.3. However, the time-varying size of the BLR of 3C390.3 cannot be expected by the empirical relation RBLR ∝ L˜0.5. In other words, the mean size of the BLR of 3C390.3 can be estimated by the continuum luminosity (line luminosity), while the continuum emission strengthening leads to the size of BLR decreasing (not increasing) in different moments for 3C390.3. Then, we compared our results of 3C390.3 with the previous results reported in the literature for the other double-peaked emitters, and found that before to clearly correct the effects from disc physical parameters varying (such as the effects of disc precession) for long-term observed line spectra, it is not so meaningful to discuss the correlation of the line parameters of double

  5. Impacts of yttrium substitution on FMR line-width and magnetic properties of nickel spinel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishaque, M., E-mail: ishaqdgk1@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar, E-mail: azhar.khan@iub.edu.pk [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad; Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Iqbal, M. Asif [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); College of E & ME, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    The influence of yttrium (Y) substitution on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), initial permeability, and magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites were investigated. It was observed that the FMR line-width decreases with yttrium contents for the substitution level 0≤×≤0.06. Beyond this, the FMR line-width increases with yttrium contents. The nominal composition NiY{sub 0.12}Fe{sub 1.88}O{sub 4} exhibited the smallest FMR line-width ~282 Oe. A significant change in FMR position of nickel–yttrium (Ni–Y) ferrites was observed and it found to exist between 4150 and 4600 Oe. The saturation magnetization was observed to decrease with the increase of yttrium contents and this was referred to the redistribution of cations on octahedral. The coercivity increased from 15 Oe to 59 Oe by increasing the yttrium concentration. The initial permeability decreased from 110 to 35 at 1 MHz by the incorporation of yttrium and this was attributed to the smaller grains which may obstruct the domain wall movement and impede the domain wall motion. The magnetic loss factors of substituted samples exhibit decreasing behavior in the frequency range 1 kHz to 10 MHz. The smaller FMR line-width and reduced magnetic loss factor of the investigated samples suggest the possible use of these materials in high frequency applications. - Highlights: • Influence of Y{sup 3+} substitution on the properties of nickel ferrites is investigated. • Very small FMR line-width (282 Oe) is exhibited by these substituted ferrites. • Fourfold increase in coercivity was observed for NiY{sub 0.24}Fe{sub 1.76}O{sub 4} ferrites.

  6. Voigt equivalent widths and spectral-bin single-line transmittances: Exact expansions and the MODTRAN®5 implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Exact expansions for Voigt line-shape total, line-tail and spectral bin equivalent widths and for Voigt finite spectral bin single-line transmittances have been derived in terms of optical depth dependent exponentially-scaled modified Bessel functions of integer order and optical depth independent Fourier integral coefficients. The series are convergent for the full range of Voigt line-shapes, from pure Doppler to pure Lorentzian. In the Lorentz limit, the expansion reduces to the Ladenburg and Reiche function for the total equivalent width. Analytic expressions are derived for the first 8 Fourier coefficients for pure Lorentzian lines, for pure Doppler lines and for Voigt lines with at most moderate Doppler dependence. A strong-line limit sum rule on the Fourier coefficients is enforced to define an additional Fourier coefficient and to optimize convergence of the truncated expansion. The moderate Doppler dependence scenario is applicable to and has been implemented in the MODTRAN5 atmospheric band model radiative transfer software. Finite-bin transmittances computed with the truncated expansions reduce transmittance residuals compared to the former Rodgers-Williams equivalent width based approach by ∼2 orders of magnitude.

  7. Purity, adulteration and price of drugs bought on-line versus off-line in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M; van Laar, Margriet; van der Pol, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    On-line drug markets flourish and consumers have high expectations of on-line quality and drug value. The aim of this study was to (i) describe on-line drug purchases and (ii) compare on-line with off-line purchased drugs regarding purity, adulteration and price. Comparison of laboratory analyses of 32 663 drug consumer samples (stimulants and hallucinogens) purchased between January 2013 and January 2016, 928 of which were bought on-line. The Netherlands. Primary outcome measures were (i) the percentage of samples purchased on-line and (ii) the chemical purity of powders (or dosage per tablet); adulteration; and the price per gram, blotter or tablet of drugs bought on-line compared with drugs bought off-line. The proportion of drug samples purchased on-line increased from 1.4% in 2013 to 4.1% in 2015. The frequency varied widely, from a maximum of 6% for controlled, traditional substances [ecstasy tablets, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) powder, amphetamine powder, cocaine powder, 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)] to more than a third for new psychoactive substances (NPS) [4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), 5/6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5/6-APB) and methoxetamine (MXE)]. There were no large differences in drug purity, yet small but statistically significant differences were found for 4-FA (on-line 59% versus off-line 52% purity for 4-FA on average, P = 0.001), MDMA powders (45 versus 61% purity for MDMA, P = 0.02), 2C-B tablets (21 versus 10 mg 2C-B/tablet dosage, P = 0.49) and ecstasy tablets (131 versus 121 mg MDMA/tablet dosage, P = 0.05). The proportion of adulterated samples purchased on-line and off-line did not differ, except for 4-FA powder, being less adulterated on-line (χ 2  = 8.3; P < 0.02). Drug prices were mainly higher on-line, ranging for various drugs from 10 to 23% higher than that of drugs purchased off-line (six of 10 substances: P < 0.05). Dutch drug users increasingly

  8. Etnografia on e off-line: cibercafés em Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Miller

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo questiona pressupostos sobre a distinção, comum na pesquisa de Internet, entre on-line e off-line. Várias pesquisas presumiram a "virtualidade", bem como uma forte divisão entre o on-line e o off-line como sendo um dado e um ponto de partida metodológico e analítico em pesquisa. Argumentamos que quando se aborda o uso de fato da Internet a partir de uma abordagem etnográfica, uma tal distinção se revela como um feito social altamente contingente: alguns atores empregam grandes habilidades para estabelecer uma distinção clara entre on-line e off-line em suas práticas de Internet; em outros, tal distinção não tem sentido, ou não é desejável, e tais distinções não são de fato estabelecidas. Utilizamos uma comparação entre cibercafés em Trinidad para demonstrar essa variabilidade e a ampla gama de diferentes relações on-line/off-line que são realmente observadas. Nós relacionamos esse material com a questão mais geral de se estabelecer "contextos" na pesquisa etnográfica.This article interrogates assumptions about the on-line/off-line distinction in internet research. Much research has presumed "virtuality" and a strong division between the on-line and the off-line as a methodological and analytical given and starting point for research. We argue that when actual internet use is approached from an ethnographic perspective, this distinction turns out to be a highly contingent social accomplishment: some actors deploy great skill to establish a sharp on-line/off-line distinction in their internet practices; for others, it is meaningless or undesirable and the distinctions is not established in reality. A comparison of cybercafes in Trinidad is used to demonstrate this variability and the wide range of different on-line/off-line relationships that are in fact observed. We relate this material to the overall issue of establishing "contexts" in ethnographic research.

  9. Optimization of antibody immobilization for on-line or off-line immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Natascha Helena; Schou, Christian; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    -POROS. Protein G-based matrices are very stable showing essentially no decline in performance after 50 application-wash-elution-reequilibration cycles and being easily prepared within 2-3 h of working time with a typical antibody coupling yield of above 80%. In off-line applications where constant flow....... A systematic study was conducted to determine the most versatile antibody immobilization method for use in on-line and off-line IA chromatography applications using commonly accessible immobilization methods. Four chemistries were examined using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments. We...

  10. The ability of current micro-velocity models to represent center-limb line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Testerman, L.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented on the ability of microturbulences, LTE line formation and a homogeneous thermal model to realistically represent the center-limb variation of temporally and spacially averaged solar line profiles. Three somewhat similar semi-empirical thermal models have been used in combination with five current microturbulence models which cover the gamut of homogeneous-isotropic to nonhomogeneous-anisotropic. From high resolution photoelectric data for (lambdalambda 5000-6000 at five μ-values(1,0.63,0.4,0.25,0.16) obtained at KPNO, were selected 17 Fe I and 5 Fe II line profiles to be unblended and symmetrized for study. An iterative scheme has been developed to calculate theoretical profiles for the various combination of models and compare them to the observed profile using the abundance at each limb position and the magnitude of the pressure broadening at the center of the disc as parameters. It was found that a microturbulence model, for which the radial and tangential components increase into deeper layers with xisub(tan)>xisub(rad), produces a reasonable good center-limb fit for lines less than 100mA. However for lines stronger than 140mA, microturbulence models with no depth dependence produce the best match between theory and observation. Thus there is reason to question the uniqueness of the microturbulence concept. (Auth.)

  11. Experimental demonstration of line-width modulation in plasmonic lithography using a solid immersion lens-based active nano-gap control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won-Sup; Kim, Taeseob; Choi, Guk-Jong; Lim, Geon; Joe, Hang-Eun; Gang, Myeong-Gu; Min, Byung-Kwon; Park, No-Cheol; Moon, Hyungbae; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Young-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic lithography has been used in nanofabrication because of its utility beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution of plasmonic lithography depends on the nano-gap between the nanoaperture and the photoresist surface—changing the gap distance can modulate the line-width of the pattern. In this letter, we demonstrate solid-immersion lens based active non-contact plasmonic lithography, applying a range of gap conditions to modulate the line-width of the pattern. Using a solid-immersion lens-based near-field control system, the nano-gap between the exit surface of the nanoaperture and the media can be actively modulated and maintained to within a few nanometers. The line-widths of the recorded patterns using 15- and 5-nm gaps were 47 and 19.5 nm, respectively, which matched closely the calculated full-width at half-maximum. From these results, we conclude that changing the nano-gap within a solid-immersion lens-based plasmonic head results in varying line-width patterns

  12. Off-line programming and simulation in handling nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.P.

    1993-10-01

    IGRIP was used to create a simulation of the robotic workcell design for handling components at the PANTEX nuclear arms facility. This initial simulation identified problems with the customer's proposed worker layout, and allowed a correction to be proposed. Refinement of the IGRIP simulation allowed the design and construction of a workcell mock-up and accurate off-line programming of the system. IGRIP's off-line programming capabilities are being used to develop the motion control code for the workcell. PNLs success in this area suggests that simulation and off-line programming may be valuable tools for developing robotics in some automation resistant industries

  13. Limb-darkening coefficients from line-blanketed non-LTE hot-star model atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, D. C.; Howarth, I. D.

    2016-02-01

    We present grids of limb-darkening coefficients computed from non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed TLUSTY model atmospheres, covering effective-temperature and surface-gravity ranges of 15-55 kK and 4.75 dex (cgs) down to the effective Eddington limit, at 2×, 1×, 0.5× (Large Magellanic Cloud), 0.2× (Small Magellanic Cloud), and 0.1× solar. Results are given for the Bessell UBVRICJKHL, Sloan ugriz, Strömgren ubvy, WFCAM ZYJHK, Hipparcos, Kepler, and Tycho passbands, in each case characterized by several different limb-darkening `laws'. We examine the sensitivity of limb darkening to temperature, gravity, metallicity, microturbulent velocity, and wavelength, and make a comparison with LTE models. The dependence on metallicity is very weak, but limb darkening is a moderately strong function of log g in this temperature regime.

  14. The center-to-limb behavior of CaI lambda 6573 and [Ca II] lambda 7324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, T.R.; Testerman, L.

    1978-01-01

    Center-to-limb measurements of the Ca I lambda 6573 intercombination line and the Ca II lambda 7324 forbidden line are compared with synthetic profiles based on a simple representation of the non-LTE Ca-Ca + ionization equilibrium. The effects of photoionization from low lying excited states of neutral calcium are found to reduce the sensitivity of the lambda 6573 center-to-limb behavior as a thermal structure diagnostic. The synthetic center-to-limb behavior is also sensitive to uncertainties in the nonthermal broadening. Nevertheless, the measured center-to-limb behavior of lambda 6573 favors a 'cool' photospheric model similar to the Vernazza, Avrett, and Loeser model M over hotter models based on the Ca II K wings. The non-LTE calcium abundance obtained from the disk center equivalent widths of lambda 6573 and lambda 7324 using the best fit model is Asub(Ca)approximately=2.1+-0.2x10 -6 (by number relative to hydrogen). Applications of these lines as diagnostics of the Ca-Ca + ionization equilibrium in other stars are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Width lines of non hydrogenoid ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuccelli, D.; Bertuccelli, G.; Di Rocco, H.O.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive theoretical and experimental work was carried out on the ns-np and np-nd line widths (w) of noble gases after ionization (n=n 0 +1, were n 0 is the principal quantum number of the fundamental configuration). A high current 'pinch' discharge was used as source. Electron density and temperature were estimated to be N e =2.65x10 16 cm -3 and T=1.45x10 4 K respectively. Calculations were based on a semi-empirical approximation and the matrix elements (or transition probabilities) were evaluated in different approximation. Comparing our measurements with those of other authors, a systematic tendency, with a dependence on atomic number Z and ionization energy of the higher level L, was established. Finally, it has been established that for N e >10 17 cm -3 , w ∝ N e γ , where γ=5/6. (Author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. On the analysis of the thermal line shift and thermal line width of ions in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: brian.m.walsh@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Di Bartolo, Baldassare, E-mail: baldassare.dibartolo@bc.edu [Boston College, Department of Physics, Chestnut Hill, MA 23667 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    A method of analysis for the thermally induced line shift and line width of spectral lines regarding the Raman process of ions in solids utilizing rational approximations for the Debye functions is presented. The {sup 2}E level unsplit R-line in V{sup 2+}:MgO is used as an example to illustrate the utility of the methods discussed here in providing a new analytical tool for researchers. - Highlights: • We use rational approximations for Debye functions. • We discuss limits and ranges of applicability of the rational approximations. • We formulate expressions for thermal shift and thermal linewidth for Raman processes using the rational approximations of the Debye functions. • We present an application of the methods to analyze the temperature dependent linewidth and lineshift in V2+:MgO.

  17. Relating Line Width and Optical Depth for CO Emission in the Large Mgellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Evan; Wong, Tony; Bandurski, Jeffrey; MC3 (Mapping CO in Molecular Clouds in the Magellanic Clouds) Team

    2018-01-01

    We investigate data produced from ALMA observations of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using 12CO(2–1) and 13CO(2–1) emission. The spectral line width is generally interpreted as tracing turbulent rather than thermal motions in the cloud, but could also be affected by optical depth, especially for the 12CO line (Hacar et al. 2016). We compare the spectral line widths of both lines with their optical depths, estimated from an LTE analysis, to evaluate the importance of optical depth effects. Our cloud sample includes two regions recently published by Wong et al. (2017, submitted): the Tarantula Nebula or 30 Dor, an HII region rife with turbulence, and the Planck cold cloud (PCC), located in a much calmer environment near the fringes of the LMC. We also include four additional LMC clouds, which span intermediate levels of star formation relative to these two clouds, and for which we have recently obtained ALMA data in Cycle 4.

  18. Physics of tokamak scrape-off layer confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Confinement in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a tokamak is believed to be governed by classical flows along magnetic field lines terminated by sheaths, and turbulent transport across field lines. In this paper we review how these two effects conspire to establish the width of the SOL, and survey recent and ongoing work on mechanisms for turbulence in SOL's. The beneficial relationship between scrape-off layer turbulence in mitigating the heat flux density on divertors is noted, and tactics for actively altering SOL confinement so as to reduce the heat flux density are discussed

  19. Line width measurement below 60 nm using an optical interferometer and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Chung W.; Smith, Richard J.; Somekh, Michael G.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    We have recently described a technique for optical line-width measurements. The system currently is capable of measuring line-width down to 60 nm with a precision of 2 nm, and potentially should be able to measure down to 10nm. The system consists of an ultra-stable interferometer and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The former is used to generate optical profiles which are input to the ANNs. The outputs of the ANNs are the desired sample parameters. Different types of samples have been tested with equally impressive results. In this paper we will discuss the factors that are essential to extend the application of the technique. Two of the factors are signal conditioning and sample classification. Methods, including principal component analysis, that are capable of performing these tasks will be considered.

  20. Adaptive control based on an on-line parameter estimation of an upper limb exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riani, Akram; Madani, Tarek; Hadri, Abdelhafid El; Benallegue, Abdelaziz

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control strategy for an upper-limb exoskeleton based on an on-line dynamic parameter estimator. The objective is to improve the control performance of this system that plays a critical role in assisting patients for shoulder, elbow and wrist joint movements. In general, the dynamic parameters of the human limb are unknown and differ from a person to another, which degrade the performances of the exoskeleton-human control system. For this reason, the proposed control scheme contains a supplementary loop based on a new efficient on-line estimator of the dynamic parameters. Indeed, the latter is acting upon the parameter adaptation of the controller to ensure the performances of the system in the presence of parameter uncertainties and perturbations. The exoskeleton used in this work is presented and a physical model of the exoskeleton interacting with a 7 Degree of Freedom (DoF) upper limb model is generated using the SimMechanics library of MatLab/Simulink. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an example of passive rehabilitation movements is performed using multi-body dynamic simulation. The aims is to maneuver the exoskeleton that drive the upper limb to track desired trajectories in the case of the passive arm movements.

  1. Theory of the scrape-off layer width in inner-wall limited tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, F.D.; Ricci, P.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Mosetto, A.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a predictive theory applicable to the scrape-off layer (SOL) of inner-wall limited plasmas. Using the non-linear flattening of the pressure profile as a saturation mechanism for resistive ballooning modes, we are able to demonstrate and quantify the increase of the SOL width with plasma size, connection length, plasma β, and collisionality. Individual aspects of the theory, such as saturation physics, parallel dynamics, and system size scaling, are tested and verified using non-linear, 3D flux-driven SOL turbulence simulations. Altogether, very good agreement between theory and simulation is found. (paper)

  2. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Lupie, O. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied high-resolution Fabry-Perot spectroscopy to the study of the lunar sodium exosphere for the study of exospheric effective temperature and velocity variations. Observing from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope, we used a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,000 to measure line widths and Doppler shifts of the sodium D2 (5889.95 Å) emission line. Our field of view was 360 km, and measurements were made in equatorial and polar regions from 500 km to 3500 km off the limb. Data were obtained from full moon to 3 days following full moon (waning phase) in March 2009. Measured Doppler line widths within 1100 km of the sunlit east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 and 40 deg lunar phase imply effective temperatures ranging between 3260 +/- 190 and 1000 +/- 135 K. Preliminary line center analysis indicates velocity displacements between different locations off the lunar limb ranging between 100 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/-20 to +/-50 m/s depending on brightness. Based on the success of these exploratory observations, an extensive program has been initiated that is expected to constrain lunar atmospheric and surface-process modeling and help quantify source and escape mechanisms.

  3. Stratospheric isotopic water profiles from a single submillimeter limb scan by TELIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Lange

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Around 490 GHz relatively strong HDO and H218O emission lines can be found in the submillimeter thermal-emission spectrum of the Earth's atmosphere, along with lines of the principal isotopologue of water vapour. These can be used for remote sensing of the rare/principal isotope ratio in the stratosphere. A sensitivity study has been performed for retrieval simulations of water isotopologues from balloon-borne measurements by the limb sounder TELIS (TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder. The study demonstrates the capability of TELIS to determine, from a single limb scan, the profiles for H218O and HDO between 20 km and 37 km with a retrieval error of ≈3 and a spatial resolution of 1.5 km, as determined by the width of the averaging kernel. In addition HDO can be retrieved in the range of 10–20 km, albeit with a strongly deteriorated retrieval error. Expected uncertainties in instrumental parameters have only limited impact on the retrieval results.

  4. CONTINOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GLENN, J.W.; TSOUPAS, N.; BROWN, K.A.; BIRYUKOV, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10 13 AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given

  5. Drift-based Model for Power Scrape-off Width in Low-Gas-Puff H-mode Plasmas: Theory and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, R., E-mail: rgoldston@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: A heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in low-gas-puff tokamak H-mode plasmas is introduced. {nabla}B and curvature drifts into the scrape-off layer (SOL) are balanced against near-sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of order the poloidal gyroradius. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, derived above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is then calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Hiarm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in a heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data. The applicability of the Spitzer-Harm model to this regime can be questioned at the lowest densities, where the presence of a sheath can raise the divertor target electron temperature. A more general two-point model including a finite ratio of divertor target to upstream electron temperature shows only a 5% effect on the SOL width with target temperature f{sub T} = 75% of upstream, so this effect is likely negligible in experimentally relevant regimes. To achieve the near-sonic flows measured experimentally, and assumed in this model, sets requirements on the ratio of upstream to total SOL particle sources relative to the square-root of the ratio of target to upstream temperature. As a result very high recycling regimes may allow significantly wider power fluxes. The Pfisch-Schluter model for equilibrium flows has been modified to allow near-sonic flows, appropriate for gradient scale lengths of order the poloidal gyroradius. This results in a new quadrupole flow pattern that amplifies the usual P-S flows at the outer midplane, while reducing them at the inner

  6. Alfvén Wave Turbulence as a Coronal Heating Mechanism: Simultaneously Predicting the Heating Rate and the Wave-induced Emission Line Broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oran, R. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Landi, E.; Holst, B. van der; Sokolov, I. V.; Gombosi, T. I., E-mail: roran@mit.edu [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We test the predictions of the Alfvén Wave Solar Model (AWSoM), a global wave-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the solar atmosphere, against high-resolution spectra emitted by the quiescent off-disk solar corona. AWSoM incorporates Alfvén wave propagation and dissipation in both closed and open magnetic field lines; turbulent dissipation is the only heating mechanism. We examine whether this mechanism is consistent with observations of coronal EUV emission by combining model results with the CHIANTI atomic database to create synthetic line-of-sight spectra, where spectral line widths depend on thermal and wave-related ion motions. This is the first time wave-induced line broadening is calculated from a global model with a realistic magnetic field. We used high-resolution SUMER observations above the solar west limb between 1.04 and 1.34 R {sub ⊙} at the equator, taken in 1996 November. We obtained an AWSoM steady-state solution for the corresponding period using a synoptic magnetogram. The 3D solution revealed a pseudo-streamer structure transversing the SUMER line of sight, which contributes significantly to the emission; the modeled electron temperature and density in the pseudo-streamer are consistent with those observed. The synthetic line widths and the total line fluxes are consistent with the observations for five different ions. Further, line widths that include the contribution from the wave-induced ion motions improve the correspondence with observed spectra for all ions. We conclude that the turbulent dissipation assumed in the AWSoM model is a viable candidate for explaining coronal heating, as it is consistent with several independent measured quantities.

  7. Integrating Robot Task Planning into Off-Line Programming Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Kroszynski, Uri

    1988-01-01

    a system architecture for integrated robot task planning. It identifies and describes the components considered necessary for implementation. The focus is on functionality of these elements as well as on the information flow. A pilot implementation of such an integrated system architecture for a robot......The addition of robot task planning in off-line programming systems aims at improving the capability of current state-of-the-art commercially available off-line programming systems, by integrating modeling, task planning, programming and simulation together under one platform. This article proposes...... assembly task is discussed....

  8. ISOLDE Off-line Gas Leak Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kristoffer Bested

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates gas injection system of the ISOLDE Off-line separator. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to analysis the composition of the gas. Based on these measurements a contamination of the injected gas is found and a system upgrade is purposed. Furthermore a calibration of the leak rate of the leak valve is made.

  9. The role of off-line and online strategies for successful product positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Yaneva D. E.; Zlateva D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the article is done on off-line and online strategies that companies use for their successful positioning. The goal is to establish the role and the significance of the strategies for successful product positioning in off-line and online environment.

  10. Berkeley Off-line Radioisotope Generator (BORG)

    CERN Document Server

    Sudowe, R

    2001-01-01

    Development of chemical separations for the transactinides has traditionally been performed with longer-lived tracer activities purchased commercially. With these long-lived tracers, there is always the potential problem that the tracer atoms are not always in the same chemical form as the short-lived atoms produced in on-line experiments. This problem is especially severe for elements in groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, where hydrolysis is present. The long-lived tracers usually are stored with a complexing agent to prevent sorption or precipitation. Chemistry experiments performed with these long-lived tracers are therefore not analogous to those chemical experiments performed in on-line experiments. One way to eliminate the differences between off-line and on-line chemistry experiments is through the use of a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device. A sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragment collection device has already been constructed [1]. This device is limited in its capabilities. A ...

  11. Off-line software for large experimental setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyant, F.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to emphasize the importance of Off-line software for large experimental setups in High Energy Physics. Simple notions of program structuring, data structuring and software organization are discussed in the context of the software developped for the European Hybrid Spectrometer. (author)

  12. Amide I SFG Spectral Line Width Probes the Lipid-Peptide and Peptide-Peptide Interactions at Cell Membrane In Situ and in Real Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baixiong; Tan, Junjun; Li, Chuanzhao; Zhang, Jiahui; Ye, Shuji

    2018-06-13

    The balance of lipid-peptide and peptide-peptide interactions at cell membrane is essential to a large variety of cellular processes. In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated for the first time that sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy can be used to probe the peptide-peptide and lipid-peptide interactions in cell membrane in situ and in real time by determination of the line width of amide I band of protein backbone. Using a "benchmark" model of α-helical WALP23, it is found that the dominated lipid-peptide interaction causes a narrow line width of the amide I band, whereas the peptide-peptide interaction can markedly broaden the line width. When WALP23 molecules insert into the lipid bilayer, a quite narrow line width of the amide I band is observed because of the lipid-peptide interaction. In contrast, when the peptide lies down on the bilayer surface, the line width of amide I band becomes very broad owing to the peptide-peptide interaction. In terms of the real-time change in the line width, the transition from peptide-peptide interaction to lipid-peptide interaction is monitored during the insertion of WALP23 into 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'- rac-glycerol) (DPPG) lipid bilayer. The dephasing time of a pure α-helical WALP23 in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'- rac-glycerol) and DPPG bilayer is determined to be 2.2 and 0.64 ps, respectively. The peptide-peptide interaction can largely accelerate the dephasing time.

  13. Nuclei far off the stability line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenyes, T.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental aspects of the formation of some ''exotic'' nuclei far off the stability line were reviewed in addition to the relevant results of research in this field. Results in beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, heavy-ion-spectroscopy, achievements in the fields of measuring the atomic mass, the moment, and the radius of the nuclei as well as some astronomical aspects were described. (Z.P.)

  14. Breaking Through the Multi-Mesa-Channel Width Limited of Normally Off GaN HEMTs Through Modulation of the Via-Hole-Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Wen-Hsin; You, Yao-Hong; Lin, Jun-Huei; Lee, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2017-06-01

    We present new normally off GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that overcome the typical limitations in multi-mesa-channel (MMC) width through modulation of the via-hole-length to regulate the charge neutrality screen effect. We have prepared enhancement-mode (E-mode) GaN HEMTs having widths of up to 300 nm, based on an enhanced surface pinning effect. E-mode GaN HEMTs having MMC structures and widths as well as via-hole-lengths of 100 nm/2 μm and 300 nm/6 μm, respectively, exhibited positive threshold voltages ( V th) of 0.79 and 0.46 V, respectively. The on-resistances of the MMC and via-hole-length structures were lower than those of typical tri-gate nanoribbon GaN HEMTs. In addition, the devices not only achieved the E-mode but also improved the power performance of the GaN HEMTs and effectively mitigated the device thermal effect. We controlled the via-hole-length sidewall surface pinning effect to obtain the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Our findings suggest that via-hole-length normally off GaN HEMTs have great potential for use in next-generation power electronics.

  15. A new technique for on-line and off-line high speed computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartouni, E.P.; Jensen, D.A.; Klima, B.; Kreisler, M.N.; Rabin, M.S.Z.; Uribe, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gara, A.; Knapp, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    A new technique for both on-line and off-line computation has been developed. With this technique, a reconstruction analysis in Elementary Particle Physics, otherwise prohibitively long, has been accomplished. It will be used on-line in an upcoming Fermilab experiment to reconstruct more than 100,000 events per second and to trigger on the basis of that information. The technique delivers 40 Giga operations per second, has a bandwidth on the order of Gigabytes per second and has a modest cost. An overview of the program, details of the system, and performance measurements are presented in this paper

  16. MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Marco; Magnani, Luca; Carlotti, Massimo; Dinelli, Bianca Maria

    2004-11-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a limb-scanning spectrometer that has operated onboard the Environmental Satellite since the end of March 2002. Common features of limb-scanning experiments are both high vertical resolution and poor horizontal resolution. We exploit the two-dimensional geo-fit retrieval approach [Appl. Opt. 40, 1872-1875 (2001)] to investigate the possibility of improving the horizontal resolution of MIPAS measurements. Two different strategies are considered for this purpose, one exploiting the possibility (offered by the geo-fit analysis method) for an arbitrary definition of the retrieval grid, the other based on the possibility of saving measurement time by degrading the spectral resolution of the interferometer. The performances of the two strategies are compared in terms of the trade-off between the attained horizontal resolution and the retrieval precision. We find that for ozone it is possible to improve by a factor of 2 the horizontal resolution, which in the nominal measurement plan is approximately 530 km. This improvement corresponds to a degradation of the retrieval precision, which on average varies from a factor of 1.4 to 2.5, depending on the adopted spectral resolution.

  17. NH3 quantum rotators in Hofmann clathrates: intensity and width of rotational transition lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorderwisch, Peter; Sobolev, Oleg; Desmedt, Arnaud

    2004-01-01

    Inelastic structure factors for rotational transitions of uniaxial NH 3 quantum rotators, measured in a Hofmann clathrate with biphenyl as guest molecule, agree with those calculated for free rotators. A finite intrinsic line width, found for rotational transitions involving the rotational level j=3 at low temperature, supports a recently suggested model based on resonant rotor-rotor coupling

  18. Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.

    2018-06-01

    The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.

  19. Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.

  20. Constraints on the Higgs boson width from off-shell production and decay to Z-boson pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Tae Jeong; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; 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Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2014-09-07

    Constraints are presented on the total width of the recently discovered Higgs boson, Gamma_H, using its relative on-shell and off-shell production and decay rates to a pair of Z bosons, where one Z boson decays to an electron or muon pair, and the other to an electron, muon, or neutrino pair. The analysis is based on the data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2011 and 2012, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 inverse-femtobarns at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and 19.7 inverse-femtobarns at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. A simultaneous maximum likelihood fit to the measured kinematic distributions near the resonance peak and above the Z-boson pair production threshold leads to an upper limit on the Higgs boson width of $\\Gamma_H$ less than 22 MeV at a 95% confidence level, which is 5.4 times the expected value in the standard model at the measured mass.

  1. Breaking Through the Multi-Mesa-Channel Width Limited of Normally Off GaN HEMTs Through Modulation of the Via-Hole-Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Wen-Hsin; You, Yao-Hong; Lin, Jun-Huei; Lee, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2017-12-01

    We present new normally off GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that overcome the typical limitations in multi-mesa-channel (MMC) width through modulation of the via-hole-length to regulate the charge neutrality screen effect. We have prepared enhancement-mode (E-mode) GaN HEMTs having widths of up to 300 nm, based on an enhanced surface pinning effect. E-mode GaN HEMTs having MMC structures and widths as well as via-hole-lengths of 100 nm/2 μm and 300 nm/6 μm, respectively, exhibited positive threshold voltages (V th ) of 0.79 and 0.46 V, respectively. The on-resistances of the MMC and via-hole-length structures were lower than those of typical tri-gate nanoribbon GaN HEMTs. In addition, the devices not only achieved the E-mode but also improved the power performance of the GaN HEMTs and effectively mitigated the device thermal effect. We controlled the via-hole-length sidewall surface pinning effect to obtain the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Our findings suggest that via-hole-length normally off GaN HEMTs have great potential for use in next-generation power electronics.

  2. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor; Casolino, Marco; Conti, Livio; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Fornaro, Claudio; Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi; De Santis, Cristian; Shinozaki, Kenji; Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper

  3. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor, E-mail: lech.piotrowski@riken.jp [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Casolino, Marco [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Conti, Livio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Fornaro, Claudio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); De Santis, Cristian [INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Shinozaki, Kenji [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center, University of Tübingen, Sand 6, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro [RIKEN, Wako (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper.

  4. Off-line concomitant release of dopamine and glutamate involvement in taste memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2010-07-01

    It has been postulated that memory consolidation process requires post-learning molecular changes that will support long-term experiences. In the present study, we assessed with in vivo microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis whether such changes involve the release of neurotransmitters at post-acquisition stages. Using conditioned taste aversion paradigm we observed spontaneous off-line (i.e. in absence of stimulation) dopamine and glutamate reactivation within the insular cortex about 45 min after the stimuli association. These increments did not appear in control groups that were unable to acquire the task, and it seems to be dependent on amygdala activity since its reversible inactivation by tetrodotoxin impaired cortical off-line release of both neurotransmitters and memory consolidation. In addition, blockade of dopaminergic D1 and/or NMDA receptors before the off-line activity impaired long- but not short-term memory. These results suggest that off-line extracellular increments of glutamate and dopamine have a significant functional role in consolidation of taste memory.

  5. Measured, calculated and predicted Stark widths of the singly ionized C, N, O, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Cl and Ar spectral lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeniže S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find reliable Stark width data, needed in plasma spectroscopy comparision between the existing measured, calculated and predicted Stark width values was performed for ten singly ionized emitters: C, N, O, F, Ne Si, P, S, Cl and Ar in the lower lying 3s - 3p, 3p - 3d and 4s - 4p transitions. These emitters are present in many cosmic light sources. On the basis of the agreement between mentioned values 17 spectral lines from six singly ionized spectra have been recommended, for the first time, for plasma spectroscopy as spectral lines with reliable Stark width data. Critical analysis of the existing Stark width data is also given.

  6. Upper limb contributions to frontal plane balance control in rollator-assisted walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, James Y; Gage, William H; Poupart, Pascal; McIlroy, William E

    2014-01-01

    While assisting with balance is a primary reason for rollator use, few studies have examined how the upper limbs are used for balance. This study examines upper limb contributions to balance control during rollator-assisted walking. We hypothesized that there would be an increased upper limb contribution, measured by mean vertical loading (Fz) and variation in frontal plane center-of-pressure (COPhigh), when walking balance is challenged/impaired. Experiment 1 compared straight-line and beam-walking in young adults (n = 11). As hypothesized, Fz and COPhighincreased in beam-walking compared to baseline (mean Fz: 13.7 vs. 9.1% body weight (BW), p < 0.001, RMS COPhigh: 1.35 vs. 1.07 cm, p < 0.001). Experiment 2 compared older adults who regularly use rollators (RU, n = 10) to older adult controls (CTL, n = 10). The predicted higher upper limb contribution in the RU group was not supported. However, when individuals were grouped by balance impairment, those with the lowest Berg Balance scores (< 45) demonstrated greater speed-adjusted COPhigh than those with higher scores (p = 0.013). Furthermore, greater COPhigh and Fz were correlated to greater reduction in step width, supporting the role of upper limb contributions to frontal plane balance. This work will guide studies assessing reliance on rollators by providing a basis for measurement of upper limb balance contributions.

  7. Scanning electron microscope measurement of width and shape of 10nm patterned lines using a JMONSEL-modeled library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, J S; Vladár, A E; Ming, B; Kline, R J; Sunday, D F; Chawla, J S; List, S

    2015-07-01

    The width and shape of 10nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO2 lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Scanning electron microscope measurement of width and shape of 10 nm patterned lines using a JMONSEL-modeled library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarrubia, J.S., E-mail: john.villarrubia@nist.gov [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Vladár, A.E.; Ming, B. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Kline, R.J.; Sunday, D.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Chawla, J.S.; List, S. [Intel Corporation, RA3-252, 5200 NE Elam Young Pkwy, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The width and shape of 10 nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO{sub 2} lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm.

  9. Single-shot dual-wavelength in-line and off-axis hybrid digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2018-02-01

    We propose an in-line and off-axis hybrid holographic real-time imaging technique. The in-line and off-axis digital holograms are generated simultaneously by two lasers with different wavelengths, and they are recorded using a color camera with a single shot. The reconstruction is carried using an iterative algorithm in which the initial input is designed to include the intensity of the in-line hologram and the approximate phase distributions obtained from the off-axis hologram. In this way, the complex field in the object plane and the output by the iterative procedure can produce higher quality amplitude and phase images compared to traditional iterative phase retrieval. The performance of the technique has been demonstrated by acquiring the amplitude and phase images of a green lacewing's wing and a living moon jellyfish.

  10. Impact of E × B flow shear on turbulence and resulting power fall-off width in H-mode plasmas in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Q. Q., E-mail: yangqq@ipp.ac.cn; Zhong, F. C., E-mail: gsxu@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Jia, M. N. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, G. S., E-mail: gsxu@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Wang, H. Q.; Chen, R.; Yan, N.; Liu, S. C.; Chen, L.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, J. B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The power fall-off width in the H-mode scrape-off layer (SOL) in tokamaks shows a strong inverse dependence on the plasma current, which was noticed by both previous multi-machine scaling work [T. Eich et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 093031 (2013)] and more recent work [L. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 114002 (2014)] on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. To understand the underlying physics, probe measurements of three H-mode discharges with different plasma currents have been studied in this work. The results suggest that a higher plasma current is accompanied by a stronger E×B shear and a shorter radial correlation length of turbulence in the SOL, thus resulting in a narrower power fall-off width. A simple model has also been applied to demonstrate the suppression effect of E×B shear on turbulence in the SOL and shows relatively good agreement with the experimental observations.

  11. Electronic states of on- and off-center donors in quantum rings of finite width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.P.A.; Amado, M.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic states of a hydrogenic donor in two-dimensional quantum rings are calculated by taking into account the finite width of the potential well in the ring. In addition, a strong magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the quantum ring. Using the effective-mass approximation at the Γ valley, the radial Hamiltonian for the envelope-function is exactly diagonalized in the case of on-center donors. The corresponding energy levels for different angular momenta are studied as a function of the applied magnetic field. In the case of off-center donors, a perturbation approach is considered and its limitations are discussed. Finally, we calculate the absorption spectra and oscillator strength for different intraband transitions, specifically for on-center donors

  12. Off-Line Robust Constrained MPC for Linear Time-Varying Systems with Persistent Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bumroongsri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An off-line robust constrained model predictive control (MPC algorithm for linear time-varying (LTV systems is developed. A novel feature is the fact that both model uncertainty and bounded additive disturbance are explicitly taken into account in the off-line formulation of MPC. In order to reduce the on-line computational burdens, a sequence of explicit control laws corresponding to a sequence of positively invariant sets is computed off-line. At each sampling time, the smallest positively invariant set containing the measured state is determined and the corresponding control law is implemented in the process. The proposed MPC algorithm can guarantee robust stability while ensuring the satisfaction of input and output constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed MPC algorithm is illustrated by two examples.

  13. Trade-offs in relative limb length among Peruvian children: extending the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb proportions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Both the concept of 'brain-sparing' growth and associations between relative lower limb length, childhood environment and adult disease risk are well established. Furthermore, tibia length is suggested to be particularly plastic under conditions of environmental stress. The mechanisms responsible are uncertain, but three hypotheses may be relevant. The 'thrifty phenotype' assumes that some components of growth are selectively sacrificed to preserve more critical outcomes, like the brain. The 'distal blood flow' hypothesis assumes that blood nutrients decline with distance from the heart, and hence may affect limbs in relation to basic body geometry. Temperature adaptation predicts a gradient of decreased size along the limbs reflecting decreasing tissue temperature/blood flow. We examined these questions by comparing the size of body segments among Peruvian children born and raised in differentially stressful environments. In a cross-sectional sample of children aged 6 months to 14 years (n = 447 we measured head circumference, head-trunk height, total upper and lower limb lengths, and zeugopod (ulna and tibia and autopod (hand and foot lengths. RESULTS: Highland children (exposed to greater stress had significantly shorter limbs and zeugopod and autopod elements than lowland children, while differences in head-trunk height were smaller. Zeugopod elements appeared most sensitive to environmental conditions, as they were relatively shorter among highland children than their respective autopod elements. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that functional traits (hand, foot, and head may be partially protected at the expense of the tibia and ulna. The results do not fit the predictions of the distal blood flow and temperature adaptation models as explanations for relative limb segment growth under stress conditions. Rather, our data support the extension of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb growth, and suggest that

  14. Off-Line Testing of Tribo-Systems for Sheet Metal Forming Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Off-line testing of new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming production is an important issue, when new, environmentally benign lubricants are to be introduced. To obtain useful results it is, however, vital to ensure similar conditions as in the production process regarding the main tribo...... leading to very high tool/workpiece interface pressure and temperature in the second re-draw. Under such conditions only the best lubricant systems work satisfactory, and the paper shows how the performance of different tribo-systems in production may be predicted by off-line testing combined...

  15. Dielectric image line groove antennas for millimeterwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbach, K.; Wolff, I.

    Grooves in the ground plane of dielectric image lines are proposed as a new radiating structure. A figure is included showing the proposed groove structure as a discontinuity in a dielectric image line. A wave incident on the dielectric image line is partly reflected by the discontinuity, partly transmitted across the groove, and partly radiated into space above the line. In a travelling-wave antenna, a number of grooves are arranged below a dielectric guide, with spacings around one guide wavelength to produce a beam in the upper half space. A prescribed aperture distribution can be effected by tapering the series radiation resistance of the grooves. This can be done by adjusting the depths of the grooves with a constant width or by varying the widths of the grooves with a constant depth. Attention is also given to circular grooves. Here, the widths of the holes are chosen so that they can be considered as waveguides operating far below the cut-off frequency of the fundamental circular waveguide mode.

  16. Off-line programming (OLP) system comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Off-line programming (OLP) systems are being used to conceptualize, design, simulate, and now control automated robotic workcells. Currently available systems by Deneb, SILMA, and Cimetrix are being used at the Lawrenece Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate and control automated robotic systems for radioactive material processing and hazardous waste sorting. The differences in system architectures, workcell and robot calibration procedures, operator interface, and graphical output capability of each will be discussed. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these attributes will be discussed as they relate to varying applications in robotic workcell development and control

  17. Analysing Password Protocol Security Against Off-line Dictionary Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Busi, Nadia; Gorrieri, Roberto; Martinelli, Fabio

    We study the security of password protocols against off-line dictionary attacks. In addition to the standard adversary abilities, we also consider further cryptographic advantages given to the adversary when considering the password protocol being instantiated with particular encryption schemes. We

  18. A theoretical interpretation of the main scrape-off layer heat-flux width scaling for tokamak inner-wall limited plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halpern, F.D.; Horáček, Jan; Pitts, R. A.; Ricci, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 8 (2016), č. článku 084003. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : edge plasma * heat-flux width * scrape-off layer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/8/084003/meta

  19. Drifts, currents, and power scrape-off width in SOLPS-ITER modeling of DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, E. T.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaveeva, E. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Mordijck, S.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of drifts and associated flows and currents on the width of the parallel heat flux channel (λ q ) in the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) are analyzed using the SOLPS-ITER 2D fluid transport code. Motivation is supplied by Goldston’s heuristic drift (HD) model for λ q , which yields the same approximately inverse poloidal magnetic field dependence seen in multi-machine regression. The analysis, focusing on a DIII-D H-mode discharge, reveals HD-like features, including comparable density and temperature fall-off lengths in the SOL, and up-down ion pressure asymmetry that allows net cross-separatrix ion magnetic drift flux to exceed net anomalous ion flux. In experimentally relevant high-recycling cases, scans of both toroidal and poloidal magnetic field (B tor and B pol ) are conducted, showing minimal λ q dependence on either component of the field. Insensitivity to B tor is expected, and suggests that SOLPS-ITER is effectively capturing some aspects of HD physics. Absence of λ q dependence on B pol , however, is inconsistent with both the HD model and experimental results. As a result, the inconsistency is attributed to strong variation in the parallel Mach number, which violates one of the premises of the HD model.

  20. Off-Line High-pH Reversed-Phase Fractionation for In-Depth Phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Francavilla, Chiara; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-01-01

    thousands of phosphorylation sites. However, in-depth phosphoproteomics often require off-line enrichment and fractionation techniques. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of phosphopeptides, which have been fractionated by off-line high-pH chromatography (Hp...... phosphorylated peptides over that with SCX. Further optimizations in the pooling and concatenation strategy increased the total number of multiphosphorylated peptides detected after HpH fractionation. In conclusion, we provide a basic framework and resource for performing in-depth phosphoproteome studies...

  1. “PI OF THE SKY” OFF-LINE EXPERIMENT WITH GLORIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Majcher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available GLORIA is the first free and open-access network of robotic telescopes in the world. Based on the Web 2.0 environment, amateur and professional users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescope, and/or analyzing data acquired with GLORIA, or from other free access databases. The GLORIA project develops free standards, protocols and tools for controlling Robotic Telescopes and related instrumentation, for scheduling observations in the telescope network, and for conducting so-called off-line experiments based on the analysis of astronomical data. This contribution summarizes the implementation and results from the first research level off-line demonstrator experiment implemented in GLORIA, which was based on data collected with the “Pi of the Sky” telescope in Chile.

  2. Off-line electronic cash based on secret-key certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Brands (Stefan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAn off-line electronic coin system is presented that offers multi-party security and unconditional privacy of payments. The system improves significantly on the efficiency of the previously most efficient such system known in the literature, due to application of a recently proposed

  3. Paleo Data Assimilation of Pseudo-Tree-Ring-Width Chronologies in a Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Hassanabadi, B.; Acevedo, W.; Reich, S.; Cubasch, U.

    2016-12-01

    Using the Time-Averaged Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) and a forward model, we assimilate the pseudo Tree-Ring-Width (TRW) chronologies into an Atmospheric Global Circulation model. This study investigates several aspects of Paleo-Data Assimilation (PDA) within a perfect-model set-up: (i) we test the performance of several forward operators in the framework of a PDA-based climate reconstruction, (ii) compare the PDA-based simulations' skill against the free ensemble runs and (iii) inverstigate the skill of the "online" (with cycling) DA and the "off-line" (no-cycling) DA. In our experiments, the "online" (with cycling) PDA approach did not outperform the "off-line" (no-cycling) one, despite its considerable additional implementation complexity. On the other hand, it was observed that the error reduction achieved by assimilating a particular pseudo-TRW chronology is modulated by the strength of the yearly internal variability of the model at the chronology site. This result might help the dendrochronology community to optimize their sampling efforts.

  4. Berkeley Off-line Radioisotope Generator (BORG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudowe, Ralf; Patin, Joshua B.

    2001-01-01

    Development of chemical separations for the transactinides has traditionally been performed with longer-lived tracer activities purchased commercially. With these long-lived tracers, there is always the potential problem that the tracer atoms are not always in the same chemical form as the short-lived atoms produced in on-line experiments. This problem is especially severe for elements in groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, where hydrolysis is present. The long-lived tracers usually are stored with a complexing agent to prevent sorption or precipitation. Chemistry experiments performed with these long-lived tracers are therefore not analogous to those chemical experiments performed in on-line experiments. One way to eliminate the differences between off-line and on-line chemistry experiments is through the use of a 252 Cf fission fragment collection device. A 252 Cf fission fragment collection device has already been constructed [1]. This device is limited in its capabilities. A new fission fragment device would allow the study of the chemical properties of the homologues of the heaviest elements. This new device would be capable of producing fission fragments for fast gas chemistry and aqueous chemistry experiments, long-lived tracers for model system development and neutrons for neutron activation. Fission fragment activities produced in this way should have the same chemical form as those produced in Cyclotron irradiations. The simple operation of this source will allow more rapid and reliable development of radiochemical separations with homologues of transactinide elements

  5. Formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of SRAT and SME in DWPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model for the formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mixed Evaporator (SME) in DWPF has been developed. The formation rate of ammonium nitrate in the off-gas line depends on pH, temperature, volume and total concentration of ammonia and ammonium ion. Based on a typical SRAT and SME cycle in DWPF, this model predicts the SRAT contributes about 50 lbs of ammonium nitrate while SME contributes about 60 lbs of ammonium nitrate to the off-gas line

  6. Critical comparison of the on-line and off-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of patulin coupled with liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotská, Ivona; Holznerová, Anežka; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2017-12-01

    Reaching trace amounts of mycotoxin contamination requires sensitive and selective analytical tools for their determination. Improving the selectivity of sample pretreatment steps covering new and modern extraction techniques is one way to achieve it. Molecularly imprinted polymers as selective sorbent for extraction undoubtedly meet these criteria. The presented work is focused on the hyphenation of on-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction with a chromatography system using a column-switching approach. Making a critical comparison with a simultaneously developed off-line extraction procedure, evaluation of pros and cons of each method, and determining the reliability of both methods on a real sample analysis were carried out. Both high-performance liquid chromatography methods, using off-line extraction on molecularly imprinted polymer and an on-line column-switching approach, were validated, and the validation results were compared against each other. Although automation leads to significant time savings, fewer human errors, and required no handling of toxic solvents, it reached worse detection limits (15 versus 6 μg/L), worse recovery values (68.3-123.5 versus 81.2-109.9%), and worse efficiency throughout the entire clean-up process in comparison with the off-line extraction method. The difficulties encountered, the compromises made during the optimization of on-line coupling and their critical evaluation are presented in detail. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Off-shell amplitudes as boundary integrals of analytically continued Wilson line slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotko, P.; Serino, M.; Staśto, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the methods to calculate tree-level multi-gluon scattering amplitudes is to use the Berends-Giele recursion relation involving off-shell currents or off-shell amplitudes, if working in the light cone gauge. As shown in recent works using the light-front perturbation theory, solutions to these recursions naturally collapse into gauge invariant and gauge-dependent components, at least for some helicity configurations. In this work, we show that such structure is helicity independent and emerges from analytic properties of matrix elements of Wilson line operators, where the slope of the straight gauge path is shifted in a certain complex direction. This is similar to the procedure leading to the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion, however we apply a complex shift to the Wilson line slope instead of the external momenta. While in the original BCFW procedure the boundary integrals over the complex shift vanish for certain deformations, here they are non-zero and are equal to the off-shell amplitudes. The main result can thus be summarized as follows: we derive a decomposition of a helicity-fixed off-shell current into gauge invariant component given by a matrix element of a straight Wilson line plus a reminder given by a sum of products of gauge invariant and gauge dependent quantities. We give several examples realizing this relation, including the five-point next-to-MHV helicity configuration.

  8. Laser based thermo-conductometry as an approach to determine ribbon solid fraction off-line and in-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedey, Raphael; Šibanc, Rok; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-06-06

    Ribbon solid fraction is one of the most important quality attributes during roll compaction/dry granulation. Accurate and precise determination is challenging and no in-line measurement tool has been generally accepted, yet. In this study, a new analytical tool with potential off-line as well as in-line applicability is described. It is based on the thermo-conductivity of the compacted material, which is known to depend on the solid fraction. A laser diode was used to punctually heat the ribbon and the heat propagation monitored by infrared thermography. After performing a Gaussian fit of the transverse ribbon profile, the scale parameter σ showed correlation to ribbon solid fraction in off-line as well as in-line studies. Accurate predictions of the solid fraction were possible for a relevant range of process settings. Drug stability was not affected, as could be demonstrated for the model drug nifedipine. The application of this technique was limited when using certain fillers and working at higher roll speeds. This study showed the potentials of this new technique and is a starting point for additional work that has to be done to overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumo de pornografía on-line y off-line en adolescentes colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de medios de comunicación se ha incrementado notablemente en los últimos años. Una consecuencia no deseada de ello es la proliferación de consumos de riesgo, como es el caso de la pornografía on-line y off-line. Aunque la literatura ha señalado una serie de variables predictoras (edad, género, etnia, nivel socioeconómico o estructura familiar, estudios recientes han sugerido incluir los valores y los estilos de vida como factores asociados a las decisiones de consumo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue examinar si los estilos de vida relacionales de los adolescentes son predictores relevantes del consumo de pornografía tanto en Internet como en revistas o vídeos. Se empleó un diseño observacional transversal que incluyó una muestra representativa de 9.942 adolescentes colombianos (Medad=14,93, DT=2,47. Los estilos de vida, controlando el efecto de variables sociodemográficas, estructurales e individuales, fueron sometidos a un análisis de regresión múltiple y a un análisis de mediación. Los resultados indicaron que el estilo intrafamiliar positivo estuvo asociado con una reducción en el consumo de pornografía, sin embargo, tanto el estilo intrafamiliar negativo como el de independencia relacional incrementan el mismo. Además se propone que los estilos relacionales familiares pueden mediar la relación entre los valores positivos y el comportamiento de riesgo on-line y off-line. Finalmente, se realiza una discusión de los resultados desde la perspectiva relacional y su aplicación en programas de educación mediática.

  10. Projection systems with a cut-off line for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    2005-08-01

    The lighting systems of a car provide a variety of challenges from the point of view of illumination science and technology. Engineering work in this field has to deal both with reflector and lens design as well as with opto-mechanical design and sensor technology. It has direct implications on traffic safety and the efficiency in which energy is used. Therefore, these systems are continuously improved and optimized. In this context, adaptive systems that we investigate for automotive applications gain increasing importance. The properties of the light distribution in the vicinity of the cut-off line are of key importance for the safe and efficient operation of automotive headlamps. An alternative approach is proposed to refine the description of these properties in an attempt to make it more quantitative. This description is intended to facilitate intercomparison between different systems and/or to study environmental influences on the cut-off line of a system under investigation. Designing projection systems it is necessary to take a delicate trade-off between efficiency, light-distribution characteristics, mechanical boundary conditions, and legal requirements into account. Considerations and results on optical properties of three-axial reflectors in dependence of layout parameters will be given. They can serve as a guideline for the optical workshop and for free-form optimization.

  11. The effect of prosthetic foot push-off on mechanical loading associated with knee osteoarthritis in lower extremity amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenroth, David C; Segal, Ava D; Zelik, Karl E; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Klute, Glenn K; Adamczyk, Peter G; Orendurff, Michael S; Hahn, Michael E; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Art D

    2011-10-01

    Lower extremity amputation not only limits mobility, but also increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis of the intact limb. Dynamic walking models of non-amputees suggest that pushing-off from the trailing limb can reduce collision forces on the leading limb. These collision forces may determine the peak knee external adduction moment (EAM), which has been linked to the development of knee OA in the general population. We therefore hypothesized that greater prosthetic push-off would lead to reduced loading and knee EAM of the intact limb in unilateral transtibial amputees. Seven unilateral transtibial amputees were studied during gait under three prosthetic foot conditions that were intended to vary push-off. Prosthetic foot-ankle push-off work, intact limb knee EAM and ground reaction impulses for both limbs during step-to-step transition were measured. Overall, trailing limb prosthetic push-off work was negatively correlated with leading intact limb 1st peak knee EAM (slope=-.72±.22; p=.011). Prosthetic push-off work and 1st peak intact knee EAM varied significantly with foot type. The prosthetic foot condition with the least push-off demonstrated the largest knee EAM, which was reduced by 26% with the prosthetic foot producing the most push-off. Trailing prosthetic limb push-off impulse was negatively correlated with leading intact limb loading impulse (slope=-.34±.14; p=.001), which may help explain how prosthetic limb push-off can affect intact limb loading. Prosthetic feet that perform more prosthetic push-off appear to be associated with a reduction in 1st peak intact knee EAM, and their use could potentially reduce the risk and burden of knee osteoarthritis in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Force-velocity properties' contribution to bilateral deficit during ballistic push-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samozino, Pierre; Rejc, Enrico; di Prampero, Pietro Enrico; Belli, Alain; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the contribution of the force-velocity (F-v) properties to bilateral force deficit (BLD) in ballistic lower limb push-off and to relate it to individual F-v mechanical properties of the lower limbs. The F-v relation was individually assessed from mechanical measurements for 14 subjects during maximal ballistic lower limb push-offs; its contribution to BLD was then investigated using a theoretical macroscopic approach, considering both the mechanical constraints of movement dynamics and the maximal external capabilities of the lower limb neuromuscular system. During ballistic lower limb push-off, the maximum force each lower limb can produce was lower during bilateral than unilateral actions, thus leading to a BLD of 36.7% ± 5.7%. The decrease in force due to the F-v mechanical properties amounted to 19.9% ± 3.6% of the force developed during BL push-offs, which represents a nonneural contribution to BLD of 43.5% ± 9.1%. This contribution to BLD that cannot be attributed to changes in neural features was negatively correlated to the maximum unloaded extension velocity of the lower limb (r = -0.977, P push-off, BLD is due to both neural alterations and F-v mechanical properties, the latter being associated with the change in movement velocity between bilateral and unilateral actions. The level of the contribution of the F-v properties depends on the individual F-v mechanical profile of the entire lower limb neuromuscular system: the more the F-v profile is oriented toward velocity capabilities, the lower the loss of force from unilateral to bilateral push-offs due to changes in movement velocity.

  13. Feasibility study of BES data off-line processing and D/Ds physics analysis on a PC/Linux platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Gang; He Kanglin; Heng Yuekun; Zhang Chun; Liu Huaimin; Cheng Baosen; Yan Wuguang; Mai Jimao; Zhao Haiwen

    2000-01-01

    The authors report a feasibility study of BES data off-line processing (BES data off-line reconstruction and Monte Carlo simulation) and D/Ds physics analysis on a PC/Linux platform. The authors compared the results obtained from the PC/Linux with that from HP/UNIX workstation. It shows that PC/Linux platform can do BES data off-line analysis as good as HP/UNIX workstation, and is much powerful and economical

  14. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the

  15. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  16. Wilson lines, Grassmannians and gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes in N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bork, L.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow (Russian Federation); The Center for Fundamental and Applied Research,All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Onishchenko, A.I. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology State University,Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University,Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-04

    In this paper we consider tree-level gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes (Wilson line form factors) in N=4 SYM. For the off-shell amplitudes with one leg off-shell we present a conjecture for their Grassmannian integral representation in spinor helicity, twistor and momentum twistor parameterizations. The presented conjecture is successfully checked against BCFW results for MHV{sub n}, NMHV{sub 4} and NMHV{sub 5} off-shell amplitudes. We have also verified that our Grassmannian integral representation correctly reproduces soft (on-shell) limit for the off-shell gluon momentum. It is shown that the (deformed) off-shell amplitude expressions could be also obtained using quantum inverse scattering method for auxiliary gl(4|4) super spin chain.

  17. An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000cm{sup -1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, F. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: frank.hase@imk.fzk.de; Demoulin, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, allee du VI aout, 17, batiment B5a, B-4000, Liege (Belgium); Sauval, A.J. [Observatoire Royal de Belgique, avenue circulaire, 3, B-1180, Bruxelles (Belgium); Toon, G.C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bernath, P.F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L3G1 (Canada); Goldman, A. [Department of Physics, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Hannigan, J.W. [Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Rinsland, C.P. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum is presented. The model can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes to allow fast calculation of all relevant emission and absorption features in the solar spectrum in the mid-infrared region from 700 to 5000cm{sup -1}. The transmittance is modelled as a function of the diameter of the field-of-view centered on the solar disk: the line broadening due to solar rotation as well as center-to-limb variations in strength and width are taken into account for stronger lines. Applications of the model presented here are in the fields of terrestrial remote sensing in the mid-infrared spectral region when the sun is used as radiation source or scattered solar radiation contributes to the measured signal and in the fields of atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms which compute the propagation of infrared solar radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere.

  18. Spectral line profile analysis for evaluation of Gaussian and Lorentzian widths and collisional broadening coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhate, S.G.; Ahmad, S.A.; Pushpa; Rao, M.; Saksena, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    Deconvolution of atomic line profiles, recorded on PC interfaced recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer, into its Lorentzian and Gaussian component has been carried out. Effect of various parameters of hollow cathode discharge lamp (light source) such as discharge current, bath temperature and gas pressure on Lorentzian and Gaussian width has been studied. The value of the self-broadening coefficient for neon-neon atomic interaction for the transition 2p 5 4P-2P 5 3s (λ=3472.571 A) has been determined. (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Off-Design Considerations through the Properties of Some Pressure-Ratio Line of Radial Inflow Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Binder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial turbines are commonly used in applications involving operation through severe off-design conditions. The emergence of variable-geometry systems leads to the distinction between two off-design concepts: operational and geometric off-designs. Both of these operating constraints should be integrated in the design procedure. Recent developments in prediction and optimization methods allowed such an integration, but involving complex algorithms is coupled with semiempiric loss models. This paper provides a basis to obtain simple information from an existing or predesigned machine, for both operational and geometric off-design conditions. An alternative turbine map is defined using loading and flow coefficients. A one-dimensional analysis shows that the constant pressure-ratio lines are straight lines whose slope is remarkably correlated with the pressure-ratio value and geometrical characteristics. This theoretical approach is validated against the experimentation of two machines, the linearity is observed in both cases. The direct influence of the stator configuration on the pressure-ratio lines confirms the applicability of this work to variable-geometry stages. A dimensionless cross-section of the stator is thus defined. However, the unexpected displacement of the intercept of the pressure-ratio lines limits the application field of this method. Nevertheless, a simple performance prediction analysis is proposed for blocked mass flow operation.

  20. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    2014-01-01

    Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off...... greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age......-related declines in motor skill learning are not produced exclusively by deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during practice. Aging also increases the susceptibility to memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice....

  1. Tactile Myography: An Off-Line Assessment of Able-Bodied Subjects and One Upper-Limb Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Castellini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Human-machine interfaces to control prosthetic devices still suffer from scarce dexterity and low reliability; for this reason, the community of assistive robotics is exploring novel solutions to the problem of myocontrol. In this work, we present experimental results pointing in the direction that one such method, namely Tactile Myography (TMG, can improve the situation. In particular, we use a shape-conformable high-resolution tactile bracelet wrapped around the forearm/residual limb to discriminate several wrist and finger activations performed by able-bodied subjects and a trans-radial amputee. Several combinations of features/classifiers were tested to discriminate among the activations. The balanced accuracy obtained by the best classifier/feature combination was on average 89.15% (able-bodied subjects and 88.72% (amputated subject; when considering wrist activations only, the results were on average 98.44% for the able-bodied subjects and 98.72% for the amputee. The results obtained from the amputee were comparable to those obtained by the able-bodied subjects. This suggests that TMG is a viable technique for myoprosthetic control, either as a replacement of or as a companion to traditional surface electromyography.

  2. Runge-Kutta Integration of the Equal Width Wave Equation Using the Method of Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Banaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The equal width (EW equation governs nonlinear wave phenomena like waves in shallow water. Numerical solution of the (EW equation is obtained by using the method of lines (MOL based on Runge-Kutta integration. Using von Neumann stability analysis, the scheme is found to be unconditionally stable. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the generated scheme. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the L2 and L∞ error norms. The results are found in good agreement with exact solution.

  3. Improvement in dose escalation using off-line and on-line image feedback in the intensity modulated beam design for prostate cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, D.; Birkner, M.; Nuesslin, F.; Wong, J.; Martinez, A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the capability of dose escalation in the IMRT process where the organ/patient temporal geometric variation, measured using either off-line or on-line treatment CT and portal images, are adapted for the optimal design of intensity modulated beam. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study was performed on five prostate cancer patients with multiple CT scans (14∼17/patient) and daily portal images obtained during the treatment course. These images were used to determine the displacements of each subvolume in the organs of interest caused by the daily patient setup and internal organ motion/deformation. The temporal geometric information was processed in order of treatment time and fed into an inverse planning system. The inverse planning engine was specifically implemented to adapt the design of intensity modulated beam to the temporal subvolume displacement and patient internal density changes. Three image feedback strategies were applied to each patient and evaluated with respect to the capability of safe dose escalation. The first one is off-line image feedback, which designs the beam intensity based on the patient images measured within the first week of treatment. The second is an on-line 'the target of the day' strategy, which designs the beam intensity in daily bases by using 'the image of the day' alone. The last one is also the on-line based. However, it designs the instantaneous beam intensity based on also dose distribution in each organ of interest received prior to the current treatment. For each of the treatment strategies, the minimum dose delivered to the CTV was determined by applying the identical normal tissue constraints of partial dose/volumes. This minimum dose was used to represent the treatment dose for each patient. Results: The off-line strategy appears feasible after 5 days of image feedback. The average treatment dose among the patients can be 10% higher than the one in the conventional IMRT treatment where the inverse

  4. Recalling ISX shot data files from the off-line archive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    This document describes a set of computer programs designed to allow access to ISX shot data files stored on off-line disk packs. The programs accept user requests for data files and build a queue of end requests. When an operator is available to mount the necessary disk packs, the system copies the requested files to an on-line disk area. The program runs on the Fusion Energy Division's DECsystem-10 computer. The request queue is implemented under the System 1022 data base management system. The support programs are coded in MACRO-10 and FORTRAN-10

  5. A tewlve detector coincidence spectrometer for on-line and off-line measurements of nuclear g-factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfter, I.; Bodenstedt, E.; Hamer, B.; Hoff, J. van den; Knichel, W.; Muenning, H.; Piel, S.; Schueth, J.; Sajok, R.

    1992-01-01

    A twelve detector γ-γ directional correlation setup is described which has been designed and constructed for high precision on-line and off-line IPAC measurements. A ring of twelve BaF 2 detectors which may be replaced by Ge detectors is arranged around a superconducting magnet providing a maximum magnetic field of 4.5 T. In on-line experiments the magnetic field has the direction of the beam which passes through a central bore of the magnet. The data acquisition system stores directly the Esub(γ 1 )-Esub(γ 2 ) coincidence matrices for all 66 two-detector combinations in two 8 Mbyte RAMs, one for each of the two field directions. This allows a very fast data evaluation with a small on-line computer. The apparatus got into operation one-and-a-halve years ago and revealed excellent properties. (orig.)

  6. Dynamic modelling, identification and simulation of industrial robots – for off-line programming of robotised laser welding –

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waiboer, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Robotised laser welding is an innovative joining technique which is increasingly finding applications, especially in the automotive industry. In order to reduce the time needed to prepare and programthe laser welding robot, off-line programming systems are used. The off-line programming systems

  7. Changes in corticospinal excitability during consolidation predict acute exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostadan, Fatemeh; Centeno, Carla; Daloze, Jean-Felix

    2016-01-01

    A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor task improves the long-term retention of the skill through an optimization of memory consolidation. However, the specific brain mechanisms underlying the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on procedural...... exercise correlated with the magnitude of off-line gains in skill level assessed in a retention test performed 8h after motor practice. A single bout of exercise modulates short-term neuroplasticity mechanisms subserving consolidation processes that predict off-line gains in procedural memory....... memory are poorly understood. We sought to determine if a single bout of exercise modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the early stages of memory consolidation. In addition, we investigated if changes in CSE are associated with exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory...

  8. SPHERE DAQ and off-line systems: implementation based on the qdpb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Design of the on-line data acquisition (DAQ) system for the SPHERE setup (LHE, JINR) is described. SPHERE DAQ is based on the qdpb (Data Processing with Branchpoints) system and configurable experimental data and CAMAC hardware representations. Implementation of the DAQ and off-line program code, depending on the SPHERE setup's hardware layout and experimental data contents, is explained as well as software modules specific for such implementation

  9. NARROW-LINE-WIDTH UV BURSTS IN THE TRANSITION REGION ABOVE SUNSPOTS OBSERVED BY IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Madjarska, Maria S.; Fu, Hui; Mou, Chaozhou; Xie, Haixia, E-mail: z.huang@sdu.edu.cn, E-mail: xld@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209 Shandong (China)

    2016-10-01

    Various small-scale structures abound in the solar atmosphere above active regions, playing an important role in the dynamics and evolution therein. We report on a new class of small-scale transition region structures in active regions, characterized by strong emissions but extremely narrow Si iv line profiles as found in observations taken with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Tentatively named as narrow-line-width UV bursts (NUBs), these structures are located above sunspots and comprise one or multiple compact bright cores at sub-arcsecond scales. We found six NUBs in two data sets (a raster and a sit-and-stare data set). Among these, four events are short-lived with a duration of ∼10 minutes, while two last for more than 36 minutes. All NUBs have Doppler shifts of 15–18 km s{sup −1}, while the NUB found in sit-and-stare data possesses an additional component at ∼50 km s{sup −1} found only in the C ii and Mg ii lines. Given that these events are found to play a role in the local dynamics, it is important to further investigate the physical mechanisms that generate these phenomena and their role in the mass transport in sunspots.

  10. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalia, Giulia; Coelli, Stefania; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting "building blocks" into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis.

  11. Recursion relations for multi-gluon off-shell amplitudes on the light-front and Wilson lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the off-shell scattering amplitudes in the framework of the light-front perturbation theory. It is shown that the previously derived recursion relation between tree level off-shell amplitudes in this formalism actually resums whole classes of graphs into a Wilson line. More precisely, we establish a correspondence between the light-front methods for the computation of the off-shell amplitudes and the approach which makes use of the matrix elements of straight infinite Wilson lines, which are manifestly gauge invariant objects. Furthermore, since it is needed to explicitly verify the gauge invariance of light-front amplitudes, it is demonstrated that the Ward identities in this framework need additional instantaneous terms in the light-front graphs.

  12. Accuracy and precision of equine gait event detection during walking with limb and trunk mounted inertial sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    The increased variations of temporal gait events when pathology is present are good candidate features for objective diagnostic tests. We hypothesised that the gait events hoof-on/off and stance can be detected accurately and precisely using features from trunk and distal limb-mounted Inertial....... Accuracy (bias) and precision (SD of bias) was calculated to compare force plate and IMU timings for gait events. Data were collected from seven horses. One hundred and twenty three (123) front limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was detected with a bias (SD) of -7 (23) ms, hoof-off with 0.7 (37) ms...... and front limb stance with -0.02 (37) ms. A total of 119 hind limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was found with a bias (SD) of -4 (25) ms, hoof-off with 6 (21) ms and hind limb stance with 0.2 (28) ms. IMUs mounted on the distal limbs and sacrum can detect gait events accurately and precisely....

  13. 1H line width dependence on MAS speed in solid state NMR - Comparison of experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Ulrich; Witter, Raiker; Kuprov, Ilya; Lamley, Jonathan M.; Oss, Andres; Lewandowski, Józef R.; Samoson, Ago

    2018-06-01

    Recent developments in magic angle spinning (MAS) technology permit spinning frequencies of ≥100 kHz. We examine the effect of such fast MAS rates upon nuclear magnetic resonance proton line widths in the multi-spin system of β-Asp-Ala crystal. We perform powder pattern simulations employing Fokker-Plank approach with periodic boundary conditions and 1H-chemical shift tensors calculated using the bond polarization theory. The theoretical predictions mirror well the experimental results. Both approaches demonstrate that homogeneous broadening has a linear-quadratic dependency on the inverse of the MAS spinning frequency and that, at the faster end of the spinning frequencies, the residual spectral line broadening becomes dominated by chemical shift distributions and susceptibility effects even for crystalline systems.

  14. Hemodynamic study of ischemic limb by velocity measurement in foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shionoya, S.; Hirai, M.; Kawai, S.; Ohta, T.; Seko, T.

    1981-01-01

    By means of a tracer technique with 99mTc-pertechnetate, provided with seven zonal regions of interest, 6 mm in width, placed at equal spaces of 18 mm, from the toe tip to the midfoot at a right angle to the long axis of the foot, arterial flow velocity in the foot during reactive hyperemia was measured. The mean velocity in the foot was 5.66 +/- 1.78 cm/sec in 14 normal limbs, 1.58 +/- 1.07 cm/sec in 29 limbs with distal thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), 0.89 +/- 0.61 cm/sec in 13 limbs with proximal TAO, and 0.97 +/- 0.85 cm/sec in 15 limbs with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). The velocity returned to normal in all 12 limbs after successful arterial reconstruction, whereas the foot or toe blood pressure remained pathologic in 9 of the 12 limbs postoperatively; the velocity reverted to normal in 4 of 13 limbs after lumbar sympathectomy. When the velocity was normalized after operation, the ulceration healed favorably, and the ischemic limb was salvaged. The most characteristic feature of peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity was a stagnation of arterial circulation in the foot, and the flow velocity in the foot was a sensitive predictive index of limb salvage

  15. Off-line data processing and display for computed tomographic images (EMI brain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masaomi; Maruyama, Kiyoshi; Yano, Kesato; Takenaka, Eiichi.

    1978-01-01

    Processing and multi-format display for the CT (EMI) scan data have been tried by using an off-line small computer and an analog memory. Four or six CT images after processing are displayed on the CRT by a small computer with a 16 kilo-words core memory and an analog memory. Multi-format display of the CT image can be selected as follows; multi-slice display, continuative multi-window display, separate multi-window display, and multi-window level display. Electronic zooming for the real size viewing can give magnified CT image with one of displayed images if necessary. Image substraction, edge enhancement, smoothing, non-linear gray scale display, and synthesized image for the plane tomography reconstracted by the normal CT scan data, have been tried by the off-line data processing. A possibility for an effective application of the data base with CT image was obtained by these trials. (auth.)

  16. Measuring the electron density in plasmas from the difference of Lorentzian part of the widths of two Balmer series hydrogen lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yubero, C. [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); García, M.C., E-mail: fa1gamam@uco.es [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Dimitrijevic, M.S. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Sola, A.; Gamero, A. [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    We present an alternative optical emission spectroscopy method to measure the plasma electron density from the difference of widths of two Balmer series hydrogen lines (H{sub α} and H{sub β}), especially convenient for non-thermal plasmas since with this method, there is no need to know either the gas temperature or the van der Waals contribution to the Lorentzian part of the line. In this paper it has been assumed that the part of full width at half maximum due to Stark broadening can be determined with the approximation of Lorentzian line shape. The method has been applied to the determination of the electron density in an argon microwave-induced plasma maintained at atmospheric pressure, and comparison with the results obtained using other diagnostic methods has been done. - Highlights: • An alternative method to measure the electron density in plasmas from two Balmer series hydrogen lines (H{sub α} and H{sub β}) is presented. • The method is very convenient for plasmas with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} and above, at low gas temperatures. • It has been applied to the determination of the electron density of an argon microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure. • Results from it are in good agreement with previous ones obtained using other diagnostic methods.

  17. C IV LINE-WIDTH ANOMALIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly Dianne; Pogge, R.W.; Assef, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of six high-redshift quasar spectra obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope with previous observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that failure to correctly identify absorption and other problems with accurate characterization of the CIV emission line profile in low S/N...

  18. The influence of Stark shift and plasma inhomogeneity on half width of self-absorbed line profiles in the plasma emission spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsalap, K.Yu.; Ershov-Pavlov, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Emission spectral line profiles are commonly used for the evaluation of local plasma parameters. The plasma parameters and local line profiles are related in a rather simple way: e.g. at quadratic Stark broadening, the local line half widths and shifts are proportional to the electron density. For homogeneous optically thin plasmas, there is no difference in the line profiles of plasma emission and emissivity spectra. However for inhomogeneous source, the profiles are different due to spatial dependence of electron density and plasma temperature: profiles in the plasma emission are a superposition of different local ones. A transition from the recorded to local profiles is usually performed by tomography techniques. As the result, the measurement procedure is getting slower and additional errors occurs. For transparent plasmas, an approach was developed to evaluate local profiles from as recorded spectra using relations found by modeling. However, for semi-transparent plasmas the relation between the recorded and local profiles is more complicated one. With the optical thickness t increase, profile half width Δλ in the plasma emission spectrum changes much comparing to the profile half width Δλ 0 in the spectrum of optically thin plasma. The ratio t h =Δλ/Δλ 0 on τ for dispersion profile and homogeneous plasma can be written as t h =(-1-τ/ln((1+e -τ )/2)) 1/2 . When Δλ and τ are known, the function allows obtaining Δλ 0 , i. e. reducing the problem to the transparent plasma diagnostics. However, the plasma is nearly always inhomogeneous and the value t depends significantly on plasma inhomogeneity and on Stark parameters ratio d/w. Here, the dependence t(τ) for plasmas of different inhomogeneity rates has been obtained by the numerical simulation. The radiation transfer equation has been solved to calculate the spectral line profiles for LTE-plasma of known composition and distribution of temperature along the observation line. The temperature

  19. Sleep parameters, functional status and time post-stroke are associated with off-line motor skill learning in people with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eSiengsukon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mounting evidence demonstrates that individuals with stroke benefit from sleep to enhance learning of a motor task. While stage NREM2 sleep and REM sleep have been associated with off-line motor skill learning in neurologically-intact individuals, it remains unknown which sleep parameters or specific sleep stages are associated with off-line motor skill learning in individuals with stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals with chronic stroke (> 6 months following stroke and 10 neurologically slept for three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Participants practiced a tracking task the morning before the third night and underwent a retention test the morning following the third night. Off-line learning on the tracking task was assessed. Pearson’s correlations assessed for associations between the magnitude of off-line learning and sleep variables, age, upper extremity motor function, stroke severity, depression and time since stroke occurrence.Results: Individuals with stroke performed with significantly less error on the tracking task following a night of sleep (p=.006 while the control participants did not (p=.816. Increased sleep efficiency (r= -.285, less time spent in stage NREM3 sleep (r=.260, and more time spent in stage REM sleep (r= -.266 was weakly-to-moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Furthermore, higher upper-extremity motor function (r = -.400, lower stroke severity (r = .360, and less time since stroke occurrence (r=.311 were moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Conclusion: This study is the first study to provide insight into which sleep stages and individual characteristics may be associated with off-line learning in people with stroke. Future work should continue to understand which factors or combination of factors promote off-line motor learning in people with neurologic injury to best promote motor recovery in

  20. A study of the growth for the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by photo-bio-calorimetry and other on-line and off-line techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patino, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Stockar, von U.

    2007-01-01

    Calorimetry and other on-line techniques are used for the first time as complement to the traditional off-line methods in order to follow the growth of the green Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. A 2-L photo-bio-reactor was adapted from a commercial calorimeter used previously to study heterotrophic

  1. Influence of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Gait Mechanics of the Replaced and Non-Replaced Limb During Stair Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standifird, Tyler W; Saxton, Arnold M; Coe, Dawn P; Cates, Harold E; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Songning

    2016-01-01

    This study compared biomechanics during stair ascent in replaced and non-replaced limbs of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with control limbs of healthy participants. Thirteen TKA patients and fifteen controls performed stair ascent. Replaced and non-replaced knees of TKA patients were less flexed at contact compared to controls. The loading response peak knee extension moment was greater in control and non-replaced knees compared with replaced. The push-off peak knee abduction moment was elevated in replaced limbs compared to controls. Loading and push-off peak hip abduction moments were greater in replaced limbs compared to controls. The push-off peak hip abduction moment was greater in non-replaced limbs compared to controls. Future rehabilitation protocols should consider the replaced knee and also the non-replaced knee and surrounding joints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Background matters: Minor vibratory stimulation during motor skill acquisition selectively reduces off-line memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Maria; Herling, Zohar; Levy, Ishay; Egbarieh, Nebal; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Karni, Avi

    2017-04-01

    Although a ubiquitous situation, it is not clear how effective is a learning experience when task-irrelevant, sensory noise occurs in the background. Here, young adults were trained on the finger opposition sequence task, in a well-established training and testing protocol affording measures for online as well as off-line learning. During the training session, one group experienced a minor background vibratory stimulation to the trunk by the means of vibrating cushion, while the second group experienced recorded sound vibrations. A control group was trained with no extra sensory stimulation. Sensory stimulation during training had no effect on the online within-session gains, but dampened the expression of the off-line, consolidation phase, gains in the two sensory stimulation groups. These results suggest that background sensory stimulation can selectively modify off-line, procedural memory consolidation processes, despite well-preserved on-line learning. Classical studies have shown that neural plasticity in sensory systems is modulated by motor input. The current results extend this notion and suggest that some types of task-irrelevant sensory stimulation, concurrent with motor training, may constitute a 'gating' factor - modulating the triggering of long-term procedural memory consolidation processes. Thus, vibratory stimulation may be considered as a behavioral counterpart of pharmacological interventions that do not interfere with short term neural plasticity but block long-term plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Fourier transform method for Vsin i estimations under nonlinear Limb-Darkening laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenhagen, R. S., E-mail: ronaldo.levenhagen@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Depto. Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Rua Prof. Arthur Riedel, 275, Jd. Eldorado, CEP 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    Star rotation offers us a large horizon for the study of many important physical issues pertaining to stellar evolution. Currently, four methods are widely used to infer rotation velocities, namely those related to line width calibrations, on the fitting of synthetic spectra, interferometry, and on Fourier transforms (FTs) of line profiles. Almost all of the estimations of stellar projected rotation velocities using the Fourier method in the literature have been addressed with the use of linear limb-darkening (LD) approximations during the evaluation of rotation profiles and their cosine FTs, which in certain cases, lead to discrepant velocity estimates. In this work, we introduce new mathematical expressions of rotation profiles and their Fourier cosine transforms assuming three nonlinear LD laws—quadratic, square-root, and logarithmic—and study their applications with and without gravity-darkening (GD) and geometrical flattening (GF) effects. Through an analysis of He I models in the visible range accounting for both limb and GD, we find out that, for classical models without rotationally driven effects, all the Vsin i values are too close to each other. On the other hand, taking into account GD and GF, the Vsin i obtained with the linear law result in Vsin i values that are systematically smaller than those obtained with the other laws. As a rule of thumb, we apply these expressions to the FT method to evaluate the projected rotation velocity of the emission B-type star Achernar (α Eri).

  4. Impulse response measurements with an off-line cross correlator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.

    1963-11-01

    The impulse responses of simulated systems have been computed by off-line cross-correlation of the system input and output signals. The input test signal consisted of a discrete interval binary code whose autocorrelation was a triangular pulse at zero lag. The main object of the experiments was to study the inaccuracies introduced in ideal, noise free systems by determining the impulse response digitally from sampled versions of the system input and output signals. A second object was to determine the error introduced by adding controlled amounts of uncorrelated noise at the system outputs. The experimental results showed that for signal to noise ratios greater than 10:1 in the mean square sense, the impulse responses may be determined with reasonable accuracy using only one cycle of the binary code. The method lends itself to on-line computation of system impulse responses. The latter could be used to monitor the stability of the system or to determine control parameters in an adaptive control system. (author)

  5. Impulse response measurements with an off-line cross correlator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corran, E R; Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    The impulse responses of simulated systems have been computed by off-line cross-correlation of the system input and output signals. The input test signal consisted of a discrete interval binary code whose autocorrelation was a triangular pulse at zero lag. The main object of the experiments was to study the inaccuracies introduced in ideal, noise free systems by determining the impulse response digitally from sampled versions of the system input and output signals. A second object was to determine the error introduced by adding controlled amounts of uncorrelated noise at the system outputs. The experimental results showed that for signal to noise ratios greater than 10:1 in the mean square sense, the impulse responses may be determined with reasonable accuracy using only one cycle of the binary code. The method lends itself to on-line computation of system impulse responses. The latter could be used to monitor the stability of the system or to determine control parameters in an adaptive control system. (author)

  6. Size characterization of airborne SiO2 nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A.; Dirscherl, K.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Popov, I.; Popov, O.; Kuselman, I.; Takahata, K.; Ehara, K.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F.; Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Chu, M. C.; Guardado, J. A.; Salas, A.; Capannelli, G.; Costa, C.; Bostrom, T.; Jämting, Å. K.; Lawn, M. A.; Adlem, L.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.

    2013-10-01

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO2 airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34—"Properties of Nanoparticle Populations" of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 "Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles". Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2-46.6 nm and 80.2-89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO2 nanoparticles characterization are proposed.

  7. Size characterization of airborne SiO2 nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A.; Dirscherl, K.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Popov, I.; Popov, O.; Kuselman, I.; Takahata, K.; Ehara, K.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F.; Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO 2 airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34—“Properties of Nanoparticle Populations” of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 “Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles”. Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2–46.6 nm and 80.2–89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO 2 nanoparticles characterization are proposed

  8. Off-Line and Dynamic Production Scheduling – A Comparative Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bożek Andrzej; Wysocki Marian

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive case study of manufacturing scheduling solutions development is given. It includes highly generalized scheduling problem as well as a few scheduling modes, methods and problem models. The considered problem combines flexible job shop structure, lot streaming with variable sublots, transport times, setup times, and machine calendars. Tabu search metaheuristic and constraint programming methods have been used for the off-line scheduling. Two dynamic scheduling methods have also ...

  9. The Dependence of Solar Flare Limb Darkening on Emission Peak Formation Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward; Epp, Luke; Eparvier, Francis; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2017-08-01

    Solar limb effects are local brightening or darkening of an emission that depend on where in the Sun's atmosphere it forms. Near the solar limb, optically thick (thin) emissions will darken (brighten) as the column of absorbers (emitters) along the line-of-sight increases. Note that in limb brightening, emission sources are re-arranged whereas in limb darkening they are obscured. Thus, only limb darkening is expected to occur in disk integrated observations. Limb darkening also results in center-to-limb variations of disk-integrated solar flare spectra, with important consequences for how planetary atmospheres are affected by flares. Flares are typically characterized by their flux in the optically thin 0.1-0.8 nm band measured by the X-ray Sensor (XRS) on board the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). On the other hand, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) line emissions can limb darken because they are sensitive to resonant scattering, resulting in a flare's location on the solar disk controlling the amount of ionizing radiation that reaches a planet. For example, an X-class flare originating from disk center may significantly heat a planet's thermosphere, whereas the same flare originating near the limb may have no effect because much of the effective emissions are scattered in the solar corona.To advance the relatively poor understanding of flare limb darkening, we use over 300 M-class or larger flares observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to characterize limb darkening as a function of emission peak formation temperature, Tf. For hot coronal emissions (Tf>2 MK), these results show a linear relationship between the degree of limb darkening and Tf where lines with Tf=2 MK darken approximately 7 times more than lines with Tf=16 MK. Because the extent of limb darkening is dependent on the height of the source plasma, we use simple Beer-Lambert radiative transfer analysis to interpret these results

  10. Recording Delphi off-line production activity in a meta-database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, L.I.; Souza, M.J. de

    1990-01-01

    The Delphi experiment is expected to produce event data at a maximum rate of 50 cartridges per day of 200 Mbytes each. The resulting 'raw' data pass by several off-line processing steps, generating additional volume of data of different kinds. Moreover, movement and copies of data volumes manipulated by the researchers working in their home laboratories must be controlled. The (meta) data describing those real events as well as the large volume of simulated Monte Carlo data, constitute a meta-database, object of our work

  11. Numerical Analysis of Through Transmission Pulsed Eddy Current Testing and Effects of Pulse Width Variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Kil; Choi, Dong Myung

    2007-01-01

    By using numerical analysis methods, through transmission type pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing is modeled and PEC signal responses due to varying material conductivity, permeability, thickness, lift-off and pulse width are investigated. Results show that the peak amplitude of PEC signal gets reduced and the time to reach the peak amplitude is increased as the material conductivity, permeability, and specimen thickness increase. Also, they indicate that the pulse width needs to be shorter when evaluating the material conductivity and the plate thickness using the peak amplitude, and when the pulse width is long, the peak time is found to be more useful. Other results related to lift-off variation are reported as well

  12. Theoretical Studies of Spectroscopic Line Mixing in Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of collisional transfer of intensity due to line mixing has an increasing importance for atmospheric monitoring. From a theoretical point of view, all relevant information about the collisional processes is contained in the relaxation matrix where the diagonal elements give half-widths and shifts, and the off-diagonal elements correspond to line interferences. For simple systems such as those consisting of diatom-atom or diatom-diatom, accurate fully quantum calculations based on interaction potentials are feasible. However, fully quantum calculations become unrealistic for more complex systems. On the other hand, the semi-classical Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism, which has been widely used to calculate half-widths and shifts for decades, fails in calculating the off-diagonal matrix elements. As a result, in order to simulate atmospheric spectra where the effects from line mixing are important, semi-empirical fitting or scaling laws such as the ECS and IOS models are commonly used. Recently, while scrutinizing the development of the RB formalism, we have found that these authors applied the isolated line approximation in their evaluating matrix elements of the Liouville scattering operator given in exponential form. Since the criterion of this assumption is so stringent, it is not valid for many systems of interest in atmospheric applications. Furthermore, it is this assumption that blocks the possibility to calculate the whole relaxation matrix at all. By eliminating this unjustified application, and accurately evaluating matrix elements of the exponential operators, we have developed a more capable formalism. With this new formalism, we are now able not only to reduce uncertainties for calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to remove a once insurmountable obstacle to calculate the whole relaxation matrix. This implies that we can address the line mixing with the semi-classical theory based on interaction potentials between molecular absorber and

  13. A trade-off between length and width in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2016), s. 1-14 ISSN 1557-2862 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : proof complexity * resolution * trade-off Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http:// toc .nada.kth.se/ articles /v012a005/index.html

  14. Narrowing beam-walking is a clinically feasible approach for assessing balance ability in lower-limb prosthesis users

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sawers; Brian J. Hafner

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Challenging clinical balance tests are needed to expose balance deficits in lower-limb prost-hesis users. This study examined whether narrowing beam-walking could overcome conceptual and practical limitations identified in fixed-width beam-walking. Design: Cross-sectional. Participants: Unilateral lower-limb prosthesis users. Methods: Participants walked 10 times along a low, narrowing beam. Performance was quantified using the normalize...

  15. Online or off-line victimisation and psychological well-being: a comparison of sexual-minority and heterosexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths' exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority adolescents reported a greater rate of sexual abuse, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment, compared to heterosexual youth. When compared to non-victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised heterosexual adolescents and non-victimised and victimised sexual-minority adolescents reported more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence. Same-sex sexual orientation was related to more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence even when controlled for victimisation and gender. Compared to victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised sexual-minority adolescents were more likely to seek support because of sexual abuse (females) or Internet-related problems (males and females). Results for sexual-minority youth were basically the same whether sexual orientation was assessed as sexual identity or as sexual or emotional attraction. Health care providers are challenged to not only provide the same care to sexual-minority youth who seek counselling or psychiatric treatment for mental health problems or problems related to victimisation that all adolescents should receive but also to find ways to address topics like prevention of sexual abuse and risk-taking behaviour online or off-line.

  16. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  17. Air-photo based change in channel width in the Minnesota River basin: Modes of adjustment and implications for sediment budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley Lauer, J.; Echterling, Caitlyn; Lenhart, Christian; Belmont, Patrick; Rausch, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The Minnesota River and major tributaries have experienced large increases in discharge over the past century. Aerial photograph-based measurements of channel width were made for the 1938-2015 period at 16 multibend subreaches by digitizing the area between vegetation lines and dividing by centerline length. Results show considerable increases in width for the main stem (0.62 ± 0.10%/y) and major tributaries (0.31 ± 0.08%/y) but are inconclusive for smaller channels (width Digital elevation model analysis and regional hydraulic geometry show that the main stem and larger tributaries account for the vast majority ( 85%) of bankfull channel volume. High-order channels are thus disproportionately responsible for sediment production through cross section enlargement, although floodplains or off-channel water bodies adjacent to these channels likely represent important sediment sinks. Because channel enlargement can play an important role in sediment production, it should be considered in sediment reduction strategies in the Minnesota River basin and carefully evaluated in other watersheds undergoing long-term increases in discharge.

  18. Off-line tests of superconducting resonators of the JAERI tandem booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Michihiro; Ishii, Tetsuro; Takeuchi, Suehiro

    1993-01-01

    The JAERI tandem booster linac, which consists of 46 superconducting quarter wave resonators, is under construction. Off-line tests for resonators were performed. Accelerating field levels of 7MV/m were obtained at an rf input of 4W with most resonators. A maximum field level of 12.7MV/m was obtained. The Q-value was degraded when resonators were cooled down slowly around a temperature of 120K. We investigated this phenomenon by changing the cooling rate. (author)

  19. The effects of lane width, shoulder width, and road cross-sectional reallocation on drivers' behavioral adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecheri, Sami; Rosey, Florence; Lobjois, Régis

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has shown that lane-width reduction makes drivers operate vehicles closer to the center of the road whereas hard-shoulder widening induces a position farther away from the road's center. The goal of the present driving-simulator study was twofold. First, it was aimed at further investigating the respective effects of lane and shoulder width on in-lane positioning strategies, by examining vehicle distance from the center of the lane. The second aim was to assess the impact on safety of three possible cross-sectional reallocations of the width of the road (i.e., three lane-width reductions with concomitant shoulder widening at a fixed cross-sectional width) as compared to a control road. The results confirmed that lane-width reduction made participants drive closer to the road's center. However, in-lane position was affected differently by lane narrowing, depending on the traffic situation. In the absence of oncoming traffic, lane narrowing gave rise to significant shifts in the car's distance from the lane's center toward the edge line, whereas this distance remained similar across lane widths during traffic periods. When the shoulders were at least 0.50m wide, participants drove farther away from both the road center and the lane center. Road reallocation operations resulted in vehicles positioned farther away from the edge of the road and less swerving behavior, without generating higher driving speeds. Finally, it is argued that road-space reallocation may serve as a good low-cost tool for providing a recovery area for steering errors, without impairing drivers' behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical Stark widths and shifts of spectral lines of 2p5nf and 2p55g configurations of Mg III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Díaz, Cristina; Alonso-Medina, Aurelia; Colón, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, which corresponds to 111 spectral lines of Mg III. The values of these Stark broadening parameters of spectral lines that arise from levels of 2p 5 nf and 2p 5 5g configurations of Mg III are presented in the literature for the first time. The aim of this work is to provide values to estimate the electron density of plasma Mg III in astrophysics and industrial applications. The data are presented for the temperatures T = 0.5–10.0 (10 4 K) and for an electron density of 10 17 cm −3 . The matrix of elements used in these calculations has been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s 2 2p 6 , 2s 2 2p 5 3p, 2s 2 2p 5 4p, 2s 2 2p 5 4f and 2s 2 2p 5 5f for the even parity and 2s 2 2p 5 ns (n = 3–6), 2s 2 2p 5 nd (n = 3–9), 2s 2 2p 5 5g and 2s2p 6 np (n = 3–8) for the odd parity. For the intermediate coupling calculations, we use the standard method of least square fitting from experimental energy levels by means of Cowan’s computer code. Lines with wavelengths of 134.6460, 135.2800, 189.0380, 190.0043, 192.8424, 408.2939 and 409.4375 nm have high probabilities and also have high values of broadening. Therefore, these lines can be used in some applications. A common regularity for the Stark width of the 189.038 nm spectral line of Mg III is discussed. (paper)

  1. Stark width regularities within spectral series of the lithium isoelectronic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapalaga, Irinel; Trklja, Nora; Dojčinović, Ivan P.; Purić, Jagoš

    2018-03-01

    Stark width regularities within spectral series of the lithium isoelectronic sequence have been studied in an approach that includes both neutrals and ions. The influence of environmental conditions and certain atomic parameters on the Stark widths of spectral lines has been investigated. This study gives a simple model for the calculation of Stark broadening data for spectral lines within the lithium isoelectronic sequence. The proposed model requires fewer parameters than any other model. The obtained relations were used for predictions of Stark widths for transitions that have not yet been measured or calculated. In the framework of the present research, three algorithms for fast data processing have been made and they enable quality control and provide verification of the theoretically calculated results.

  2. Bone growth, limb proportions and non-specific stress in archaeological populations from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, R; Timpson, A; Thomas, M; Slaus, M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of environmental factors and, in particular, non-specific stress on the growth patterns of limbs and other body dimensions of children from past populations is not well understood. This study assesses whether growth of mediaeval and post-mediaeval children aged between 0-11.5 years from Adriatic (coastal) and continental Croatia varies by region and by the prevalence and type of non-specific stress. Dental ages were estimated using the Moorrees, Fanning and Hunt (MFH) scoring method. Growth of long bone diaphyses (femur, tibia, humerus, radius and ulna) was assessed by using a composite Z-score statistic (CZS). Clavicular length was measured as a proxy for upper trunk width, distal metaphyseal width of the femur was measured as a proxy for body mass and upper and lower intra-limb indices were calculated. Differences between sub-sets sampled by (a) region and (b) active vs healed non-specific stress indicators and (c) intra-limb indices were tested by Mann--Whitney U-tests and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Adriatic children attained larger dimensions-per-age than continental children. Children with healed stress lesions had larger dimensions-per-age than those with active lesions. No inter-regional difference was found in intra-limb indices. These findings highlight the complexity of growth patterns in past populations and indicate that variation in environmental conditions such as diet and differences in the nature of non-specific stress lesions both exert a significant effect on long bone growth.

  3. Neutral helium spectral lines in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, Banaz; Wierling, August; Roepke, Gerd; Guenter, Sibylle

    2006-01-01

    Shift and broadening of isolated neutral helium lines 7281 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 S), 7065 A ring (2 3 P-3 3 S), 6678 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 D), 5048 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 S), 4922 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 D), and 4713 A ring (2 3 P-4 3 S) in a dense plasma are investigated. Based on a quantum statistical theory, the electronic contributions to the shift and width are considered, using the method of thermodynamic Green functions. Dynamic screening of the electron-atom interaction is included. Compared to the width, the electronic shift is more affected by dynamical screening. This effect increases at high density. A cut-off procedure for strong collisions is used. The contribution of the ions is taken into account in a quasi-static approximation, with both the quadratic Stark effect and the quadrupole interaction included. The results for shift and width agree well with the available experimental and theoretical data

  4. Long-term results after primary infrapopliteal angioplasty for limb ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfke, H.; Marburg Univ.; Vannucchi, A.; Froelich, J.J.; Klinikum Bad Hersfeld; El-Sheik, M.; Wagner, H.J.; Vivantes-Klinikum im Friedrichshain

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical long-term results for patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty to treat critical chronic limb ischemia or severe claudication from 1/1997 to 12/1999. We excluded patients with acute (< 2 weeks) limb ischemia. Procedure-related data were prospectively documented in a database and analyzed with a focus on the technical success rate and procedure-related complications. In addition all clinical documents were analyzed, and a follow-up examination was performed or telephone interviews were conducted with patients, relatives and referring doctors for follow-up. The primary end points were the limb salvage rate and patient survival rate. The secondary end points included the complication rate, technical success rate, and walking distance. Results: 112 patients with a mean age of 72 years (41 women, 71 men) underwent crural angioplasty on 121 limbs. Four patients suffered from severe claudication (Rutherford category 3) and all others had critical chronic limb ischemia (category 4 to 6). The complication rate was 2.7 %. The technical success rate was 92 %. The ankle brachial index increased from 0.59 to 0.88. The mean walking distance increased significantly from 52 ± 66 to 284 ± 346 meters at the time of follow-up. The limb salvage rate was 83.6 % after one year and 81.1 % after three years. The mean survival rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 79.4 %, 69.2 %, and 54.2 % at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Patients with at least one patent run-off vessel after angioplasty had a significantly better limb salvage rate. Diabetes was not a risk factor for limb salvage. Conclusion: Infrapopliteal angioplasty shows a high technical success rate with an acceptable complication rate. The clinical long-term success seems favorable if a least one open run-off vessel was

  5. Size characterization of airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motzkus, C., E-mail: charles.motzkus@lne.fr; Mace, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE) (France); Dirscherl, K. [Danish Fundamental Metrology (DFM) (Denmark); Hodoroaba, V.-D. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Popov, I. [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Unit for Nanocharacterization (Israel); Popov, O.; Kuselman, I. [National Physical Laboratory of Israel (INPL) (Israel); Takahata, K.; Ehara, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) (Japan); Ausset, P.; Maille, M. [Universite Paris-Est Creteil et Universite Paris-Diderot, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), UMR CNRS 7583 (France); Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, LPMA (France); Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M. [Queensland University of Technology (QUT), International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health (ILAQH) (Australia); and others

    2013-10-15

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO{sub 2} airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34-'Properties of Nanoparticle Populations' of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 'Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles'. Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2-46.6 nm and 80.2-89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles characterization are proposed.

  6. Prosthetic ankle push-off work reduces metabolic rate but not collision work in non-amputee walking

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Joshua M.; Collins, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with unilateral below-knee amputation expend more energy than non-amputees during walking and exhibit reduced push-off work and increased hip work in the affected limb. Simple dynamic models of walking suggest a possible solution, predicting that increasing prosthetic ankle push-off should decrease leading limb collision, thereby reducing overall energy requirements. We conducted a rigorous experimental test of this idea wherein ankle-foot prosthesis push-off work was incrementall...

  7. High speed phase retrieval of in-line holograms by the assistance of corresponding off-axis holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzó, László

    2015-06-29

    Retrieving correct phase information from an in-line hologram is difficult as the object wave field and the diffractions of the zero order and the conjugate object term overlap. The existing iterative numerical phase retrieval methods are slow, especially in the case of high Fresnel number systems. Conversely, the reconstruction of the object wave field from an off-axis hologram is simple, but due to the applied spatial frequency filtering the achievable resolution is confined. Here, a new, high-speed algorithm is introduced that efficiently incorporates the data of an auxiliary off-axis hologram in the phase retrieval of the corresponding in-line hologram. The efficiency of the introduced combined phase retrieval method is demonstrated by simulated and measured holograms.

  8. Push-off reactions in recovery after tripping discriminate young subjects, older non-fallers and older fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnappels, Mirjam; Bobbert, Maarten F; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2005-06-01

    Tripping is a major cause for falls, especially in the elderly. This study investigated whether falls in the elderly can be attributed to inadequate push-off reactions by the support limb in the recovery after a trip. Twelve young (20-34 years) and eleven older (65-72 years) men and women walked over a platform and were tripped several times over an obstacle that suddenly appeared from the floor. Kinematics and ground reactions forces of the support limb during push-off were measured of falls and successful recoveries. Young subjects did not fall. The older subjects were divided into a group of four non-fallers and seven fallers. Older fallers showed insufficient reduction of the angular momentum during push-off and less proper placement of the recovery limb. This was due to a lower rate of change of moment generation in all support limb joints and a lower peak ankle moment. Onset of knee moment generation was slightly delayed in older fallers. Improvement over trials was ascribed to better positioning of the recovery limb, as no clear differences were seen in the joint moments of the support limb. In conclusion, the contribution of the support limb to prevent a fall after tripping is decreased in older adults. Lower limb strength could be an underlying factor and strength training might help to reduce fall risk.

  9. Action Intentions: Action Influences Both On-Line Perception and Off-Line Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kirtley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that one role of vision is to gather information for upcoming tasks, previous studies have investigated whether the preparation for action affects visual behaviour. The current studies aimed to determine if such influences on visual selection would also influence the formation of subsequent memory representations. Two experiments were conducted- in the first, participants' action intentions towards a scene were manipulated by the performance of different grasping postures as they observed the scene. This was followed by a memory test for the objects presented. Participants' eye movements were affected by their action intention, so that performing a power grip led to significantly longer fixation durations on power grip compatible objects. In contrast, memory for the objects and their properties was not affected by the action. Our second study required participants to make the action posture during the recall phase. No effect on eye movements was found, but recall was affected, with a particular advantage for recall of the position of grip-compatible objects. Previous studies have shown that action intentions can affect the on-line perception of objects. The current study suggests this may not extend to off-line representations if they are accessed after the action has been completed or abandoned. However, the recall of information may be affected if gestures are formed during retrieval. Memory representations may not be tailored specifically to an action, but actions can still affect the recall of information.

  10. The benefit of limb cloud imaging for infrared limb sounding of tropospheric trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heinemann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in detector technology enable a new generation of infrared limb sounders to measure 2-D images of the atmosphere. A proposed limb cloud imager (LCI mode will detect clouds with a spatial resolution unprecedented for limb sounding. For the inference of temperature and trace gas distributions, detector pixels of the LCI have to be combined into super-pixels which provide the required signal-to-noise and information content for the retrievals. This study examines the extent to which tropospheric coverage can be improved in comparison to limb sounding using a fixed field of view with the size of the super-pixels, as in conventional limb sounders. The study is based on cloud topographies derived from (a IR brightness temperatures (BT of geostationary weather satellites in conjunction with ECMWF temperature profiles and (b ice and liquid water content data of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling-Europe (COSMO-EU of the German Weather Service. Limb cloud images are simulated by matching the cloud topography with the limb sounding line of sight (LOS. The analysis of the BT data shows that the reduction of the spatial sampling along the track has hardly any effect on the gain in information. The comparison between BT and COSMO-EU data identifies the strength of both data sets, which are the representation of the horizontal cloud extent for the BT data and the reproduction of the cloud amount for the COSMO-EU data. The results of the analysis of both data sets show the great advantage of the cloud imager. However, because both cloud data sets do not present the complete fine structure of the real cloud fields in the atmosphere it is assumed that the results tend to underestimate the increase in information. In conclusion, real measurements by such an instrument may result in an even higher benefit for tropospheric limb retrievals.

  11. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2003-03-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the steady state with mass loss independently of testing machines and the incubation period is very dependent on materials and imposed pressures. (author)

  12. An inter-hemispheric, statistical study of nightside spectral width distributions from coherent HF scatter radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this result is more likely to

  13. Locomotor trade-offs in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Chappell, Mark A; McGillivray, David G; Syme, Douglas A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-08-01

    We investigated sprint performance and running economy of a unique ;mini-muscle' phenotype that evolved in response to selection for high voluntary wheel running in laboratory mice (Mus domesticus). Mice from four replicate selected (S) lines run nearly three times as far per day as four control lines. The mini-muscle phenotype, resulting from an initially rare autosomal recessive allele, has been favoured by the selection protocol, becoming fixed in one of the two S lines in which it occurred. In homozygotes, hindlimb muscle mass is halved, mass-specific muscle oxidative capacity is doubled, and the medial gastrocnemius exhibits about half the mass-specific isotonic power, less than half the mass-specific cyclic work and power, but doubled fatigue resistance. We hypothesized that mini-muscle mice would have a lower whole-animal energy cost of transport (COT), resulting from lower costs of cycling their lighter limbs, and reduced sprint speed, from reduced maximal force production. We measured sprint speed on a racetrack and slopes (incremental COT, or iCOT) and intercepts of the metabolic rate versus speed relationship during voluntary wheel running in 10 mini-muscle and 20 normal S-line females. Mini-muscle mice ran faster and farther on wheels, but for less time per day. Mini-muscle mice had significantly lower sprint speeds, indicating a functional trade-off. However, contrary to predictions, mini-muscle mice had higher COT, mainly because of higher zero-speed intercepts and postural costs (intercept-resting metabolic rate). Thus, mice with altered limb morphology after intense selection for running long distances do not necessarily run more economically.

  14. Center-to-Limb Variability of Hot Coronal EUV Emissions During Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, E. M. B.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Eparvier, F. G.; Epp, L.

    2018-02-01

    It is generally accepted that densities of quiet-Sun and active region plasma are sufficiently low to justify the optically thin approximation, and this is commonly used in the analysis of line emissions from plasma in the solar corona. However, the densities of solar flare loops are substantially higher, compromising the optically thin approximation. This study begins with a radiative transfer model that uses typical solar flare densities and geometries to show that hot coronal emission lines are not generally optically thin. Furthermore, the model demonstrates that the observed line intensity should exhibit center-to-limb variability (CTLV), with flares observed near the limb being dimmer than those occurring near disk center. The model predictions are validated with an analysis of over 200 flares observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which uses six lines, with peak formation temperatures between 8.9 and 15.8 MK, to show that limb flares are systematically dimmer than disk-center flares. The data are then used to show that the electron column density along the line of sight typically increases by 1.76 × 10^{19} cm^{-2} for limb flares over the disk-center flare value. It is shown that the CTLV of hot coronal emissions reduces the amount of ionizing radiation propagating into the solar system, and it changes the relative intensities of lines and bands commonly used for spectral analysis.

  15. Comparison of prostate set-up accuracy and margins with off-line bony anatomy corrections and online implanted fiducial-based corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, P B; Dahl, K; Ebert, M A; Wratten, C; White, M; Denham, J W

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine prostate set-up accuracy and set-up margins with off-line bony anatomy-based imaging protocols, compared with online implanted fiducial marker-based imaging with daily corrections. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Pretreatment orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts and verification images were acquired during treatment to measure residual set-up error. The prostate set-up errors that would result from skin marker set-up, off-line bony anatomy-based protocols and online fiducial marker-based corrections were determined. Set-up margins were calculated for each set-up technique using the percentage of encompassed isocentres and a margin recipe. The prostate systematic set-up errors in the medial-lateral, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions for skin marker set-up were 2.2, 3.6 and 4.5 mm (1 standard deviation). For our bony anatomy-based off-line protocol the prostate systematic set-up errors were 1.6, 2.5 and 4.4 mm. For the online fiducial based set-up the results were 0.5, 1.4 and 1.4 mm. A prostate systematic error of 10.2 mm was uncorrected by the off-line bone protocol in one patient. Set-up margins calculated to encompass 98% of prostate set-up shifts were 11-14 mm with bone off-line set-up and 4-7 mm with online fiducial markers. Margins from the van Herk margin recipe were generally 1-2 mm smaller. Bony anatomy-based set-up protocols improve the group prostate set-up error compared with skin marks; however, large prostate systematic errors can remain undetected or systematic errors increased for individual patients. The margin required for set-up errors was found to be 10-15 mm unless implanted fiducial markers are available for treatment guidance.

  16. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  17. Expanded beam spectro-ellipsometry for big area on-line monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, M.; Major, C.; Juhasz, G.; Petrik, P.; Horvath, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive analysing tools are needed at all stages of thin film process-development, especially photovoltaic (PV) development, and on production lines. In the case of thin films, layer thicknesses, micro-structure, composition, layer optical properties, and their uniformity are important parameters. An important focus is to express the dielectric functions of each component material in terms of a handful of wavelength independent parameters whose variation can cover all process variants of that material. With the resulting database, spectroscopic ellipsometry coupled with multilayer analysis can be developed for on-line point-by-point mapping and on-line line-by-line imaging. Off-line point-by-point mapping can be effective for characterization of non-uniformities in full scale PV panels or big area (even 450 mm diameter) Si-wafers in developing labs but it is slow in the on-line mode when only 15 points can be obtained (within 1 min) as a 120 cm long panel moves by the mapping station. Last years [M. Fried et al, Thin Solid Films 519, 2730 (2011)], a new instrumentation was developed that provides a line image of spectroscopic ellipsometry (wl=350- 1000 nm) data. Earlier a single 30 point line image could be collected in 10 s over a 15 cm width of PV material. Recent years we have built a 30, a 45 and a 60 cm width expanded beam ellipsometer which speed is increased by 10x. Now, 1800 points can be mapped in a 1 min traverse of a 60*120 cm PV panel or flexible roll-to-roll substrate.

  18. A new in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy laboratory for off-line studies at KU Leuven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Creemers, P.; Ferrer, R.; Granados, C.; Gaffney, L.P.; Huyse, M.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Raeder, S.; Sels, S.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-01-01

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique is used to produce and to investigate short-lived radioactive isotopes at on-line ion beam facilities. In this technique, the nuclear reaction products recoiling out of a thin target are thermalized and neutralized in a high-pressure noble gas, resonantly ionized by the laser beams in a two-step process, and then extracted from the ion source to be finally accelerated and mass separated. Resonant ionization of radioactive species in the supersonic gas jet ensures very high spectral resolution because of essential reduction of broadening mechanisms. To obtain the maximum efficiency and the best spectral resolution, properties of the supersonic jet and the laser beams must be optimized. To perform these studies a new off-line IGLIS laboratory, including a new high-repetition-rate laser system and a dedicated off-line mass separator, has been commissioned. In this article, the specifications of the different components necessary to achieve optimum conditions in laser-spectroscopy studies of radioactive beams using IGLIS are discussed and the results of simulations are presented.

  19. The use of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove indices based on joint size in lower limb evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlic, Peter Wilhelm; Runer, Armin; Dirisamer, Florian; Balcarek, Peter; Giesinger, Johannes; Biedermann, Rainer; Liebensteiner, Michael Christian

    2018-05-01

    The correlation between tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG) and joint size, taking into account several different parameters of knee joint size as well as lower limb dimensions, is evaluated in order to assess whether TT-TG indices should be used in instead of absolute TT-TG values. This study comprised a retrospective analysis of knee CT scans, including 36 cases with patellofemoral instability (PFI) and 30 controls. Besides TT-TG, five measures of knee joint size were evaluated in axial CT slices: medio-lateral femur width, antero-posterior lateral condylar height, medio-lateral width of the tibia, width of the patella and the proximal-distal joint size (TT-TE). Furthermore, the length of the femur, the tibia and the total leg length were measured in the CT scanogram. Correlation analysis of TT-TG and the other parameters was done by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient. In the PFI group lateral condylar height (r = 0.370), tibia width (r = 0.406) and patella width (r = 0.366) showed significant moderate correlations (p joint size or between TT-TG and measures of lower limb length. Tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance correlates with several parameters of knee joint size and leg length in patients with patellofemoral instability. Application of indices determining TT-TG as a ratio of joint size could be helpful in establishing the indication for medial transfer of the tibial tuberosity in patients with PFI. Level III.

  20. Non-LTE equivalent widths for Si II, III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.R.; Butler, K.

    1990-01-01

    Equivalent widths for a set of Si II, III and IV lines reliable for the determination of temperatures in the B star parameter range are given. They are calculated on a fine grid of LTE line blanketed model atmospheres and lie in the wavelength region from 4070 A to 5070 A

  1. A new mathematical formulation of the line-by-line method in case of weak line overlapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishov, Alexander G.; Krymova, Natalie V.

    1994-01-01

    A rigorous mathematical proof is presented for multiline representation on the equivalent width of a molecular band which consists in the general case of n overlapping spectral lines. The multiline representation includes a principal term and terms of minor significance. The principal term is the equivalent width of the molecular band consisting of the same n nonoverlapping spectral lines. The terms of minor significance take into consideration the overlapping of two, three and more spectral lines. They are small in case of the weak overlapping of spectral lines in the molecular band. The multiline representation can be easily generalized for optically inhomogeneous gas media and holds true for combinations of molecular bands. If the band lines overlap weakly the standard formulation of line-by-line method becomes too labor-consuming. In this case the multiline representation permits line-by-line calculations to be performed more effectively. Other useful properties of the multiline representation are pointed out.

  2. Temperature and center-limb variations of transition region velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athay, R.G.; Dere, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    HRTS data from the Spacelab 2 mission are used to derive the center-limb and temperature variations of the mean velocity and the velocity variance in the solar chromosphere and transition zone. The mean velocity is found to vary much more rapidly from center to limb and with temperature than does the velocity variance. Also, the mean velocity shows a characteristic signature at some magnetic neutral lines in accordance with the findings of Klimchuk (1987) from Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) data. The velocity variance does not show a characteristic signature at the neutral lines but shows an inverse correlation with intensity. The latter is interpreted as reduced velocity variance in strong field regions. The results are discussed in terms of downflow along lines of force in magnetic arcades. 23 refs

  3. Line spread functions of blazed off-plane gratings operated in the Littrow mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRoo, Casey T.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Miles, Drew M.; Peterson, Thomas J.; Marlowe, Hannah; Tutt, James H.; Donovan, Benjamin D.; Menz, Benedikt; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Allured, Ryan; Smith, Randall K.; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Ackermann, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Future soft x-ray (10 to 50 Å) spectroscopy missions require higher effective areas and resolutions to perform critical science that cannot be done by instruments on current missions. An x-ray grating spectrometer employing off-plane reflection gratings would be capable of meeting these performance criteria. Off-plane gratings with blazed groove facets operating in the Littrow mounting can be used to achieve excellent throughput into orders achieving high resolutions. We have fabricated two off-plane gratings with blazed groove profiles via a technique that uses commonly available microfabrication processes, is easily scaled for mass production, and yields gratings customized for a given mission architecture. Both fabricated gratings were tested in the Littrow mounting at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) PANTER x-ray test facility to assess their performance. The line spread functions of diffracted orders were measured, and a maximum resolution of 800±20 is reported. In addition, we also observe evidence of a blaze effect from measurements of relative efficiencies of the diffracted orders.

  4. Automatic localization of the prostate for on-line or off-line image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smitsmans, Monique H.P.; Wolthaus, Jochem W.H.; Artignan, Xavier; Bois, Josien de; Jaffray, David A.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Herk, Marcel van

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: With higher radiation dose, higher cure rates have been reported in prostate cancer patients. The extra margin needed to account for prostate motion, however, limits the level of dose escalation, because of the presence of surrounding organs at risk. Knowledge of the precise position of the prostate would allow significant reduction of the treatment field. Better localization of the prostate at the time of treatment is therefore needed, e.g. using a cone-beam computed tomography (CT) system integrated with the linear accelerator. Localization of the prostate relies upon manual delineation of contours in successive axial CT slices or interactive alignment and is fairly time-consuming. A faster method is required for on-line or off-line image-guided radiotherapy, because of prostate motion, for patient throughput and efficiency. Therefore, we developed an automatic method to localize the prostate, based on 3D gray value registration. Methods and materials: A study was performed on conventional repeat CT scans of 19 prostate cancer patients to develop the methodology to localize the prostate. For each patient, 8-13 repeat CT scans were made during the course of treatment. First, the planning CT scan and the repeat CT scan were registered onto the rigid bony structures. Then, the delineated prostate in the planning CT scan was enlarged by an optimum margin of 5 mm to define a region of interest in the planning CT scan that contained enough gray value information for registration. Subsequently, this region was automatically registered to a repeat CT scan using 3D gray value registration to localize the prostate. The performance of automatic prostate localization was compared to prostate localization using contours. Therefore, a reference set was generated by registering the delineated contours of the prostates in all scans of all patients. Gray value registrations that showed large differences with respect to contour registrations were detected with a χ 2

  5. Turbulent transport regimes and the SOL heat flux width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks, and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. Simulation and theory results using reduced edge/SOL turbulence models have produced SOL widths and scalings in reasonable accord with experiments in many cases. In this work, we attempt to qualitatively and conceptually understand various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport in establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. Recent SOLT turbulence code results are employed to understand the roles of these considerations and to develop analytical scalings. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with older results reviewed in. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the heuristic drift mechanism is considered, together with implications for future experiments. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  6. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  7. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davida, G.I.; Frankel, Y.; Matt, B.J.

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user's biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user's private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user's biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms

  8. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Z.M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S.C.; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zong, Y.; Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60–70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article. -- Highlights: •The key technology of DWA, including switches and pulse forming lines were studied. •The SiC PCSS obtained from Shanghai Institute were tested. •Two layers ZIP lines (new structure) and four layers Blumlein lines were studied with laser triggered spark gap switches. •A nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on DWA technologies is achieved and studied experimentally. •The principle of DWA is also proved by the diode.

  9. Electron-temperature-gradient-induced instability in tokamak scrape-off layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Tsidulko, Y.A.; Xu, X.Q.

    1992-08-01

    An electron temperature instability driven by the Kunkel-Guillory sheath impedance, has been applied to the scrape-off layer of tokamaks. The formalism has been generalized to more fully account for parallel wavelength dynamics, to differentiate between electromagnetic and electrostatic perturbations and to account for particle recycling effects. It is conjectured that this conducting wall instability leads to edge fluctuations in tokamaks that produce scrape-off widths of many ion Larmor radii ≅10. The predicted instability characteristics correlate somewhat with DIII-D edge fluctuation data, and the scrape-off layer width in the DIII-D experiment agrees with theoretical estimates that can be derived from mixing lenght theory

  10. Comparison of prostate set-up accuracy and margins with off-line bony anatomy corrections and online implanted fiducial-based corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P. B.; Dahl, K.; Ebert, M. A.; Wratten, C.; White, M.; Denham, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to determine prostate set-up accuracy and set-up margins with off-line bony anatomy-based imaging protocols, compared with online implanted fiducial marker-based imaging with daily corrections. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Pretreatment orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts and verification images were acquired during treatment to measure residual set-up error. The prostate set-up errors that would result from skin marker set-up, off-line bony anatomy-based protocols and online fiducial marker-based corrections were determined. Set-up margins were calculated for each set-up technique using the percentage of encompassed isocentres land a margin recipe. The prostate systematic set-up errors in the medial-lateral, superior-inferior and anterior-I posterior directions for skin marker set-up were 2.2, 3.6 and 4.5 mm (1 standard deviation). For our bony anatomy-I based off-line protocol the prostate systematic set-up errors were 1.6, 2.5 and 4.4 mm. For the online fiducial based set-up the results were 0.5, 1.4 and 1.4 mm. A prostate systematic error of 10.2 mm was uncorrected by the off-line bone protocol in one patient. Set-up margins calculated to encompass 98% of prostate set-up shifts were 111-14 mm with bone off-line set-up and 4-7 mm with online fiducial markers. Margins from the van Herk margin I recipe were generally 1-2 mm smaller. Bony anatomy-based set-up protocols improve the group prostate set-up error compared with skin marks; however, large prostate systematic errors can remain undetected or systematic (errors increased for individual patients. The margin required for set-up errors was found to be 10-15 mm unless I implanted fiducial markers are available for treatment guidance.

  11. The Relaxation Matrix for Symmetric Tops with Inversion Symmetry. I. Effects of Line Coupling on Self-Broadened v (sub 1) and Pure Rotational Bands of NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Robert-Bonamy formalism has been commonly used to calculate half-widths and shifts of spectral lines for decades. This formalism is based on several approximations. Among them, two have not been fully addressed: the isolated line approximation and the neglect of coupling between the translational and internal motions. Recently, we have shown that the isolated line approximation is not necessary in developing semi-classical line shape theories. Based on this progress, we have been able to develop a new formalism that enables not only to reduce uncertainties on calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to model line mixing effects on spectra starting from the knowledge of the intermolecular potential. In our previous studies, the new formalism had been applied to linear and asymmetric-top molecules. In the present study, the method has been extended to symmetric-top molecules with inversion symmetry. As expected, the inversion splitting induces a complete failure of the isolated line approximation. We have calculated the complex relaxation matrices of selfbroadened NH3. The half-widths and shifts in the ?1 and the pure rotational bands are reported in the present paper. When compared with measurements, the calculated half-widths match the experimental data very well, since the inapplicable isolated line approximation has been removed. With respect to the shifts, only qualitative results are obtained and discussed. Calculated off-diagonal elements of the relaxation matrix and a comparison with the observed line mixing effects are reported in the companion paper (Paper II).

  12. Off-line testing of multifunctional surfaces for metal forming applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, A.; Grønbæk, J.; De Chiffre, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Bending-Under-Tension, an off-line test method simulating deep-drawing, is chosen for investigating the effectiveness of multifunctional (MUFU) surfaces in metal forming operations. Four different MUFU surfaces, characterized by a plateau bearing area and grooves for lubricant...... retention, are manufactured, together with two polished references. During the tests, surface texture is the only variable. The results show how MUFU surfaces perform better than the polished references, which produce severe galling, while MUFU surfaces with low bearing area display no clear evidence...... of galling. Metal-to-metal contact occurs anyway, but the strip material is pulverized and deposited onto the tool instead of cold-welding to it. The pockets create a discontinuity on the texture hindering pick-up propagation....

  13. Stabilization of constrained uncertain systems by an off-line approach using zonotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, stabilization of uncertain systems was established using zonotopic sets. The obtained state feedback control laws are computed by an off-line approach reducing computational burdens. The resolution of a robust model predictive control (MPC allows computing a sequence of state feedback control laws corresponding to a sequence of zonotopic invariant sets. The implemented control laws are then calculated by linear interpolation between the state feedback gains corresponding to the nested pre-computed zonotopic sets. The proposed interpolation with the use of zonotopic sets achieves better control performances.

  14. Robot off-line programming and simulation as a true CIME-subsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.F; Trostmann, S; Trostmann, Erik

    1992-01-01

    A robot off-line programming and real-time simulation system, ROPSIM, which is based on the neutral interface concept and features simulation of the dynamics of both the controller and robot arm, has been developed. To avoid dependency on dedicated robot models, ROPSIM is based on generic models...... describing the robot controller, robot arm geometry, and the robot and arm kinetics. The software was developed using the C++ programming language. The key modules are discussed. The system is a true computer-integrated manufacturing and engineering subsystem which facilitates the exchange and reuse of robot...... model definition data and robot program definition data with systems of other origin or different functionality...

  15. Radiographic analysis of the development of the pelvic limb of captive-reared cranes (Grus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curro, T.G.; Langenberg, J.A.; Deakin, L.

    1996-01-01

    For captive-reared cranes, pelvic limb abnormalities in chicks have been identified as significant morbidity/mortality factors. An important component of the diagnosis of limb abnormalities is the understanding of the normal limb. This study was undertaken to describe the normal, radiographic development of the femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, and fibula of the whooping crane (Grus americana), Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis), and Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus). Crane chicks were anesthetized and their pelvic limb bone development evaluated radiographically on a weekly to bimonthly basis from one to fourteen weeks of age. Body weight, bone length, diaphyseal width, and physeal development and closure were evaluated. Based on the radiographic analysis, the gross development of the long bones of the pelvic limb of whooping, Florida sandhill, and Siberian cranes was found to be similar among the three species, and not dissimilar from other avian species which have been studied. Repeated handling, anesthesia, and radiographic exposure did not produce any behavioral, developmental, or physical abnormalities in the studied cranes when compared to cranes of the same species raised using the same methods. This is the first work to describe pelvic limb bone development in these species

  16. An off-line two-dimensional analytical procedure for determination of polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, H.A.; Lammerts van Bueren, L.G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Smoke aerosol from stoves consists of a wide variety of chemical substances of which a number have toxic properties. To study the impact of aerosol emissions on health and environment reliable analytical procedures must be available for these samples. An off-line two-dimensional HPLC method is

  17. Three-dimensional, automated, real-time video system for tracking limb motion in brain-machine interface studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikon, Ian D; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2009-06-15

    Collection and analysis of limb kinematic data are essential components of the study of biological motion, including research into biomechanics, kinesiology, neurophysiology and brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). In particular, BMI research requires advanced, real-time systems capable of sampling limb kinematics with minimal contact to the subject's body. To answer this demand, we have developed an automated video tracking system for real-time tracking of multiple body parts in freely behaving primates. The system employs high-contrast markers painted on the animal's joints to continuously track the three-dimensional positions of their limbs during activity. Two-dimensional coordinates captured by each video camera are combined and converted to three-dimensional coordinates using a quadratic fitting algorithm. Real-time operation of the system is accomplished using direct memory access (DMA). The system tracks the markers at a rate of 52 frames per second (fps) in real-time and up to 100fps if video recordings are captured to be later analyzed off-line. The system has been tested in several BMI primate experiments, in which limb position was sampled simultaneously with chronic recordings of the extracellular activity of hundreds of cortical cells. During these recordings, multiple computational models were employed to extract a series of kinematic parameters from neuronal ensemble activity in real-time. The system operated reliably under these experimental conditions and was able to compensate for marker occlusions that occurred during natural movements. We propose that this system could also be extended to applications that include other classes of biological motion.

  18. Retrospective analysis of prostate cancer patients with implanted gold markers using off-line and adaptive therapy protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Balter, James M.; Lam, Kwok L.; Sandler, Howard M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of applying adaptive and off-line setup correction models to bony anatomy and gold fiducial markers implanted in the prostate, relative to daily alignment to skin tattoos and daily on-line corrections of the implanted gold markers. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with implanted gold fiducial markers were treated using a daily on-line setup correction protocol. The patients' positions were aligned to skin tattoos and two orthogonal diagnostic digital radiographs were obtained before treatment each day. These radiographs were compared with digitally reconstructed radiographs to obtain the translational setup errors of the bony anatomy and gold markers. The adaptive, no-action-level and shrinking-action-level off-line protocols were retrospectively applied to the bony anatomy to determine the change in the setup errors of the gold markers. The protocols were also applied to the gold markers directly to determine the residual setup errors. Results: The percentage of remaining fractions that the gold markers fell within the adaptive margins constructed with 1.5σ' (estimated random variation) after 5, 10, and 15 measurement fractions was 74%, 88%, and 93% for the prone patients and 55%, 77%, and 93% for the supine patients, respectively. Using 2σ', the percentage after 5, 10, and 15 measurements was 85%, 95%, and 97% for the prone patients and 68%, 87%, and 99% for the supine patients, respectively. The average initial three-dimensional (3D) setup error of the gold markers was 0.92 cm for the prone patients and 0.70 cm for the supine patients. Application of the no-action-level protocol to bony anatomy with N m = 3 days resulted in significant benefit to 4 of 10 patients, but 3 were significantly worse. The residual average 3D setup error of the gold markers was 1.14 cm and 0.51 cm for the prone and supine patients, respectively. When applied directly to the gold markers with N m = 3 days, 5 patients benefited and

  19. Lower Limb Function in Elderly Korean Adults Is Related to Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A-Sol; Ko, Hae-Jin

    2018-05-01

    Patients with cognitive impairment have decreased lower limb function. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between lower limb function and cognitive disorders to determine whether lower limb function can be screened to identify cognitive decline. Using Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database data, we assessed the cognitive and lower limb functioning of 66-year-olds who underwent national health screening between 2010 and 2014. Cognitive function was assessed via a questionnaire. Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and one-leg-standing (OLS) tests were performed to evaluate lower limb function. Associations between cognitive and lower limb functions were analyzed, and optimal cut-off points for these tests to screen for cognitive decline, were determined. Cognitive function was significantly correlated with TUG interval ( r = 0.414, p cognitive disorders were >11 s and ≤12 s for TUG interval and OLS duration, respectively. Among 66-year-olds who underwent national health screening, a significant correlation between lower limb and cognitive function was demonstrated. The TUG and OLS tests are useful screening tools for cognitive disorders in elderly patients. A large-scale prospective cohort study should be conducted to investigate the causal relationship between cognitive and lower limb function.

  20. Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Emilio Pinto-Lopera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch’s t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system.

  1. Pulse width and height modulation for multi-level resistance in bi-layer TaOx based RRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Zahiruddin; Beckmann, Karsten; Holt, Joshua; Cady, Nathaniel C.

    2017-08-01

    Mutli-level switching in resistive memory devices enables a wide range of computational paradigms, including neuromorphic and cognitive computing. To this end, we have developed a bi-layer tantalum oxide based resistive random access memory device using Hf as the oxygen exchange layer. Multiple, discrete resistance levels were achieved by modulating the RESET pulse width and height, ranging from 2 kΩ to several MΩ. For a fixed pulse height, OFF state resistance was found to increase gradually with the increase in the pulse width, whereas for a fixed pulse width, the increase in the pulse height resulted in drastic changes in resistance. Resistive switching in these devices transitioned from Schottky emission in the OFF state to tunneling based conduction in the ON state, based on I-V curve fitting and temperature dependent current measurements. These devices also demonstrated endurance of more than 108 cycles with a satisfactory Roff/Ron ratio and retention greater than 104 s.

  2. Vascular access in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won Yu; Campia, Umberto; Ota, Hideaki; Didier, Romain J; Negi, Smita I; Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Koifman, Edward; Baker, Nevin C; Magalhaes, Marco A; Lipinski, Michael J; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Torguson, Rebecca; Waksman, Ron; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2016-01-01

    Currently, percutaneous endovascular intervention is considered a first line of therapy for treating patients with critical limb ischemia. As the result of remarkable development of techniques and technologies, percutaneous endovascular intervention has led to rates of limb salvage comparable to those achieved with bypass surgery, with fewer complications, even in the presence of lower rates of long-term patency. Currently, interventionalists have a multiplicity of access routes including smaller arteries, with both antegrade and retrograde approaches. Therefore, the choice of the optimal access site has become an integral part of the success of the percutaneous intervention. By understanding the technical aspects, as well as the advantages and limitations of each approach, the interventionalists can improve clinical outcomes in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. This article reviews the access routes in critical limb ischemia, their advantages and disadvantages, and the clinical outcomes of each. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maximizing the peak production rate in off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeltink, S.; Dolman, S.; Ursem, M.; Swart, R.; McLeod, F.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an optimization strategy to obtain the best possible performance in the shortest analysis time—called the peak production rate—for comprehensive off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography. The demands on column technology (particle size and column length) and LC conditions

  4. Improving off-line accelerated tryptic digestion. Towards fast-lane proteolysis of complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Jadranka; Loftheim, Håvard; Winther, Bjørn; Reubsaet, J Léon E

    2008-06-27

    Off-line digestion of proteins using immobilized trypsin beads is studied with respect to the format of the digestion reactor, the digestion conditions, the comparison with in-solution digestion and its use in complex biological samples. The use of the filter vial as the most appropriate digestion reactor enables simple, efficient and easy-to-handle off-line digestion of the proteins on trypsin beads. It was shown that complex proteins like bovine serum albumin (BSA) need much longer time (89 min) and elevated temperature (37 degrees C) to be digested to an acceptable level compared to smaller proteins like cytochrome c (5 min, room temperature). Comparing the BSA digestion using immobilized trypsin beads with conventional in-solution digestion (overnight at 37 degrees C), it was shown that comparable results were obtained with respect to sequence coverage (>90%) and amount of missed cleavages (in both cases around 20 peptides with 1 or 2 missed cleavages were detected). However, the digestion using immobilized trypsin beads was considerable less time consuming. Good reproducibility and signal intensities were obtained for the digestion products of BSA in a complex urine sample. In addition to this, peptide products of proteins typically present in urine were identified.

  5. Phase Locking of Laser Diode Array by Using an Off-Axis External Talbot Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhou-Ping; Zhu Zhuo-Wei; Que Li-Zhi; Zhu Yun; Ji Zhi-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Phase locking of a laser diode array is demonstrated experimentally by using an off-axis external Talbot cavity with a feedback plane mirror. Due to good spatial mode discrimination, the cavity does not need a spatial filter. By employing the cavity, a clear and stable far-field interference pattern can be observed when the driver current is less than 14 A. In addition, the spectral line width can be reduced to 0.8 nm. The slope efficiency of the phase-locked laser diode array is about 0.62 W/A. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  6. [Selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy for treating spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs caused by cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Cao, Xu; Xu, Shi-gang; Li, De-kui; Xu, Lin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and the result for the surgical treatment of spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs in patients who underwent the selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy. From March 2004 to April 2008, 27 patients included 19 boys and 8 girls, aging 13-21 years with an average of 15 years underwent selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation with exercise therapy. The AXIS 8 holes titanium plate was inserted into the lateral mass of spinous process through guidance of the nerve stimulator, choosed fasciculus of low-threshold nerve dorsal root and cut off its 1.5 cm. After two weeks, training exercise therapy was done in patients. Training will include lying position, turning body, sitting position, crawling, kneeling and standing position, walking and so on. Spastic Bobath inhibiting abnormal pattern was done in the whole process of training. The muscular tension, motor function (GMFM), functional independence (WeeFIM) were observed after treatment. All patients were followed up from 4 to 16 months with an average of 6 months. Muscular tension score were respectively 3.30 +/- 0.47 and 1.25 +/- 0.44 before and after treatment;GMFM score were respectively 107.82 +/- 55.17 and 131.28 +/- 46.45; WeeFIM score were respectively 57.61 +/- 25.51 and 87.91 +/- 22.39. There was significant improvement before and after treatment (P cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs is safe and effective method, which can decrease muscular tension and improve motor function, which deserves more wide use.

  7. CALCANEAL MINERAL DENSITY IN CHILDREN ATHLETES AND TAKE-OFF LEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Obradović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on the bone tissue. To examine the influence of the take-off lower limb to the bone density we studied a group of prepubertal boys and girls at the initial phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. A sample consisted of 60 subjects ie., 32 soccer players (boys, 10.7±0.5 years old and 28 swimmers (15 girls and 13 boys, 10.8±0.8 years old, who had performed at least one year of high-level sport training (10-15 hours per week for soccer players, 8-12 hours per week for swimmers. The sample was divided into two groups: the first consisted of 40 subjects, with the left take-off leg, while the second consisted of 20 subjects, with the right take-off leg. The bone mineral density (BMD measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were performed using ultrasound densitometer “Sahara” (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. There were no significant differences between the groups in regard to BUA and SOS of both the left and the right take-off lower legs. Mean BUA of the take-off left leg and the take-off right leg were different, but not significantly (p>0.05. Likewise, mean SOS of the take-off left leg and the take-off right leg were different, but it was not significant (p>0.05. The results do not indicate that the take-off lower limb has an influence on calcaneal bone mineral density.

  8. Latest developments in on- and off-line inspection of bank notes during production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen C.

    2004-06-01

    The inspection of bank notes is a highly labour intensive process where traditionally every note on every sheet is inspected manually. However with the advent of more and more sophisticated security features, both visible and invisible, and the requirement of cost reduction in the printing process, it is clear that automation is required. Machines for the automatic inspection of bank notes have been on the market for the past 10 to 12 years, but recent developments in technology have enabled a new generation of detectors and machines to be developed. This paper focuses on the latest developments in both the off-line and on-line inspection of bank notes covering not only the visible spectrum but also a new range of detectors for inspection some of the more common invisible features used as covert features in today's bank notes.

  9. Swath width study. A simulation assessment of costs and benefits of a sensor system for agricultural application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Satellites provide an excellent platform from which to observe crops on the scale and frequency required to provide accurate crop production estimates on a worldwide basis. Multispectral imaging sensors aboard these platforms are capable of providing data from which to derive acreage and production estimates. The issue of sensor swath width was examined. The quantitative trade trade necessary to resolve the combined issue of sensor swath width, number of platforms, and their orbits was generated and are included. Problems with different swath width sensors were analyzed and an assessment of system trade-offs of swath width versus number of satellites was made for achieving Global Crop Production Forecasting.

  10. Quantum-mechanical vs. semi-classical spectral-line widths and shifts from the line core in the non-impact region for the Ar-perturbed/ K-radiator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreye, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    New quantum-mechanical (QM) and semi-classical (SC) shifts (d's) and widths (HWHM's, w's) were measured from the line core of computed full spectral-line shapes for the Ar-perturbed/K-radiator system (K/Ar). The initial state of our model was based on a 4p 2 P 3/2,1/2 pseudo-potential for the K/Ar system, and the final state on a zero potential. The Fourier transform of the line shape formed the basis for the computations. Excellent agreement was found between the QM and SC values of d and of w in a high-pressure (P) non-impact region, which was characterized by a √P dependence of w and a P dependence of d. These agreements were shown to be another example of a correspondence between classical (SC) quantities and QM quantities in the limit of large quantum numbers. Typically at P=1x10 6 Torr and T=400 K, w QM =448 cm -1 and w SC =479 cm -1 , where the deviation from the mean is ±3.3%. Also, d QM =-3815 cm -1 and d SC =-3716 cm -1 , where the deviation from the mean is ±1.3%. A new general method was formulated which yielded a definite pressure P 0 , which was defined as an upper limit to the low-pressure impact approximation and a lower limit to the non-impact region

  11. Identification and quantification of polycarboxylates in detergent products using off-line size exclusion chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ilona, E-mail: ilona.visser@unilever.com [Unilever Research and Development Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, PO box 114, 3130 AC Vlaardingen (Netherlands); Klinkenberg, Monique; Hoos, Peter; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Duynhoven, John van [Unilever Research and Development Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, PO box 114, 3130 AC Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2009-11-03

    The performance of many contemporary detergent products critically depends on polymers. Water-soluble polycarboxylates represent an important class of detergent polymers, and their quantitative assessment in detergent matrices stands as a considerable challenge. The presence of high levels of surfactants is a major complication, due to the strong tendency of surfactants to form micelles and to interact with the polymers. First, we addressed critical steps in the subsequent combined use of liquid extraction and off-line size exclusion chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance (SEC-NMR) for identification and quantification of polycarboxylates in detergent products. Next, the different steps in the off-line SEC-NMR procedure were optimized with respect to precision and accuracy. This resulted in recoveries of more than 80% for maleic acid/acrylic acid copolymers; in detergent products a proportional bias of 30% is achieved. The method showed good precision with a relative standard deviation of within-laboratory reproducibility between 5% and 14%.

  12. Identification and quantification of polycarboxylates in detergent products using off-line size exclusion chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Ilona; Klinkenberg, Monique; Hoos, Peter; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Duynhoven, John van

    2009-01-01

    The performance of many contemporary detergent products critically depends on polymers. Water-soluble polycarboxylates represent an important class of detergent polymers, and their quantitative assessment in detergent matrices stands as a considerable challenge. The presence of high levels of surfactants is a major complication, due to the strong tendency of surfactants to form micelles and to interact with the polymers. First, we addressed critical steps in the subsequent combined use of liquid extraction and off-line size exclusion chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance (SEC-NMR) for identification and quantification of polycarboxylates in detergent products. Next, the different steps in the off-line SEC-NMR procedure were optimized with respect to precision and accuracy. This resulted in recoveries of more than 80% for maleic acid/acrylic acid copolymers; in detergent products a proportional bias of 30% is achieved. The method showed good precision with a relative standard deviation of within-laboratory reproducibility between 5% and 14%.

  13. Simulation and off-line programming at Sandia`s Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, P.G.; Fahrenholtz, J.C.; McDonald, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center] [and others

    1997-11-01

    One role of the Intelligent Robotics and System Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories is to address certain aspects of Sandia`s mission to design, manufacture, maintain, and dismantle nuclear weapon components. Hazardous materials, devices, and environments are often involved. Because of shrinking resources, these tasks must be accomplished with a minimum of prototyping, while maintaining high reliability. In this paper, the authors describe simulation, off-line programming/planning, and related tools which are in use, under development, and being researched to solve these problems at the ISRC.

  14. Numerical simulation of distorted crystal Darwin width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Xu Zhongmin; Wang Naxiu

    2012-01-01

    A new numerical simulation method according to distorted crystal optical theory was used to predict the direct-cooling crystal monochromator optical properties(crystal Darwin width) in this study. The finite element analysis software was used to calculate the deformed displacements of DCM crystal and to get the local reciprocal lattice vector of distorted crystal. The broadening of direct-cooling crystal Darwin width in meridional direction was estimated at 4.12 μrad. The result agrees well with the experimental data of 5 μrad, while it was 3.89 μrad by traditional calculation method of root mean square (RMS) of the slope error in the center line of footprint. The new method provides important theoretical support for designing and processing of monochromator crystal for synchrotron radiation beamline. (authors)

  15. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Altenmüller, Eckart; Alter, Katharine; Alterman, Ron L.; Chen, Robert; Frucht, Steven; Furuya, Shinichi; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, H. A.; Kimberley, Teresa J.; Lungu, Codrin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Prudente, Cecília N.; Hallett, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including: the development of

  16. Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pirio Richardson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including

  17. IRIS Observations of Spicules and Structures Near the Solar Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Vial, J.-C.; Koukras, A.; Buchlin, E.; Chane-Yook, M.

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectral and slit-jaw observations of a quiet region near the South Pole. In this article we present an overview of the observations, the corrections, and the absolute calibration of the intensity. We focus on the average profiles of strong (Mg ii h and k, C ii and Si iv), as well as of weak spectral lines in the near ultraviolet (NUV) and the far ultraviolet (FUV), including the Mg ii triplet, thus probing the solar atmosphere from the low chromosphere to the transition region. We give the radial variation of bulk spectral parameters as well as line ratios and turbulent velocities. We present measurements of the formation height in lines and in the NUV continuum from which we find a linear relationship between the position of the limb and the intensity scale height. We also find that low forming lines, such as the Mg ii triplet, show no temporal variations above the limb associated with spicules, suggesting that such lines are formed in a homogeneous atmospheric layer and, possibly, that spicules are formed above the height of 2''. We discuss the spatio-temporal structure of the atmosphere near the limb from images of intensity as a function of position and time. In these images, we identify p-mode oscillations in the cores of lines formed at low heights above the photosphere, slow-moving bright features in O i and fast-moving bright features in C ii. Finally, we compare the Mg ii k and h line profiles, together with intensity values of the Balmer lines from the literature, with computations from the PROM57Mg non-LTE model, developed at the Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, and estimated values of the physical parameters. We obtain electron temperatures in the range of {˜} 8000 K at small heights to {˜} 20 000 K at large heights, electron densities from 1.1× 10^{11} to 4× 10^{10} cm^{-3} and a turbulent velocity of {˜} 24 km s^{-1}.

  18. Scrape-off layer flows in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.P.; Loarer, T.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Devynck, P.; Hertout, P.; Moreau, P.; Nanobashvili, I.; Rimini, F.; Duran, I.; Fuchs, V.; Panek, R.; Stockel, J.; Adamek, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Hron, M.; Sarkissian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Near-sonic parallel flows are systematically observed in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the limiter tokamak Tore Supra, as in many X-point divertor tokamaks. The poloidal variation of the Mach number of the parallel flow has been measured by moving the contact point of a small circular plasma onto limiters at different poloidal angles. The resulting variations of flow are consistent with the existence of a poloidally nonuniform core-to-SOL out-flux concentrated near the outboard midplane. Strong variations of the SOL width up to a factor of 10 suggest that this localized out-flux is due to enhanced radial transport. The plasma that gets ejected into the SOL can expand radially to the wall if magnetic field lines have long connection lengths and pass unobstructed across the outboard midplane. (authors)

  19. Sub-0.1 μm optical track width measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard J.; See, Chung W.; Somekh, Mike G.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we will describe a technique that combines a common path scanning optical interferometer with artificial neural networks (ANN), to perform track width measurements that are significantly beyond the capability of conventional optical systems. Artificial neural networks have been used for many different applications. In the present case, ANNs are trained using profiles of known samples obtained from the scanning interferometer. They are then applied to tracks that have not previously been exposed to the networks. This paper will discuss the impacts of various ANN configurations, and the processing of the input signal on the training of the network. The profiles of the samples, which are used as the inputs to the ANNs, are obtained with a common path scanning optical interferometer. It provides extremely repeatable measurements, with very high signal to noise ratio, both are essential for the working of the ANNs. The characteristics of the system will be described. A number of samples with line widths ranging from 60nm-3μm have been measured to test the system. The system can measure line widths down to 60nm with a standard deviation of 3nm using optical wavelength of 633nm and a system numerical aperture of 0.3. These results will be presented in detail along with a discussion of the potential of this technique.

  20. THE PHOTOMETRIC AND KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF FACE-ON DISK GALAXIES. II. INTEGRATED LINE PROFILE CHARACTERIZATION AND THE ORIGIN OF LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, David R.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a moments analysis of H I and H II global line profiles for 33 nearly face-on disk galaxies for the threefold purpose of rationalizing and interpreting line profile indices in the literature, presenting robust moment definitions with analytic error functions calibrated against Monte Carlo simulation, and probing the physical origin of line profile asymmetries. The first four profile moments serve as viable surrogates for the recession velocity, line width, asymmetry, and profile shape, respectively. The first three moments are superior, by a factor of ∼2 in precision, to related quantities defined in the literature. First and third profile moments are related; skew can be used to calculate more accurate recession velocities from global profiles. Second and fourth profile moments are linked, corresponding to the known trend that narrow (but well resolved) line widths tend to be more Gaussian. Hα kurtosis also appears correlated with the spatially resolved line width of the ionized gas. No systematics appear between various measures of line width and true rotation speed other than the wide range of normalizations, which we calibrate. This conclusion and calibration, however, is highly sample dependent. The ratio of H II to H I widths is consistent with unity, even at low projected line width. There may be a trend toward a decrease in the ratio of H II to H I widths consistent with previous studies, but we also observe greater scatter. While there is good agreement between H I and H II first, second, and fourth moments, we find no positive correlation between skew measured from H I and H II profiles. Detailed analysis of the spatially resolved Hα distribution demonstrates that H II global profile asymmetries are dominated by differences in the gas distribution, not kinematic asymmetries.

  1. Research on the Error Characteristics of a 110 kV Optical Voltage Transformer under Three Conditions: In the Laboratory, Off-Line in the Field and During On-Line Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Hu, Haoliang; Xu, Yan; Lei, Min; Xiong, Qianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Optical voltage transformers (OVTs) have been applied in power systems. When performing accuracy performance tests of OVTs large differences exist between the electromagnetic environment and the temperature variation in the laboratory and on-site. Therefore, OVTs may display different error characteristics under different conditions. In this paper, OVT prototypes with typical structures were selected to be tested for the error characteristics with the same testing equipment and testing method. The basic accuracy, the additional error caused by temperature and the adjacent phase in the laboratory, the accuracy in the field off-line, and the real-time monitoring error during on-line operation were tested. The error characteristics under the three conditions—laboratory, in the field off-line and during on-site operation—were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the effect of the transportation process, electromagnetic environment and the adjacent phase on the accuracy of OVTs could be ignored for level 0.2, but the error characteristics of OVTs are dependent on the environmental temperature and are sensitive to the temperature gradient. The temperature characteristics during on-line operation were significantly superior to those observed in the laboratory. PMID:27537895

  2. Off-line data processing and analysis for the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M; Pandola, L; Zavarise, P

    2012-01-01

    Gerda is an experiment designed to look for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge. The experiment uses an array of high-purity germanium detectors (enriched in 76 Ge) directly immersed in liquid argon. Gerda is presently operating eight enriched coaxial detectors (approximately 15 kg of 76 Ge) and about 25 new custom-made enriched BEGe detectors will be deployed in the next phase (additional 20kg of 76 Ge). The paper describes the Gerda off-line analysis of the high-purity germanium detector data. Firstly we present the signal processing flow, focusing on the digital filters and on the algorithms used. Secondly we discuss the rejection of non-physical events and the data quality monitoring. The analysis is performed completely with the Gerda software framework (Gelatio), designed to support a multi-channel processing and to perform a modular analysis of digital signals.

  3. Expression of Msx-2 during development, regeneration, and wound healing in axolotl limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M R; Bryant, S V; Gardiner, D M

    1998-12-15

    Msx genes are transcription factors that are expressed during embryogenesis of developing appendages in regions of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Various lines of evidence indicate that these genes function to maintain embryonic tissues in an undifferentiated, proliferative state. We have identified the axolotl homolog of Msx-2, and investigated its expression during limb development, limb regeneration, and wound healing. As in limb buds of higher vertebrates, axolotl Msx-2 is expressed in the apical epidermis and mesenchyme; however, its expression domain is more extensive, reflecting the broader region of the apical epidermal cap in amphibians. Msx-2 expression is downregulated at late stages of limb development, but is reexpressed within one hour after limb amputation. Msx-2 is also reexpressed during wound healing, and may be essential in the early stages of initiation of the limb regeneration cascade.

  4. Vision-based weld pool boundary extraction and width measurement during keyhole fiber laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Masiyang; Shin, Yung C.

    2015-01-01

    In keyhole fiber laser welding processes, the weld pool behavior is essential to determining welding quality. To better observe and control the welding process, the accurate extraction of the weld pool boundary as well as the width is required. This work presents a weld pool edge detection technique based on an off axial green illumination laser and a coaxial image capturing system that consists of a CMOS camera and optic filters. According to the difference of image quality, a complete developed edge detection algorithm is proposed based on the local maximum gradient of greyness searching approach and linear interpolation. The extracted weld pool geometry and the width are validated by the actual welding width measurement and predictions by a numerical multi-phase model.

  5. Effectiveness of couch height-based patient set-up and an off-line correction protocol in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Nijenhuis, Edwin; Huizenga, Henk; Vight, Lisette van der; Visser, Andries

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate set-up improvement caused by applying a couch height-based patient set-up method in combination with a technologist-driven off-line correction protocol in nonimmobilized radiotherapy of prostate patients. Methods and Materials: A three-dimensional shrinking action level correction protocol is applied in two consecutive patient cohorts with different set-up methods: the traditional 'laser set-up' group (n=43) and the 'couch height set-up' group (n=112). For all directions, left-right, ventro-dorsal, and cranio-caudal, random and systematic set-up deviations were measured. Results: The couch height set-up method improves the patient positioning compared to the laser set-up method. Without application of the correction protocol, both systematic and random errors reduced to 2.2-2.4 mm (1 SD) and 1.7-2.2 mm (1 SD), respectively. By using the correction protocol, systematic errors reduced further to 1.3-1.6 mm (1 SD). One-dimensional deviations were within 5 mm for >90% of the measured fractions. The required number of corrections per patient in the off-line correction protocol was reduced significantly during the course of treatment from 1.1 to 0.6 by the couch height set-up method. The treatment time was not prolonged by application of the correction protocol. Conclusions: The couch height set-up method improves the set-up significantly, especially in the ventro-dorsal direction. Combination of this set-up method with an off-line correction strategy, executed by technologists, reduces the number of set-up corrections required

  6. Achromatization of Debye-Scherrer Lines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekstein, Hans

    1951-01-01

    A method is described for reducing the width of a Debye-Scherrer line produced by diffraction from a polycrystalline medium, if this width is due to the spectral impurity of the primary characteristic radiation...

  7. Long-term results after primary infrapopliteal angioplasty for limb ischemia; Langzeitergebnisse nach Ballonangioplastie kruraler Arterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfke, H. [Klinikum Luedenscheid (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Vannucchi, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Froelich, J.J. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Klinikum Bad Hersfeld (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; El-Sheik, M.; Wagner, H.J. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Vivantes-Klinikum im Friedrichshain (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical long-term results for patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty to treat critical chronic limb ischemia or severe claudication from 1/1997 to 12/1999. We excluded patients with acute (< 2 weeks) limb ischemia. Procedure-related data were prospectively documented in a database and analyzed with a focus on the technical success rate and procedure-related complications. In addition all clinical documents were analyzed, and a follow-up examination was performed or telephone interviews were conducted with patients, relatives and referring doctors for follow-up. The primary end points were the limb salvage rate and patient survival rate. The secondary end points included the complication rate, technical success rate, and walking distance. Results: 112 patients with a mean age of 72 years (41 women, 71 men) underwent crural angioplasty on 121 limbs. Four patients suffered from severe claudication (Rutherford category 3) and all others had critical chronic limb ischemia (category 4 to 6). The complication rate was 2.7 %. The technical success rate was 92 %. The ankle brachial index increased from 0.59 to 0.88. The mean walking distance increased significantly from 52 {+-} 66 to 284 {+-} 346 meters at the time of follow-up. The limb salvage rate was 83.6 % after one year and 81.1 % after three years. The mean survival rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 79.4 %, 69.2 %, and 54.2 % at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Patients with at least one patent run-off vessel after angioplasty had a significantly better limb salvage rate. Diabetes was not a risk factor for limb salvage. Conclusion: Infrapopliteal angioplasty shows a high technical success rate with an acceptable complication rate. The clinical long-term success seems favorable if a least one open run-off vessel was

  8. Hands-off and hands-on casting consistency of amputee below knee sockets using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; McFadyen, Angus; Buis, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Residual limb shape capturing (Casting) consistency has a great influence on the quality of socket fit. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to establish a reliable reference grid for intercast and intracast shape and volume consistency of two common casting methods, Hands-off and Hands-on. Residual limbs were cast for twelve people with a unilateral below knee amputation and scanned twice for each casting concept. Subsequently, all four volume images of each amputee were semiautomatically segmented and registered to a common coordinate system using the tibia and then the shape and volume differences were calculated. The results show that both casting methods have intra cast volume consistency and there is no significant volume difference between the two methods. Inter- and intracast mean volume differences were not clinically significant based on the volume of one sock criteria. Neither the Hands-off nor the Hands-on method resulted in a consistent residual limb shape as the coefficient of variation of shape differences was high. The resultant shape of the residual limb in the Hands-off casting was variable but the differences were not clinically significant. For the Hands-on casting, shape differences were equal to the maximum acceptable limit for a poor socket fit.

  9. LINE BROADENING AND THE SOLAR OPACITY PROBLEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D., E-mail: menahem.krief@mail.huji.ac.il [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-06-20

    The calculation of line widths constitutes theoretical and computational challenges in the calculation of opacities of hot, dense plasmas. Opacity models use line broadening approximations that are untested at stellar interior conditions. Moreover, calculations of atomic spectra of the Sun indicate a large discrepancy in the K-shell line widths between several atomic codes and the Opacity-Project (OP). In this work, the atomic code STAR is used to study the sensitivity of solar opacities to line broadening. Variations in the solar opacity profile due to an increase of the Stark widths resulting from discrepancies with OP, are compared, in light of the solar opacity problem, with the required opacity variations of the present day Sun, as imposed by helioseismic and neutrino observations. The resulting variation profile is much larger than the discrepancy between different atomic codes, agrees qualitatively with the missing opacity profile, recovers about half of the missing opacity nearby the convection boundary, and has a little effect in the internal regions. Since it is hard to estimate quantitatively the uncertainty in the Stark widths, we show that an increase of all line widths by a factor of about ∼100 recovers quantitatively the missing opacity. These results emphasize the possibility that photoexcitation processes are not modeled properly, and more specifically, highlight the need for a better theoretical characterization of the line broadening phenomena at stellar interior conditions, and of the uncertainty due to the way it is implemented by atomic codes.

  10. Off-line mapping of multi-rate dependent task sets to many-core platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Noulard, Eric; Pagetti, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to execute safety-critical applications on multi- and many-core processors in a predictable manner. We investigate three concrete platforms: the Intel Single-chip Cloud Computer, the Texas Instruments TMS320C6678 and the Tilera TILEmpower-Gx36. We define an execution...... model to safely execute dependent periodic task sets on these platforms. The four rules of the execution model entail that an off-line mapping of the application to the platform must be computed. The paper details our approach to automatically compute a valid mapping. Furthermore, we evaluate our...

  11. Differences in the H-mode pedestal width of temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P A; Wolfrum, E; Günter, S; Kurzan, B; Lackner, K; Zohm, H; Groebner, R J; Osborne, T H; Ferron, J R; Snyder, P B; Beurskens, M N A; Dunne, M G

    2012-01-01

    A pedestal database was built using data from type-I ELMy H-modes of ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D and JET. ELM synchronized pedestal data were analysed with the two-line method. The two-line method is a bilinear fit which shows better reproducibility of pedestal parameters than a modified hyperbolic tangent fit. This was tested with simulated and experimental data. The influence of the equilibrium reconstruction on pedestal parameters was investigated with sophisticated reconstructions from CLISTE and EFIT including edge kinetic profiles. No systematic deviation between the codes could be observed. The flux coordinate system is influenced by machine size, poloidal field and plasma shape. This will change the representation of the width in different coordinates, in particular, the two normalized coordinates Ψ N and r/a show a very different dependence on the plasma shape. The scalings derived for the pedestal width, Δ, of all machines suggest a different scaling for the electron temperature and the electron density. Both cases show similar dependence with machine size, poloidal magnetic field and pedestal electron temperature and density. The influence of ion temperature and toroidal magnetic field is different on each of Δ T e and Δ n e . In dimensionless form the density pedestal width in Ψ N scales with ρ 0.6 i* , the temperature pedestal width with β p,ped 0.5 . Both widths also show a strong correlation with the plasma shape. The shape dependence originates from the coordinate transformation and is not visible in real space. The presented scalings predict that in ITER the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal. (paper)

  12. Measurement of high-energy (10–60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, J. F., E-mail: seelyjf@gmail.com; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., 2922 Excelsior Springs Court, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Pereira, N. [Ecopulse Inc., P. O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22152 (United States); Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10–60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 μm in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10–60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.

  13. Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2007-06-01

    With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

  14. Simple method for calculating island widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.; Hanson, J.D.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method for calculating magnetic island widths has been developed. This method uses only information obtained from integrating along the closed field line at the island center. Thus, this method is computationally less intensive than the usual method of producing surfaces of section of sufficient detail to locate and resolve the island separatrix. This method has been implemented numerically and used to analyze the buss work islands of ATF. In this case the method proves to be accurate to at least within 30%. 7 refs

  15. Two Dimensional Symmetric Correlation Functions of the S Operator and Two Dimensional Fourier Transforms: Considering the Line Coupling for P and R Lines of Linear Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS1 - S2 introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the ^S operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters' two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C2H2 broadened by N2. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.

  16. Model of the lines of sight for an off-axis optical instrument Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Dominique; Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Tournier, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The future Earth observation missions aim at delivering images with a high resolution and a large field of view. These images have to be processed to get a very accurate localisation. In that goal, the individual lines of sight of each photosensitive element must be evaluated according to the localisation of the pixels in the focal plane. But, with off-axis Korsch telescope (like PLEIADES), the classical model has to be adapted. This is possible by using optical ground measurements made after the integration of the instrument. The processing of these results leads to several parameters, which are function of the offsets of the focal plane and the real focal length. All this study which has been proposed for the PLEIADES mission leads to a more elaborated model which provides the relation between the lines of sight and the location of the pixels, with a very good accuracy, close to the pixel size.

  17. Ground state energy and width of 7He from 8Li proton knockout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, D. H.; DeYoung, P. A.; Hall, C. C.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Spyrou, A.; Breitbach, E.; Howes, R.; Brown, J.; Frank, N.; Gade, A.; Mosby, S. M.; Peters, W. A.; Thoennessen, M.; Hinnefeld, J.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jenson, R. A.; Luther, B.; Olson, C. W.; Schiller, A.

    2008-01-01

    The ground state energy and width of 7 He has been measured with the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and superconducting dipole Sweeper magnet experimental setup at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. 7 He was produced by proton knockout from a secondary 8 Li beam. The measured decay energy spectrum is compared to simulations based on Breit-Wigner line shape with an energy-dependent width for the resonant state. The energy of the ground state is found to be 400(10) keV with a full-width at half-maximum of 125( -15 +40 ) keV

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of fluorescence microlymphography for detecting limb lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo, H H; Husmann, M; Groechenig, E; Willenberg, T; Gretener, S B

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence microlymphography (FML) is a minimally invasive technique for visualization of the cutaneous lymphatic network. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and safety of FML in patients with unilateral lymphedema. This was a cross sectional study. Patients with unilateral leg swelling were assessed and compared with the unaffected contralateral limb. FML was performed in all index legs and the contralateral leg by injecting 0.1 mL of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran intradermally in both limbs at the same level. The most prominent swelling of the affected limb was the anatomical reference. The spread of the dye in the lymphatic capillaries of the skin was measured in all dimensions by epiluminator intravital microscopy and the maximum dye spread value 10 min after injection was used for statistical analysis. The contralateral leg served as control. Test accuracy and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess threshold values that best predict lymphedema. Between March 2008 and February 2014 seventy patients with unilateral chronic leg swelling were clinically diagnosed with lymphedema. The median age was 45 (IQR 27-56) years. Of those, 46 (65.7%) were female and 71.4% had primary and 28.6% secondary lymphedema. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and positive and negative predictive value were 94.3%, 78.6%, 4.40, 0.07, 81.5%, and 93.2% for the 12 mm cut off level and 91.4%, 85.7%, 6.40, 0.10, 86.5%, and 90.9% for the 14 mm cut off level, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95). No major adverse events were observed. FML is an almost atraumatic and safe technique for detecting lymphedema in patients with leg swelling. In this series the greatest accuracy was observed at a cut off level of ≥14 mm maximum spread. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Explosive lower limb extension mechanics: An on-land vs. in-water exploratory comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Brice; Lauer, Jessy; Samozino, Pierre; Mourão, Luis; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Rouard, Annie Hélène

    2017-12-08

    During a horizontal underwater push-off, performance is strongly limited by the presence of water, inducing resistances due to its dense and viscous nature. At the same time, aquatic environments offer a support to the swimmer with the hydrostatic buoyancy counteracting the effects of gravity. Squat jump is a vertical terrestrial push-off with a maximal lower limb extension limited by the gravity force, which attracts the body to the ground. Following this observation, we characterized the effects of environment (water vs. air) on the mechanical characteristics of the leg push-off. Underwater horizontal wall push-off and vertical on-land squat jumps of two local swimmers were evaluated with force plates, synchronized with a lateral camera. To better understand the resistances of the aquatic movement, a quasi-steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed. The force-, velocity- and power-time curves presented similarities in both environments corresponding to a proximo-distal joints organization. In water, swimmers developed a three-step explosive rise of force, which the first one mainly related to the initiation of body movement. Drag increase, which was observed from the beginning to the end of the push-off, related to the continuous increase of body velocity with high values of drag coefficient (C D ) and frontal areas before take-off. Specifically, with velocity, frontal area was the main drag component to explain inter-individual differences, suggesting that the streamlined position of the lower limbs is decisive to perform an efficient push-off. This study motivates future CFD simulations under more ecological, unsteady conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Scaling for scrape-off layer plasma in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Yasuo; Maeda, Hikosuke; Kimura, Haruyuki; Azumi, Masashi; Odajima, Kazuo

    1977-12-01

    Scaling for a scrape-off layer plasma in a tokamak is obtained by using DIVA (JFT-2a). The scaling gives the average electron temperature, the width and the mean electron density of the scrape-off layer. The temperature at the edge will be high in a future large tokamak with a small energy-loss by charge-exchange and radiation. The scrape-off layer plasma can easily shield the impurity influx from the wall. The fuel, however, can easily penetrate into the main plasma. (auth.)

  1. Prosthetic ankle push-off work reduces metabolic rate but not collision work in non-amputee walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Joshua M.; Collins, Steven H.

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with unilateral below-knee amputation expend more energy than non-amputees during walking and exhibit reduced push-off work and increased hip work in the affected limb. Simple dynamic models of walking suggest a possible solution, predicting that increasing prosthetic ankle push-off should decrease leading limb collision, thereby reducing overall energy requirements. We conducted a rigorous experimental test of this idea wherein ankle-foot prosthesis push-off work was incrementally varied in isolation from one-half to two-times normal levels while subjects with simulated amputation walked on a treadmill at 1.25 m.s-1. Increased prosthesis push-off significantly reduced metabolic energy expenditure, with a 14% reduction at maximum prosthesis work. In contrast to model predictions, however, collision losses were unchanged, while hip work during swing initiation was decreased. This suggests that powered ankle push-off reduces walking effort primarily through other mechanisms, such as assisting leg swing, which would be better understood using more complete neuromuscular models.

  2. A unified perspective on ankle push-off in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelik, Karl E; Adamczyk, Peter G

    2016-12-01

    Muscle-tendon units about the ankle joint generate a burst of positive power during the step-to-step transition in human walking, termed ankle push-off, but there is no scientific consensus on its functional role. A central question embodied in the biomechanics literature is: does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing, or to center of mass (COM) acceleration? This question has been debated in various forms for decades. However, it actually presents a false dichotomy, as these two possibilities are not mutually exclusive. If we ask either question independently, the answer is the same: yes! (1) Does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing acceleration? Yes. (2) Does ankle push-off primarily contribute to COM acceleration? Yes. Here, we summarize the historical debate, then synthesize the seemingly polarized perspectives and demonstrate that both descriptions are valid. The principal means by which ankle push-off affects COM mechanics is by a localized action that increases the speed and kinetic energy of the trailing push-off limb. Because the limb is included in body COM computations, this localized segmental acceleration also accelerates the COM, and most of the segmental energy change also appears as COM energy change. Interpretation of ankle mechanics should abandon an either/or contrast of leg swing versus COM acceleration. Instead, ankle push-off should be interpreted in light of both mutually consistent effects. This unified perspective informs our fundamental understanding of the role of ankle push-off, and has important implications for the design of clinical interventions (e.g. prostheses, orthoses) intended to restore locomotor function to individuals with disabilities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Design, construction, and testing of an automated NIR in-line analysis system for potatoes. Part I: Off-line NIR feasibility study for the characterization of potato composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.; Drost, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    An off-line near-infrared reflectance (NIR) feasibility study was conducted to explore the critical steps in the NIR determination of the major potato constituents (dry matter, starch, and protein) in relatively large (10 kg) potato samples. The results were important for the design of an automated

  4. Measurement of inner wall limiter SOL widths in KSTAR tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Bak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrape-off layer (SOL widths λq are presented from the KSTAR tokamak using fast reciprocating Langmuir probe assembly (FRLPA measurements at the outboard mid-plane (OMP and the infra-Red (IR thermography at inboard limiter tiles in moderately elongated (κ = 1.45 – 1.55 L-mode inner wall-limited (IWL plasmas under experimental conditions such as BT = 2.0 T, PNBI = 1.4 – 1.5 MW, line averaged densities 2.5 – 5.1 × 1019 m−3 and plasma current Ip = 0.4 − 0.7 MA. There is clear evidence for a double exponential structure in q||(r from the FRLPA such that, for example at Ip = 0.6 MA, a narrow feature, λq,near (=3.5 mm is found close to the LFCS, followed by a broader width, λq,main (=57.0 mm. Double exponential profiles (λq,near = 1.5 – 2.8 mm, λq,main = 17.0 – 35.0 mm can be also observed in the IR heat flux mapped to the OMP throughout the range of Ip investigated. In addition, analysis of SOL turbulence statistics obtained with the FRLPA shows high relative fluctuation levels and positively skewed distributions in electron temperature and ion particle flux across the SOL, with both properties increasing for longer distance from the LCFS, as often previously observed in the tokamaks. Interestingly, the fluctuation character expressed in terms of spectral distributions remains unchanged in passing from the narrow to the broad SOL heat flux channel.

  5. The effect of an endorectal balloon and off-line correction on the interfraction systematic and random prostate position variations: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Emile van; Vight, Lisette van der; Witjes, J. Alfred; Huisman, HenkJan J.; Leer, Jan Willem; Visser, Andries G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of an endorectal balloon (ERB) and an off-line correction protocol on the day-to-day, interfraction prostate gland motion, in patients receiving external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and materials: In 22 patients, irradiated with an ERB in situ (ERB group) and in 30 patients without an ERB (No-ERB group), prostate displacements were measured daily in three orthogonal directions with portal images. Implanted gold markers and an off-line electronic portal imaging correction protocol were used for prostate position verification and correction. Movie loops were analyzed to evaluate prostate motion and rectal filling variations. Results: The off-line correction protocol reduced the systematic prostate displacements, equally for the ERB and No-ERB group, to 1.3-1.8 mm (1 SD). The mean 3D displacement was reduced to 2.8 mm and 2.4 mm for the ERB and No-ERB group, respectively. The random interfraction displacements, relative to the treatment isocenter, were not reduced by the ERB and remained nearly unchanged in all three directions: 3.1 mm (1 SD) left-right, 2.6 mm (1 SD) superior-inferior, and 4.7 mm (1 SD) for the anterior-posterior direction. These day-to-day prostate position variations can be explained by the presence of gas and stool beside the ERB. Conclusions: The off-line corrections on the fiducial markers are effective in reducing the systematic prostate displacements. The investigated ERB does not reduce the interfraction prostate motion. Although the overall mean displacement is low, the day-to-day interfraction motion, especially in anterior-posterior direction, remains high compared with the systematic displacements

  6. The IATH ELAN Text-Sync Tool: A Simple System for Mobilizing ELAN Transcripts On- or Off-Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrin, Lise M.; Ross, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the IATH ELAN Text-Sync Tool (ETST; see http://community.village.virginia.edu/etst), a series of scripts and workflow for playing ELAN files and associated audiovisual media in a web browser either on- or off-line. ELAN has become an indispensable part of documentary linguists' toolkit, but it is less than ideal for…

  7. Scrape-off layer width of parallel heat flux on tokamak COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loureiro, J.; Silva, C.; Horáček, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Stöckel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2014), s. 121 ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2014 - 26th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/26./. Prague, 16.06.2014-19.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * edge turbulent transport * Scrape-Off layer * Langmuir probe * Ball- pen probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/loureiro.pdf

  8. Off-Line and Dynamic Production Scheduling – A Comparative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive case study of manufacturing scheduling solutions development is given. It includes highly generalized scheduling problem as well as a few scheduling modes, methods and problem models. The considered problem combines flexible job shop structure, lot streaming with variable sublots, transport times, setup times, and machine calendars. Tabu search metaheuristic and constraint programming methods have been used for the off-line scheduling. Two dynamic scheduling methods have also been implemented, i.e., dispatching rules for the completely reactive scheduling and a multi-agent system for the predictivereactive scheduling. In these implementations three distinct models of the problem have been used, based on: graph representation, optimal constraint satisfaction, and Petri net formalism. Each of these solutions has been verified in computational experiments. The results are compared and some findings about advantages, disadvantages, and suggestions on using the solutions are formulated.

  9. Free NH3 quantum rotations in Hofmann clathrates: structure factors and line widths studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, O.; Vorderwisch, P.; Desmedt, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum rotations of NH 3 groups in Hofmann clathrates Ni-Ni-C 6 H 6 and Ni-Ni-C 12 H 10 have been studied using inelastic neutron scattering. Calculations of the dynamical structure factor for a free uniaxial quantum rotor reproduce the neutron scattering data with respect to their Q- and T-dependence as well as the relative intensities for the 0 → 1, 0 → 2 and 1 → 2 transitions. Though the effective NH 3 rotation constant is different from the gas phase value, the effective radius of rotation (i.e., the average distance of protons from the rotation axis) is equal or very close to the geometrical value r = 0.94 A for a NH 3 group. Comparing the experimental data with the calculated dynamical structure factor for the 0 → 3 transition it could be shown, that the corresponding transition line, in contrast to transitions between j = 0,1,2 levels measured so far, has a finite width at T = 0 K

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Blazars equivalent widths and radio luminosity (Landt+, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, H.; Padovani, P.; Perlman, E. S.; Giommi, P.

    2004-07-01

    Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value-equivalent width plane, following Marcha et al. (1996MNRAS.281..425M). We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS, Cat. and ) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII]{lambda}5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII]{lambda}5007-[OII]{lambda}3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ~75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (~97 per cent) quasars. (4 data files).

  11. Genetic correlations between conformation traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Distl Ottmar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studbook inspection (SBI data of 20 768 German Warmblood mares and radiography results (RR data of 5102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used for genetic correlation analyses. The scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for conformation and basic quality of gaits, resulting in 14 SBI traits which were used for the correlation analyses. The radiographic findings considered included osseous fragments in fetlock (OFF and hock joints (OFH, deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones (RNB which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on 24 448 horses with SBI and/or RR records. The ranges of heritability estimates were h2 = 0.14–0.34 for the RR traits and h2 = 0.09–0.50 for the SBI traits. Negative additive genetic correlations of rg = -0.19 to -0.56 were estimated between OFF and conformation of front and hind limbs and walk at hand, and between DNB and hind limb conformation. There were indications of negative additive genetic correlations between DAH and all SBI traits, but because of low prevalence and low heritability of DAH, these results require further scrutiny. Positive additive genetic correlations of rg = 0.37–0.52 were estimated between OFF and withers height and between OFH and withers height, indicating that selection for taller horses will increase disposition to develop OFF and OFH. Selection of broodmares with regards to functional conformation will assist, but cannot replace possible selection against radiographic findings in the limbs of young Warmblood riding horses, particularly with regards to OFF.

  12. Robotic tool positioning process using a multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, T. C.; Matos, G.

    2018-03-01

    Proper positioning of a friction stir welding head for pin insertion, driven by a closed chain robot, is important to ensure quality repair of cracks. A multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor was designed to be integrated to the robot, allowing relative measurements of the surface to be repaired. This work describes the sensor characteristics, its evaluation and the measurement process for tool positioning to a surface point of interest. The developed process uses a point of interest image and a measured point cloud to define the translation and rotation for tool positioning. Sensor evaluation and tests are described. Keywords: laser triangulation, 3D measurement, tool positioning, robotics.

  13. Line-breaking algorithm enhancement in inverse typesetting paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Přichystal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High quality text preparing using computer desktop publishing systems usually uses line-breaking algorithm which cannot make provision for line heights and typeset paragraph accurately when composition width, page break, line index or other object appears. This article deals with enhancing of line-breaking algorithm based on optimum-fit algorithm. This algorithm is enhanced with calculation of immediate typesetting width and thus solves problem of forced change. Line-breaking algorithm enhancement causes expansion potentialities of high-quality typesetting in cases that have not been yet covered with present typesetting systems.

  14. Role of Off-Line-of-Sight Propagation in Geomagnetic EMP Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Hans W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    The author’s synchrotron radiation based 3D geomagnetic EMP code MACSYNC has been used to explore the impact on pulse rise time and air conductivity of EMP propagation paths to the observer that are located off the direct line-of-sight (LOS) between gamma source and observer. This geometry is always present because, for an isotropic source, most the gammas are emitted at an angle with respect to the LOS. Computations for a 1 kt near-surface burst observed from space yield two principal findings: 1. The rise time is generated by the combined actions of a) electron spreading along the LOS due to the Compton electron emission angular distribution folded with electron multiple scattering effects, and b) radiation arrival time spreading due to length differences for different off-LOS propagation paths. The pulse rise time does not depend on the rise time of the conductivity. The conductivity rise time determines the pulse amplitude. 2. One-dimensional legacy EMP codes are inherently incapable of producing the correct pulse shape because they cannot treat the dependence of the conductivity on two dimensions, i.e. the radius from the source and the angle of the propagation path with the LOS. This divergence from one-dimensionality begins at a small fraction of a nanosecond for a sea-level burst. This effect will also be present in high-altitude bursts, however, determination of its onset time and magnitude requires high-altitude computations which have not yet been done.

  15. Perceptual embodiment of prosthetic limbs by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Matthew R; Fawkner, Helen J; Radford, Helen E; Johnson, Mark I

    2012-01-01

      In able-bodied participants, it is possible to induce a sense of perceptual embodiment in an artificial hand using a visual-tactile illusion. In amputee patients, electrical stimulation of sensory afferents using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been shown to generate somatic sensations in an amputee's phantom limb(s). However, the effects of TENS on the perceptual embodiment of an artificial limb are not known. Our objective was to investigate the effects of TENS on the perceptual embodiment of an artificial limb in fully intact able-bodied participants.   We used a modified version of the rubber hand illusion presented to 30 able-bodied participants (16 women, 14 men) to convey TENS paresthesia to an artificial hand. TENS electrodes were located over superficial radial nerve on the lateral aspect of the right forearm (1 cm proximal to the wrist), which was hidden from view. TENS intensity was increased to a strong non-painful TENS sensation (electrical paresthesia) was felt beneath the electrodes and projecting into the fingers of the hand. The electrical characteristics of TENS were asymmetric biphasic electrical pulsed waves, continuous pulse pattern, 120 Hz pulse frequency (rate), and 80 µs pulse duration (width).   Participants reported significantly higher intensities of the rubber hand illusion during the two TENS conditions (mean = 5.8, standard deviation = 1.9) compared with the two non-TENS conditions (mean = 4.9, standard deviation = 1.7), p embodiment of an artificial hand. Further exploratory studies involving an amputee population are warranted. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. Symmetrical upper limb peromelia and lower limb phocomelia associated with a de novo apparently balanced reciprocal translocation: 46,XX,t(2; 12)(p25.1;q24.1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R S; Keeling, J W; Ellis, P M; FitzPatrick, D R

    2002-04-01

    We report a female fetus of 20 weeks gestation with severe symmetrical deformity affecting all four limbs. These deformities were unusual in that there was upper limb peromelia and lower limb phocomelia. No additional major malformations were identified on postmortem examination. In particular there was no evidence of splenogonadal fusion or micrognathia and hypoglossia. The limb malformations in this case are associated with a de novo apparently balanced reciprocal translocation 46,XX,t(2;12)(p25.1;q24.1). The cytogenetic features of Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome were not detected. Unfortunately, the fibroblast line died and no FISH or DNA analysis could be carried out. In spite of this, the case is presented as it may be useful to other researchers in the selection of candidate genes for mendelian forms of peromelia and phocomelia.

  17. From fins to limbs to fins: limb evolution in fossil marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Michael W

    2002-10-15

    Limb osteology and ontogenetic patterns of limb ossification are reviewed for extinct lineages of aquatically adapted diapsid reptiles. Phylogenies including these fossil taxa show that paddle-like limbs were independently derived, and that the varied limb morphologies were produced by evolutionary modifications to different aspects of the limb skeleton. Ancient marine reptiles modify the limb by reducing the relative size of the epipodials, modifying the perichondral and periosteal surface of elements distal to the propodials, and evolving extremes of hyperphalangy and hyperdactyly. Developmental genetic models illuminate gene systems that may have controlled limb evolution in these animals. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Methane spectral line widths and shifts, and dependences on physical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K.; Quillen, D. T.; Jennings, D. E.; Wagner, J.; Plymate, C.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed report of the recent high-resolution spectroscopic research on widths and shifts measured for a strong infrared-active fundamental of methane is presented. They were measured in collision with several rare gases and diatomic molecules, in the vibrational-rotational fundamental near 3000/cm. These measurements were made at an ambient temperature of 294 K over a range of pressures from 100 to 700 torr. The measurements are discussed in a preliminary but detailed and quantitative manner with reference to masses, polarizabilities, and quadrupole moments. Some functional dependences on these physical parameters are considered. The present data are useful for studies of corresponding planetary spectra.

  19. Purification of lignans from Fructus Arctii using off-line two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bichao; Xin, Huaxia; Wang, Feier; Cai, Jianfeng; Liu, Yanfang; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-08-01

    As a common traditional Chinese medicine, Fructus Arctii has important clinical medical values. Its main components are lignans, which are difficult to separate and analyze because of the complex composition, similar chemical structures, and close properties. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method, as well as an effective sample pretreatment method based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography material, was developed to enrich the minor lignan fractions and obtain high-purity compounds. In total, 12 high-purity compounds were isolated from Fructus Arctii. Their structures were identified by using high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which showed that all were lignans and that most of them were isomers. The results demonstrated the effective off-line two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method for the purification of lignans from Fructus Arctii. The separation protocol established here will be beneficial for the separation of complex samples from other kinds of natural products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effects of excitation spectral width on decay profile of weakly confined excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O.; Isu, T.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Kanno, A.; Katouf, R.; Sasaki, M.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report the effect due to a simultaneous excitation of several exciton states on the radiative decay profiles on the basis of the nonlocal response of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films. In the case of excitation of single exciton state, the transient grating signal has two decay components. The fast decay component comes from nonlocal response, and the long-lived component is attributed to free exciton decay. With an increase of excitation spectral width, the nonlocal component becomes small in comparison with the long-lived component, and disappears under irradiation of a femtosecond-pulse laser with broader spectral width. The transient grating spectra clearly indicates the contribution of the weakly confined excitons to the signal, and the exciton line width hardly changes by excitation spectral width. From these results, we concluded that the change of decay profile is attributed not to the many-body effect but to the effect of simultaneous excitation of several exciton states

  1. Stability of arsenic peptides in plant extracts: off-line versus on-line parallel elemental and molecular mass spectrometric detection for liquid chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemlein, Katharina; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The instability of metal and metalloid complexes during analytical processes has always been an issue of an uncertainty regarding their speciation in plant extracts. Two different speciation protocols were compared regarding the analysis of arsenic phytochelatin (As(III)PC) complexes in fresh plant material. As the final step for separation/detection both methods used RP-HPLC simultaneously coupled to ICP-MS and ES-MS. However, one method was the often used off-line approach using two-dimensional separation, i.e. a pre-cleaning step using size-exclusion chromatography with subsequent fraction collection and freeze-drying prior to the analysis using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS and/or ES-MS. This approach revealed that less than 2% of the total arsenic was bound to peptides such as phytochelatins in the root extract of an arsenate exposed Thunbergia alata, whereas the direct on-line method showed that 83% of arsenic was bound to peptides, mainly as As(III)PC(3) and (GS)As(III)PC(2). Key analytical factors were identified which destabilise the As(III)PCs. The low pH of the mobile phase (0.1% formic acid) using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS/ES-MS stabilises the arsenic peptide complexes in the plant extract as well as the free peptide concentration, as shown by the kinetic disintegration study of the model compound As(III)(GS)(3) at pH 2.2 and 3.8. But only short half-lives of only a few hours were determined for the arsenic glutathione complex. Although As(III)PC(3) showed a ten times higher half-life (23 h) in a plant extract, the pre-cleaning step with subsequent fractionation in a mobile phase of pH 5.6 contributes to the destabilisation of the arsenic peptides in the off-line method. Furthermore, it was found that during a freeze-drying process more than 90% of an As(III)PC(3) complex and smaller free peptides such as PC(2) and PC(3) can be lost. Although the two-dimensional off-line method has been used successfully for other metal complexes, it is concluded here that the fractionation and

  2. Line shape parameters for the H2O-H2 collision system for application to exoplanet and planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Candice L.; Cleghorn, Kara; Hartmann, Léna; Vispoel, Bastien; Gamache, Robert R.

    2018-05-01

    Water can be detected throughout the universe: in comets, asteroids, dwarf planets, the inner and outer planets in our solar system, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and on many exoplanets. Here the focus is on locations rich in hydrogen gas. To properly study these environments, there is a need for the line shape parameters for H2O transitions in collision with hydrogen. This work presents calculations of the half-width and line shift, made using the Modified Complex Robert-Bonamy (MCRB) formalism, at a number of temperatures. It is shown that this collision system is strongly off-resonance. For such conditions, the atom-atom part of the intermolecular potential dominates the interaction of the radiating and perturbing molecules. The atom-atom parameters were adjusted by fitting the H2O-H2 measurements of Brown and Plymate (1996). Several techniques were used to extract lines for which there is more confidence in the quality of the data. The final potential yields results that agree with the measurements with ∼0.3% difference and a 5.9% standard deviation. Using this potential, MCRB calculations were made for all transitions in the pure rotation, ν2, ν1, and ν3 bands. The structure of the line shape parameters and the temperature dependence of the half-width, as a function of the rotational and vibrational quantum numbers, are discussed. It is shown that the power law model of the T-dependence of the half-width is inadequate over large temperature ranges.

  3. Line Generalization and AutoCAD Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Vučetić

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the results of original research made on the application of AutoCAD Map in line generalisation. The differences and similarities have been found out between the Douglas-Peucker method and the method of line simplification that is incorporated in AutoCAD Map. There have been also the inaccuracies found out in AutoCAD Map manual relating to the issues of buffer width and tolerance, and the line width before and after simplification. The paper gives recommendations about pseudo nodes dissolving. It has been noticed that AutoCAD Map simplification method is not independent of the order of points. The application of the method is illustrated by an example of coastal line of Istria.

  4. External Fuel Tank, Clouds and Earth Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    It's fuel consumed, the expendable external fuel tank was jettisoned moments earlier from the Space Shuttle Atlantis and now begins its plunge back to Earth (20.5N, 36.0W). Backdropped against the void of space and the thin blue line of the Earth's airglow above the Earth Limb, the harshness of the blackness of space is softened by the fleeciness of Earth's cloud cover below.

  5. Narrowing beam-walking is a clinically feasible approach for assessing balance ability in lower-limb prosthesis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Hafner, Brian J

    2018-05-08

    Challenging clinical balance tests are needed to expose balance deficits in lower-limb prost-hesis users. This study examined whether narrowing beam-walking could overcome conceptual and practical limitations identified in fixed-width beam-walking. Cross-sectional. Unilateral lower-limb prosthesis users. Participants walked 10 times along a low, narrowing beam. Performance was quantified using the normalized distance walked. Heuristic rules were applied to determine whether the narrowing beam task was "too easy," "too hard," or "appropriately challenging" for each participant. Linear regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine whether combinations of the first 5 trials could predict participants' stable beam-walking performance. Forty unilateral lower-limb prosthesis users participated. Narrowing beam-walking was appropriately challenging for 98% of participants. Performance stabilized for 93% of participants within 5 trials, while 62% were stable across all trials. The mean of trials 3-5 accurately predicted stable performance. A clinical narrowing beam-walking test is likely to challenge a range of lower-limb prosthesis users, have minimal administrative burden, and exhibit no floor or ceiling effects. Narrowing beam-walking is therefore a clinically viable method to evaluate lower-limb prosthesis users' balance ability, but requires psychometric testing before it is used to assess fall risk.

  6. Analysis of non-thermal velocities in the solar corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Contesse

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe new ground-based spectroscopic observations made using a 40-cm aperture coronagraph over a whole range of radial distances (up to heights of 12' above the limb and along four different heliocentric directions N, E, S and W. The analysis is limited to the study of the brightest forbidden emission line of Fe XIV at 530.3nm, in order to reach the best possible signal-to-noise ratio. To make the results statistically more significant, the extracted parameters are averaged over the whole length of the slit, and measurements are repeated fives times at each position; the corresponding dispersions in the results obtained along the slit are given. Central line profile intensities and full line widths (FWHM are plotted and compared to measurements published by other authors closer to the limb. We found widths and turbulent (non-thermal velocities of significantly higher values above the polar regions, especially when a coronal hole is present along the line of sight. We do not see a definitely decreasing behaviour of widths and turbulent velocities in equatorial directions for larger radial distances, as reported in the literature, although lower values are measured compared to the values in polar regions. The variation in the high corona is rather flat and a correlation diagram indicates that it is different for different regions and different radial distances. This seems to be the first analysis of the profiles of this coronal line, up to large heights above the limb for both equatorial and polar regions.

  7. A review of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Choi, Monica; Musselman, Ruth; Eapen, Deborah; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2012-03-01

    For years people have been enamored by anomalies of the human limbs, particularly supernumerary and absent limbs and digits. Historically, there are a number of examples of such anomalies, including royal families of ancient Chaldea, tribes from Arabia, and examples from across nineteenth century Europe. The development of the upper limbs in a growing embryo is still being elucidated with the recent advent of homeobox genes, but researchers agree that upper limbs develop between stages 12-23 through a complex embryological process. Maternal thalidomide intake during limb development is known to cause limb reduction and subsequent amelia or phocomelia. Additionally, a number of clinical reports have illustrated different limb anomaly cases, with each situation unique in phenotype and developmental abnormality. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits are not unique to humans, and a number of animal cases have also been reported. This review of the literature illustrates the historical, anatomical, and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the upper limb.

  8. Analysis of data collected from right and left limbs: Accounting for dependence and improving statistical efficiency in musculoskeletal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah; Pearson, Janet; Rome, Keith; Dalbeth, Nicola; Vandal, Alain C

    2018-01-01

    Statistical techniques currently used in musculoskeletal research often inefficiently account for paired-limb measurements or the relationship between measurements taken from multiple regions within limbs. This study compared three commonly used analysis methods with a mixed-models approach that appropriately accounted for the association between limbs, regions, and trials and that utilised all information available from repeated trials. Four analysis were applied to an existing data set containing plantar pressure data, which was collected for seven masked regions on right and left feet, over three trials, across three participant groups. Methods 1-3 averaged data over trials and analysed right foot data (Method 1), data from a randomly selected foot (Method 2), and averaged right and left foot data (Method 3). Method 4 used all available data in a mixed-effects regression that accounted for repeated measures taken for each foot, foot region and trial. Confidence interval widths for the mean differences between groups for each foot region were used as a criterion for comparison of statistical efficiency. Mean differences in pressure between groups were similar across methods for each foot region, while the confidence interval widths were consistently smaller for Method 4. Method 4 also revealed significant between-group differences that were not detected by Methods 1-3. A mixed effects linear model approach generates improved efficiency and power by producing more precise estimates compared to alternative approaches that discard information in the process of accounting for paired-limb measurements. This approach is recommended in generating more clinically sound and statistically efficient research outputs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast intersection detection algorithm for PC-based robot off-line programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrowitz, Christian H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a method for fast and reliable collision detection in complex production cells. The algorithm is part of the PC-based robot off-line programming system of the University of Siegen (Ropsus). The method is based on a solid model which is managed by a simplified constructive solid geometry model (CSG-model). The collision detection problem is divided in two steps. In the first step the complexity of the problem is reduced in linear time. In the second step the remaining solids are tested for intersection. For this the Simplex algorithm, which is known from linear optimization, is used. It computes a point which is common to two convex polyhedra. The polyhedra intersect, if such a point exists. Regarding the simplified geometrical model of Ropsus the algorithm runs also in linear time. In conjunction with the first step a resultant collision detection algorithm is found which requires linear time in all. Moreover it computes the resultant intersection polyhedron using the dual transformation.

  10. Finite-width effects in unstable-particle production at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falgari, P. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Spinoza Inst.; Papanastasiou, A.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Signer, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-03-15

    We present a general formalism for the calculation of finite-width contributions to the differential production cross sections of unstable particles at hadron colliders. In this formalism, which employs an effective-theory description of unstable-particle production and decay, the matrix element computation is organized as a gauge-invariant expansion in powers of {Gamma}{sub X}/m{sub X}, with {Gamma}{sub X} and m{sub X} the width and mass of the unstable particle. This framework allows for a systematic inclusion of off-shell and non-factorizable effects whilst at the same time keeping the computational effort minimal compared to a full calculation in the complex-mass scheme. As a proof-of-concept example, we give results for an NLO calculation of top-antitop production in the q anti q partonic channel. As already found in a similar calculation of single-top production, the finite-width effects are small for the total cross section, as expected from the naive counting {proportional_to}{Gamma}{sub t}/m{sub t}{proportional_to}1%. However, they can be sizeable, in excess of 10%, close to edges of certain kinematical distributions. The dependence of the results on the mass renormalization scheme, and its implication for a precise extraction of the top-quark mass, is also discussed.

  11. Finite-width effects in unstable-particle production at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falgari, P.; Signer, A.; Zuerich Univ.

    2013-03-01

    We present a general formalism for the calculation of finite-width contributions to the differential production cross sections of unstable particles at hadron colliders. In this formalism, which employs an effective-theory description of unstable-particle production and decay, the matrix element computation is organized as a gauge-invariant expansion in powers of Γ X /m X , with Γ X and m X the width and mass of the unstable particle. This framework allows for a systematic inclusion of off-shell and non-factorizable effects whilst at the same time keeping the computational effort minimal compared to a full calculation in the complex-mass scheme. As a proof-of-concept example, we give results for an NLO calculation of top-antitop production in the q anti q partonic channel. As already found in a similar calculation of single-top production, the finite-width effects are small for the total cross section, as expected from the naive counting ∝Γ t /m t ∝1%. However, they can be sizeable, in excess of 10%, close to edges of certain kinematical distributions. The dependence of the results on the mass renormalization scheme, and its implication for a precise extraction of the top-quark mass, is also discussed.

  12. Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worden, J.R.; Bowman, K.W.; Jones, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    Limb sounders measure atmospheric radiation that is dependent on atmospheric temperature and constituents that have a radial and angular distribution in Earth-centered coordinates. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of a limb retrieval to radial and angular distributions of trace gas concentrations, we perform and characterize one-dimensional (vertical) and two-dimensional (radial and angular) atmospheric profile retrievals. Our simulated atmosphere for these retrievals is a distribution of carbon monoxide (CO), which represents a plume off the coast of south-east Asia. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) limb retrievals are characterized by evaluating their averaging kernels and error covariances on a radial and angular grid that spans the plume. We apply this 2D characterization of a limb retrieval to a comparison of the 2D retrieval with the 1D (vertical) retrieval. By characterizing a limb retrieval in two dimensions the location of the air mass where the retrievals are most sensitive can be determined. For this test case the retrievals are most sensitive to the CO concentrations about 2 deg.latitude in front of the tangent point locations. We find the information content for the 2D retrieval is an order of magnitude larger and the degrees of freedom is about a factor of two larger than that of the 1D retrieval primarily because the 2D retrieval can estimate angular distributions of CO concentrations. This 2D characterization allows the radial and angular resolution as well as the degrees of freedom and information content to be computed for these limb retrievals. We also use the 2D averaging kernel to develop a strategy for validation of a limb retrieval with an in situ measurement

  13. Size Determination of Au Aerosol Nanoparticles by Off-Line TEM/STEM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Lisa S.; Deppert, Knut; Malm, Jan-Olle

    2006-12-01

    Determination of particle size distributions of Au aerosol nanoparticles has been performed by a TEM/STEM investigation. The particles are generated by an evaporation/condensation method and are size-selected by differential mobility analyzers (DMA) based on their electrical mobility. Off-line TEM measurements resulted in equivalent projected area diameters assuming that the particles are spherical in shape. In this paper critical factors such as magnification calibration, sampling, image analysis, beam exposure and, particle shape are treated. The study shows that the measures of central tendency; mean, median and mode, are equal as expected from a narrow size distribution. Moreover, the correlation between TEM/STEM and DMA are good, in practice 1:1. Also, STEM has the advantage over TEM due to enhanced contrast and is proposed as an alternative route for determination of particle size distributions of nanoparticles with lower contrast.

  14. Size Determination of Au Aerosol Nanoparticles by Off-Line TEM/STEM Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Lisa S.; Deppert, Knut; Malm, Jan-Olle

    2006-01-01

    Determination of particle size distributions of Au aerosol nanoparticles has been performed by a TEM/STEM investigation. The particles are generated by an evaporation/condensation method and are size-selected by differential mobility analyzers (DMA) based on their electrical mobility. Off-line TEM measurements resulted in equivalent projected area diameters assuming that the particles are spherical in shape. In this paper critical factors such as magnification calibration, sampling, image analysis, beam exposure and, particle shape are treated. The study shows that the measures of central tendency; mean, median and mode, are equal as expected from a narrow size distribution. Moreover, the correlation between TEM/STEM and DMA are good, in practice 1:1. Also, STEM has the advantage over TEM due to enhanced contrast and is proposed as an alternative route for determination of particle size distributions of nanoparticles with lower contrast

  15. Stark widths of Xe II lines in a pulsed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, S; Pelaez, R J; Cirisan, M; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of experimental work on Stark broadening of singly ionized xenon lines. Eighty lines, from close UV to the red region of the spectrum, have been studied. Stark halfwidths were compared with experimental data from the literature and modified semi-empirical calculations. A pulsed arc with 95% of helium and 5% xenon was used as a plasma source for this study. Measured electron densities N e and temperatures T were in the ranges of 0.2-1.6 x 10 23 m -3 and 18 300-25 500 K, respectively

  16. How do the substrate reaction forces acting on a gecko's limbs respond to inclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouyi; Dai, Zhendong; Li, Wei; Ji, Aihong; Wang, Wenbao

    2015-02-01

    Locomotion is an essential character of animals, and excellent moving ability results from the delicate sensing of the substrate reaction forces (SRF) acting on body and modulating the behavior to adapt the motion requirement. The inclined substrates present in habitats pose a number of functional challenges to locomotion. In order to effectively overcome these challenges, climbing geckos execute complex and accurate movements that involve both the front and hind limbs. Few studies have examined gecko's SRF on steeper inclines of greater than 90°. To reveal how the SRFs acting on the front and hind limbs respond to angle incline changes, we obtained detailed measurements of the three-dimensional SRFs acting on the individual limbs of the tokay gecko while it climbed on an inclined angle of 0-180°. The fore-aft forces acting on the front and hind limbs show opposite trends on inverted inclines of greater than 120°, indicating propulsion mechanism changes in response to inclines. When the incline angles change, the forces exerted in the normal and fore-aft directions by gecko's front and hind limbs are reassigned to take full advantage of limbs' different roles in overcoming resistance and in propelling locomotion. This also ensures that weight acts in the angle range between the forces generated by the front and hind limbs. The change in the distribution of SRF with a change in the incline angle is directly linked to the favorable trade-off between locomotive maneuverability and stability.

  17. The Mean Metal-line Absorption Spectrum of Damped Ly α Systems in BOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (UB-IEEC), Barcelona E-08028, Catalonia (Spain); Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UPMC and CNRS, UMR7095 98bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014—Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); York, Donald G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ge, Jian, E-mail: l.m.ribas@astro.uio.no [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We study the mean absorption spectrum of the Damped Ly α (DLA) population at z ∼ 2.6 by stacking normalized, rest-frame-shifted spectra of ∼27,000 DLA systems from the DR12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)/SDSS-III. We measure the equivalent widths of 50 individual metal absorption lines in five intervals of DLA hydrogen column density, five intervals of DLA redshift, and overall mean equivalent widths for an additional 13 absorption features from groups of strongly blended lines. The mean equivalent width of low-ionization lines increases with N {sub H} {sub i}, whereas for high-ionization lines the increase is much weaker. The mean metal line equivalent widths decrease by a factor ∼1.1–1.5 from z ∼ 2.1 to z ∼ 3.5, with small or no differences between low- and high-ionization species. We develop a theoretical model, inspired by the presence of multiple absorption components observed in high-resolution spectra, to infer mean metal column densities from the equivalent widths of partially saturated metal lines. We apply this model to 14 low-ionization species and to Al iii, S iii, Si iii, C iv, Si iv, N v, and O vi. We use an approximate derivation for separating the equivalent width contributions of several lines to blended absorption features, and infer mean equivalent widths and column densities from lines of the additional species N i, Zn ii, C ii*, Fe iii, and S iv. Several of these mean column densities of metal lines in DLAs are obtained for the first time; their values generally agree with measurements of individual DLAs from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra when they are available.

  18. Measured pulse width of sonoluminescence flashes in the form of resonance radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Asis; Arakeri, Vijay H.

    1998-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the measured flash widths from single and multibubble sonoluminescence are in subnanosecond or even picosecond regime. Here, we provide conclusive evidence for the existence of nanosecond multibubble sonoluminescence. This has become possible by our ability to find a medium from which exclusive sodium D line resonance radiation as a form of sonoluminescence is possible. The measured flash width of this emission is found to be in the range of tens of nanoseconds and is sensitively dependent on experimental parameters. Our finding is important since all the earlier pulse width measurements have been limited to emission with the physical source or species responsible for observed optical radiation not being clearly identified. We propose that the presently observed resonance radiation is from ``soft'' bubble collapse as analyzed by V. Kamath et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 248 (1993)].

  19. Which Bow Shock Theory, Gasdynamic or Magnetohydrodynamic, Better Explains CME Stand-off Distance Ratios from LASCO-C2 Observations ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Ok; Moon, Y.-J. [School of Space Research Kyung Hee University Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Yi [Department of Astronomy and Space Science Kyung Hee University Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, R.-S.; Cho, K.-S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-20

    It is generally believed that fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can generate their associated shocks, which are characterized by faint structures ahead of CMEs in white-light coronagraph images. In this study, we examine whether the observational stand-off distance ratio, defined as the CME stand-off distance divided by its radius, can be explained by bow shock theories. Of 535 SOHO /LASCO CMEs (from 1996 to 2015) with speeds greater than 1000 km s{sup −1} and angular widths wider than 60°, we select 18 limb CMEs with the following conditions: (1) their Alfvénic Mach numbers are greater than one under Mann’s magnetic field and Saito’s density distributions; and (2) the shock structures ahead of the CMEs are well identified. We determine observational CME stand-off distance ratios by using brightness profiles from LASCO-C2 observations. We compare our estimates with theoretical stand-off distance ratios from gasdynamic (GD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories. The main results are as follows. Under the GD theory, 39% (7/18) of the CMEs are explained in the acceptable ranges of adiabatic gamma ( γ ) and CME geometry. Under the MHD theory, all the events are well explained when we consider quasi-parallel MHD shocks with γ = 5/3. When we use polarized brightness (pB) measurements for coronal density distributions, we also find similar results: 8% (1/12) under GD theory and 100% (12/12) under MHD theory. Our results demonstrate that the bow shock relationships based on MHD theory are more suitable than those based on GD theory for analyzing CME-driven shock signatures.

  20. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  1. Analysis of skin derived peptides from the Cuyaba Dwarf Frog Physalaemus nattereri by off-line LC MALDI MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Mariana S; Pires Júnior, Osmindo Rodrigues; Fontes, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the potential for analysis of the complex peptide mixtures secreted from frog skin using off-line LC-MALDI MS/MS. Since only limited information about the sequence of such peptides is available, de novo sequencing followed by Blast search was needed. An automated workflow has...... for future studies of peptides secreted from frogs....

  2. Adjustments to amputation and an artificial limb in lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Richa; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    Background: Positive adjustments to amputation and an artificial limb play important roles in the rehabilitation process. Objectives: To study the different facets of adjustments to amputation and an artificial limb in lower limb amputees and to assess the possible role of different background and

  3. A 350 KV nanosecond pulse voltage generator with adjustable pulsed-width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, M.; Chen, Y.Q.; Zeng, L.G.; Han, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a 350 kV nanosecond pulse voltage generator (NPVG). The voltage pulsed-width can be adjusted from 30 to 160 ns. The generator consists of: Marx generator, pulsed forming line (PFL), main switch and matched impedance. The output voltage of Marx generator is over than nU c (n- the stage number of Marx generator, U c -the charging voltage of capacitor). When the pulse forming line is terminated with an impedance that is over than the characteristic impedance of PFL, the higher voltage pulse was provided for the load

  4. Claw and limb disorders in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldaas, Terje; Nafstad, Ola; Fredriksen, Bente; Ringdal, Grethe; Sogstad, Ase M

    2007-09-24

    The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of claw and limb disorders in Norwegian beef-cow herds. Twenty-six herds with >or=15 cow-years were selected by computerized systematic assignment from the three most beef cattle-dense regions of Norway. The study population consisted of 12 herds with 28 heifers and 334 cows. The animals were trimmed and examined once by claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2003. The seven claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, feeding and management routines, age and breed, culling and carcass characteristics were also recorded. Lameness was recorded in 1.1% of the animals, and only in hind claws. Pericarpal swellings were recorded in one animal and peritarsal lesions in none. In total, claw and limb disorders including lameness were recorded in 29.6% of the animals, 4.1% with front and 28.2% with hind limb disorders, respectively. Most lesions were mild. Laminitis-related claw lesions were recorded in 18.0% of the animals and infectious lesions in 16.6%. The average claw length was 84 mm in front claws and 89 mm in hind claw. Both laminitis-related and infectious claw lesions were more prevalent with increasing age. Carcasses from animals with claw and limb disorders were on average 34 kg heavier than carcasses from animals without such disorders (p = 0.02). Our results also indicate association between some management factors and claw lesions. The study shows that the prevalence of lameness was low in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds compared to beef-cattle herds in other countries and also that there were less claw and limb disorders in these herds compared to foreign dairy-cattle herds. The prevalence of lameness and white-line fissures was approximately the same as in Norwegian dairy herds whereas less dermatitis, heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and the white line and sole ulcers were recorded.

  5. Claw and limb disorders in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringdal Grethe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of claw and limb disorders in Norwegian beef-cow herds. Methods Twenty-six herds with ≥15 cow-years were selected by computerized systematic assignment from the three most beef cattle-dense regions of Norway. The study population consisted of 12 herds with 28 heifers and 334 cows. The animals were trimmed and examined once by claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2003. The seven claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, feeding and management routines, age and breed, culling and carcass characteristics were also recorded. Results Lameness was recorded in 1.1% of the animals, and only in hind claws. Pericarpal swellings were recorded in one animal and peritarsal lesions in none. In total, claw and limb disorders including lameness were recorded in 29.6% of the animals, 4.1% with front and 28.2% with hind limb disorders, respectively. Most lesions were mild. Laminitis-related claw lesions were recorded in 18.0% of the animals and infectious lesions in 16.6%. The average claw length was 84 mm in front claws and 89 mm in hind claw. Both laminitis-related and infectious claw lesions were more prevalent with increasing age. Carcasses from animals with claw and limb disorders were on average 34 kg heavier than carcasses from animals without such disorders (p = 0.02. Our results also indicate association between some management factors and claw lesions. Conclusion The study shows that the prevalence of lameness was low in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds compared to beef-cattle herds in other countries and also that there were less claw and limb disorders in these herds compared to foreign dairy-cattle herds. The prevalence of lameness and white-line fissures was approximately the same as in Norwegian dairy herds whereas less dermatitis, heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and the white line and sole ulcers were

  6. QSOs with narrow emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.A.; Mcmahon, R.; Hazard, C.; Williams, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of two new high-redshift, narrow-lined QSOs (NLQSOs) are presented and discussed together with observations of similar objects reported in the literature. Gravitational lensing is ruled out as a possible means of amplifying the luminosity for one of these objects. It is found that the NLQSOs have broad bases on their emission lines as well as the prominent narrow cores which define this class. Thus, these are not pole-on QSOs. The FWHM of the emission lines fits onto the smoothly falling tail of the lower end of the line-width distribution for complete QSO samples. The equivalent widths of the combined broad and narrow components of the lines are normal for QSOs of the luminosity range under study. However, the NLQSOs do show ionization differences from broader-lined QSOs; most significant, the semiforbidden C III/C IV intensity ratio is unusually low. The N/C abundance ratio in these objects is found to be normal; the Al/C abundance ratio may be quite high. 38 references

  7. Method for Assessment of Changes in the Width of Cracks in Cement Composites with Use of Computer Image Processing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Kamil; Jakubowski, Jacek; Fiołek, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    Crack width measurement is an important element of research on the progress of self-healing cement composites. Due to the nature of this research, the method of measuring the width of cracks and their changes over time must meet specific requirements. The article presents a novel method of measuring crack width based on images from a scanner with an optical resolution of 6400 dpi, subject to initial image processing in the ImageJ development environment and further processing and analysis of results. After registering a series of images of the cracks at different times using SIFT conversion (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform), a dense network of line segments is created in all images, intersecting the cracks perpendicular to the local axes. Along these line segments, brightness profiles are extracted, which are the basis for determination of crack width. The distribution and rotation of the line of intersection in a regular layout, automation of transformations, management of images and profiles of brightness, and data analysis to determine the width of cracks and their changes over time are made automatically by own code in the ImageJ and VBA environment. The article describes the method, tests on its properties, sources of measurement uncertainty. It also presents an example of application of the method in research on autogenous self-healing of concrete, specifically the ability to reduce a sample crack width and its full closure within 28 days of the self-healing process.

  8. Narrowing beam-walking is a clinically feasible approach for assessing balance ability in lower-limb prosthesis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sawers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Challenging clinical balance tests are needed to expose balance deficits in lower-limb prost-hesis users. This study examined whether narrowing beam-walking could overcome conceptual and practical limitations identified in fixed-width beam-walking. Design: Cross-sectional. Participants: Unilateral lower-limb prosthesis users. Methods: Participants walked 10 times along a low, narrowing beam. Performance was quantified using the normalized distance walked. Heuristic rules were applied to determine whether the narrowing beam task was “too easy,” “too hard,” or “appropriately challenging” for each participant. Linear regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine whether combinations of the first 5 trials could predict participants’ stable beam-walking performance. Results: Forty unilateral lower-limb prosthesis users participated. Narrowing beam-walking was appropriately challenging for 98% of participants. Performance stabilized for 93% of participants within 5 trials, while 62% were stable across all trials. The mean of trials 3–5 accurately predicted stable performance. Conclusion: A clinical narrowing beam-walking test is likely to challenge a range of lower-limb prosthesis users, have minimal administrative burden, and exhibit no floor or ceiling effects. Narrowing beam-walking is therefore a clinically viable method to evaluate lower-limb prosthesis users’ balance ability, but requires psychometric testing before it is used to assess fall risk.

  9. Comparison of results using second-order moments with and without width correction to solve the advection equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.; Long, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    The method of moments is used with and without a a width-correction technique to solve the advection of a passive scalar. The method of moments is free of numerical dispersion but suffers from numerical diffusion (damping). In order to assess the effect of the width-correction procedure on reducing numerical diffusion, both versions are used to advect a passive scalar in straight-line and rotational wind fields. Although the width-correction procedure reduces numerical diffusion under some circumstances, the unmodified version of the second-moment procedure is better suited as a general method

  10. Confirmation of the Three-Factor Model of Problematic Internet Use on Off-Line Adolescent and Adult Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Koronczai, Beatrix; Urbán, Róbert; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Paksi, Borbála; Papp, Krisztina; Kun, Bernadette; Arnold, Petra; Kállai, János; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    As the Internet became widely used, problems associated with its excessive use became increasingly apparent. Although for the assessment of these problems several models and related questionnaires have been elaborated, there has been little effort made to confirm them. The aim of the present study was to test the three-factor model of the previously created Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) by data collection methods formerly not applied (off-line group and face-to-face settings),...

  11. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlage in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, P.; Oakley, C.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    The embryonic mammalian limb is sensitive both in vivo and in vitro to changes in gravitational force. Hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space decreased size of elements due to precocious or delayed chondrogenesis respectively. In recapitulating spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a low stress, low sheer rotating bioreactor, and found to be shorter than those cultured in standard culture dishes, and cartilage development was delayed. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes in width and/or in form of the skeletal elements. Shorter cartilage elements in limbbuds cultured in the bioreactor may be due to the ability of the system to reproduce a more in vivo 3D shape than traditional organ cultures. Tissues subjected to traditional organ cultures become flattened by their own weight, attachment to the filter, and restrictions imposed by nutrient diffusion. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be successfully cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the effects on 3D shape with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were placed either in the bioreactor, in Trowell culture, or fixed as controls. Limbbuds were cultured for six days, fixed, and processed either as whole mounts or embedded for histology. Qualitative analysis revealed that the Trowell culture specimens were flattened, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections of limbbuds from both types of cultures had excellent cartilage differentiation, with apparently more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Morphometric quantitation of the cartilaginous elements for comparisons of the two culture systems was complicated due to some limb buds fusing together during culture. This problem was especially noticeable in the younger limbs, and

  12. Effects of interventions on normalizing step width during self-paced dual-belt treadmill walking with virtual reality, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Lansink, I L B; van Kouwenhove, L; Dijkstra, P U; Postema, K; Hijmans, J M

    2017-10-01

    Step width is increased during dual-belt treadmill walking, in self-paced mode with virtual reality. Generally a familiarization period is thought to be necessary to normalize step width. The aim of this randomised study was to analyze the effects of two interventions on step width, to reduce the familiarization period. We used the GRAIL (Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab), a dual-belt treadmill with virtual reality in the self-paced mode. Thirty healthy young adults were randomly allocated to three groups and asked to walk at their preferred speed for 5min. In the first session, the control-group received no intervention, the 'walk-on-the-line'-group was instructed to walk on a line, projected on the between-belt gap of the treadmill and the feedback-group received feedback about their current step width and were asked to reduce it. Interventions started after 1min and lasted 1min. During the second session, 7-10days later, no interventions were given. Linear mixed modeling showed that interventions did not have an effect on step width after the intervention period in session 1. Initial step width (second 30s) of session 1 was larger than initial step width of session 2. Step width normalized after 2min and variation in step width stabilized after 1min. Interventions do not reduce step width after intervention period. A 2-min familiarization period is sufficient to normalize and stabilize step width, in healthy young adults, regardless of interventions. A standardized intervention to normalize step width is not necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Off-line real-time FTIR analysis of a process step in imipenem production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Jhansi R.; Thomas, Scott M.; Meyerhoffer, Steven M.; Staskiewicz, Steven J.; Lynch, Joseph E.; Egan, Richard S.; Ellison, Dean K.

    1992-08-01

    We have developed an FT-IR method, using a Spectra-Tech Monit-IR 400 systems, to monitor off-line the completion of a reaction in real-time. The reaction is moisture-sensitive and analysis by more conventional methods (normal-phase HPLC) is difficult to reproduce. The FT-IR method is based on the shift of a diazo band when a conjugated beta-diketone is transformed into a silyl enol ether during the reaction. The reaction mixture is examined directly by IR and does not require sample workup. Data acquisition time is less than one minute. The method has been validated for specificity, precision and accuracy. The results obtained by the FT-IR method for known mixtures and in-process samples compare favorably with those from a normal-phase HPLC method.

  14. Mechanisms of Gait Asymmetry Due to Push-Off Deficiency in Unilateral Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Peter Gabriel; Kuo, Arthur D

    2015-09-01

    Unilateral lower-limb amputees exhibit asymmetry in many gait features, such as ground force, step time, step length, and joint mechanics. Although these asymmetries result from weak prosthetic-side push-off, there is no proven mechanistic explanation of how that impairment propagates to the rest of the body. We used a simple dynamic walking model to explore possible consequences of a unilateral impairment similar to that of a transtibial amputee. The model compensates for reduced push-off work from one leg by performing more work elsewhere, for example during the middle of stance by either or both legs. The model predicts several gait abnormalities, including slower forward velocity of the body center-of-mass during intact-side stance, greater energy dissipation in the intact side, and more positive work overall. We tested these predictions with data from unilateral transtibial amputees (N = 11) and nonamputee control subjects (N = 10) walking on an instrumented treadmill. We observed several predicted asymmetries, including forward velocity during stance phases and energy dissipation from the two limbs, as well as greater work overall. Secondary adaptations, such as to reduce discomfort, may exacerbate asymmetry, but these simple principles suggest that some asymmetry may be unavoidable in cases of unilateral limb loss.

  15. Effect of heating scheme on SOL width in DIII-D and EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Joint DIII-D/EAST experiments in the radio-frequency (RF heated H-mode scheme with comparison to that of neutral beam (NB heated H-mode scheme were carried out on DIII-D and EAST under similar conditions to examine the effect of heating scheme on scrape-off layer (SOL width in H-mode plasmas for application to ITER. A dimensionally similar plasma equilibrium was used to match the EAST shape parameters. The divertor heat flux and SOL widths were measured with infra-red camera in DIII-D, while with divertor Langmuir probe array in EAST. It has been demonstrated on both DIII-D and EAST that RF-heated plasma has a broader SOL than NB-heated plasma when the edge electrons are effectively heated in low plasma current and low density regime with low edge collisionality. Detailed edge and pedestal profile analysis on DIII-D suggests that the low edge collisionality and ion orbit loss effect may account for the observed broadening. The joint experiment in DIII-D has also demonstrated the strong inverse dependence of SOL width on the plasma current in electron cyclotron heated (ECH H-mode plasmas.

  16. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation and dopaminergic medication in Parkinson's disease: Impact on inter-limb coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, Jean-François; Carignan, Benoit; Sadikot, Abbas F; Duval, Christian

    2016-10-29

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with bimanual coordination deficits whose exact origins remain unclear. One aspect of bimanual coordination is inter-limb coupling. This is characterized by the harmonization of movement parameters between limbs. We assessed different aspects of bimanual coordination in patients with PD, including inter-limb coupling, and determined whether they are altered by subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) or dopaminergic medication. Twenty PD patients were tested before STN DBS surgery; with and without medication. Post- surgery, patients were tested with their stimulators on and off as well as with and without medication. Patients were asked to perform a unimanual and bimanual rapid repetitive diadochokinesis task. The difference in mean amplitude and mean duration of cycles between hands was computed in order to assess inter-limb coupling. Also, mean angular velocity of both hands and structural coupling were computed for the bimanual task. There was a positive effect of medication and stimulation on mean angular velocity, which relates to clinical improvement. PD patients exhibited temporal inter-limb coupling that was not altered by either medication or STN stimulation. However, PD patients did not exhibit spatial inter-limb coupling. Again, this was not altered by medication or stimulation. Collectively, the results suggest that structures independent of the dopaminergic system and basal ganglia may mediate temporal and spatial inter-limb coupling. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An ultra low-power off-line APDM-based switchmode power supply with very high conversion efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the results from the research work on design of a ultra low power off-line power supply with very high conversion efficiency. The input voltage is 230 VAC nominal and output voltage is 5 VDC. By ultra low power levels, an output power level in the area ranging from 50 m......W and up to 1000 mW is meant. The small power supply is intended for use as a standby power supply in mains operated equipment, which requires a small amount of power in standby mode....

  18. Determination of Monomers Reactivity Ratios in Ethyl Acrylate-Methacrylic Acid Copolymerization by Off-Line 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ashenagar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of polymer systems depend on the micro-structural characteristics of their macromolecular chains. Along with the most characteristic kinetic parameters in copolymerization reactions are the reactivity ratios, which give a clear idea of the average composition and the monomer sequence distribution in copolymer systems. This research studies the solution radical copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA-ethyl acrylate (EA system at low conversion with 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as thermal initiator at 60°C in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6 as a reaction solvent. In this case, the monomer reactivity ratios were determined using linear off-line 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR methods such as Mayo-Louis, Finemann-Ross, Inverted Finemann-Ross , Ezrielev-Brokhina-Roskin, Joshi-Joshi, Kelen-Tudos, extended Kelen- Tudos, Mao-Huglin at low and high conversions. The next estimation process in off-line 1H NMR methods were performed by applying techniques based on ordinary least square (OLS and generalized least square (GLS. The results showed that the GLS approach compared to the OLS increased regression coefficients (R2 and the order of magnitude of parameter variances obtained from GLS was many times lower than that obtained from OLS. In addition, the monomer reactivity ratios obtained by the Mao-Huglin method and the GLS approach showed the best linear estimation.

  19. Evaluation of arch width variations among different skeletal patterns in South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mandava; Kannampallil, Senny Thomas; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Anterior cranial base can be taken as a reference line (SN) to determine the steepness of mandibular plane. Subjects with high mandibular plane angle tend to have a long face and one with low MP-SN angle has a shorter face. This study was done to investigate if dental arch widths correlated with vertical facial types and if there are any differences in arch widths between untreated male and female adults in South Indian population. Lateral cephalogram and dental casts were obtained from 180 untreated South Indian adults (90 males and 90 females) above 18 year old with no cross bite, minimal crowding and spacing. The angle between the anterior cranial base and the mandibular plane was measured on lateral cephalogram of each patient. Dental casts were used to obtain comprehensive dental measurements including maxillary and mandibular inter canine, inter premolar and inter molar widths, as well as amount of crowding or spacing. The results showed that male arch widths were significantly larger than those of females (P population. The results obtained in our study when compared with studies done in other population groups showed that there is difference in inter arch widths according to ethnicity and race. It was concluded that the dental arch width is associated with gender, race and vertical facial morphology. Thus using individualized arch wires according to each patient's pre treatment arch form and width is suggested during orthodontic treatment.

  20. Coordination of push-off and collision determine the mechanical work of step-to-step transitions when isolated from human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Caroline H; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2012-02-01

    In human walking, each transition to a new stance limb requires redirection of the center of mass (COM) velocity from one inverted pendulum arc to the next. While this can be accomplished with either negative collision work by the leading limb, positive push-off work by the trailing limb, or some combination of the two, physics-based models of step-to-step transitions predict that total positive work is minimized when the push-off and collision work are equal in magnitude. Here, we tested the importance of the coordination of push-off and collision work in determining transition work using ankle and knee joint braces to limit the ability of a leg to perform positive work on the body. To isolate transitions from other contributors to walking mechanics, participants were instructed to rock back and forth from one leg to the other, restricting motion to the sagittal plane and eliminating the need to swing the legs. We found that reduced push-off work increased the collision work required to complete the redirection of the COM velocity during each transition. A greater amount of total mechanical work was required when rocking departed from the predicted optimal coordination of step-to-step transitions, in which push-off and collision work are equal in magnitude. Our finding that transition work increases if one or both legs do not push-off with the optimal coordination may help explain the elevated metabolic cost of pathological gait irrespective of etiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Limb anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurrieri, Fiorella; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt; Sangiorgi, Eugenio

    2002-01-01

    of limb development has been conserved for more than 300 millions years, with all the necessary adaptive modifications occurring throughout evolution, we also take into consideration the evolutionary aspects of limb development in terms of genetic repertoire, molecular pathways, and morphogenetic events....

  2. Standardized Approach to Quantitatively Measure Residual Limb Skin Health in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Cameron L; Wernke, Matthew M; Powell, Heather M; Tornero, Mark; Gnyawali, Surya C; Schroeder, Ryan M; Kim, Jayne Y; Denune, Jeffrey A; Albury, Alexander W; Gordillo, Gayle M; Colvin, James M; Sen, Chandan K

    2017-07-01

    Objective: (1) Develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb skin health. (2) Report reference residual limb skin health values in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Approach: Residual limb health outcomes in individuals with transtibial ( n  = 5) and transfemoral ( n  = 5) amputation were compared to able-limb controls ( n  = 4) using noninvasive imaging (hyperspectral imaging and laser speckle flowmetry) and probe-based approaches (laser doppler flowmetry, transcutaneous oxygen, transepidermal water loss, surface electrical capacitance). Results: A standardized methodology that employs noninvasive imaging and probe-based approaches to measure residual limb skin health are described. Compared to able-limb controls, individuals with transtibial and transfemoral amputation have significantly lower transcutaneous oxygen tension, higher transepidermal water loss, and higher surface electrical capacitance in the residual limb. Innovation: Residual limb health as a critical component of prosthesis rehabilitation for individuals with lower limb amputation is understudied in part due to a lack of clinical measures. Here, we present a standardized approach to measure residual limb health in people with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Conclusion: Technology advances in noninvasive imaging and probe-based measures are leveraged to develop a standardized approach to quantitatively measure residual limb health in individuals with lower limb loss. Compared to able-limb controls, resting residual limb physiology in people that have had transfemoral or transtibial amputation is characterized by lower transcutaneous oxygen tension and poorer skin barrier function.

  3. Modified model of neutron resonance widths distribution. Results of total gamma-widths approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Functional dependences of probability to observe given Γ n 0 value and algorithms for determination of the most probable magnitudes of the modified model of resonance parameter distributions were used for analysis of the experimental data on the total radiative widths of neutron resonances. As in the case of neutron widths, precise description of the Γ γ spectra requires a superposition of three and more probability distributions for squares of the random normally distributed values with different nonzero average and nonunit dispersion. This result confirms the preliminary conclusion obtained earlier at analysis of Γ n 0 that practically in all 56 tested sets of total gamma widths there are several groups noticeably differing from each other by the structure of their wave functions. In addition, it was determined that radiative widths are much more sensitive than the neutron ones to resonance wave functions structure. Analysis of early obtained neutron reduced widths distribution parameters for 157 resonance sets in the mass region of nuclei 35 ≤ A ≤ 249 was also performed. It was shown that the experimental values of widths can correspond with high probability to superposition of several expected independent distributions with their nonzero mean values and nonunit dispersion

  4. High resolution study of MSiH4 (M=28, 29, 30) in the Dyad Region: Analysis of line positions, intensities and half-widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Kashirina, N. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2017-12-01

    The infrared spectra of SiH4 in natural abundance (92.23% of 28SiH4, 4.68% of 29SiH4, and 3.09% of 30SiH4) were measured in the region of 600-1200 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer, analyzed and compared with the results available in the literature. More than 3500 transitions with Jmax. = 27 were assigned to the dyad bands ν4 and ν2 of 28SiH4 (the band ν2 is allowed in Raman, but forbidden in absorption spectra for symmetry reasons, and its transitions appear in absorption spectra only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ν4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The results of the analogous analyses of the 29SiH4 and 30SiH4 isotopologues are also presented (the numbers of the assigned transitions are here more than 1360 and 1120). An further analysis of about 790 experimental ro-vibrational lines in the dyad region of 28SiH4 was performed using the Voigt profile to simulate the measured line shape and to determine experimental line intensities. A set of 4 effective dipole moment parameters for the dyad of 28SiH4 was obtained on that basis from the weighted fit, which reproduce the initial experimental intensities of about 790 lines with the drms = 5.6 % . Analogous analyses were made for the two other isotopic species, 29SiH4, and 30SiH4. A detailed line list of transitions in the region of 750-1150 cm-1 is generated. The half-widths of 40 ro-vibrational lines (Jup.max. = 16) are studied from the multi-spectrum analysis, and self-pressure broadening coefficients are determined.

  5. Internal models of limb dynamics and the encoding of limb state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-09-01

    Studies of reaching suggest that humans adapt to novel arm dynamics by building internal models that transform planned sensory states of the limb, e.g., desired limb position and its derivatives, into motor commands, e.g., joint torques. Earlier work modeled this computation via a population of basis elements and used system identification techniques to estimate the tuning properties of the bases from the patterns of generalization. Here we hypothesized that the neural representation of planned sensory states in the internal model might resemble the signals from the peripheral sensors. These sensors normally encode the limb's actual sensory state in which movement errors occurred. We developed a set of equations based on properties of muscle spindles that estimated spindle discharge as a function of the limb's state during reaching and drawing of circles. We then implemented a simulation of a two-link arm that learned to move in various force fields using these spindle-like bases. The system produced a pattern of adaptation and generalization that accounted for a wide range of previously reported behavioral results. In particular, the bases showed gain-field interactions between encoding of limb position and velocity, very similar to the gain fields inferred from behavioral studies. The poor sensitivity of the bases to limb acceleration predicted behavioral results that were confirmed by experiment. We suggest that the internal model of limb dynamics is computed by the brain with neurons that encode the state of the limb in a manner similar to that expected of muscle spindle afferents.

  6. Revised Line Profile Function for Hydrogenic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapar A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical series expansions for the hydrogenic spectral line profile functions are derived starting from the three single expressions, obtained by integrating twice the convolution of the Holtsmark, Lorentz and Doppler line profile functions. We get well converging series expansions for the line wings and centers by reducing the number of arguments in the profile function by one, introducing the module of the Holtsmark and Lorentz profiles as a new argument. In the intermediate part of the line, the parabolic cylinder functions expressed via the confluent hypergeometric series, are used. The multi-component Stark splitting of the hydrogenic spectral lines and the modeled stochastic electron transitions in the electric field of the adjacent ions generate wide Doppler plateaux at the line centers, with the characteristic widths estimated from the fit to the characteristic width of the Holtsmark profile. This additional Doppler broadening of the line profile function removes the central dip typical to the Holtsmark profile.

  7. THE CHROMOSPHERIC SOLAR LIMB BRIGHTENING AT RADIO, MILLIMETER, SUB-MILLIMETER, AND INFRARED WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Luz, V.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the emission at radio, millimeter, sub-millimeter, and infrared wavelengths in the center of the solar disk validate the autoconsistence of semi-empirical models of the chromosphere. Theoretically, these models must reproduce the emission at the solar limb. In this work, we tested both the VALC and C7 semi-empirical models by computing their emission spectrum in the frequency range from 2 GHz to 10 THz at solar limb altitudes. We calculate the Sun's theoretical radii as well as their limb brightening. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium was computed for hydrogen, electron density, and H − . In order to solve the radiative transfer equation, a three-dimensional (3D) geometry was employed to determine the ray paths, and Bremsstrahlung, H − , and inverse Bremsstrahlung opacity sources were integrated in the optical depth. We compared the computed solar radii with high-resolution observations at the limb obtained by Clark. We found that there are differences between the observed and computed solar radii of 12,000 km at 20 GHz, 5000 km at 100 GHz, and 1000 km at 3 THz for both semi-empirical models. A difference of 8000 km in the solar radii was found when comparing our results against the heights obtained from H α observations of spicules-off at the solar limb. We conclude that the solar radii cannot be reproduced by VALC and C7 semi-empirical models at radio—infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the structures in the high chromosphere provide a better measurement of the solar radii and their limb brightening as shown in previous investigations.

  8. Selenium x-ray laser line profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss our recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 Angstrom laser in Ne-like Se. These measurements were performed over a wide range of amplifier length indicate an intrinsic line width of 50 m Angstrom FWHM (full-width at half-maximum), show gain narrowing to 10 m Angstrom in intermediate length amplifiers and show no significant re-broadening in We briefly discuss the experiments and interpretations

  9. Off-line phase-averaged particle image velocimetry and OH chemiluminescence measurements using acoustic time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A; Bake, F; Heinze, J; Willert, C; Diers, O; Röhle, I

    2009-01-01

    In order to analyze unsteady flow phenomena in combustion facilities two phase-sorting methods have been developed and investigated for the retrieval of phase-resolved data from (randomly) sampled 'single-shot' data such as PIV recordings or chemiluminescence imagery in a post-processing step. This is made possible by simultaneously recorded continuous time traces of reference data (e.g., pressure signal). Using this off-line method synchronous phase-locked PIV and OH chemiluminescence visualizations could be recovered from data obtained in two different combustion facilities. This paper also presents some of the theoretical background necessary for the application of two different phase-sorting algorithms

  10. Reexamination of M2,3 atomic level widths and L1M2,3 transition energies of elements 69≤Z≤95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennane, K.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Raboud, P.-A.; Campbell, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    We report on high-resolution measurements of the photoinduced L1M2 and L1M3 x-ray emission lines of 69Tm, 70Yb, 71Lu, 73Ta, 74W, 75Re, 77Ir, 81Tl, 83Bi, and 95Am. From the linewidths of the measured transitions an accurate set of M2 and M3 level widths is determined assuming for the L1 level widths the values reported by Raboud [P.-A. Raboud et al., Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.65.022512 65, 022512 (2002)]. Furthermore, the present experimental M2,3 data set is extended to 80Hg, 90Th, and 92U, using former L1M2,3 high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy measurements performed by our group. A detailed comparison of the M2 and M3 level widths determined in the present work with those recommended by Campbell and Papp [J. L. Campbell and T. Papp, At. Data Nucl. Data TablesADNDAT0092-640X10.1006/adnd.2000.0848 77, 1 (2001)] and other available experimental data as well as theoretical predictions is done. The observed abrupt changes of the M2,3 level widths versus atomic number Z can be explained satisfactorily by the cutoffs and onsets of the M2M4N1, respectively M3M4N3,4,5 and M3M5N2,3 Coster-Kronig transitions deduced from the semiempirical (Z+1) approximation. As a spin-off result of this study, precise L1M2 and L1M3 transition energies are obtained for the investigated elements. A very good agreement with transition energies calculated within the many-body perturbation theory is found.

  11. On-line monitoring of solar cell module production by ellipsometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive analyzing tools are needed at all stages of thin film photovoltaic (PV) development, and on production lines. In thin film PV, layer thicknesses, micro-structure, composition, layer optical properties, and their uniformity (because each elementary cell is connected electrically in series within a big panel) serve as an important starting point in the evaluation of the performance of the cell or module. An important focus is to express the dielectric functions of each component material in terms of a handful of wavelength independent parameters whose variation can cover all process variants of that material. With the resulting database, spectroscopic ellipsometry coupled with multilayer analysis can be developed for on-line point-by-point mapping and on-line line-by-line imaging. This work tries to review the investigations of different types of PV-layers (anti-reflective coating, transparent-conductive oxide (TCO), multi-diode-structure, absorber and window layers) showing the existing dielectric function databases for the thin film components of CdTe, CuInGaSe 2 , thin Si, and TCO layers. Off-line point-by-point mapping can be effective for characterization of non-uniformities in full scale PV panels in developing labs but it is slow in the on-line mode when only 15 points can be obtained (within 1 min) as a 120 cm long panel moves by the mapping station. In the last years [M. Fried et al., Thin Solid Films 519, 2730 (2011)], instrumentation was developed that provides a line image of spectroscopic ellipsometry (wl = 350–1000 nm) data. Up to now a single 30 point line image can be collected in 10 s over a 15 cm width of PV material. This year we are building a 30 and a 60 cm width expanded beam ellipsometer the speed of which will be increased by 10 ×. Then 1800 points can be mapped in a 1 min traverse of a 60 ∗ 120 cm PV panel or flexible roll-to-roll substrate. - Highlights: • Instrumentation developed provides a line image of

  12. On-line monitoring of solar cell module production by ellipsometry technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, M., E-mail: fried@mfa.kfki.hu

    2014-11-28

    Non-destructive analyzing tools are needed at all stages of thin film photovoltaic (PV) development, and on production lines. In thin film PV, layer thicknesses, micro-structure, composition, layer optical properties, and their uniformity (because each elementary cell is connected electrically in series within a big panel) serve as an important starting point in the evaluation of the performance of the cell or module. An important focus is to express the dielectric functions of each component material in terms of a handful of wavelength independent parameters whose variation can cover all process variants of that material. With the resulting database, spectroscopic ellipsometry coupled with multilayer analysis can be developed for on-line point-by-point mapping and on-line line-by-line imaging. This work tries to review the investigations of different types of PV-layers (anti-reflective coating, transparent-conductive oxide (TCO), multi-diode-structure, absorber and window layers) showing the existing dielectric function databases for the thin film components of CdTe, CuInGaSe{sub 2}, thin Si, and TCO layers. Off-line point-by-point mapping can be effective for characterization of non-uniformities in full scale PV panels in developing labs but it is slow in the on-line mode when only 15 points can be obtained (within 1 min) as a 120 cm long panel moves by the mapping station. In the last years [M. Fried et al., Thin Solid Films 519, 2730 (2011)], instrumentation was developed that provides a line image of spectroscopic ellipsometry (wl = 350–1000 nm) data. Up to now a single 30 point line image can be collected in 10 s over a 15 cm width of PV material. This year we are building a 30 and a 60 cm width expanded beam ellipsometer the speed of which will be increased by 10 ×. Then 1800 points can be mapped in a 1 min traverse of a 60 ∗ 120 cm PV panel or flexible roll-to-roll substrate. - Highlights: • Instrumentation developed provides a line image of

  13. Cultivation studies of Taiwanese native Miscanthus floridulus lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.L.; Liao, W.C.; Lai, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    Four Taiwanese native Miscanthus floridulus lines, collected at altitudes of 260, 500, 1000, and 1500 m were cultivated in 2009 and 2010. The plant height and tiller numbers of four M. floridulus lines increased gradually along with the growing time. These M. floridulus lines had the tallest plant height and most tiller number after these species were planted 210 days. Line 3, which was collected at the altitude of 1000 m, had the ability to grow at low temperature. Line 3 M. floridulus had the highest plant height, tiller number, fresh and dry yields than other three lines. Fresh and dry yields of Line 3 were positively correlated to the plant height, tiller number, and leaf width, but showed no correlation with the leaf length. The correlation between agronomic traits and climatic data was also studied. Results can be used as a model for developing a non-food crop-based energy production system in the future. -- Highlights: → Miscanthus floridulus collected at 1000 m altitude had the highest plant height, tiller number, fresh and dry yields. → Fresh and dry yields of were positively correlated to the plant height, tiller number, and leaf width. → Fresh and dry yields showed no correlation with the leaf length. → The accumulative rainfall, temperature, radiation, and exposure time to radiation were positively correlated to the plant height, leaf length and leaf width.

  14. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il

    2003-01-01

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with 99m TcO 4 point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm ∼ 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency

  15. Results of the IRIS UV Burst Survey, Part I: Active Regions Tracked Limb to Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C. A.; DeLuca, E.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from the first phase of an effort to thoroughly characterize UV bursts within the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data catalogue. The observational signatures of these phenomena include dramatically intensified and broadened NUV/FUV emission line profiles with absorption features from cool metallic ions. These properties suggest that UV bursts originate from plasma at transition region temperatures (≥ 80,000 K) which is deeply embedded in the cool lower chromosphere ( 5,000 K). Rigorously characterizing the energetic and dynamical properties of UV bursts is crucial since they have considerable potential to heat active region chromospheres and could provide critical constraints for models of magnetic reconnection in these regions. The survey first focuses on IRIS observations of active regions tracked from limb to limb. All observations consist of large field-of-view raster scans of 320 or 400 steps each, which allow for widespread detection of many burst profiles at the expense of having limited short-term time evolution information. We detect bursts efficiently by applying a semi-automated single-Gaussian fitting technique to Si IV 1393.8 Å emission profiles that isolates the distinct burst population in a 4-D parameter space. The robust sample of NUV/FUV burst spectra allows for precise constraints of properties critical for modeling reconnection in the chromosphere, including outflow kinetic energy, density estimates from intensity ratios of Si IV 1402.8 Å and O IV 1401.2 Å emission lines, and coincident measures of emission in other wavelengths. We also track burst properties throughout the lifetimes of their host active regions, noting changes in detection rate and preferential location as the active regions evolve. Finally, the tracked active region observations provide a unique opportunity to investigate line-of-sight effects on observed UV burst spectral properties, particularly the strength of Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption

  16. Resonance broadening of Hg lines as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J E

    2004-01-01

    The use of width measurements on resonance broadened lines of Hg as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge (HID) lamps is reviewed and further developed in this paper. Optical depths of Hg I lines at 491.6 nm, 577.0 nm, and 1014 nm are computed as a function of temperature to confirm that these lines are optically thin in most HID lamps. The effect of quadratic and quartic radial temperature variation on the width of resonance broadened lines is computed for arc core temperatures from 4000 K to 7000 K. Such variations in temperature, and inverse variations in Hg density, are found to increase the line widths by less than 10% for 'side-on' emission measurements averaged over the arc radius. Theoretical profiles of resonance broadened spectral lines, both radially averaged and as a function of chord offset, are presented. Observations of resonance broadened lines in a metal-halide HID lamp are presented and analysed. It is concluded that the widths of resonance broadened lines provide a convenient and reliable diagnostic for the arc core Hg density but are generally not very sensitive to the radial temperature and Hg density gradient

  17. Quantitation of triacylglycerols in edible oils by off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-24

    In this investigation, off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column has been applied for the identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in edible oils. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this off-line two-dimensional separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column combined the features of traditional C18 and silver-ion columns, which could provide hydrophobic interactions with triacylglycerols under acetonitrile conditions and can offer π-π interactions with triacylglycerols under methanol conditions. When compared with traditional off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography employing two different chromatographic columns (C18 and silver-ion column) and using elution solvents comprised of two phases (reversed-phase/normal-phase) for triacylglycerols separation, the novel off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column can be achieved by simply altering the mobile phase between acetonitrile and methanol, which exhibited a much higher selectivity for the separation of triacylglycerols with great efficiency and rapid speed. In addition, an approach based on the use of response factor with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for triacylglycerols quantification. Due to the differences between saturated and unsaturated acyl chains, the use of response factors significantly improves the quantitation of triacylglycerols. This two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system was successfully applied for the profiling of triacylglycerols in soybean oils, peanut oils and lord oils. A total of 68 triacylglycerols including 40 triacylglycerols in soybean oils, 50 triacylglycerols in peanut oils and 44 triacylglycerols in lord oils have been identified and quantified. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data were analyzed

  18. OffWindSolver: Wind farm design tool based on actuator line/actuator disk concept in OpenFoam architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjwani Balram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is a good alternative to meet the energy requirements in some parts of the world; however the efficiency of wind farm depends on the optimized location of the wind turbines. Therefore a software tool that is capable of predicting the in-situ performance of multiple turbine installations in different operating conditions with reliable accuracy is needed. In present study wind farm layout design tool OffWindSolver is developed within the OpenFoam architecture. Unsteady PisoFoam solver is extended to account for wind turbines, where each turbine is modeled as a sink term in the momentum equation. Turbine modeling is based on actuator line concepts derived from SOWFA code, where each blade of the turbine is represented as a line. The loading on each line/blade of the turbine is estimated using the Blade Element Method (BEM. The inputs for the solver are tabulated airfoil aerodynamic data, dimension and height of the wind turbines, wind magnitude and direction. OffWindSolver is validated for a real wind farm – Lillgrund offshore facility in Sweden/Denmark operated by Vattenfall Vindkraft AB. Because of the scale of the computation, we only examine the effect of wind from one direction at one speed. In the absence of time dependent Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL, a log wind profile with surface roughness of 0.04 is used at the inlet. The simulated power production of each turbine is compared to the field data and large-eddy simulation. The overall power of the wind farm is well predicted. The simulation shows the significant decreases of the power for those turbines that were in the wake.

  19. Analysis of limb function after various reconstruction methods according to tumor location following resection of pediatric malignant bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuhashi Yasuaki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the reconstruction of the affected limb in pediatric malignant bone tumors, since the loss of joint function affects limb-length discrepancy expected in the future, reconstruction methods that not only maximally preserve the joint function but also maintain good limb function are necessary. We analysis limb function of reconstruction methods by tumor location following resection of pediatric malignant bone tumors. Patients and methods We classified the tumors according to their location into 3 types by preoperative MRI, and evaluated reconstruction methods after wide resection, paying attention to whether the joint function could be preserved. The mean age of the patients was 10.6 years, Osteosarcoma was observed in 26 patients, Ewing's sarcoma in 3, and PNET(primitive neuroectodermal tumor and chondrosarcoma (grade 1 in 1 each. Results Type I were those located in the diaphysis, and reconstruction was performed using a vascularized fibular graft(vascularized fibular graft. Type 2 were those located in contact with the epiphyseal line or within 1 cm from this line, and VFG was performed in 1, and distraction osteogenesis in 1. Type III were those extending from the diaphysis to the epiphysis beyond the epiphyseal line, and a Growing Kotz was mainly used in 10 patients. The mean functional assessment score was the highest for Type I (96%: n = 4 according to the type and for VFG (99% according to the reconstruction method. Conclusion The final functional results were the most satisfactory for Types I and II according to tumor location. Biological reconstruction such as VFG and distraction osteogenesis without a prosthesis are so high score in the MSTS rating system. Therefore, considering the function of the affected limb, a limb reconstruction method allowing the maximal preservation of joint function should be selected after careful evaluation of the effects of chemotherapy and the location of the tumor.

  20. Intramodality and intermodality agreement in radiography and computed tomography of equine distal limb fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, C P; Martens, A; Bergman, H-J; van der Veen, H; Duchateau, L; van Bree, H J J; Gielen, I M V L

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly accessible in equine referral hospitals. To document the level of agreement within and between radiography and CT in characterising equine distal limb fractures. Retrospective descriptive study. Images from horses that underwent radiographic and CT evaluation for suspected distal limb fractures were reviewed, including 27 horses and 3 negative controls. Using Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa analysis, the level of agreement among 4 observers for a predefined set of diagnostic characteristics for radiography and CT separately and for the level of agreement between the 2 imaging modalities were documented. Both CT and radiography had very good intramodality agreement in identifying fractures, but intermodality agreement was lower. There was good intermodality and intramodality agreement for anatomical localisation and the identification of fracture displacement. Agreement for articular involvement, fracture comminution and fracture fragment number was towards the lower limit of good agreement. There was poor to fair intermodality agreement regarding fracture orientation, fracture width and coalescing cracks; intramodality agreement was higher for CT than for radiography for these features. Further studies, including comparisons with surgical and/or post mortem findings, are required to determine the sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography in the diagnosis and characterisation of equine distal limb fractures. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  1. On the channel width-dependence of the thermal conductivity in ultra-narrow graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamitaheri, Hossein [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-53153 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neophytou, Neophytos, E-mail: N.Neophytou@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-08

    The thermal conductivity of low-dimensional materials and graphene nanoribbons, in particular, is limited by the strength of line-edge-roughness scattering. One way to characterize the roughness strength is the dependency of the thermal conductivity on the channel's width in the form W{sup β}. Although in the case of electronic transport, this dependency is very well studied, resulting in W{sup 6} for nanowires and quantum wells and W{sup 4} for nanoribbons, in the case of phonon transport it is not yet clear what this dependence is. In this work, using lattice dynamics and Non-Equilibrium Green's Function simulations, we examine the width dependence of the thermal conductivity of ultra-narrow graphene nanoribbons under the influence of line edge-roughness. We show that the exponent β is in fact not a single well-defined number, but it is different for different parts of the phonon spectrum depending on whether phonon transport is ballistic, diffusive, or localized. The exponent β takes values β < 1 for semi-ballistic phonon transport, values β ≫ 1 for sub-diffusive or localized phonons, and β = 1 only in the case where the transport is diffusive. The overall W{sup β} dependence of the thermal conductivity is determined by the width-dependence of the dominant phonon modes (usually the acoustic ones). We show that due to the long phonon mean-free-paths, the width-dependence of thermal conductivity becomes a channel length dependent property, because the channel length determines whether transport is ballistic, diffusive, or localized.

  2. Economic impact of off-line PC viewer for private folder management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Koun-Sik; Shin, Myung J.; Lee, Joo Hee; Auh, Yong H.

    1999-07-01

    We developed a PC-based clinical workstation and implemented at Asan Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, Hardwares used were Pentium-II, 8M video memory, 64-128 MB RAM, 19 inch color monitor, and 10/100Mbps network adaptor. One of the unique features of this workstation is management tool for folders reside both in PACS short-term storage unit and local hard disk. Users can copy the entire study or part of the study to local hard disk, removable storages, or CD recorder. Even the images in private folders in PACS short-term storage can be copied to local storage devices. All images are saved as DICOM 3.0 file format with 2:1 lossless compression. We compared the prices of copy films and storage medias considering the possible savings of expensive PACS short- term storage and network traffic. Price savings of copy film is most remarkable in MR exam. Price savings arising from minimal use of short-term unit was 50,000 dollars. It as hard to calculate the price savings arising from the network usage. Off-line PC viewer is a cost-effective way of handling private folder management under the PACS environment.

  3. “LISTENING AND REMEMBERING”: NETWORKED OFF-LINE IMPROVISATION FOR FOUR COMMUTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Alarcón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the experience of the networked off-line improvisation ‘Listening and Remembering’, a performance for four commuters using voices and sounds from the Mexico City and Paris metros. It addresses the question: how can an act of collective remembering, inspired by listening to metro soundscapes, lead to the creation of networked voice-and sound-based narratives about the urban commuting experience? The networked experience is seen here from the structural perspective (telematic setting, the sonic underground context, the ethnographic process that led to the performance, the narratives that are created in the electro-acoustic setting, the shared acoustic environments that those creations suggest, and the technical features and participants’ responses that pre- vent or facilitate interaction. Emphasis is placed on the participants’ status as non-performers, and on their familiarity with the sonic environment, as a context that allows the participation of non-musicians in the making of music through telematically shared interfaces, using soundscape and real-time voice. Participants re-enact their routine experience through a dialogical relationship with the sounds, the other participants, themselves, and the experience of sharing: a collective memory.

  4. A tunable narrow-line-width multi-wavelength Er-doped fiber laser based on a high birefringence fiber ring mirror and an auto-tracking filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiu-jie; Liu, Yan-ge; Si, Li-bin; Guo, Zhan-cheng; Fu, Sheng-gui; Kai, Gui-yun; Dong, Xiao-yi

    2008-01-01

    A novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser operating in C-band is proposed and successfully demonstrated. The wavelength interval between the wavelengths is about 0.22 nm. The 3 dB bandwidth of the laser is about 0.012 nm, and the output power reaches 4.8 mW. By using a high birefringence fiber ring mirror (HiBi-FLM) and a tunable FBG, the laser realizes switchable and tunable characteristic. The mode hopping can be effectively prevented. Moreover, this laser can improve wavelength stability significantly by taking advantage of an un-pumped Er3+-doped fiber at the standing-wave section. The laser can operate in stable narrow-line-width with single-, dual-wavelength, and unstable triple-wavelength output at room temperature.

  5. THE CHROMOSPHERIC SOLAR LIMB BRIGHTENING AT RADIO, MILLIMETER, SUB-MILLIMETER, AND INFRARED WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Luz, V. [Conacyt—SCiESMEX, Instituto de Geofísica, Unidad Michoacán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia, Michoacán, 58190, México (Mexico)

    2016-07-10

    Observations of the emission at radio, millimeter, sub-millimeter, and infrared wavelengths in the center of the solar disk validate the autoconsistence of semi-empirical models of the chromosphere. Theoretically, these models must reproduce the emission at the solar limb. In this work, we tested both the VALC and C7 semi-empirical models by computing their emission spectrum in the frequency range from 2 GHz to 10 THz at solar limb altitudes. We calculate the Sun's theoretical radii as well as their limb brightening. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium was computed for hydrogen, electron density, and H{sup −}. In order to solve the radiative transfer equation, a three-dimensional (3D) geometry was employed to determine the ray paths, and Bremsstrahlung, H{sup −}, and inverse Bremsstrahlung opacity sources were integrated in the optical depth. We compared the computed solar radii with high-resolution observations at the limb obtained by Clark. We found that there are differences between the observed and computed solar radii of 12,000 km at 20 GHz, 5000 km at 100 GHz, and 1000 km at 3 THz for both semi-empirical models. A difference of 8000 km in the solar radii was found when comparing our results against the heights obtained from H α observations of spicules-off at the solar limb. We conclude that the solar radii cannot be reproduced by VALC and C7 semi-empirical models at radio—infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the structures in the high chromosphere provide a better measurement of the solar radii and their limb brightening as shown in previous investigations.

  6. Indium-oxide nanoparticles for RRAM devices compatible with CMOS back-end-off-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Pérez, Edgar A. A.; Guenery, Pierre-Vincent; Abouzaid, Oumaïma; Ayadi, Khaled; Brottet, Solène; Moeyaert, Jérémy; Labau, Sébastien; Baron, Thierry; Blanchard, Nicholas; Baboux, Nicolas; Militaru, Liviu; Souifi, Abdelkader

    2018-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices based on nanoparticles in MIM structures. Our approach is based on the use of indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix using CMOS-full-compatible fabrication processes in view of back-end-off-line integration for non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. A bipolar switching behavior has been observed using current-voltage measurements (I-V) for all devices. Very high ION/IOFF ratios have been obtained up to 108. Our results provide insights for further integration of In2O3 nanoparticles-based devices for NVM applications. He is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Institute of Nanotechnologies of Lyon (INL), INSA de Lyon, France, in the Electronics Department. His current research include indium oxide nanoparticles for non-volatile memory applications, and the integrations of these devices in CMOS BEOL.

  7. The real-time on-line decision support system RODOS for off-site emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, G.; Ehrhardt, J.; Faude, D.; Fischer, F.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Rafat, M.; Schichtel, T.; Schuele, O.; Steinhauer, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project RODOS aims at the development of an integrated and comprehensive real-time on-line decision support system for off-site emergency management of nuclear accidents in Europe, applicable to the vicinity of the accident and its early phase up to far distant areas and later stages. As a joint venture of 18 institutions in the European Union, in close cooperation with institutions in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and east-central Europe, the project is to provide the methodological basis, develop models, collect data, and install the hardware and software framework of the RODOS system. The paper describes the project status, the overall design of the system and its present software structure, and gives a brief overview of important research and development tasks for the next project phases. (orig.) [de

  8. Band width and multiple-angle valence-state mapping of diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Sutherland, D.G.J.

    1997-01-01

    The band width may be considered the single most important parameter characterizing the electronic structure of a solid. The ratio of band width and Coulomb repulsion determines how correlated or delocalized an electron system is. Some of the most interesting solids straddle the boundary between localized and delocalized, e.g. the high-temperature superconductors. The bulk of the band calculations available today is based on local density functional (DF) theory. Even though the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from that theory do not represent the outcome of a band-mapping experiment, they are remarkably similar to the bands mapped via photoemission. Strictly speaking, one should use an excited state calculation that takes the solid's many-body screening response to the hole created in photoemission into account. Diamond is a useful prototype semiconductor because of its low atomic number and large band width, which has made it a long-time favorite for testing band theory. Yet, the two experimental values of the band width of diamond have error bars of ±1 eV and differ by 3.2 eV. To obtain an accurate valence band width for diamond, the authors use a band-mapping method that collects momentum distributions instead of the usual energy distributions. This method has undergone extensive experimental and theoretical tests in determining the band width of lithium fluoride. An efficient, imaging photoelectron spectrometer is coupled with a state-of-the-art undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source to allow collection of a large number of data sets. Since it takes only a few seconds to take a picture of the photoelectrons emitted into a 84 degrees cone, the authors can use photon energies as high as 350 eV where the cross section for photoemission from the valence band is already quite low, but the emitted photoelectrons behave free-electron-like. This make its much easier to locate the origin of the inter-band transitions in momentum space

  9. Band width and multiple-angle valence-state mapping of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Sutherland, D.G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The band width may be considered the single most important parameter characterizing the electronic structure of a solid. The ratio of band width and Coulomb repulsion determines how correlated or delocalized an electron system is. Some of the most interesting solids straddle the boundary between localized and delocalized, e.g. the high-temperature superconductors. The bulk of the band calculations available today is based on local density functional (DF) theory. Even though the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from that theory do not represent the outcome of a band-mapping experiment, they are remarkably similar to the bands mapped via photoemission. Strictly speaking, one should use an excited state calculation that takes the solid`s many-body screening response to the hole created in photoemission into account. Diamond is a useful prototype semiconductor because of its low atomic number and large band width, which has made it a long-time favorite for testing band theory. Yet, the two experimental values of the band width of diamond have error bars of {+-}1 eV and differ by 3.2 eV. To obtain an accurate valence band width for diamond, the authors use a band-mapping method that collects momentum distributions instead of the usual energy distributions. This method has undergone extensive experimental and theoretical tests in determining the band width of lithium fluoride. An efficient, imaging photoelectron spectrometer is coupled with a state-of-the-art undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source to allow collection of a large number of data sets. Since it takes only a few seconds to take a picture of the photoelectrons emitted into a 84{degrees} cone, the authors can use photon energies as high as 350 eV where the cross section for photoemission from the valence band is already quite low, but the emitted photoelectrons behave free-electron-like. This make its much easier to locate the origin of the inter-band transitions in momentum space.

  10. The D1Πu state of HD and the mass scaling relation of its predissociation widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, G. D.; Ubachs, W.

    2012-07-01

    Absorption spectra of HD have been recorded in the wavelength range of 75-90 nm at 100 K using the vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer at the Synchrotron SOLEIL. The present wavelength resolution represents an order of magnitude improvement over that of previous studies. We present a detailed study of the D1Πu-X1Σ+g system observed up to v‧ = 18. The Q-branch transition probing levels of Π- symmetry are observed as narrow resonances limited by the Doppler width at 100 K. Line positions for these transitions are determined to an estimated absolute accuracy of 0.06 cm-1. Predissociation line widths of Π+ levels are extracted from the absorption spectra. A comparison with the recent results on a study of the D1Πu state in H2 and D2 reveals that the predissociation widths scale as μ-2J(J + 1), with μ being the reduced mass of the molecule and J the rotational angular momentum quantum number, as expected from an interaction with the B‧1Σ+u continuum causing the predissociation.

  11. Influence of Gate Dielectrics, Electrodes and Channel Width on OFET Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyana, V P; Stephania, A M; Shiju, K; Predeep, P

    2015-01-01

    Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFET) possess wide applications in large area electronics owing to their attractive features like easy fabrication process, light weight, flexibility, cost effectiveness etc. But instability, high operational voltages and low carrier mobility act as inhibitors to commercialization of OFETs and various approaches were tried on a regular basis so as to make it viable. In this work, Poly 3-hexylthiophene-2,5diyl (P3HT) based OFETs with bottom-contact top-gate configuration using Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as gate dielectrics, aluminium and copper as source-drain electrodes are investigated. An effort is made to compare the effect of these dielectric materials and electrodes on the performance of OFET. Also, an attempt has been made to optimize the channel width of the device. These devices are characterised with mobility (μ), threshold voltage (V T ), on-off ratio (I on /I off ) and their comparative analysis is reported. (paper)

  12. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna Allen, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography [es

  13. Formation of extremely narrow metallic lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.P.; Keyes, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method for forming metal lines, particularly lines which are superconductive, involves delineating a pattern on a thin metal film on a substrate by masking techniques, ion implanting the metal film to a desired depth, removing the mask and etching away the unimplanted portion of the metal film to leave the line whose width is equal to the implanted depth. (U.K.)

  14. MODELING THE ROSSITER–MCLAUGHLIN EFFECT: IMPACT OF THE CONVECTIVE CENTER-TO-LIMB VARIATIONS IN THE STELLAR PHOTOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cegla, H. M.; Watson, C. A. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Oshagh, M.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C. [Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Shelyag, S., E-mail: h.cegla@qub.ac.uk [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2016-03-01

    Observations of the Rossiter–McLaughlin (RM) effect provide information on star–planet alignments, which can inform planetary migration and evolution theories. Here, we go beyond the classical RM modeling and explore the impact of a convective blueshift that varies across the stellar disk and non-Gaussian stellar photospheric profiles. We simulated an aligned hot Jupiter with a four-day orbit about a Sun-like star and injected center-to-limb velocity (and profile shape) variations based on radiative 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar surface convection. The residuals between our modeling and classical RM modeling were dependent on the intrinsic profile width and v sin i; the amplitude of the residuals increased with increasing v sin i and with decreasing intrinsic profile width. For slowly rotating stars the center-to-limb convective variation dominated the residuals (with amplitudes of 10 s of cm s{sup −1} to ∼1 m s{sup −1}); however, for faster rotating stars the dominant residual signature was due a non-Gaussian intrinsic profile (with amplitudes from 0.5 to 9 m s{sup −1}). When the impact factor was 0, neglecting to account for the convective center-to-limb variation led to an uncertainty in the obliquity of ∼10°–20°, even though the true v sin i was known. Additionally, neglecting to properly model an asymmetric intrinsic profile had a greater impact for more rapidly rotating stars (e.g., v sin i = 6 km s{sup −1}) and caused systematic errors on the order of ∼20° in the measured obliquities. Hence, neglecting the impact of stellar surface convection may bias star–planet alignment measurements and consequently theories on planetary migration and evolution.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-01-01

    This study 1) examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2) determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3) diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limb...

  16. HB-Line Dissolver Dilution Flows and Dissolution Capability with Dissolver Charge Chute Cover Off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    A flow test was performed in Scrap Recovery of HB-Line to document the flow available for hydrogen dilution in the dissolvers when the charge chute covers are removed. Air flow through the dissolver charge chutes, with the covers off, was measured. A conservative estimate of experimental uncertainty was subtracted from the results. After subtraction, the test showed that there is 20 cubic feet per minute (cfm) air flow through the dissolvers during dissolution with a glovebox exhaust fan operating, even with the scrubber not operating. This test also showed there is 6.6 cfm air flow through the dissolvers, after subtraction of experimental uncertainty if the scrubber and the glovebox exhaust fans are not operating. Three H-Canyon exhaust fans provide sufficient motive force to give this 6.6 cfm flow. Material charged to the dissolver will be limited to chemical hydrogen generation rates that will be greater than or equal to 25 percent of the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) during normal operations. The H-Canyon fans will maintain hydrogen below LFL if electrical power is lost. No modifications are needed in HB-Line Scrap Recovery to ensure hydrogen is maintained less that LFL if the scrubber and glovebox exhaust fans are not operating

  17. Balloon observation of the binary X-ray source Her X-1 1.24 sec pulsation and cyclotron line emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.; Reppin, C.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.; Kendziorra, E.; Staubert, R.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1978-01-01

    During a balloon observation from Palestine, Texas, the authors detected for the first time the 1.24 sec pulsation of Hercules X-1 in the hard X-ray range up to 70 keV and discovered strong line emission in its spectrum at 58 keV. They estimated a line flux of 3x10 -3 photons cm -2 sec -1 and a line width of less than 12 keV. The phenomenon is interpreted as electron cyclotron emission at the basic frequency emitted by the hot polar plasma of the rotating neutron star. The line measured leads to a magnetic field strength of 5.3x10 12 gauss. In further observations during a balloon campaign in Sept./Oct. 1977 the authors confirmed the existence of the line emission and for the first time found pulsed X-ray emission above 15 keV during the 'short on' - and 'off'-state of the Her X-1 35 day cycle. The pulse to interpulse ratio seems to vary with the 35 day phase

  18. A Methodology for Off-line Evaluation of New Environmentally Friendly Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged sheet stamping companies to look for new tribo-systems in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils. Production testing of new lubricants is, however, costly and makes industry reluctant...... towards testing alternative solutions. The present paper presents a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems based on numerical modelling of production process as well as laboratory test to adjust the latter combined with testing of selected tribo-systems on a new automatic sheet......-tribo-tester emulating typical sheet forming production processes. Final testing of the tribo-systems in production verifies the methodology. © 2013 CIRP....

  19. Assessment of micro-dose biplanar radiography in lower limb measurements in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerisson, Heloise; Amzallag-Bellenger, Elisa; Cebulski-Delebarre, Aurelie; Boutry, Nathalie; Nectoux, Eric; Herbaux, Bernard; Desmulliez, Geoffrey; Duhamel, Alain; Drumez, Elodie

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate in children microdose protocol compared with low dose for lower limb alignment (LLA) measurements on biplanar radiography. Children 6 years or older were included. Height, weight and hip width were measured prior to imaging. Hip width allowed classifying children into morphotype M1 (width <25 cm), M2 (25-35 cm) or M3 (>35 cm) corresponding to predefined acquisition parameters (kV, mA, tube speed). Micro- and low-dose protocols were used alternately, with simultaneous acquisition of frontal and lateral radiographs. LLA measurements were performed by two independent observers (n = 526). In 15 children per morphotype, a third observer performed measurements twice (n = 180). Intraclass correlation coefficients and the dose (delivered, absorbed) were calculated. 100 girls and 160 boys (mean age = 11.7 years) were investigated: 74 M1 (mean BMI, 15.7kg/m 2 ), 149 M2 (19.8 kg/m 2 ) and 40 M3 (30.2 kg/m 2 ). With microdose, inter- and intra-observer agreement was >0.90 for lengths whatever the morphotype, 0.75-0.90 (M1) and >0.90 (M2, M3) for valgus/varus and flexion/hyperextension deviations. Dose reduction reached a factor of 8.5 and 5.4 for the delivered and absorbed dose respectively. Microdose could be used for LLA measurements in children and permits a significant dose reduction. (orig.)

  20. ASSAULT-RELATED LIMB INJURIES SEEN IN A TERTIARY INSTITUTION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal violence seems to be on the increase worldwide. This is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to evaluate limb injuries that are related to assault seen in ESUT Teaching Hospital Park lane, Enugu, Nigeria. The limbs are very important in economic survival and its loss or dysfunction could create serious disability and jeopardize survival. This was a prospective study carried out between March 2012 and February 2013 in the Forensic Clinic of ESUT Teaching Hospital Park lane, Enugu. Interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the victims off assault visiting the Forensic Clinic of the Hospital. Data was analyzed using simple statistical methods. A total of 1928 individuals visited the Forensic Clinic during the study period. 233 of them sustained one form of injury or the other. Limb injuries occurred in 88 (37.7% of injured victims. Upper limb and lower limb injuries occurred in 71.6% (n = 63 and 18.2% (n = 16 respectively and 10.2% (n = 9 had injuries involving both upper and lower limbs. Male to female ration is 1.6:1. The commonest weapon of assault was knife 22.7% followed by wood 18.1% and teeth 16.0%. Workman\\'s tools and bottle accounted for 13.6% and 11.4% respectively. The youngest victim was 15 years and the oldest 65 years. The modal age range of victims was 21 and ndash; 30 years 43.1% (n and ndash; 38 and mean age is 34.1 years. Laceration 44.3% (n and ndash; 39 was the commonest soft tissue injury seen and bone fracture was seen in 3.4% (n and ndash; 3 of cases. Most of the injuries occurred in business or work place 37.5% (N and ndash; 33, closely followed by attacks in the living quarters 36.4% (n and ndash; 32. The upper limb is a common site of injury during assault probably because most individuals would attempt to protect themselves using their hands. Weapons used in assault are those commonly found at the point of assault and active

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study 1 examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2 determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3 diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limbs while in the second one only by the upper limbs. The pressure differentials exerted by the water on the back and on the palm of the right and left hand were measured. Then, the asymmetry coefficient of the hand movement was determined. No changes in the level of the asymmetry index in participants performing correct (symmetrical lower limb movement were observed. Incorrect (asymmetrical leg motion resulted in an increase of hand asymmetry. It could be concluded that lower limb faults neutralize upper limb performance when swimming on a rectilinear path. However, most asymmetrical arm performance should be identified with the conversion of propulsion into recovery. Nevertheless, its proneness to influence improper leg performance might be expected at the beginning of arm propulsion.

  2. Thermal bifurcation in the upper solar photosphere inferred from heterodyne spectroscopy of OH rotational lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, D.; Hillman, J. J.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Zipoy, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low noise high spectral resolution observations of two pure rotation transitions of OH from the solar photosphere were obtained. The observations were obtained using the technique of optically null-balanced infrared heterodyne spectroscopy, and consist of center-to-limb line profiles of a v=1 and a v=0 transition near 12 microns. These lines should be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and are diagnostics of the thermal structure of the upper photosphere. The v=0 R22 (24.5)e line strengthens at the solar limb, in contradiction to the predictions of current one dimensional photospheric models. Data for this line support a two dimensional model in which horizontal thermal fluctuations of order + or - 800K occur in the region Tau (sub 5000) approximately .001 to .01. This thermal bifurcation may be maintained by the presence of magnetic flux tubes, and may be related to the solar limb extensions observed in the 30 to 200 micron region.

  3. Hyperinnervation improves Xenopus laevis limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2018-01-15

    Xenopus laevis (an anuran amphibian) shows limb regeneration ability between that of urodele amphibians and that of amniotes. Xenopus frogs can initiate limb regeneration but fail to form patterned limbs. Regenerated limbs mainly consist of cone-shaped cartilage without any joints or branches. These pattern defects are thought to be caused by loss of proper expressions of patterning-related genes. This study shows that hyperinnervation surgery resulted in the induction of a branching regenerate. The hyperinnervated blastema allows the identification and functional analysis of the molecules controlling this patterning of limb regeneration. This paper focuses on the nerve affects to improve Xenopus limb patterning ability during regeneration. The nerve molecules, which regulate limb patterning, were also investigated. Blastemas grown in a hyperinnervated forelimb upregulate limb patterning-related genes (shh, lmx1b, and hoxa13). Nerves projecting their axons to limbs express some growth factors (bmp7, fgf2, fgf8, and shh). Inputs of these factors to a blastema upregulated some limb patterning-related genes and resulted in changes in the cartilage patterns in the regenerates. These results indicate that additional nerve factors enhance Xenopus limb patterning-related gene expressions and limb regeneration ability, and that bmp, fgf, and shh are candidate nerve substitute factors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ''real'' beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS

  5. Shaping the spectra of the line-to-line voltage using signal injection in the common mode voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Pedersen, John Kim

    2009-01-01

    A drawback of Pulse Width Modulation in electrical drives is the high harmonic content of the line to line voltages, which gives rise to Electro-Magnetic Interference and acoustic noise. By injection of a signal into the common mode voltage, the fundamental is not affected, but new frequency...

  6. Effect of transmitter turn-off time on transient soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Anderson, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for computing the effect of non-zero turn-off time on the transient electromagnetic response is presented which can be applied to forward and inverse calculation methods for any transmitter-receiver configuration. We consider in detail the case of a large transmitter loop which has a receiver coil located at the center of the loop (central induction or in-loop array). For a linear turn-off ramp of width t0, the voltage response is shown to be the voltage due to an ideal step turn-off averaged over windows of width t0. Thus the effect is similar to that obtained by using averaging windows in the receiver. In general when time zero is taken to be the end of the ramp, the apparent resistivity increases for a homogeneous half-space over a limited time range. For time zero taken to be the start of the ramp the apparent resistivity is affected in the opposite direction. The effect of the ramp increases with increasing t0 and first-layer resistivity, is largest during the intermediate stage, and decreases with increasing time. It is shown that for a ramp turn-off, there is no effect in the early and late stages. For two-layered models with a resistive first layer (??1>??2), the apparent resistivity is increased in the intermediate stage. When the first layer is more conductive than the second layer (??1interpretation as shown by field examples; the influence is the greatest on near-surface layer parameters. ?? 1987.

  7. A trade-off between reproduction and feather growth in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Physiological trade-offs mediated by limiting energy, resources or time constrain the simultaneous expression of major functions and can lead to the evolution of temporal separation between demanding activities. In birds, plumage renewal is a demanding activity, which accomplishes fundamental functions, such as allowing thermal insulation, aerodynamics and socio-sexual signaling. Feather renewal is a very expensive and disabling process, and molt is often partitioned from breeding and migration. However, trade-offs between feather renewal and breeding have been only sparsely studied. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica breeding in Italy and undergoing molt during wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied this trade-off by removing a tail feather from a large sample of individuals and analyzing growth bar width, reflecting feather growth rate, and length of the growing replacement feather in relation to the stage in the breeding cycle at removal and clutch size. Growth bar width of females and length of the growing replacement feather of both sexes were smaller when the original feather had been removed after clutch initiation. Importantly, in females both growth bar width and replacement feather length were negatively predicted by clutch size, and more strongly so for large clutches and when feather removal occurred immediately after clutch completion. Hence, we found strong, coherent evidence for a trade-off between reproduction, and laying effort in particular, and the ability to generate new feathers. These results support the hypothesis that the derived condition of molting during wintering in long-distance migrants is maintained by the costs of overlapping breeding and molt.

  8. LookOnX: A new technological approach for the H1 off-line event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perus, A.; Arnault, C.

    1994-01-01

    The authors present the re-engineering work achieved on a traditional-fashioned GKS graphical package with new open-quotes event drivenclose quotes concepts required by using workstation interactivity. The Off-line Event Display for the H1 experiment H1look was originally written using a basic kernel package - Look - that provides a uniform control engine for graphical modules based on conventional GKS graphics. The use of powerful UNIX workstations is growing daily and their new graphical functionalities and CPU power are well suited to interactive graphical data analysis. Therefore re-engineering work was needed to put in some new features such as: interactive manipulations of graphical objects; object oriented definitions of the graphical representations and connectivity between graphical objects and physical objects; multi-windowing facility

  9. Enhancement of mosquito trapping efficiency by using pulse width modulated light emitting diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu-Nan; Liu, Yu-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chian; Ma, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a light-driving bug zapper is presented for well controlling the diseases brought by insects, such as mosquitoes. In order to have the device efficient to trap the insect pests in off-grid areas, pulse width modulated light emitting diodes (PWM-LED) combined with a solar power module are proposed and implemented. With specific PWM electric signals to drive the LED, it is found that no matter what the ability of catching insects or the consumed power efficiency can be enhanced t...

  10. New luminescence lines in nanodiamonds obtained by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, V. G.; Grudinkin, S. A.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Feoktistov, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The spectral characteristics of the photoluminescence lines detected for nanodiamonds obtained by the reactive ion etching of diamond particles in oxygen plasma, deposited by chemical vapor deposition on a silicon substrate, are studied. At room temperature, narrow lines are observed in the visible and infrared spectral regions, with a full width at half-maximum in the range of 1-2 nm at an almost complete absence of a broadband photoluminescence background signal. At decreasing temperature, the lines narrowed to 0.2-0.6 nm at T = 79 K, and the minimum line width was 0.055 nm at T = 10 K. With increasing temperature, the narrow lines shifted to the long-wavelength region of the spectrum, and their intensity decreased.

  11. Limb salvage surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Dinesh

    2013-05-01

    The threat of lower limb loss is seen commonly in severe crush injury, cancer ablation, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy. The primary goal of limb salvage is to restore and maintain stability and ambulation. Reconstructive strategies differ in each condition such as: Meticulous debridement and early coverage in trauma, replacing lost functional units in cancer ablation, improving vascularity in ischaemic leg and providing stable walking surface for trophic ulcer. The decision to salvage the critically injured limb is multifactorial and should be individualised along with laid down definitive indications. Early cover remains the standard of care, delayed wound coverage not necessarily affect the final outcome. Limb salvage is more cost-effective than amputations in a long run. Limb salvage is the choice of procedure over amputation in 95% of limb sarcoma without affecting the survival. Compound flaps with different tissue components, skeletal reconstruction; tendon transfer/reconstruction helps to restore function. Adjuvant radiation alters tissue characters and calls for modification in reconstructive plan. Neuropathic ulcers are wide and deep often complicated by osteomyelitis. Free flap reconstruction aids in faster healing and provides superior surface for offloading. Diabetic wounds are primarily due to neuropathy and leads to six-fold increase in ulcerations. Control of infections, aggressive debridement and vascular cover are the mainstay of management. Endovascular procedures are gaining importance and have reduced extent of surgery and increased amputation free survival period. Though the standard approach remains utilising best option in the reconstruction ladder, the recent trend shows running down the ladder of reconstruction with newer reliable local flaps and negative wound pressure therapy.

  12. Test and evaluation of the in-line plutonium solution K-absorption-edge densitometer at the Savannah River Plant. Phase I. Off-line testing results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Marks, T.; Johnson, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    An in-line, plutonium-solution, K-edge absorption densitometer has been developed at Los Alamos and is currently undergoing test and evaluation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The first phase of the test and evaluation (off-line instrument calibration and solution assays) was completed, and preparations are under way to install the instrument in-line, as soon as process schedules permit. Calibration data in the design concentration range of 25 to 40 g Pu/L demonstrate routine achievement of densitometry assay precisions of 0.5% or better in 40 min. Plutonium assays at concentrations outside the calibration range were investigated in an effort to define better the limitations of the instrument and address other possible assay situations at SRP. Densitometry precisions obtained for 40-min assays range from 3% to 5 g Pu/L down to 0.4% at 70 g Pu/L. At higher plutonium concentrations, the precision deteriorated due to increasing gamma-ray absorption by the solution. In addition, with actinide concentrations above approximately 100 g/L, the assay accuracy also suffered because of enhanced small-angle scattering effects in the large sample cell. Measurements on mixed U/Pu solutions demonstrated the feasibility of accurate plutonium assays with correction for the large uranium matrix contributions being determined from the measurement data. The 239 240 Pu weight fractions and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu and 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios can be determined. In a mockup of the in-line solution plumbing system, all assay sequences, error conditions, and interlock criteria were exercised and verified to be working properly

  13. Structure of the classical scrape-off layer of a tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhansky, V.; Kaveeva, E.; Senichenkov, I.; Vekshina, E.

    2018-03-01

    The structure of the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a tokamak with little or no turbulent transport is analyzed. The analytical estimates of the density and electron temperature fall-off lengths of the SOL are put forward. It is demonstrated that the SOL width could be of the order of the ion poloidal gyroradius, as suggested in Goldston (2012 Nuclear Fusion 52 013009). The analytical results are supported by the results of the 2D simulations of the edge plasma with reduced transport coefficients performed by SOLPS-ITER transport code.

  14. Management of the multiple limb amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J H; Jones, L E; Cornet, J; Cittarelli, T

    2002-09-10

    Multiple limb amputations involving at least one upper extremity are very uncommon. The amputation of both an upper and lower limb is even more uncommon. Due to the rarity of these amputations therapists are uncertain regarding the most appropriate treatment methods. While the majority of the protocols used for single limb amputations are appropriate for these multiple limb amputees, there are differences. Loss of multiple limbs creates a problem of overheating for the individual. Loss of an arm and leg results in difficulty donning the prostheses and difficulty using crutches and parallel bars during mobilization. A review is given of 16 multiple limb amputees seen in our rehabilitation centre in the last 15 years. Return to work was seen in one third and was not related to the number of the amputations. A higher proportion of these multiple limb amputations occur through alcoholism or attempted suicide behaviour than occurs with either single upper limb amputations or lower limb amputations. This existing behaviour can create a management problem for the rehabilitation team during rehabilitation. Guidelines as to appropriate prosthetic and preprosthetic care are provided to assist the practitioner who has the acute and long term care of these patients. All multiple limb amputees should be referred to a specialized rehabilitation centre to discuss prosthetic options and long term rehabilitation requirements. This paper does not discuss bilateral lower limb amputations when not combined with an upper limb amputation.

  15. How accurate is anatomic limb alignment in predicting mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Choi, Sang-Hee; Chang, Moon Jong

    2015-10-27

    Anatomic limb alignment often differs from mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We sought to assess the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each of three commonly used ranges for anatomic limb alignment (3-9°, 5-10° and 2-10°) in predicting an acceptable range (neutral ± 3°) for mechanical limb alignment after TKA. We also assessed whether the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment was affected by anatomic variation. This retrospective study included 314 primary TKAs. The alignment of the limb was measured with both anatomic and mechanical methods of measurement. We also measured anatomic variation, including the femoral bowing angle, tibial bowing angle, and neck-shaft angle of the femur. All angles were measured on the same full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each range of anatomic limb alignment were calculated and compared using mechanical limb alignment as the reference standard. The associations between the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment and anatomic variation were also determined. The range of 2-10° for anatomic limb alignment showed the highest accuracy, but it was only 73 % (3-9°, 65 %; 5-10°, 67 %). The specificity of the 2-10° range was 81 %, which was higher than that of the other ranges (3-9°, 69 %; 5-10°, 67 %). However, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict varus malalignment was only 16 % (3-9°, 35 %; 5-10°, 68 %). In addition, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict valgus malalignment was only 43 % (3-9°, 71 %; 5-10°, 43 %). The accuracy of anatomical limb alignment was lower for knees with greater femoral (odds ratio = 1.2) and tibial (odds ratio = 1.2) bowing. Anatomic limb alignment did not accurately predict mechanical limb alignment after TKA, and its accuracy was affected by anatomic variation. Thus, alignment after TKA should be assessed by measuring mechanical alignment rather than anatomic

  16. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Danish, Qazi

    2016-09-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation.

  17. Width and partial widths of unstable particles in the light of the Nielsen identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, P.A.; Sirlin, A.; Kniehl, B.A.; Hamburg Univ.

    2001-09-01

    Fundamental properties of unstable particles, including mass, width, and partial widths, are examined on the basis of the Nielsen identities (NI) that describe the gauge dependence of Green functions. In particular, we prove that the pole residues and associated definitions of branching ratios and partial widths are gauge independent to all orders. A simpler, previously discussed definition of branching ratios and partial widths is found to be gauge independent through next-to-next-to-leading order. It is then explained how it may be modified in order to extend the gauge independence to all orders. We also show that the physical scattering amplitude is the most general combination of self-energy, vertex, and box contributions that is gauge independent for arbitrary s, discuss the analytical properties of the NI functions, and exhibit explicitly their one-loop expressions in the Z-γ sector of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  18. Width and partial widths of unstable particles in the light of the Nielsen identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Pietro A.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental properties of unstable particles, including mass, width, and partial widths, are examined on the basis of the Nielsen identities (NI) that describe the gauge dependence of Green functions. In particular, we prove that the pole residues and associated definitions of branching ratios and partial widths are gauge independent to all orders. A simpler, previously discussed definition of branching ratios and partial widths is found to be gauge independent through next-to-next-to-leading order. It is then explained how it may be modified in order to extend the gauge independence to all orders. We also show that the physical scattering amplitude is the most general combination of self-energy, vertex, and box contributions that is gauge independent for arbitrary s, discuss the analytical properties of the NI functions, and exhibit explicitly their one-loop expressions in the Z-γ sector of the standard model

  19. Modulation of weight off-loading level over body-weight supported locomotion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; Lim, Peter A C; McGregor, A H

    2011-01-01

    With the evolution of robotic systems to facilitate overground walking rehabilitation, it is important to understand the effect of robotic-aided body-weight supported loading on lower limb muscle activity, if we are to optimize neuromotor recovery. To achieve this objective, we have collected and studied electromyography (EMG) data from key muscles in the lower extremity from healthy subjects walking over a wide range of body-weight off-loading levels as provided by a bespoke gait robot. By examining the impact of body-weight off-loading, it was found that muscle activation patterns were sensitive to the level of off-loading. In addition, a large off-loading might introduce disturbance of muscle activation pattern, led to a wider range of motion in terms of dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. Therefore, any future overground training machine should be enhanced to exclude unnecessary effect of body off-loading in securing the sustaining upright posture and providing assist-as-needed BWS over gait rehabilitation. © 2011 IEEE

  20. Early regulation of axolotl limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Amphibian limb regeneration has been studied for a long time. In amphibian limb regeneration, an undifferentiated blastema is formed around the region damaged by amputation. The induction process of blastema formation has remained largely unknown because it is difficult to study the induction of limb regeneration. The recently developed accessory limb model (ALM) allows the investigation of limb induction and reveals early events of amphibian limb regeneration. The interaction between nerves and wound epidermis/epithelium is an important aspect of limb regeneration. During early limb regeneration, neurotrophic factors act on wound epithelium, leading to development of a functional epidermis/epithelium called the apical epithelial cap (AEC). AEC and nerves create a specific environment that inhibits wound healing and induces regeneration through blastema formation. It is suggested that FGF-signaling and MMP activities participate in creating a regenerative environment. To understand why urodele amphibians can create such a regenerative environment and humans cannot, it is necessary to identify the similarities and differences between regenerative and nonregenerative animals. Here we focus on ALM to consider limb regeneration from a new perspective and we also reported that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Src signaling controlled fibroblasts migration in axolotl limb regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The CME Flare Arcade and the Width of the CME in the Outer Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2008-01-01

    Moore, Sterling, & Suess (2007, ApJ, 668, 1221) present evidence that (1) a CME is typically a magnetic bubble, a low-beta gplasmoid with legs h having roughly the 3D shape of a light bulb, and (2) in the outer corona the CME plasmoid is in lateral pressure equilibrium with the ambient magnetic field. They present three CMEs observed by SOHO/LASCO, each from a very different source located near the limb. One of these CMEs came from a compact ejective eruption from a small part of a sunspot active region, another came from a large quiet-region filament eruption, and the third CME, an extremely large and fast one, was produced in tandem with an X20 flare arcade that was centered on a huge delta sunspot. Each of these CMEs had more or less the classic lightbulb silhouette and attained a constant heliocentric angular width in the outer corona. This indicates that the CME plasmoid attained lateral magnetic pressure balance with the ambient radial magnetic field in the outer corona. This lateral pressure balance, together with the standard scenario for CME production by the eruption of a sheared-core magnetic arcade, yields the following simple estimate of the strength B(sub Flare) of the magnetic field in the flare arcade produced together with the CME: B(sub Flare) 1.4(theta CME/theta Flare)sup 2 G, where theta (sub CME) is the heliocentric angular width of the CME plasmoid in the outer corona and theta (sub Flare) is the heliocentric angular width of the full-grown flare arcade. Conversely, theta (sub CME) approximately equal to (R(sub Sun)sup -1(phi(sub Flare)/1.4)sup 1/2 radians, where Flare is the magnetic flux covered by the full-grown flare arcade. In addition to presenting the three CMEs of Moore, Sterling, & Suess (2007) and their agreement with this relation between CME and Flare, we present a further empirical test of this relation. For CMEs that erupt from active regions, the co-produced flare arcade seldom if ever covers the entire active region: if AR is

  2. Limb salvage surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of lower limb loss is seen commonly in severe crush injury, cancer ablation, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy. The primary goal of limb salvage is to restore and maintain stability and ambulation. Reconstructive strategies differ in each condition such as: Meticulous debridement and early coverage in trauma, replacing lost functional units in cancer ablation, improving vascularity in ischaemic leg and providing stable walking surface for trophic ulcer. The decision to salvage the critically injured limb is multifactorial and should be individualised along with laid down definitive indications. Early cover remains the standard of care, delayed wound coverage not necessarily affect the final outcome. Limb salvage is more cost-effective than amputations in a long run. Limb salvage is the choice of procedure over amputation in 95% of limb sarcoma without affecting the survival. Compound flaps with different tissue components, skeletal reconstruction; tendon transfer/reconstruction helps to restore function. Adjuvant radiation alters tissue characters and calls for modification in reconstructive plan. Neuropathic ulcers are wide and deep often complicated by osteomyelitis. Free flap reconstruction aids in faster healing and provides superior surface for offloading. Diabetic wounds are primarily due to neuropathy and leads to six-fold increase in ulcerations. Control of infections, aggressive debridement and vascular cover are the mainstay of management. Endovascular procedures are gaining importance and have reduced extent of surgery and increased amputation free survival period. Though the standard approach remains utilising best option in the reconstruction ladder, the recent trend shows running down the ladder of reconstruction with newer reliable local flaps and negative wound pressure therapy.

  3. The D1Πu state of HD and the mass scaling relation of its predissociation widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenson, G D; Ubachs, W

    2012-01-01

    Absorption spectra of HD have been recorded in the wavelength range of 75–90 nm at 100 K using the vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer at the Synchrotron SOLEIL. The present wavelength resolution represents an order of magnitude improvement over that of previous studies. We present a detailed study of the D 1 Π u –X 1 Σ + g system observed up to v′ = 18. The Q-branch transition probing levels of Π − symmetry are observed as narrow resonances limited by the Doppler width at 100 K. Line positions for these transitions are determined to an estimated absolute accuracy of 0.06 cm −1 . Predissociation line widths of Π + levels are extracted from the absorption spectra. A comparison with the recent results on a study of the D 1 Π u state in H 2 and D 2 reveals that the predissociation widths scale as μ −2 J(J + 1), with μ being the reduced mass of the molecule and J the rotational angular momentum quantum number, as expected from an interaction with the B′ 1 Σ + u continuum causing the predissociation. (paper)

  4. The hyperspectral imaging trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael

    , this will be the standard situation, and it enables the detection of small spectral features like peaks, valleys and shoulders for a wide range of chemistries. Everything else being equal this is what you would wish for, and hyperspectral imaging is often used in research and in remote sensing because of the needs and cost......Although it has no clear-cut definition, hyperspectral imaging in the UV-Visible-NIR wavelength region seems to mean spectral image sampling in bands from 10 nm width or narrower that enables spectral reconstruction over some wavelength interval. For non-imaging spectral applications...... structures in these projects. However, hyperspectral imaging is a sampling choice within spectral imaging that typically will impose some trade-offs, and these trade-offs will not be optimal for many applications. The purpose of this presentation is to point out and increase the awareness of these trade...

  5. Prospective feasibility analysis of a novel off-line approach for MR-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostel, Tilman; Pfaffenberger, Asja; Delorme, Stefan; Dreher, Constantin; Echner, Gernot; Haering, Peter; Lang, Clemens; Splinter, Mona; Laun, Frederik; Müller, Marco; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Huber, Peter E; Sterzing, Florian; Nicolay, Nils H

    2018-05-01

    The present work aimed to analyze the feasibility of a shuttle-based MRI-guided radiation therapy (MRgRT) in the treatment of pelvic malignancies. 20 patients with pelvic malignancies were included in this prospective feasibility analysis. Patients underwent daily MRI in treatment position prior to radiotherapy at the German Cancer Research Center. Positional inaccuracies, time and patient compliance were assessed for the application of off-line MRgRT. In 78% of applied radiation fractions, MR imaging for position verification could be performed without problems. Additionally, treatment-related side effects and reduced patient compliance were only responsible for omission of MRI in 9% of radiation fractions. The study workflow took a median time of 61 min (range 47-99 min); duration for radiotherapy alone was 13 min (range 7-26 min). Patient positioning, MR imaging and CT imaging including patient repositioning and the shuttle transfer required median times of 10 min (range 7-14 min), 26 min (range 15-60 min), 5 min (range 3-8 min) and 8 min (range 2-36 min), respectively. To assess feasibility of shuttle-based MRgRT, the reference point coordinates for the x, y and z axis were determined for the MR images and CT obtained prior to the first treatment fraction and correlated with the coordinates of the planning CT. In our dataset, the median positional difference between MR imaging and CT-based imaging based on fiducial matching between MR and CT imaging was equal to or less than 2 mm in all spatial directions. The limited space in the MR scanner influenced patient selection, as the bore of the scanner had to accommodate the immobilization device and the constructed stereotactic frame. Therefore, obese, extremely muscular or very tall patients could not be included in this trial in addition to patients for whom exposure to MRI was generally judged inappropriate. This trial demonstrated for the first time the feasibility and patient

  6. [Off-line control of runoff pollution by filtering ditch-pond system in urban tourist areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Feng; Shan, Bao-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing; Hu, Cheng-Xiao

    2007-10-01

    An off-line filtering ditch-pond system for controlling storm runoff pollution in urban tourist areas was developed, which could retain the first flush effectively, resulting in the decrease of pollutant concentration and suspended solid average grain size, and the improvement of pollutant retention in runoff. This system could be an effective treatment system for storm runoff pollution, particularly for the scarcity of available land use in urban areas. In 2005, the yearly retention rates of TSS, COD, TN and TP were 86.4%, 85.5%, 83.9% and 82.9%, and during a storm event on June 26, the retention rates of runoff volume, TSS, COD, TN and TP were 67.9%, 97.0%, 89.2%, 94.9% and 96.2%, respectively. This system could also retain most of the suspended solids in runoff.

  7. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the lower limb: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2011-07-01

    Anatomical history over centuries includes description of a wide variety of malformations involving the lower limbs. This article offers an organized review of these diverse abnormalities, including new understanding of mechanisms through recent discoveries in genetics and molecular biology. In 19th century Europe, a number of unique anomalies were reported, as well as evidence of foot amputations occurring in ancient Peruvian culture. Embryologically, the limbs develop early, with the lower limb being recognizable for the first time at stage 13 of development. By stage 23, the toes are clearly defined and by birth, although the legs appear bowed, the tibia and fibula are straight. Removal of the apical ectodermal ridge results in cessation of limb development, conversely, a second apical ectodermal ridge results in duplication of distal structures. Supernumerary limbs have been documented to occur as part of a teratoma with unique morphology and accompanying blood supply. Additionally, many examples of polydactyly occur in the foot postulating that deletion of chromosome 22q11 is involved in postaxial polydactyly. Such deletions occur near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2 (i.e., on the long arm of one of the pair of chromosomes 22) and this syndrome is also referred to as DiGeorge syndrome, which has a prevalence estimated at 1:4,000. Absence of the lower limbs has also been noted, with hypoplasia of the fibula being the most common manifestation of congenital bone absences in the lower limb. In addition to fibular aplasia, cases of tibial aplasia have been reported. This article is important for surgeons attempting correctional repair of lower limb anomalies, as well as providing analysis of the historical, anatomical and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the lower limb. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Measurement of Stark width of some Ar I transitions and the investigation of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in an atmospheric d.c. argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakshi, V.

    1988-01-01

    The Stark widths of seven Ar I transitions are reported. Axial line shape data from an atmospheric d.c. argon plasma jet were Abel-inverted to obtain radial line shapes. The electron-density was determined by Stark width measurements of the hydrogen H β transition. In the electron-density region of ≤6 x 10 22 m -3 the experimental Ar I Stark widths are fitted to a linear dependence on the electron-density. Values of Stark width extrapolated to other electron densities are compared to measurements reported in the literature on the 4s-4p array. Experimental values are up to 45% smaller than those predicted by Griem's theory of Stark broadening. Conditions for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to exist in an atmospheric argon plasma jet were studied. The experiment measures the emission coefficient of seven Ar I transitions and the line shape of the hydrogen H beta transition. After transforming the side-on data into radial space the excited neutral argon atom-density and the electron-density are determined. It is found LTE does not exist below an electron-density of 6 x 10 33 m -3 in the experimental conditions

  9. GAP WIDTH STUDY IN LASER BUTT-WELDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    power : 2 and 2.6 kW and the focal point position : 0 and -1.2 mm. Quality of all the butt welds are destructively tested according to ISO 13919-1.Influences of the variable process parameters to the maximum allowable gap width are observed as (1) the maximum gap width is inversely related......In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser...... to the welding speed, (2) the larger laser power leads to the bigger maximum allowable gap width and (3) the focal point position has very little influence on the maximum gap width....

  10. Limb immobilization and corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Boeve, Bradley F; Drubach, Daniel A; Knopman, David S; Ahlskog, J Eric; Golden, Erin C; Drubach, Dina I; Petersen, Ronald C; Josephs, Keith A

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we evaluated two patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) who reported symptom onset after limb immobilization. Our objective was to investigate the association between trauma, immobilization and CBS. The charts of forty-four consecutive CBS patients seen in the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer Disease Research Center were reviewed with attention to trauma and limb immobilization. 10 CBS patients (23%) had immobilization or trauma on the most affected limb preceding the onset or acceleration of symptoms. The median age at onset was 61. Six patients manifested their first symptoms after immobilization from surgery or fracture with one after leg trauma. Four patients had pre-existing symptoms of limb dysfunction but significantly worsened after immobilization or surgery. 23 percent of patients had immobilization or trauma of the affected limb. This might have implications for management of CBS, for avoiding injury, limiting immobilization and increasing movement in the affected limb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meterwavelength Single-pulse Polarimetric Emission Survey. IV. The Period Dependence of Component Widths of Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Anna; Basu, Rahul; Mitra, Dipanjan; Melikidze, George I.; Maciesiak, Krzysztof; Koralewska, Olga; Filothodoros, Alexandros

    2018-02-01

    The core component width in normal pulsars, with periods (P) > 0.1 s, measured at the half-power point at 1 GHz, has a lower boundary line (LBL) that closely follows the P ‑0.5 scaling relation. This result is of fundamental importance for understanding the emission process and requires extended studies over a wider frequency range. In this paper we have carried out a detailed study of the profile component widths of 123 normal pulsars observed in the Meterwavelength Single-pulse Polarimetric Emission Survey at 333 and 618 MHz. The components in the pulse profile were separated into core and conal classes. We found that at both frequencies, the core, as well as the conal component widths versus period, had a LBL that followed the P ‑0.5 relation with a similar lower boundary. The radio emission in normal pulsars has been observationally shown to arise from a narrow range of heights around a few hundred kilometers above the stellar surface. In the past the P ‑0.5 relation has been considered as evidence for emission arising from last open dipolar magnetic field lines. We show that the P ‑0.5 dependence only holds if the trailing and leading half-power points of the component are associated with the last open field line. In such a scenario we do not find any physical motivation that can explain the P ‑0.5 dependence for both core and conal components as evidence for dipolar geometry in normal pulsars. We believe the period dependence is a result of a currently unexplained physical phenomenon.

  12. The KMOS3D Survey: Rotating Compact Star-forming Galaxies and the Decomposition of Integrated Line Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnioski, E.; Mendel, J. T.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Wilman, D.; Wuyts, S.; Belli, S.; Beifiori, A.; Bender, R.; Brammer, G.; Chan, J.; Davies, R. I.; Davies, R. L.; Fabricius, M.; Fossati, M.; Galametz, A.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Nelson, E. J.; Momcheva, I.; Rosario, D.; Saglia, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Übler, H.; van Dokkum, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    Using integral field spectroscopy, we investigate the kinematic properties of 35 massive centrally dense and compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs; {log}{\\overline{M}}* [{M}ȯ ]=11.1, {log}({{{Σ }}}1{kpc}[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-2])> 9.5, {log}({M}* /{r}e1.5[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-1.5])> 10.3) at z ∼ 0.7–3.7 within the KMOS3D survey. We spatially resolve 23 compact SFGs and find that the majority are dominated by rotational motions with velocities ranging from 95 to 500 km s‑1. The range of rotation velocities is reflected in a similar range of integrated Hα line widths, 75–400 km s‑1, consistent with the kinematic properties of mass-matched extended galaxies from the full KMOS3D sample. The fraction of compact SFGs that are classified as “rotation-dominated” or “disklike” also mirrors the fractions of the full KMOS3D sample. We show that integrated line-of-sight gas velocity dispersions from KMOS3D are best approximated by a linear combination of their rotation and turbulent velocities with a lesser but still significant contribution from galactic-scale winds. The Hα exponential disk sizes of compact SFGs are, on average, 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc, 1–2× the continuum sizes, in agreement with previous work. The compact SFGs have a 1.4× higher active galactic nucleus (AGN) incidence than the full KMOS3D sample at fixed stellar mass with an average AGN fraction of 76%. Given their high and centrally concentrated stellar masses, as well as stellar-to-dynamical mass ratios close to unity, the compact SFGs are likely to have low molecular gas fractions and to quench on a short timescale unless replenished with inflowing gas. The rotation in these compact systems suggests that their direct descendants are rotating passive galaxies. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 092A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, 096.A-0025, 097.A-0028, and 098.A-0045).

  13. Effect of chaos on plasma filament dynamics and turbulence in the scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerson, D.; Waelbroeck, F.; Horton, W.; Michoski, C.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring error fields as well as resonant magnetic perturbations applied for stability control are known to cause magnetic field-line chaos in the scrape-off layer (SOL) region of tokamaks. Here, 2D simulations with the BOUT++ simulation framework are used to investigate the effect of the field-line chaos on the SOL and in particular on its width and peak particle flux. The chaos enters the SOL dynamics only through the connection length, which is evaluated using a Poincaré map. The variation of experimentally relevant quantities, such as the SOL gradient length scale and the intermittency of the particle flux in the SOL, is described as a function of the strength of the magnetic perturbation. It is found that the effect of the chaos is to broaden the profile of the sheath-loss coefficient, which is proportional to the inverse connection length. That is, the SOL transport in a chaotic field is equivalent to that in a model where the sheath-loss coefficient is replaced by its average over the unperturbed flux surfaces. The model does not include the effects of chaotic features other than the parallel connection length

  14. Optical Variability of Narrow-line and Broad-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    We studied the optical variability (OV) of a large sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLSy1) galaxies with z anti-correlated with Fe II strength but correlated with the width of the Hβ line. The well-known anti-correlation of variability-luminosity and the variability-Eddington ratio is present in our data. Among the radio-loud sample, variability amplitude is found to be correlated with radio-loudness and radio-power, suggesting that jets also play an important role in the OV in radio-loud objects, in addition to the Eddington ratio, which is the main driving factor of OV in radio-quiet sources.

  15. Soft Smart Garments for Lower Limb Joint Position Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Totaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Revealing human movement requires lightweight, flexible systems capable of detecting mechanical parameters (like strain and pressure while being worn comfortably by the user, and not interfering with his/her activity. In this work we address such multifaceted challenge with the development of smart garments for lower limb motion detection, like a textile kneepad and anklet in which soft sensors and readout electronics are embedded for retrieving movement of the specific joint. Stretchable capacitive sensors with a three-electrode configuration are built combining conductive textiles and elastomeric layers, and distributed around knee and ankle. Results show an excellent behavior in the ~30% strain range, hence the correlation between sensors’ responses and the optically tracked Euler angles is allowed for basic lower limb movements. Bending during knee flexion/extension is detected, and it is discriminated from any external contact by implementing in real time a low computational algorithm. The smart anklet is designed to address joint motion detection in and off the sagittal plane. Ankle dorsi/plantar flexion, adduction/abduction, and rotation are retrieved. Both knee and ankle smart garments show a high accuracy in movement detection, with a RMSE less than 4° in the worst case.

  16. Soft Smart Garments for Lower Limb Joint Position Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Massimo; Poliero, Tommaso; Mondini, Alessio; Lucarotti, Chiara; Cairoli, Giovanni; Ortiz, Jesùs; Beccai, Lucia

    2017-10-12

    Revealing human movement requires lightweight, flexible systems capable of detecting mechanical parameters (like strain and pressure) while being worn comfortably by the user, and not interfering with his/her activity. In this work we address such multifaceted challenge with the development of smart garments for lower limb motion detection, like a textile kneepad and anklet in which soft sensors and readout electronics are embedded for retrieving movement of the specific joint. Stretchable capacitive sensors with a three-electrode configuration are built combining conductive textiles and elastomeric layers, and distributed around knee and ankle. Results show an excellent behavior in the ~30% strain range, hence the correlation between sensors' responses and the optically tracked Euler angles is allowed for basic lower limb movements. Bending during knee flexion/extension is detected, and it is discriminated from any external contact by implementing in real time a low computational algorithm. The smart anklet is designed to address joint motion detection in and off the sagittal plane. Ankle dorsi/plantar flexion, adduction/abduction, and rotation are retrieved. Both knee and ankle smart garments show a high accuracy in movement detection, with a RMSE less than 4° in the worst case.

  17. The off-line computation system for supervising performance of JOYO: JOYPAC system, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragi, Satoru; Inoue, Teruji; Shimizu, Akinao; Yoshino, Fujio; Suzuki, Masao.

    1976-10-01

    A code system JOYPAC for monitoring the operation of the fast experimental reactor JOYO has been developed. This is an off-line code system designed for use in making calculation of the nuclear and thermohydraulic characteristics of the reactor core and also to make computation of the history of core irradiation after reactor operation. The use of the code system makes it possible to calculate the various core characteristics with a high degree of accuracy by simplified procedure for the diverse operation patterns of JOYO to confirm its safety. It also enables the details of the history of irradiation of the core to be obtained quickly and accurately after reactor operation. The above include all the operation data and in-pile characteristics that are required for the irradiation test. Furthermore, it is also possible to provide the data for the on-line computer system of JOYO and the data for nuclear material accountability. The code system consists of the detailed subsystem and the simplified subsystem. The former is used for obtaining the nuclear and thermohydraulic characteristics of the core by use of a detailed calculation model such as three-dimensional hexagonal lattice, for instance, in order to back up the simplified subsystem. On the other hand, the latter is designed to obtain the various core characteristics by use of simple extrapolation and interpolation methods, whose conception is based on the great deal of information obtained by the design calculation of JOYO and the many parameter surveys. The system is used for the normal cycle operation. (J.P.N.)

  18. Two-dimensional radiative transfer for the retrieval of limb emission measurements in the martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinböhl, Armin; Friedson, A. James; Schofield, John T.

    2017-01-01

    The remote sounding of infrared emission from planetary atmospheres using limb-viewing geometry is a powerful technique for deriving vertical profiles of structure and composition on a global scale. Compared with nadir viewing, limb geometry provides enhanced vertical resolution and greater sensitivity to atmospheric constituents. However, standard limb profile retrieval techniques assume spherical symmetry and are vulnerable to biases produced by horizontal gradients in atmospheric parameters. We present a scheme for the correction of horizontal gradients in profile retrievals from limb observations of the martian atmosphere. It characterizes horizontal gradients in temperature, pressure, and aerosol extinction along the line-of-sight of a limb view through neighboring measurements, and represents these gradients by means of two-dimensional radiative transfer in the forward model of the retrieval. The scheme is applied to limb emission measurements from the Mars Climate Sounder instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Retrieval simulations using data from numerical models indicate that biases of up to 10 K in the winter polar region, obtained with standard retrievals using spherical symmetry, are reduced to about 2 K in most locations by the retrieval with two-dimensional radiative transfer. Retrievals from Mars atmospheric measurements suggest that the two-dimensional radiative transfer greatly reduces biases in temperature and aerosol opacity caused by observational geometry, predominantly in the polar winter regions.

  19. The clinical application of Photoshop in image post-processing of no-gap-lower-limb digital photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziqi; Wang Longhua; Feng Min; Gu Jianping; Lu Lingquan; Gui Jianchao; Wang Liming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of Photoshop in image post-processing of digital total lower-limb X-ray photography, so as to obtain a more reasonable and accurate photography. Methods: Digital total lower-limb X-ray photography was performed in 34 patients, and the films were printed. Then the digital imaging were converted to a total no-gap-tower-limb photography by Adobe Photoshop CS software and were printed in A4 sheets. The Q angles ( the angle between the line of femoral axis and the line of central points of femoral head, knee joint and ankle joint) were measured by radiologists and orthopedists. The films and pages were evaluated separately by radiologists and orthopedists. The Q angles were compared. Results: There were 25 cases retrograde osteoarthritis of knee joints inl9 patients (6 patients were involved two sides), 15 cases of rheumatoid osteoarthritis in 12 patients, 1 case of malformation, 1 case of traumatic osteoarthritis, and 1 case of TB. Twenty-six of these patients were performed the knee joint replacement operations. The Q angle in films were (6.3±0.8) degree, and (6.1±0.3) degree in sheets. There was no significant difference between the two methods (paired-t-test, t=0.022, P>0.5). Conclusion: Photoshop software could be used readily to obtain a optional total no-gap-lower limb photography satisfying diagnostic and operational needs of orthopedics. (authors)

  20. Power assessment of lower limbs and strength asymmetry of soccer goalkeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Zahálka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective execution of vertical jump depends on the explosive power of lower limbs and their symmetrical integration mainly. Assessment of lower extremity bilateral asymmetries in soccer players is important for both injury prevention and performance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and compare parameters of lower limb power in three different jump tests in elite soccer goalkeepers. The next aim was to describe and compare strength asymmetries of force exerted by lower limbs in the take-off phase in all tests. METHOD: The research group consisted of 25 elite soccer goalkeepers (age 26.5 ± 9.1 years, height 186.1 ± 7.8 cm, weight 86.7 ± 14.8 kg. Three types of a vertical jump – countermovement jump with arms included (CMJFA, countermovement jump with arms excluded (CMJ and squat jump (SJ were performed on two force platforms. Following parameters were assessed – maximum force during the take-off phase Fmax (N and their relative value Frel (N • kg–1, jump height h (m and force asymmetry between limbs (∆Fmax. RM ANOVA was used in statistical analysis. RESULTS: The type of jump had a significant effect on jump height (F2, 48 = 109.66, p < .01, η2 = .82. The highest jump was reached in CMJFA. This result was higher by 11.1% (5.01 cm in comparison to CMJ and by 19.9% (8.98 cm than in SJ. Type of jump significantly influenced Fmax (F1.6, 38.7 = 44.29, p < .01, η2 = .65 and Frel (F2, 48 = 50.33, p < .01, η2 = .68. Force asymmetry between limbs (∆Fmax was significantly different with respect to the type of jump performed (F1.3, 31.7 = 5.14, p < .05, η2 = .18. The highest force asymmetry was found in CMJFA test (∆Fmax = 8.61%, while the difference in CMJ test was (7.06% and in SJ test (∆Fmax = 3.95%. We found a significantly greater difference in ∆Fmax between CMJFA vs. SJ (p < .05 and CMJ vs. SJ (p < .01

  1. Limb Darkening and Planetary Transits: Testing Center-to-limb Intensity Variations and Limb-darkening Directly from Model Stellar Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, Hilding R.; Lester, John B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); McNeil, Joseph T.; Ignace, Richard, E-mail: neilson@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Box 70652, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The transit method, employed by Microvariability and Oscillation of Stars ( MOST ), Kepler , and various ground-based surveys has enabled the characterization of extrasolar planets to unprecedented precision. These results are precise enough to begin to measure planet atmosphere composition, planetary oblateness, starspots, and other phenomena at the level of a few hundred parts per million. However, these results depend on our understanding of stellar limb darkening, that is, the intensity distribution across the stellar disk that is sequentially blocked as the planet transits. Typically, stellar limb darkening is assumed to be a simple parameterization with two coefficients that are derived from stellar atmosphere models or fit directly. In this work, we revisit this assumption and compute synthetic planetary-transit light curves directly from model stellar atmosphere center-to-limb intensity variations (CLIVs) using the plane-parallel Atlas and spherically symmetric SAtlas codes. We compare these light curves to those constructed using best-fit limb-darkening parameterizations. We find that adopting parametric stellar limb-darkening laws leads to systematic differences from the more geometrically realistic model stellar atmosphere CLIV of about 50–100 ppm at the transit center and up to 300 ppm at ingress/egress. While these errors are small, they are systematic, and they appear to limit the precision necessary to measure secondary effects. Our results may also have a significant impact on transit spectra.

  2. Band gap control in a line-defect magnonic crystal waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, M. A., E-mail: mamorozovama@yandex.ru; Grishin, S. V.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Romanenko, D. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory ' Metamaterials,' Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-14

    We report on the experimental observation of the spin wave spectrum control in a line-defect magnonic crystal (MC) waveguide. We demonstrate the possibility to control the forbidden frequency band (band gap) for spin waves tuning the line-defect width. In particular, this frequency may be greater or lower than the one of 1D MC waveguide without line-defect. By means of space-resolved Brillouin light scattering technique, we study the localization of magnetization amplitude in the line-defect area. We show that the length of this localization region depends on the line-defect width. These results agree well with theoretical calculations of spin wave spectrum using the proposed model of two coupled magnonic crystal waveguides. The proposed simple geometry of MC with line-defect can be used as a logic and multiplexing block for application in the novel field of magnonic devices.

  3. Physiotherapy after amputation of the limb

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšil, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In this bachelor thesis the author considers physiotherapy after amputation of the lower limb. The theoretical section describes the anatomy of the lower limb, a procedure for amputation of the lower limb, occupational theraoy and prosthesis. The author then goes on to discuss physiotherapy in relation to two case studies of patients who have had their lower limbs removed.

  4. A deterministic width function model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Puente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features like their overall shape and texture and their observed power-law scaling on their power spectra. It is then shown, via two natural river networks (Racoon and Brushy creeks in the United States, that the FM approach may also be used to closely approximate existing width functions.

  5. Postnatal ontogeny of limb proportions and functional indices in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-08-01

    Burrow construction in the subterranean Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) primarily occurs by scratch-digging. In this study, we compared the limbs of an ontogenetic series of C. talarum to identify variation in bony elements related to fossorial habits using a morphometrical and biomechanical approach. Diameters and functional lengths of long bones were measured and 10 functional indices were constructed. We found that limb proportions of C. talarum undergo significant changes throughout postnatal ontogeny, and no significant differences between sexes were observed. Five of six forelimb indices and two of four hindlimb indices showed differences between ages. According to discriminant analysis, the indices that contributed most to discrimination among age groups were robustness of the humerus and ulna, relative epicondylar width, crural and brachial indices, and index of fossorial ability (IFA). Particularly, pups could be differentiated from juveniles and adults by more robust humeri and ulnae, wider epicondyles, longer middle limb elements, and a proportionally shorter olecranon. Greater robustness indicated a possible compensation for lower bone stiffness while wider epicondyles may be associated to improved effective forces in those muscles that originate onto them, compensating the lower muscular development. The gradual increase in the IFA suggested a gradual enhancement in the scratch-digging performance due to an improvement in the mechanical advantage of forearm extensors. Middle limb indices were higher in pups than in juveniles-adults, reflecting relatively more gracile limbs in their middle segments, which is in accordance with their incipient fossorial ability. In sum, our results show that in C. talarum some scratch-digging adaptations are already present during early postnatal ontogeny, which suggests that they are prenatally shaped, and other traits develop progressively. The role of early digging behavior as a factor influencing on

  6. A Sample of Quasars with Strong Nitrogen Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7......We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7...

  7. The effect of limb amputation on standing weight distribution in the remaining three limbs in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Grayson Lee; Millis, Darryl

    2017-01-16

    Despite the fact that limb amputation is a commonly performed procedure in veterinary medicine, quantitative data regarding outcomes are lacking. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of limb amputation on weight distribution to the remaining three limbs at a stance in dogs. Ten dogs with a prior forelimb amputation and ten dogs with a prior hindlimb amputation; all of which had no history of orthopaedic or neural disease in the remaining three limbs were included in the study. Standing weight bearing was evaluated with a commercial stance analyzer in all dogs. Five valid trials were obtained and a mean percentage of weight bearing was calculated for each remaining limb. The dogs with a previous forelimb amputation, and also those with a previous hindlimb amputation, had the largest mean increase in weight bearing in the contralateral forelimb. In conclusion, proactive monitoring of orthopaedic disease in the contralateral forelimb may be advisable in dogs with a previous limb amputation. In addition, when determining candidacy for a limb amputation, disease of the contralateral forelimb should be thoroughly evaluated.

  8. Aerosol particle size distribution in the stratosphere retrieved from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinina, Elizaveta; Rozanov, Alexei; Rozanov, Vladimir; Liebing, Patricia; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    2018-04-01

    health, stratospheric aerosol plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and climate change. In particular, information about the amount and distribution of stratospheric aerosols is required to initialize climate models, as well as validate aerosol microphysics models and investigate geoengineering. In addition, good knowledge of stratospheric aerosol loading is needed to increase the retrieval accuracy of key trace gases (e.g. ozone or water vapour) when interpreting remote sensing measurements of the scattered solar light. The most commonly used characteristics to describe stratospheric aerosols are the aerosol extinction coefficient and Ångström coefficient. However, the use of particle size distribution parameters along with the aerosol number density is a more optimal approach. In this paper we present a new retrieval algorithm to obtain the particle size distribution of stratospheric aerosol from space-borne observations of the scattered solar light in the limb-viewing geometry. While the mode radius and width of the aerosol particle size distribution are retrieved, the aerosol particle number density profile remains unchanged. The latter is justified by a lower sensitivity of the limb-scattering measurements to changes in this parameter. To our knowledge this is the first data set providing two parameters of the particle size distribution of stratospheric aerosol from space-borne measurements of scattered solar light. Typically, the mode radius and w can be retrieved with an uncertainty of less than 20 %. The algorithm was successfully applied to the tropical region (20° N-20° S) for 10 years (2002-2012) of SCIAMACHY observations in limb-viewing geometry, establishing a unique data set. Analysis of this new climatology for the particle size distribution parameters showed clear increases in the mode radius after the tropical volcanic eruptions, whereas no distinct behaviour of the absolute distribution width could be identified. A tape recorder

  9. Relationship of the functional movement screen in-line lunge to power, speed, and balance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C

    2014-05-01

    The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Descriptive laboratory study. Level 3. Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant.

  10. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo Il [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm {approx} 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency.

  11. Characterization of lower-limbs inter-segment coordination during the take-off extension in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnens, Julien; Favre, Julien; Cuendet, Florian; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-08-01

    Take-off, the most important phase in ski jumping, has been primarily studied in terms of spatio-temporal parameters; little is known about its motor control aspects. This study aims to assess the inter-segment coordination of the shank-thigh and thigh-sacrum pairs using the continuous relative phase (CRP). In total 87 jumps were recorded from 33 athletes with an inertial sensor-based system. The CRP curves indicated that the thighs lead the shanks during the first part of take-off extension and that the shanks rotated faster at the take-off extension end. The thighs and sacrum first rotated synchronously, with the sacrum then taking lead, with finally the thighs rotating faster. Five characteristic features were extracted from the CRP and their relationship with jump length was tested. Three features of the shank-thigh pair and one of the thigh-sacrum pair reported a significant association with jump length. It was observed that athletes who achieved longer jumps had their thighs leading their shanks during a longer time, with these athletes also having a more symmetric movement between thighs and sacrum. This study shows that inter-segment coordination during the take-off extension is related to performance and further studies are necessary to contrast its importance with other ski jumping aspects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Off-line correction for excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk in neutron time-of-flight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, H.

    2003-01-01

    A method for reducing excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk that utilizes experimental data in the off-line analysis stage is introduced. Excessive walk is defined here as any walk that leads to an overall timing resolution that is much greater than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detection system. The method is able to reduce the contribution to the overall timing resolution from the walk that is equal to or less than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detectors. Although the method is explained in the context of a neutron time-of-flight experiment, it is applicable to any data set that satisfies two conditions. (1) A measure of the signal amplitude for each event must be recorded on an event-by-event basis; and (2) There must be a distinguishable class of events present where the timing information is known a priori

  13. Evaluation of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Becker Muscular Dystrophy; Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2A (Calpain-3 Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2B (Miyoshi Myopathy, Dysferlin Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2I (FKRP-deficiency)

  14. SU-C-303-04: Evaluation of On- and Off-Line Bioluminescence Tomography System for Focal Irradiation Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B; Wang, K; Reyes, J; Tran, P; Wong, J [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Iordachita, I [Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We have developed offline and on-board bioluminescence tomography(BLT) systems for the small animal radiation research platform(SARRP) for radiation guidance of soft tissue targets. We investigated the effectiveness of offline BLT guidance. Methods: CBCT is equipped on both the offline BLT system and SARRP that are 10 ft. apart. To evaluate the setup error during animal transport between the two systems, we implanted a luminescence source in the abdomen of anesthetized mice. Five mice were studied. After CBCT was acquired on both systems, source centers and correlation coefficients were calculated. CBCT was also used to generate object mesh for BLT reconstruction. To assess target localization, we compared the localization of the luminescence source based on (1)on-board SARRP BLT and CBCT, (2)offline BLT and CBCT, and (3)offline BLT and SARRP CBCT. The 3rd comparison examines if an offline BLT system can be used to guide radiation when there is minimal target contrast in CBCT. Results: Our CBCT results show the offset of the light source center can be maintained within 0.2 mm during animal transport. The center of mass(CoM) of the light source reconstructed by the offline BLT has an offset of 1.0 ± 0.4 mm from the ‘true’ CoM as derived from the SARRP CBCT. The results compare well with the offset of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm using on-line BLT. Conclusion: With CBCT information provided by the SARRP and effective animal immobilization during transport, these findings support the use of offline BLT in close vicinity for accurate soft tissue target localization for irradiation. However, the disadvantage of the off-line system is reduced efficiency as care is required to maintain stable animal transport. We envisage a dual use system where the on-board arrangement allows convenient access to CBCT and avoids disturbance of animal setup. The off-line capability would support standalone longitudinal imaging studies. The work is supported by NIH R01CA158100 and Xstrahl

  15. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marková

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  16. ON-LINE NONLINEAR CHROMATICITY CORRECTION USING OFF-MOMENTUM TUNE RESPONSE MATRIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUO, Y.; FISCHER, W.; MALISKY, N.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TROBJEVIC, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we propose a method for the online nonlinear chromaticity correction at store in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). With 8 arc sextupole families in each RHIC ring, the nonlinear chromaticities can be minimized online by matching the off-momentum tunes onto the wanted tunes given by the linear chromaticities. The Newton method is used for this multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization, where the off-momentum tune response matrix with respect to sextupole strength changes is adopted. The off-momentum tune response matrix can be calculated with the online accelerator optics model or directly measured with the real beam. In this article, the correction algorithm for the RHIC is presented. Simulations are also carried out to verify the method. The preliminary results from the beam experiments taken place in the RHIC 2007 Au run are reviewed

  17. Radiography of syndactylous limbs of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Uchino, T.

    1985-01-01

    Fore and hind limbs of 4-month-old Holstein-Friesian cattle ♀ (No.I) and those of 1-month-old Holstein-Friesian×Japanese Black cattle ♀ (No.II) suffering from syndactyly were dissected by means of radiographic examinations. The details were reported as follows. 1. The phalanges of both fore and left hind limbs of No.II cattle were completely fused. But, all the phalanges of left fore limb and proximal phalanges of right fore limb in No.I and the distal phalanges of right hind limb in No.II were normal, the others being of partial synostosis. 2. The distal parforating canal was absent in the metacarpus and the right metatarsus in No.II cattle. Also, in No.II on the distal part of the metacarpal or metatarsal, bone vestiges were noted, not only of the fifth and second metacarpus or metatarsus, but also the mutually jointed phalanges. 3. In No.I cattle, the left fore limb and 4 proximal sesamoid bones and 2 distal sesamoid bones, but the right limb had 4 sesamoid bones and 0 distal one. In No.II cattle, the fore limbs had 2 proximal and 0 distal sesamoid bones, left hind limb had 3 proximal and 0 distal ones, right hind limb had 3 proximal and 1 distal ones. 4. The arteries accommodated the syndactylous deformities. The median and radial arteries were fixed to be descended on to the palmar side of the metacarpus and mutually anastomosed to form a deep palmar arch. arising from the deep palmar arch, two branches (palmar proper digital aa. III and IV) were terminated by the lateral and medial palmar surfaces of the digit, where some anastomosing arches were formed by them. The arteries of the hind limbs were also similar to those of the fore limbs. 5. In radiographic examinations of syndactyly (in No.II) after 7-month feeding, hoof and digital bones were noted to have been developed, but distal phalanges were destructed and left in suspicion of bad prognosis

  18. Understanding decision-making towards housework among women with upper limb repetitive strain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Therma W C; Clemson, Lindy; O'Loughlin, Kate; Shuttleworth, Russell

    2016-02-01

    Among women with upper limb repetitive strain injury (RSI), occupational therapy interventions include education to facilitate ergonomic practices in housework. From a client-centred perspective, an understanding of women's decision-making about housework is needed to design effective occupational therapy programmes. This study addresses a gap in research in this area by exploring women's views about changing housework habits. The aim was to construct a conceptual representation to explain decision-making in housework by drawing on experiences of a sample of Singapore Chinese women with upper limb RSI from one hand therapy clinic. Based on a constructivist grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 15 women. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analysed with line by line coding, focussed coding and axial coding with constant comparison throughout data collection. Decision-making in housework among these women involved three main themes: (i) emotional attachment to housework; (ii) cognitively informed decision; and (iii) emotionally influenced decision. Women with upper limb RSI had to make cognitive decisions for or against a change in housework to manage their condition. However, the women's cognitively informed decisions were shaped by their emotional attachment to housework. As such, they experienced strong emotional barriers to changing their housework practices even when they had cognitively accepted the necessity and possibility of making a change. Therapists need to be aware that counselling to address the emotional barriers experienced by women is important during ergonomic education. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation with Concurrent Upper Limb Repetitive Task Practice for Poststroke Motor Recovery: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redgrave, Jessica N; Moore, Lucy; Oyekunle, Tosin; Ebrahim, Maryam; Falidas, Konstantinos; Snowdon, Nicola; Ali, Ali; Majid, Arshad

    2018-03-23

    Invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has the potential to enhance the effects of physiotherapy for upper limb motor recovery after stroke. Noninvasive, transcutaneous auricular branch VNS (taVNS) may have similar benefits, but this has not been evaluated in stroke recovery. We sought to determine the feasibility of taVNS delivered alongside upper limb repetitive task-specific practice after stroke and its effects on a range of outcome measures evaluating limb function. Thirteen participants at more than 3 months postischemic stroke with residual upper limb dysfunction were recruited from the community of Sheffield, United Kingdom (October-December 2016). Participants underwent 18 × 1-hour sessions over 6 weeks in which they made 30-50 repetitions of 8-10 arm movements concurrently with taVNS (NEMOS; Cerbomed, Erlangen, Germany, 25 Hz, .1-millisecond pulse width) at maximum tolerated intensity (mA). An electrocardiogram and rehabilitation outcome scores were obtained at each visit. Qualitative interviews determined the acceptability of taVNS to participants. Median time after stroke was 1.16 years, and baseline median/interquartile range upper limb Fugl-Meyer (UFM) score was 63 (54.5-99.5). Participants attended 92% of the planned treatment sessions. Three participants reported side effects, mainly fatigue, but all performed mean of more than 300 arm repetitions per session with no serious adverse events. There was a significant change in the UFM score with a mean increase per participant of 17.1 points (standard deviation 7.8). taVNS is feasible and well-tolerated alongside upper limb repetitive movements in poststroke rehabilitation. The motor improvements observed justify a phase 2 trial in patients with residual arm weakness. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. White Dwarf Rotation as a Function of Mass and a Dichotomy of Mode Line Widths: Kepler  Observations of 27 Pulsating DA White Dwarfs through K2 Campaign 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, J. J.; Fanale, S. M.; Dennihy, E.; Fuchs, J. T.; Dunlap, B. H.; Clemens, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gänsicke, B. T.; Greiss, S.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Fusillo, N. P. Gentile; Raddi, R.; Chote, P.; Marsh, T. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kawaler, Steven D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bell, Keaton J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Redfield, S., E-mail: jjhermes@unc.edu [Wesleyan University Astronomy Department, Van Vleck Observatory, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy for 27 pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (DAVs; a.k.a. ZZ Ceti stars) observed by the Kepler space telescope up to K2 Campaign 8, an extensive compilation of observations with unprecedented duration (>75 days) and duty cycle (>90%). The space-based photometry reveals pulsation properties previously inaccessible to ground-based observations. We observe a sharp dichotomy in oscillation mode line widths at roughly 800 s, such that white dwarf pulsations with periods exceeding 800 s have substantially broader mode line widths, more reminiscent of a damped harmonic oscillator than a heat-driven pulsator. Extended Kepler coverage also permits extensive mode identification: we identify the spherical degree of 87 out of 201 unique radial orders, providing direct constraints of the rotation period for 20 of these 27 DAVs, more than doubling the number of white dwarfs with rotation periods determined via asteroseismology. We also obtain spectroscopy from 4 m-class telescopes for all DAVs with Kepler photometry. Using these homogeneously analyzed spectra, we estimate the overall mass of all 27 DAVs, which allows us to measure white dwarf rotation as a function of mass, constraining the endpoints of angular momentum in low- and intermediate-mass stars. We find that 0.51–0.73 M {sub ⊙} white dwarfs, which evolved from 1.7–3.0 M {sub ⊙} ZAMS progenitors, have a mean rotation period of 35 hr with a standard deviation of 28 hr, with notable exceptions for higher-mass white dwarfs. Finally, we announce an online repository for our Kepler data and follow-up spectroscopy, which we collect at http://k2wd.org.

  1. Fast wave power flow along SOL field lines in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Sabbagh, S.

    2012-10-01

    On NSTX, a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power can occur along open field lines passing in front of the antenna over the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL). Up to 60% of the RF power can be lost and at least partially deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling [1,2]. The flow of HHFW power from the antenna region to the divertor is mostly aligned along the SOL magnetic field [3], which explains the pattern of heat deposition as measured with infrared (IR) cameras. By tracing field lines from the divertor back to the midplane, the IR data can be used to estimate the profile of HHFW power coupled to SOL field lines. We hypothesize that surface waves are being excited in the SOL, and these results should benchmark advanced simulations of the RF power deposition in the SOL (e.g., [4]). Minimizing this loss is critical optimal high-power long-pulse ICRF heating on ITER while guarding against excessive divertor erosion.[4pt] [1] J.C. Hosea et al., AIP Conf Proceedings 1187 (2009) 105. [0pt] [2] G. Taylor et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010) 056114. [0pt] [3] R.J. Perkins et al., to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. [0pt] [4] D.L. Green et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 145001.

  2. Radiologic analysis of congenital limb anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong Jun; Kim, Ok Hwa; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Nam Ae

    1994-01-01

    Congenital limb anomalies are manifested in various degree of severity and complexity bearing conclusion for description and nomenclature of each anomaly. We retrospectively analyzed the roentgenograms of congenital limb anomalies for the purpose of further understanding of the radiologic manifestations based on the embryonal defect and also to find the incidence of each anomaly. Total number of the patients was 89 with 137 anomalies. Recently the uniform system of classification for congenital anomalies of the upper limb was adopted by International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH), which were categorized as 7 classifications. We used the IFSSH classification with some modification as 5 classifications; failure of formation of parts, failure of differentiation of parts, duplications, overgrowth and undergrowth. The patients with upper limb anomalies were 65 out of 89(73%), lower limb were 21(24%), and both upper and lower limb anomalies were 3(4%). Failure of formation was seen in 18%, failure of differentiation 39%, duplications 39%, overgrowth 8%, and undergrowth in 12%. Thirty-five patients had more than one anomaly, and 14 patients had intergroup anomalies. The upper limb anomalies were more common than lower limb. Among the anomalies, failure of differentiation and duplications were the most common types of congenital limb anomalies. Patients with failure of formation, failure of differentiation, and undergrowth had intergroup association of anomalies, but duplication and overgrowth tended to be isolated anomalies

  3. Off-specular polarized neutron reflectometry study of magnetic dots with a strong shape anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Temst, K; Moshchalkov, V V; Bruynseraede, Y; Fritzsche, H; Jonckheere, R

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the off-specular polarized neutron reflectivity of a regular array of rectangular magnetic polycrystalline Co dots, which were prepared by a combination of electron-beam lithography, molecular beam deposition, and lift-off processes. The dots have a length-to-width ratio of 4:1 imposing a strong shape anisotropy. The intensity of the off-specular satellite reflection was monitored as a function of the magnetic field applied parallel to the rows of dots and in the plane of the sample, allowing us to analyze the magnetization-reversal process using the four spin-polarized cross sections. (orig.)

  4. New method of interpretation of the solar spectrum lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, G.F.

    1975-01-01

    Close triplet lines, which appear from a common low level or from low sublevels with small energy difference are used. It is supposed that for such lines both the function of the source in line and the frequency dependence of the selective coefficient of absorption are the same over any depth of the region of line production in the atmosphere and change with the depth equally. The residual intensities of some lines of the triplet, which are measured for every line at a number of profile points (at the same distance from its center and at different distances from the solar limb center), serve as initial material. The intensities are expressed in terms of the intensity of the continuous spectrum in the center of the solar limb for the average wave length of the triplet interval. Such observations avoid the usual assumption about the source function constancy in line inside the line. On the contrary, the frequency dependence of this function is clarified by the use of this method. Calculations make it possible to determine the source function in line and its long-wave dependence inside the line; to derive a solar atmosphere model and to determine the source function in the continuous spectrum in accordance with observations at profile points in its middle part and in the wing; to find the relation between the selective and continuous absorption coefficients in the dependence on the optical depth in the continuous spectrum; and to find the long-wave dependences of coefficients for both the selective absorption and the selective emission at different optical depths

  5. Extended analysis of the high resolution FTIR spectrum of 32S16O2 in the region of the ν2 band: Line positions, strengths, and pressure broadening widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Gromova, O. V.; Quack, M.; Mellau, G. Ch.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2018-05-01

    The high resolution infrared spectra of sulfur dioxide (32S16O2) were recorded with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Zürich prototype ZP2001) in combination with a Ge:Cu detector and analyzed in the ν2 fundamental band region (400-650 cm-1 , ν0 ˜ = 517.8725691(77) cm-1). More than 4200 transitions were assigned in the experimental spectra to the ν2 band (the maximum values of the quantum numbers are Jmax. = 96 and Kamax. = 25). The subsequent weighted fit of experimentally assigned transitions was made with the Watson Hamiltonian. The 148 highly accurate MW transitions known from the literature have been also taken into account in the fit, resulting in a set of 33 parameters which reproduces the initial 1295 infrared ro-vibrational energy values from more than 4200 experimental line positions with a root mean square deviation drms = 1.5 ×10-4 cm-1. An analysis of 992 experimental ro-vibrational line intensities of the ν2 band was made, and a set of four effective dipole moment parameters was obtained which reproduces the initial experimental line intensities with a relative drms = 5.7 % . The half-widths of 146 ro-vibrational lines (Jmax. = 53 and Kamax. = 20) were analyzed from the multi-spectrum fit, and self-pressure broadening coefficients were determined.

  6. Off-line tracking of series parameters in distribution systems using AMI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Sun, Yannan; Schneider, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Electric distribution systems have historically lacked measurement points, and equipment is often operated to its failure point, resulting in customer outages. The widespread deployment of sensors at the distribution level is enabling observability. This paper presents an off-line parameter value tracking procedure that takes advantage of the increasing number of measurement devices being deployed at the distribution level to estimate changes in series impedance parameter values over time. The tracking of parameter values enables non-diurnal and non-seasonal change to be flagged for investigation. The presented method uses an unbalanced Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) and a measurement residual-based parameter estimation procedure. Measurement residuals from multiple measurement snapshots are combined in order to increase the effective local redundancy and improve the robustness of the calculations in the presence of measurement noise. Data from devices on the primary distribution system and from customer meters, via an AMI system, form the input data set. Results of simulations on the IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder are presented to illustrate the proposed approach applied to changes in series impedance parameters. A 5% change in series resistance elements can be detected in the presence of 2% measurement error when combining less than 1 day of measurement snapshots into a single estimate.

  7. Elevated vacuum suspension preserves residual-limb skin health in people with lower-limb amputation: Randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Cameron; Wernke, Matthew M; Powell, Heather M; Gynawali, Surya; Schroeder, Ryan M; Kim, Jayne Y; Denune, Jeffrey A; Gordillo, Gayle M; Colvin, James M; Sen, Chandan K

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of clinical trials and case reports support qualitative claims that use of an elevated vacuum suspension (EVS) prosthesis improves residual-limb health on the basis of self-reported questionnaires, clinical outcomes scales, and wound closure studies. Here, we report first efforts to quantitatively assess residual-limb circulation in response to EVS. Residual-limb skin health and perfusion of people with lower-limb amputation (N = 10) were assessed during a randomized crossover study comparing EVS with nonelevated vacuum suspension (control) over a 32 wk period using noninvasive probes (transepidermal water loss, laser speckle imaging, transcutaneous oxygen measurement) and functional hyperspectral imaging approaches. Regardless of the suspension system, prosthesis donning decreased perfusion in the residual limb under resting conditions. After 16 wk of use, EVS improved residual-limb oxygenation during treadmill walking. Likewise, prosthesis-induced reactive hyperemia was attenuated with EVS following 16 wk of use. Skin barrier function was preserved with EVS but disrupted after control socket use. Taken together, outcomes suggest chronic EVS use improves perfusion and preserves skin barrier function in people with lower-limb amputation. ClinicalTrials.gov; "Evaluation of limb health associated with a prosthetic vacuum socket system": NCT01839123; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01839123?term=NCT01839123&rank=1.

  8. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stark broadening of potassium ns-4p and nd-4p lines in a wall-stabilized arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Stark-width measurements are reported for lines in the ns-4p (n = 7--10) and nd-4p (n = 5--8) series in neutral potassium (K I). These measurements were made by observing the end-on emission from a low pressure (20 Torr) potassium-argon wall-stabilized arc source. The on-axis electron density and temperature in the 20-A arc were (2.0 +- 0.2) x 10 15 cm -3 and 2955 +- 100 K, respectively. The experimentally determined Stark widths were compared with the theoretical values calculated by Griem. The measured Stark widths agreed with theory to within 30% for lines in the ns-4p series; while the measured Stark widths of the nd-4p series lines were only one-third of the theoretical values

  10. Programmed temperature vaporizing injector to filter off disturbing high boiling and involatile material for on-line high performance liquid chromatography gas chromatography with on-column transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2013-03-15

    Insertion of a programmed temperature vaporizing (PTV) injector under conditions of concurrent solvent recondensation (CSR) into the on-line HPLC-GC interface for on-column transfer (such as the retention gap technique with partially concurrent eluent evaporation) enables filtering off high boiling or involatile sample constituents by a desorption temperature adjusted to the required cut-off. Details of this technique were investigated and optimized. Memory effects, observed when transferred liquid was sucked backwards between the transfer line and the wall of the injector liner, can be kept low by a small purge flow rate through the transfer line at the end of the transfer and the release of the liquid through a narrow bore capillary kept away from the liner wall. The column entrance should be within the well heated zone of the injector to prevent losses of solute material retained on the liner wall during the splitless period. The desorption temperature must be maintained until an elevated oven temperature is reached to prevent peak broadening resulting of a cool inlet section in the bottom part of the injector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomic features of human limb specific enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Amina, Bibi; Anwar, Saneela; Minhas, Rashid; Parveen, Nazia; Nawaz, Uzma; Azam, Syed Sikandar; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate important cellular and molecular interactions that regulate patterning and skeletal development, vertebrate limbs served as a model organ. A growing body of evidence from detailed studies on a subset of limb regulators like the HOXD cluster or SHH, reveals the importance of enhancers in limb related developmental and disease processes. Exploiting the recent genome-wide availability of functionally confirmed enhancer dataset, this study establishes regulatory interactions for dozens of human limb developmental genes. From these data, it appears that the long-range regulatory interactions are fairly common during limb development. This observation highlights the significance of chromosomal breaks/translocations in human limb deformities. Transcriptional factor (TF) analysis predicts that the differentiation of early nascent limb-bud into future territories entail distinct TF interaction networks. Conclusively, an important motivation for annotating the human limb specific regulatory networks is to pave way for the systematic exploration of their role in disease and evolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Chromospheric scaling laws, width-luminosity correlations, and the Wilson-Bappu effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    Simple scaling laws are developed to explain the thickness and mean electron density of late-type stellar chromospheres in an effort to understand why the emission cores of effectively thick resonance lines such as Ca II H and K broaden with increasing stellar luminosity (the Wilson-Bappu effect). It is shown that stellar chromospheres become thicker in mass column density as stellar gravity g decreases and that the mean chromospheric electric density n/sub e/ decreases if the chromospheric heating dF/dm is constant with height and if the total heating F/sup tot/ is independent of g. It is also shown that chromospheres becomes thicker and the mean electron density becomes larger than the total chromospheric heating increases. The predicted behavior of the K 1 minimum separation and full width at half-maximum of the Ca II emission core (W 0 ) based on the derived scaling laws agree quantitatively with the observed correlations of these widths with fundamental stellar parameters, particularly surface gravity. In addition, the predicted behavior of the K 2 peak separation and base emission width with increasing chromospheric heating is consistent with the behavior of the Ca II emission core shapes in solar plages. The analytical arguments suggest that the Wilson-Bappu effect is largely a consequence of hydrostatic equilibrium rather than chromospheric dynamics

  13. Masses, widths, and leptonic widths of the higher upsilon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.M.J.; Horstkotte, J.E.; Klopfenstein, C.

    1985-01-01

    The masses, total widths, and leptonic widths of three triplet s-wave bb-bar states UPSILON(4S), UPSILON(5S), and UPSILON(6S) are determined from measurements of the e + e - annihilation cross section into hadrons for 10.55< W<11.25 GeV. The resonances are identified from potential model results and their properties are obtained with the help of a simplified coupled-channels calculation. We find M(4S) = 10.577 GeV, GAMMA(4S) = 25 MeV, GAMMA/sub e/e(4S) = 0.28 keV; M(5S) = 10.845 GeV, GAMMA(5S) = 110 MeV, GAMMA/sub e/e(5S) = 0.37 keV; M(6S) = 11.02 GeV, GAMMA(6S) = 90 MeV, GAMMA/sub e/e(6S) = 0.16 keV

  14. On the trade-off between mainlobe width and peak sidelobe level of mismatched pulse compression filters for linear chirp waveforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cilliers, Jacques E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available that constant, extremely low sidelobe levels better than 60 dB can be achieved for minimal mismatch loss but with some broadening of the compression peak. This paper investigates the tradeoff between the sidelobe level and the mainlobe width for mismatched...

  15. Limb myokymia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, J.W.; Allen, A.A.; Bastron, J.A.; Daube, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with myokymic discharges localized to limb muscles on needle electromyography had various neurologic lesions, both acute and chronic. Of the 38 patients, 27 had had previous radiation therapy and the clinical diagnosis of radiation-induced plexopathy, myelopathy, or both. For the remaining 11 patients, the diagnoses included multiple sclerosis, inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, ischemic neuropathy, inflammatory myopathy, and chronic disorders of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The clinical presentations and results of local ischemia, peripheral nerve block, and percutaneous stimulation suggest that most limb myokymic discharges arise focally at the site of a chronic peripheral nerve lesion

  16. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Results: Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Conclusion: Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Clinical Relevance: Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant. PMID:24790688

  17. Quasi-min-max Fuzzy MPC of UTSG Water Level Based on Off-Line Invariant Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangjie; Jiang, Di; Lee, Kwang Y.

    2015-10-01

    In a nuclear power plant, the water level of the U-tube steam generator (UTSG) must be maintained within a safe range. Traditional control methods encounter difficulties due to the complexity, strong nonlinearity and “swell and shrink” effects, especially at low power levels. A properly designed robust model predictive control can well solve this problem. In this paper, a quasi-min-max fuzzy model predictive controller is developed for controlling the constrained UTSG system. While the online computational burden could be quite large for the real-time control, a bank of ellipsoid invariant sets together with the corresponding feedback control laws are obtained by off-line solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the UTSG states, the online optimization is simplified as a constrained optimization problem with a bisection search for the corresponding ellipsoid invariant set. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  18. Off-line correction for excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk in neutron time-of-flight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbronn, L.; Iwata, Y.; Iwase, H.

    2004-01-01

    A method for reducing excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk that utilizes experimental data in the off-line analysis stage is introduced. Excessive walk is defined here as any walk that leads to an overall timing resolution that is much greater than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detection system. The method is able to reduce the contribution to the overall timing resolution from the walk to a value that is equal to or less than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detectors. Although the method is explained in the context of a neutron time-of-flight experiment, it is applicable to any data set that satisfies two conditions: (1) a measure of the signal amplitude for each event must be recorded on an event-by-event basis; and (2) there must be a distinguishable class of events present where the timing information is known a priori

  19. The benefit of limb cloud imaging for infrared limb sounding of tropospheric trace gases

    OpenAIRE

    G. Heinemann; P. Preusse; R. Spang; S. Adams

    2009-01-01

    Advances in detector technology enable a new generation of infrared limb sounders to measure 2-D images of the atmosphere. A proposed limb cloud imager (LCI) mode will detect clouds with a spatial resolution unprecedented for limb sounding. For the inference of temperature and trace gas distributions, detector pixels of the LCI have to be combined into super-pixels which provide the required signal-to-noise and information content for the retrievals. This study examines the extent to which tr...

  20. Moving a generalised limb : a simulation with consequences for theories on limb control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, E

    The movement control of articulated limbs in vertebrates has been explained in terms of equilibrium points and moving equilibrium points or virtual trajectories. These hypotheses state that the nervous system makes the control Of multi-segment limbs easier by simply planning in terms of these

  1. Tree-ring proxies of larch bud moth defoliation: latewood width and blue intensity are more precise than tree-ring width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Jarvis, Ingrid; Chavardès, Raphaël D; Daniels, Lori D; Stoffel, Markus

    2018-05-19

    Reconstructions of defoliation by larch bud moth (LBM, Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) based on European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) tree rings have unraveled outbreak patterns over exceptional temporal and spatial scales. In this study, we conducted tree-ring analyses on 105 increment cores of European larch from the Valais Alps, Switzerland. The well-documented history of LBM outbreaks in Valais provided a solid baseline for evaluating the LBM defoliation signal in multiple tree-ring parameters. First, we used tree-ring width measurements along with regional records of LBM outbreaks to reconstruct the occurrence of these events at two sites within the Swiss Alps. Second, we measured earlywood width, latewood width and blue intensity, and compared these parameters with tree-ring width to assess the capacity of each proxy to detect LBM defoliation. A total of six LBM outbreaks were reconstructed for the two sites between AD 1850 and 2000. Growth suppression induced by LBM was, on average, highest in latewood width (59%), followed by total ring width (54%), earlywood width (51%) and blue intensity (26%). We show that latewood width and blue intensity can improve the temporal accuracy of LBM outbreak reconstructions, as both proxies systematically detected LBM defoliation in the first year it occurred, as well as the differentiation between defoliation and non-defoliation years. This study introduces blue intensity as a promising new proxy of insect defoliation and encourages its use in conjunction with latewood width.

  2. The origin of vertebrate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M I

    1994-01-01

    The earliest tetrapod limbs are polydactylous, morphologically varied and do not conform to an archetypal pattern. These discoveries, combined with the unravelling of limb developmental morphogenetic and regulatory mechanisms, have prompted a re-examination of vertebrate limb evolution. The rich fossil record of vertebrate fins/limbs, although restricted to skeletal tissues, exceeds the morphological diversity of the extant biota, and a systematic approach to limb evolution produces an informative picture of evolutionary change. A composite framework of several phylogenetic hypotheses is presented incorporating living and fossil taxa, including the first report of an acanthodian metapterygium and a new reconstruction of the axial skeleton and caudal fin of Acanthostega gunnari. Although significant nodes in vertebrate phylogeny remain poorly resolved, clear patterns of morphogenetic evolution emerge: median fin origination and elaboration initially precedes that of paired fins; pectoral fins initially precede pelvic fin development; evolving patterns of fin distribution, skeletal tissue diversity and structural complexity become decoupled with increased taxonomic divergence. Transformational sequences apparent from the fish-tetrapod transition are reiterated among extant lungfishes, indicating further directions for comparative experimental research. The evolutionary diversification of vertebrate fin and limb patterns challenges a simple linkage between Hox gene conservation, expression and morphology. A phylogenetic framework is necessary in order to distinguish shared from derived characters in experimental model regulatory systems. Hox and related genomic evolution may include convergent patterns underlying functional and morphological diversification. Brachydanio is suggested as an example where tail-drive patterning demands may have converged with the regulation of highly differentiated limbs in tetrapods.

  3. A reevaluation of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia and proximodistal limb patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jenna L; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A; Tabin, Clifford J

    2009-07-16

    Phocomelia is a devastating, rare congenital limb malformation in which the long bones are shorter than normal, with the upper portion of the limb being most severely affected. In extreme cases, the hands or fingers are attached directly to the shoulder and the most proximal elements (those closest to the shoulder) are entirely missing. This disorder, previously known in both autosomal recessive and sporadic forms, showed a marked increase in incidence in the early 1960s due to the tragic toxicological effects of the drug thalidomide, which had been prescribed as a mild sedative. This human birth defect is mimicked in developing chick limb buds exposed to X-irradiation. Both X-irradiation and thalidomide-induced phocomelia have been interpreted as patterning defects in the context of the progress zone model, which states that a cell's proximodistal identity is determined by the length of time spent in a distal limb region termed the 'progress zone'. Indeed, studies of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia have served as one of the two major experimental lines of evidence supporting the validity of the progress zone model. Here, using a combination of molecular analysis and lineage tracing in chick, we show that X-irradiation-induced phocomelia is fundamentally not a patterning defect, but rather results from a time-dependent loss of skeletal progenitors. Because skeletal condensation proceeds from the shoulder to fingers (in a proximal to distal direction), the proximal elements are differentially affected in limb buds exposed to radiation at early stages. This conclusion changes the framework for considering the effect of thalidomide and other forms of phocomelia, suggesting the possibility that the aetiology lies not in a defect in the patterning process, but rather in progenitor cell survival and differentiation. Moreover, molecular evidence that proximodistal patterning is unaffected after X-irradiation does not support the predictions of the progress zone model.

  4. Tactile, thermal, and electrical thresholds in patients with and without phantom limb pain after traumatic lower limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shengai Li,1,2 Danielle H Melton,1,2 Sheng Li1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 2Neurorehabilitation Research Laboratory, TIRR Memorial Hermann Research Center, Houston, TX, USA Purpose: To examine whether there is central sensitization in patients with phantom limb pain (PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Methods: Seventeen patients after unilateral lower limb amputation secondary to trauma were enrolled. Ten patients had chronic PLP, while the other seven patients had no PLP. Tactile-sensation threshold, cold- and warm-sensation thresholds, cold- and heat-pain thresholds, electrical-sensation threshold (EST, and electrical-pain threshold on the distal residual limb and the symmetrical site on the sound limb were measured in all tested patients. Their thresholds were compared within the PLP and non-PLP group, and between the groups. Results: The novel findings included: 1 electrical-pain threshold was only decreased in the sound limb in the PLP group and there was no difference between two limbs in the non-PLP group, suggesting central sensitization in patients with PLP; and 2 EST was increased on the affected limb as compared to the sound limb within the PLP group, but there were no significant differences in EST between the PLP and non-PLP group. There were in general no significant differences in other tested thresholds within the groups and between groups. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate central sensitization in the patients with PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Keywords: central sensitization, pain threshold, human

  5. The effect of shear force on ink transfer in gravure offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taik-Min; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Noh, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Chun, Sangki

    2010-01-01

    This paper asserts that shear force plays an important role in the printing mechanism of gravure offset line printing. To that end, a theoretical printing model showing shear force dependence on the printing angle is proposed. The decrement of the internal angle between the printing direction and the pattern-line direction increases shear force, thereby enhancing the amount of transferred ink in the off stage. A printing experiment using pattern-line widths of 80 µm and 20 µm shows the angle dependence of the line width, thickness and amount of transferred ink, reflecting the effect of shear force. The effect of the internal angle on cross-sectional differences in lines with a width of 20 µm and with angle variation is greater than that in lines with a width of 80 µm, which corresponds with the theoretical prediction that shear force has greater influence on a narrower line. The strong correlation between the experimental data and the theoretical model supports the validation of the theoretical model

  6. Using commercial video games for upper limb stroke rehabilitation: is this the way of the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Eva; Cotea, Cristina; Pullman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of people living with poststroke sequelae has stimulated the search for novel ways of providing poststroke rehabilitation without putting additional stress on overburdened health care systems. One of them is the use of commercially available technology and off-the-shelf video games for hemiparetic upper limb rehabilitation. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using key word synonyms for stroke, upper limb, and video games. Included studies investigated upper limb stroke rehabilitation using commercially available consoles and video games, reported outcomes that included measures of upper limb functionality, and were published in a peer-reviewed journal written in English. Thirteen studies were identified - 6 published as full articles and 7 as abstracts. Studies were generally small and only 3 were randomized. The gaming systems investigated were the Nintendo Wii (n = 10), EyeToy PlayStation (n = 2), and CyWee Z (n = 1). The Nintendo Wii appears to provide the greatest benefits to patients, with improvements seen in upper extremity function measures such as joint range of motion, hand motor function, grip strength, and dexterity. Three studies indicate that video therapy appears to be safe and that long-term improvements continue at follow-up. At present, the evidence that the use of commercial video games in rehabilitation improves upper limb functionality after stroke is very limited. However, this approach has the potential to provide easily available and affordable stroke rehabilitation therapy in settings where access to therapy is limited by geographical or financial constraints.

  7. Purification of flavonoids from licorice using an off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunpeng; Fu, Yanhui; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Mei; Jin, Yu

    2016-07-01

    An orthogonal (71.9%) off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method coupled with effective sample pretreatment was developed for separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. Most of the nonflavonoids were firstly removed using a self-made Click TE-Cys (60 μm) solid-phase extraction. In the first dimension, an industrial grade preparative chromatography was employed to purify the crude flavonoids. Click TE-Cys (10 μm) was selected as the stationary phase that provided an excellent separation with high reproducibility. Ethyl acetate/ethanol was selected as the mobile phase owing to their excellent solubility for flavonoids. Flavonoids co-eluted in the first dimension were selected for further purification using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Multiple compounds could be isolated from one normal-phase fraction and some compounds with bad resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography could be prepared in this two-dimensional system owing to the orthogonal separation. Moreover, this two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was beneficial for the preparation of relatively trace flavonoid compounds, which were enriched in the first dimension and further purified in the second dimension. Totally, 24 flavonoid compounds with high purity were obtained. The results demonstrated that the off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was effective for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Push-off reactions in recovery after tripping discriminate young subjects, older non-fallers and older fallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tripping is a major cause for falls, especially in the elderly. This study investigated whether falls in the elderly can be attributed to inadequate push-off reactions by the support limb in the recovery after a trip. Twelve young (20-34 years) and eleven older (65-72 years) men and women walked

  9. Statistical characteristics of Doppler spectral width as observed by the conjugate SuperDARN radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hosokawa

    Full Text Available We performed a statistical analysis of the occurrence distribution of Doppler spectral width around the day-side high-latitude ionosphere using data from the conjugate radar pair composed of the CUTLASS Iceland-East radar in the Northern Hemisphere and the SENSU Syowa-East radar in the Southern Hemisphere. Three types of spectral width distribution were identified: (1 an exponential-like distribution in the lower magnetic latitudes (below 72°, (2 a Gaussian-like distribution around a few degrees magnetic latitude, centered on 78°, and (3 another type of distribution in the higher magnetic latitudes (above 80°. The first two are considered to represent the geophysical regimes such as the LLBL and the cusp, respectively, because they are similar to the spectral width distributions within the LLBL and the cusp, as classified by Baker et al. (1995. The distribution found above 80° magnetic latitude has been clarified for the first time in this study. This distribution has similarities to the exponential-like distribution in the lower latitude part, although clear differences also exist in their characteristics. These three spectral width distributions are commonly identified in conjugate hemispheres. The latitudinal transition from one distribution to another exhibits basically the same trend between two hemispheres. There is, however, an interhemispheric difference in the form of the distribution around the cusp latitudes, such that spectral width values obtained from Syowa-East are larger than those from Iceland-East. On the basis of the spectral width characteristics, the average locations of the cusp and the open/closed field line boundary are estimated statistically.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere inter-actions; plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers

  10. Effect of the wire width and magnetic field on the detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors; Einfluss von Geometrie und magnetischem Feld auf die Effizienz supraleitender Nanodraht-Einzelphotonendetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusche, Robert

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this thesis is to a gain deeper understanding of the single photon detection process in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs). A detailed knowledge of the physical principles and mechanisms which the detection process is based on helps to improve specific detector parameters and hence the suitability of such detectors for various applications. Several theoretical models of the detection process have been compared to the results of measurements of photon and dark count rates in meander-type TaN- and NbN-SNSPDs with different wire-widths in a broad range of wavelengths, transport currents and magnetic fields. In the first part of the thesis, measurements of the photon and dark count rates of TaN- and NbN-SNSPDs with varying wire width are described. For each meander spectra of the intrinsic detection efficiency (IDE) were derived. The IDE represents the probability that the SNSPD generates a measurable voltage pulse upon absorption of a photon. The recorded IDE spectra have shown a characteristic cut-off wavelength up to which photons were detected with a probability of 100 per cent. Furthermore it was found that the cut-off wavelengths increases linearly with the increase in the inverse wire width. This observation is best explained by the refined hot spot model. The second part of the thesis describes the influence of magnetic field on the photon and dark count rates of NbN-SNSPDs. In order to apply magnetic fields to the meanders a continuous-flow inset for mobile 4He storage dewars was constructed. It was shown for the first time, that the photon count rate exhibits a magnetic field dependence. Furthermore it could be shown that the measured dependence of the photon and dark count rate on the magnetic field is in good agreement with the theoretical model of vortex-assisted photon detection in narrow superconducting lines. Hence, within this thesis it could be confirmed that magnetic vortices are involved in the single photon

  11. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT 2011: SPECTROSCOPIC CAMPAIGN AND EMISSION-LINE LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sand, David J. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Bae, Hyun-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Brewer, Brendon J. [Department of Statistics, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    In the Spring of 2011 we carried out a 2.5 month reverberation mapping campaign using the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, monitoring 15 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies. This paper describes the observations, reductions and measurements, and data products from the spectroscopic campaign. The reduced spectra were fitted with a multicomponent model in order to isolate the contributions of various continuum and emission-line components. We present light curves of broad emission lines and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum, and measurements of the broad Hβ line widths in mean and rms spectra. For the most highly variable AGNs we also measured broad Hβ line widths and velocity centroids from the nightly spectra. In four AGNs exhibiting the highest variability amplitudes, we detect anticorrelations between broad Hβ width and luminosity, demonstrating that the broad-line region “breathes” on short timescales of days to weeks in response to continuum variations. We also find that broad Hβ velocity centroids can undergo substantial changes in response to continuum variations; in NGC 4593, the broad Hβ velocity shifted by ∼250 km s{sup −1} over a 1 month period. This reverberation-induced velocity shift effect is likely to contribute a significant source of confusion noise to binary black hole searches that use multi-epoch quasar spectroscopy to detect binary orbital motion. We also present results from simulations that examine biases that can occur in measurement of broad-line widths from rms spectra due to the contributions of continuum variations and photon-counting noise.

  12. line profile variability of seven southern Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennickent, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of six B0-B4e and one B7e stars at the Manuel Foster Observatory (Chile) during 1984-87 are reported. By means of photographic spectroscopy (20 A/mm), equivalent widths, peak separations and V/R ratios were obtained for a total of 106 Hβ and 7 Hγ line profiles. Emission episodes in Hβ were detected in 27 CMa and λ Pav, lasting at least 5 months and 18 days respectively. Significant variations in the equivalent width of the Hβ emission line W β in time scales of months were found in κ CMa, PP Car and QY Car

  13. Speed and stamina trade-off in lacertid lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhooydonck, B; Van Damme, R; Aerts, P

    2001-05-01

    Morphological and physiological considerations suggest that sprinting ability and endurance capacity put conflicting demands on the design of an animal's locomotor apparatus and therefore cannot be maximized simultaneously. To test this hypothesis, we correlated size-corrected maximal sprint speed and stamina of 12 species of lacertid lizards. Phylogenetically independent contrasts of sprint speed and stamina showed a significant negative relationship, giving support to the idea of an evolutionary trade-off between the two performance measures. To test the hypothesis that the trade-off is mediated by a conflict in morphological requirements, we correlated both performance traits with snout-vent length, size-corrected estimates of body mass and limb length, and relative hindlimb length (the residuals of the relationship between hind- and forelimb length). Fast-running species had hindlimbs that were long compared to their forelimbs. None of the other size or shape variables showed a significant relationship with speed or endurance. We conclude that the evolution of sprint capacity may be constrained by the need for endurance capacity and vice versa, but the design conflict underlying this trade-off has yet to be identified.

  14. Narrow-width mechanism of a=5 Ξ-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai-Fuse, I.; Akaishi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Narrow-width mechanism of ≡ 5 H is discussed by calculating conversion widths to all its possible decay channels. Since the conversion processes have small reaction Q values, the three- and four- body decays are strongly suppressed owing to small phase volumes available. Decay widths to the two-body channels are significantly reduced by the distortion of emitted-particle waves. This mechanism brings about a narrow width of ≡ 5 H. The total width is estimated to be 0.87 MeV, in which the largest contribution comes from the decay into the Λ 4 H * +Λ channel. (author)

  15. Level width broadening effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    2003-01-01

    In file-6 for double-differential cross sections, the level width broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg' uncertainty. Besides level width broadening effect, the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in fitting measurement procedure. In general, the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed. However, to do so in this way the energy balance could not be held. For this reason, the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced, with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could be held exactly in the analytical form. (author)

  16. Cliché fabrication method using precise roll printing process with 5 um pattern width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yejin; Kim, Inyoung; Oh, Dong-Ho; Lee, Taik-Min

    2016-09-01

    Among the printing processes for printed electronic devices, gravure offset and reverse offset method have drawn attention for its fine pattern printing possibility. These printing methods use cliché, which has critical effect on the final product precision and quality. In this research, a novel precise cliché replica method is proposed. It consists of copper sputtering, precise mask pattern printing with 5 um width using reverse offset printing, Ni electroplating, lift-off, etching, and DLC coating. We finally compare the fabricated replica cliché with the original one and print out precise patterns using the replica cliché.

  17. Broadening of some He I and He II lines in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Sauerbrey, G.

    1975-01-01

    The broadening of the He I and He II lines was investigated in a wall-stabilized discharge (duration approximately 500 μs, Ne approximately 2 x 10 16 cm -3 , T approximately 37,000 K). The xi factor calculated by Kriener and Schlueter could be used for the Ne determination from the continuum radiation. For the line width of the He I line 501.4 nm, the discrepancy of a factor 1.7 to Griem, Baranger, Kolb, Oertel reported by Kusch was confirmed. Also confirmed was the theoretical dependence of the distance between the group peaks on the electron densities for the He I lines 447.1 nm and 492.1 nm, first reported by Griem and Barnard et al. The line widths of the He II lines 320.3 nm and 408.6 nm are between the values given by Kepple and Griem, and Griem, Kolb, Shen. (orig./AK) [de

  18. Sall4-Gli3 system in early limb progenitors is essential for the development of limb skeletal elements

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Ryutaro; Kawakami, Hiroko; Wong, Julia; Oishi, Isao; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The limb skeletal elements that have unique morphology and distinct locations are developed from limb progenitors, derived from the lateral plate mesoderm. These skeletal elements arise during limb development. In this study, we show genetic evidence that function of Sall4 is essential prior to limb outgrowth for development of the anterior-proximal skeletal elements. Furthermore, genetic interaction between Sall4 and Gli3 is upstream of establishing Shh (Sonic hedgehog) expression, and there...

  19. The case for inflow of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin; Goosmann, René W.

    2016-02-01

    The high-ionization lines of the broad-line region (BLR) of thermal active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show blueshifts of a few hundred km/s to several thousand km/sec with respect to the low-ionization lines. This has long been thought to be due to the high-ionization lines of the BLR arising in a wind of which the far side of the outflow is blocked from our view by the accretion disc. Evidence for and against the disc-wind model is discussed. The biggest problem for the model is that velocity-resolved reverberation mapping repeatedly fails to show the expected kinematic signature of outflow of the BLR. The disc-wind model also cannot readily reproduce the red side of the line profiles of high-ionization lines. The rapidly falling density in an outflow makes it difficult to obtain high equivalent widths. We point out a number of major problems with associating the BLR with the outflows producing broad absorption lines. An explanation which avoids all these problems and satisfies the constraints of both the line profiles and velocity-resolved reverberation-mapping is a model in which the blueshifting is due to scattering off material spiraling inwards with an inflow velocity of half the velocity of the blueshifting. We discuss how recent reverberation mapping results are consistent with the scattering-plus-inflow model but do not support a disc-wind model. We propose that the anti-correlation of the apparent redshifting of Hβ with the blueshifting of C iv is a consequence of contamination of the red wings of Hβ by the broad wings of [O iii].

  20. Development and the evolvability of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Wagner, Günter P; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-02-23

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primates and demonstrate that both humans and apes exhibit significantly reduced integration between limbs when compared to quadrupedal monkeys. This result indicates that fossil hominins likely escaped constraints on independent limb variation via reductions to genetic pleiotropy in an ape-like last common ancestor (LCA). This critical change in integration among hominoids, which is reflected in macroevolutionary differences in the disparity between limb lengths, facilitated selection for modern human limb proportions and demonstrates how development helps shape evolutionary change.

  1. Analysis of ensembles of moderately saturated interstellar lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the combined equivalent widths for a large population of Gaussian-like interstellar line components, each with different central optical depths tau(0) and velocity dispersions b, exhibit a curve of growth (COG) which closely mimics that of a single, pure Gaussian distribution in velocity. Two parametric distributions functions for the line populations are considered: a bivariate Gaussian for tau(0) and b and a power law distribution for tau(0) combined with a Gaussian dispersion for b. First, COGs for populations having an extremely large number of nonoverlapping components are derived, and the implications are shown by focusing on the doublet-ratio analysis for a pair of lines whose f-values differ by a factor of two. The consequences of having, instead of an almost infinite number of lines, a relatively small collection of components added together for each member of a doublet are examined. The theory of how the equivalent widths grow for populations of overlapping Gaussian profiles is developed. Examples of the composite COG analysis applied to existing collections of high-resolution interstellar line data are presented. 39 references

  2. Properties of Narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, Chelliah Subramonian; Chand, Hum; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2018-04-01

    Narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies constitute a class of active galactic nuclei characterized by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the Hα broad emission line 10 pixel-1. A strong correlation between the Hα and Hα emission lines is found both in the FWHM and flux. The nuclear continuum luminosity is found to be strongly correlated with the luminosity of Hα, Hα and [O III] emission lines. The black hole mass in NLSy1 galaxies is lower compared to their broad line counterparts. Compared to BLSy1 galaxies, NLSy1 galaxies have a stronger FeII emission and a higher Eddington ratio that place them in the extreme upper right corner of the R4570 - λEdd diagram. The distribution of the radio-loudness parameter (R) in NLSy1 galaxies drops rapidly at R>10 compared to the BLSy1 galaxies that have powerful radio jets. The soft X-ray photon index in NLSy1 galaxies is on average higher (2.9 ± 0.9) than BLSy1 galaxies (2.4 ± 0.8). It is anti-correlated with the Hα width but correlated with the FeII strength. NLSy1 galaxies on average have a lower amplitude of optical variability compared to their broad lines counterparts. These results suggest Eddington ratio as the main parameter that drives optical variability in these sources.

  3. Reexamination of $L_{3}$ and $M_{1}$ atomic-level widths of elements 54 $\\le$ Z $\\le$ 77

    CERN Document Server

    Mauron, O; Baechler, S; Berset, M; Maillard, Y P; Raboud, P A; Hoszowska, J

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of the photoinduced L/sub 3/-M/sub 1/ and L/sub 3/-M/sub 4,5/ X-ray emission lines were performed with a reflection-type bent-crystal spectrometer for a variety of elements ranging from xenon (Z=54) to iridium (Z=77). The measurements were performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. From the observed linewidths of the L/sub 3/-M/sub 1/ x-ray transitions, the widths of the M/sub 1/ levels were determined using the L/sub 3/ level widths extracted from the measured L/sub 3/-M/sub 5/ transitions, and assuming for the M/sub 5/ levels the widths reported recently by Campbell and Papp ÝAt. Data Nucl. Data Tables 77, 1 (2001)¿. In the rare-earth region a Z-dependent broadening of the M/sub 1/ level was observed. (51 refs).

  4. On the Baldwin effect of He II emission lines in WR (WN) stars

    OpenAIRE

    van Gent, J. I.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; de Koter, A.; Morris, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the equivalent width of He ii emission lines and the monochromatic continuum luminosity at the line wavelength in the spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars. Model stellar atmospheres and spectra are used to show that the equivalent width inversely correlates with the monochromatic continuum luminosity. We find the effect in Wolf-Rayet star models over a large range of stellar parameters. The effect is shown to be connected to density differences among Wolf-Rayet star...

  5. Determinants of limb preference for initiating compensatory stepping poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L; Lakhani, Bimal; McIlroy, William E

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of limb preference for initiating compensatory stepping poststroke. Retrospective chart review. Inpatient rehabilitation. Convenience sample of individuals admitted to inpatient rehabilitation with poststroke hemiparesis. Not applicable. Compensatory stepping responses were evoked using a lean-and-release postural perturbation. The limb used to initiate compensatory stepping was determined. The relationships between stepping with the paretic limb and premorbid limb dominance, weight bearing on the paretic limb in quiet standing, ability to bear weight on the paretic limb, preperturbation weight bearing on the paretic limb, and lower-limb motor recovery scores were determined. The majority (59.1%) of responses were steps initiated with the nonparetic limb. Increased lower-limb motor recovery scores and preperturbation weight bearing on the nonparetic limb were significantly related to increased frequency of stepping with the paretic limb. When the preferred limb was physically blocked, an inappropriate response was initiated in 21% of trials (ie, nonstep responses or an attempt to step with the blocked limb). This study reveals the challenges that individuals with poststroke hemiparesis face when executing compensatory stepping responses to prevent a fall after a postural perturbation. The inability or challenges to executing a compensatory step with the paretic limb may increase the risk for falls poststroke. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Naturally enhanced ion-line spectra around the equatorial 150-km region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For many years strong radar echoes coming from 140–170 km altitudes at low latitudes have been associated to the existence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs (the so called 150-km echoes. In this work, we present frequency spectra as well as angular distribution of 150-km echoes. When the 150-km region is observed with beams perpendicular to the magnetic field (B the observed radar spectra are very narrow with spectral widths between 3–12 m/s. On the other hand, when few-degrees off-perpendicular beams are used, the radar spectra are wide with spectral widths comparable to those expected from ion-acoustic waves at these altitudes (>1000 m/s. Moreover the off-perpendicular spectral width increases with increasing altitude. The strength of the received echoes is one to two orders of magnitude stronger than the expected level of waves in thermal equilibrium at these altitudes. Such enhancement is not due to an increase in electron density. Except for the enhancement in power, the spectra characteristics of off-perpendicular and perpendicular echoes are in reasonable agreement with expected incoherent scatter spectra at these angles and altitudes. 150-km echoes are usually observed in narrow layers (2 to 5. Bistatic common volume observations as well as observations made few kilometers apart show that, for most of the layers, there is very high correlation on power fluctuations without a noticeable time separation between simultaneous echoes observed with Off-perpendicular and Perpendicular beams. However, in one of the central layers, the echoes are the strongest in the perpendicular beam and absent or very weak in the off-perpendicular beams, suggesting that they are generated by a plasma instability. Our results indicate that most echoes around 150-km region are not as aspect sensitive as originally thought, and they come from waves that have been enhanced above waves in thermal equilibrium.

  7. Naturally enhanced ion-line spectra around the equatorial 150-km region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For many years strong radar echoes coming from 140–170 km altitudes at low latitudes have been associated to the existence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs (the so called 150-km echoes. In this work, we present frequency spectra as well as angular distribution of 150-km echoes. When the 150-km region is observed with beams perpendicular to the magnetic field (B the observed radar spectra are very narrow with spectral widths between 3–12 m/s. On the other hand, when few-degrees off-perpendicular beams are used, the radar spectra are wide with spectral widths comparable to those expected from ion-acoustic waves at these altitudes (>1000 m/s. Moreover the off-perpendicular spectral width increases with increasing altitude. The strength of the received echoes is one to two orders of magnitude stronger than the expected level of waves in thermal equilibrium at these altitudes. Such enhancement is not due to an increase in electron density. Except for the enhancement in power, the spectra characteristics of off-perpendicular and perpendicular echoes are in reasonable agreement with expected incoherent scatter spectra at these angles and altitudes. 150-km echoes are usually observed in narrow layers (2 to 5. Bistatic common volume observations as well as observations made few kilometers apart show that, for most of the layers, there is very high correlation on power fluctuations without a noticeable time separation between simultaneous echoes observed with Off-perpendicular and Perpendicular beams. However, in one of the central layers, the echoes are the strongest in the perpendicular beam and absent or very weak in the off-perpendicular beams, suggesting that they are generated by a plasma instability. Our results indicate that most echoes around 150-km region are not as aspect sensitive as originally thought, and they come from waves that have been enhanced above waves in thermal equilibrium.

  8. Developmental origin of limb size variation in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Robin M; Skewes, Sable A

    2017-05-01

    In many respects, reptile hatchlings are fully functional, albeit miniature, adults. This means that the adult morphology must emerge during embryonic development. This insight emphasizes the connection between the mechanisms that generate phenotypic variation during embryonic development and the action of selection on post-hatching individuals. To determine when species-specific differences in limb and tail lengths emerge during embryonic development, we compared allometric patterns of early limb growth of four distantly related species of lizards. The major questions addressed were whether early embryonic limb and tail growth is characterized by the gradual (continuous allometry) or by the abrupt emergence (transpositional allometry) of size differences among species. Our observations supported transpositional allometry of both limbs and tails. Species-specific differences in limb and tail length were exhibited when limb and tail buds first protruded from the body wall. Genes known to be associated with early limb development of tetrapods are obvious targets for studies on the genetic mechanisms that determine interspecific differences in relative limb length. Broadly comparative studies of gene regulation would facilitate understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive variation in limb size, including limb reduction and loss, of squamate reptiles. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Off-line analysis of positron annihilation spectra. I. Signature of crystal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gh.; Adam, S.

    1997-01-01

    While the technique of 2-D angular correlation of the electron-positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) yields data in the laboratory frame, consistent off-line data analysis requires their reformulation in the crystal frame. In the case of an n-axis projected 2D-ACAR spectrum (where n denotes a principal crystallographic axis) of a high-T c superconductor, the crystal frame derivation needs enhancement of information on spectrum symmetry. The concept of signature of crystal symmetry (SCS) in a 2D-ACAR histogram discussed in this paper is a basic ingredient to the consistent solution of the problem. The SCS in a row 2D-ACAR histogram is defined as a collection of chi-square sums over M max + 1 sets of sites inside the detector-defined histogram plane. The number M max is fixed by choice of the principal crystallographic axis n-vector and the angular aperture of the setup. The necessity of this concept is discussed in Section 2. The correct understanding of the meaning of the SCS results heavily relies of that of the various sources contributing to the symmetry a 2D-ACAR spectrum. This point is discussed in Section 3. The quantitative definition of the SCS is detailed in Section 4. Finally, Section 5 is devoted to a short consideration of the computation of the SCS numerical values

  10. Limb development: a paradigm of gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Florence; Sears, Karen E; Ahituv, Nadav

    2017-04-01

    The limb is a commonly used model system for developmental biology. Given the need for precise control of complex signalling pathways to achieve proper patterning, the limb is also becoming a model system for gene regulation studies. Recent developments in genomic technologies have enabled the genome-wide identification of regulatory elements that control limb development, yielding insights into the determination of limb morphology and forelimb versus hindlimb identity. The modulation of regulatory interactions - for example, through the modification of regulatory sequences or chromatin architecture - can lead to morphological evolution, acquired regeneration capacity or limb malformations in diverse species, including humans.

  11. Hybrid adaptive radiotherapy with on-line MRI in cervix cancer IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seungjong; Stewart, James; Moseley, Joanne; Kelly, Valerie; Lim, Karen; Xie, Jason; Fyles, Anthony; Brock, Kristy K.; Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Milosevic, Michael; Jaffray, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Substantial organ motion and tumor shrinkage occur during radiotherapy for cervix cancer. IMRT planning studies have shown that the quality of radiation delivery is influenced by these anatomical changes, therefore the adaptation of treatment plans may be warranted. Image guidance with off-line replanning, i.e. hybrid-adaptation, is recognized as one of the most practical adaptation strategies. In this study, we investigated the effects of soft tissue image guidance using on-line MR while varying the frequency of off-line replanning on the adaptation of cervix IMRT. Materials and method: 33 cervical cancer patients underwent planning and weekly pelvic MRI scans during radiotherapy. 5 patients of 33 were identified in a previous retrospective adaptive planning study, in which the coverage of gross tumor volume/clinical target volume (GTV/CTV) was not acceptable given single off-line IMRT replan using a 3 mm PTV margin with bone matching. These 5 patients and a randomly selected 10 patients from the remaining 28 patients, a total of 15 patients of 33, were considered in this study. Two matching methods for image guidance (bone to bone and soft tissue to dose matrix) and three frequencies of off-line replanning (none, single, and weekly) were simulated and compared with respect to target coverage (cervix, GTV, lower uterus, parametrium, upper vagina, tumor related CTV and elective lymph node CTV) and OAR sparing (bladder, bowel, rectum, and sigmoid). Cost (total process time) and benefit (target coverage) were analyzed for comparison. Results: Hybrid adaptation (image guidance with off-line replanning) significantly enhanced target coverage for both 5 difficult and 10 standard cases. Concerning image guidance, bone matching was short of delivering enough doses for 5 difficult cases even with a weekly off-line replan. Soft tissue image guidance proved successful for all cases except one when single or more frequent replans were utilized in the difficult cases

  12. Strain distribution analysis in Si/SiGe line structures for CMOS technology using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, M; Roelke, M; Hermann, P; Zschech, E; Vartanian, V

    2010-01-01

    Strained silicon underneath the field-effect transistor gate increases significantly the charge carrier mobility and thus improves the performance of leading-edge Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) devices. For better understanding of the structure-strain relationship on the nanoscale and for optimization of device structures, the measurement of the local strain state has become essential. Raman spectroscopy is used in the present investigation to analyze the strain distribution in and close to silicon/embedded silicon-germanium (SiGe) line structures in conjunction with strain modeling applying finite element analysis. Both experimental results and modeling indicate the impact of geometry on the stress state. An increase of compressive stress within the Si lines is obtained for increasing SiGe line widths and decreasing Si line widths. The stress state within the Si lines is shown to be a mixed one deviating from a pure uniaxial state. Underneath the SiGe cavities, the presence of a tensile stress was observed. To investigate a procedure to scale down the spatial resolution of the Raman measurements, tip-enhanced Raman scattering experiments have been performed on free-standing SiGe lines with 100nm line width and line distance. The results show superior resolution and strain information not attainable in conventional Raman scans.

  13. Dispersive traveling wave solutions of the Equal-Width and Modified Equal-Width equations via mathematical methods and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, Aly R.; Ali, Asghar

    2018-06-01

    The Equal-Width and Modified Equal-Width equations are used as a model in partial differential equations for the simulation of one-dimensional wave transmission in nonlinear media with dispersion processes. In this article we have employed extend simple equation method and the exp(-varphi(ξ)) expansion method to construct the exact traveling wave solutions of equal width and modified equal width equations. The obtained results are novel and have numerous applications in current areas of research in mathematical physics. It is exposed that our method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving different kind nonlinear wave problems.

  14. Grassmannian integral for general gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes in N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bork, L.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow (Russian Federation); The Center for Fundamental and Applied Research,All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Onishchenko, A.I. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,JointInstitute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, State University,Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University,Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-08

    In this paper we consider tree-level gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes (Wilson line form factors) in N=4 SYM with arbitrary number of off-shell gluons or equivalently Wilson line operator insertions. We make a conjecture for the Grassmannian integral representation for such objects and verify our conjecture on several examples. It is remarkable that in our formulation one can consider situation when on-shell particles are not present at all, i.e. we have Grassmannian integral representation for purely off-shell object. In addition we show that off-shell amplitude with arbitrary number of off-shell gluons could be also obtained using quantum inverse scattering method for auxiliary gl(4|4) super spin chain.

  15. Assessment of alveolar bone height and width using 64-MDCT examination for dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Kotaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Sekiya, Keiko; Mori, Shintaro; Sakayanagi, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    There have been many reports showing the usefulness of CT examinations for preoperative dental implant treatment, and some reports on clinical statistics using CT examinations. However, there have been few reports on alveolar bone height and width of over 1,000 Japanese cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone height and width of 4,123 sites in 1,056 Japanese cases using preoperative CT examinations. The subjects consisted of 4,123 regions in 1,056 cases (370 males and 686 females, mean age 56.1 years old, range 15-87) of preoperative CT examinations conducted from January 2008 to March 2009. The CT examinations were performed using the Aquilion TM 64 (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation) as the multi detector row CT (MDCT) unit, and ZIOSTATION (ZIOSOFT) as the workstation. The CT images were displayed on the workstation, and the alveolar bone height and width were measured to one decimal place (rounded off to two decimal places). The average alveolar bone height was 14.8 mm (SD±3.8) in the upper anterior area, 11.2 mm (SD±5.5) in the upper premolar area, 6.8 mm (SD±5.4) in the upper molar area, 19.5 mm (SD±5.4) in the lower anterior area, 14.2 mm (SD±3.9) in the lower premolar area, and 13.4 mm (SD±3.4) in the lower molar area. The average alveolar bone width was 4.3 mm (SD±1.9) in the anterior area, 5.7 mm (SD±2.3) in the upper premolar area, 7.9 mm (SD±3.1) in the upper molar area, 4.8 mm (SD±2.1) in the lower anterior area, 5.9 mm (SD±2.2) in the lower premolar area, and 6.9 mm (SD±2.5) in the lower molar area. Our results using preoperative CT examinations indicated that many of the Japanese cases had insufficient alveolar bone height and width for dental implants. (author)

  16. The two domain hypothesis of limb prepattern and its relevance to congenital limb anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hirotaka; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Hui, Chi-Chung; Hopyan, Sevan

    2017-07-01

    Functional annotation of mutations that cause human limb anomalies is enabled by basic developmental studies. In this study, we focus on the prepatterning stage of limb development and discuss a recent model that proposes anterior and posterior domains of the early limb bud generate two halves of the future skeleton. By comparing phenotypes in humans with those in model organisms, we evaluate whether this prepatterning concept helps to annotate human disease alleles. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e270. doi: 10.1002/wdev.270 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 02: Measurement of CT radiation profile width using Fuji CR imaging plate raw data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, T A; Yang, C J

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the CT collimation width and assessing the shape of the overall profile is a relatively straightforward quality control (QC) measure that impacts both image quality and patient dose, and is often required at acceptance and routine testing. Most CT facilities have access to computed radiography (CR) systems, so performing CT collimation profile assessments using CR plates requires no additional equipment. Previous studies have shown how to effectively use CR plates to measure the radiation profile width. However, a major limitation of the previous work is that the full dynamic range of CR detector plates are not used, since the CR processing technology reduces the dynamic range of the DICOM output to 2 10 , requiring the sensitivity and latitude settings of CR reader to be adjusted to prevent clipping of the CT profile data. Such adjustments to CR readers unnecessarily complicate the QC procedure. These clipping artefacts hinder the ability to accurately assess CT collimation width because the full-width at half maximum value of the penumbras are not properly determined if the maximum dose of the profile is not available. Furthermore, any inconsistencies in the radiation profile shape are lost if the profile plateau is clipped off. In this work we developed an opensource Matlab script for straightforward CT profile width measurements using raw CR data that also allows assessment of the profile shape without clipping, and applied this approach during CT QC

  18. Tourniquet pressures: strap width and tensioning system widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Piper L; Coughlin, Ohmar; Rometti, Mary; Birkholz, Sarah; Gildemaster, Yvonne; Grulke, Lisa; Sahr, Sheryl; Buising, Charisse M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure distribution over tourniquet width is a determinant of pressure needed for arterial occlusion. Different width tensioning systems could result in arterial occlusion pressure differences among nonelastic strap designs of equal width. Ratcheting Medical Tourniquets (RMTs; m2 inc., http://www.ratcheting buckles.com) with a 1.9 cm-wide (Tactical RMT) or 2.3 cm-wide (Mass Casualty RMT) ladder were directly compared (16 recipients, 16 thighs and 16 upper arms for each tourniquetx2). Then, RMTs were retrospectively compared with the windlass Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T ["CAT"], http://combattourniquet.com) with a 2.5 cm-wide internal tensioning strap. Pressure was measured with an air-filled No. 1 neonatal blood pressure cuff under each 3.8 cm-wide tourniquet. RMT circumferential pressure distribution was not uniform. Tactical RMT pressures were not higher, and there were no differences between the RMTs in the effectiveness, ease of use ("97% easy"), or discomfort. However, a difference did occur regarding tooth skipping of the pawl during ratchet advancement: it occurred in 1 of 64 Tactical RMT applications versus 27 of 64 Mass Casualty RMT applications. CAT and RMT occlusion pressures were frequently over 300 mmHg. RMT arm occlusion pressures (175-397 mmHg), however, were lower than RMT thigh occlusion pressures (197-562 mmHg). RMT effectiveness was better with 99% reached occlusion and 1% lost occlusion over 1 minute versus the CAT with 95% reached occlusion and 28% lost occlusion over 1 minute. RMT muscle tension changes (up to 232 mmHg) and pressure losses over 1 minute (24±11 mmHg arm under strap to 40±12 mmHg thigh under ladder) suggest more occlusion losses may have occurred if tourniquet duration was extended. The narrower tensioning system Tactical RMT has better performance characteristics than the Mass Casualty RMT. The 3.8 cm-wide RMTs have some pressure and effectiveness similarities and differences compared with the CAT. Clinically

  19. Hong's grading for evaluating anterior chamber angle width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok Hwan; Kang, Ja Heon; Park, Ki Ho; Hong, Chul

    2012-11-01

    To compare Hong's grading method with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), gonioscopy, and the dark-room prone-position test (DRPT) for evaluating anterior chamber width. The anterior chamber angle was graded using Hong's grading method, and Hong's angle width was calculated from the arctangent of Hong's grades. The correlation between Hong's angle width and AS-OCT parameters was analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for Hong's grading method when discriminating between narrow and open angles as determined by gonioscopy was calculated. Correlation analysis was performed between Hong's angle width and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes determined by DRPT. A total of 60 subjects were enrolled. Of these subjects, 53.5 % had a narrow angle. Hong's angle width correlated significantly with the AS-OCT parameters (r = 0.562-0.719, P < 0.01). A Bland-Altman plot showed relatively good agreement between Hong's angle width and the angle width obtained by AS-OCT. The ability of Hong's grading method to discriminate between open and narrow angles was good (AUC = 0.868, 95 % CI 0.756-0.942). A significant linear correlation was found between Hong's angle width and IOP change determined by DRPT (r = -0.761, P < 0.01). Hong's grading method is useful for detecting narrow angles. Hong's grading correlated well with AS-OCT parameters and DRPT.

  20. Half-width at half-maximum, full-width at half-maximum analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    addition to the well-defined parameter full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The distribution of ... optical side-lobes in the diffraction pattern resulting in steep central maxima [6], reduc- tion of effects of ... and broad central peak. The idea of.

  1. The Wilson-Bappu effect of the MgII k line - dependence on stellar temperature, activity and metallicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaroy, O.; Engvold, O.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    widths around the regression lines. The sample contains slowly rotating stars of different activity levels and is suitable for investigations of a possible relation between line width and stellar activity. A difference in behavior between dwarfs and giants (and supergiants) of spectral class K seems......The Wilson-Bappu effect is investigated using accurate absolute magnitudes of 65 stars obtained through early release of data from the Hipparcos satellite together with MgII k fine widths determined from high resolution spectra observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observatory....... Stars of spectral classes F, G, K and M and luminosity classes I-V are represented in the sample. Wilson-Bappu relations for the Mg II k line for stars of different temperatures i.e. spectral classes are determined. The relation varies with spectral class and there is a significant scatter of the line...

  2. Asymmetries in Chickens from Lines Selected and Relaxed for High or Low Antibody Titers to Sheep Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Tu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wattle length, width, and area were measured to classify bilateral asymmetries in four lines of chickens. The lines were the S26 generation of White Leghorns selected for high (HAS or low (LAS response to sheep red blood cells and sublines in which selection had been relaxed for three generations (high antibody relaxed [HAR] and low antibody relaxed [LAR]. Antibody titers (AB were greater for HAS than for HAR with both greater than for LAS and LAR which while different for males did not differ for females. The low antibody lines were heavier and reached sexual maturity at younger age than the high antibody lines. In general, wattle length, width, and area were greater in the low than high antibody lines. In 24 comparisons for bilaterality 18 exhibited fluctuating asymmetry and 6 exhibited directional asymmetry with 5 of the 6 being for wattle length. There was not a clear pattern for changes in degree of asymmetry when selection was relaxed for 3 generations. For females, the relative asymmetry (RA of wattle area was larger (p≤0.05 for HAR than for LAR and not different from the selected lines and relaxed lines. There were no differences among lines for RA of wattle length and width of females and wattle length, width, and area of males.

  3. [Application of off-line two dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/supercritical fluid chromatography to the separation of the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yun; Xin, Huaxia; Peng, Ziyue; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu

    2017-07-08

    An off-line two dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/supercritical fluid chromatography (2D RPLC/SFC) method was developed for the separation of the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim . ( T. kirilowii .). In the experiment, RPLC was used in the first dimension to analyze the samples. And 12 fractions (F 1 -F 12 ) were obtained according to the chromatographic peak collection mode, the fractions were re-analyzed in both RPLC and SFC modes. The results clearly showed that this 2D method had good orthogonality. The SFC was used as the second dimension. Ethanol- n -hexane (3:7, v/v) was used as a modifier in SFC. The modifier could provide appropriate elution power. When the sample load increased, it could also ensure the solubility of samples. The 2D RPLC/SFC method had obvious advantages for separating the compounds with similar properties, enriching and purifying the trace components. Finally, 150 peaks could be detected. The off-line 2D RPLC/SFC method will be further enlarged to a preparative level for preparation of compounds. The method can provide a practical reference for the purification of chemical constituents and material basis research of the seeds of T. kirilowii . in the future.

  4. Movement patterns of limb coordination in infant rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2016-12-01

    Infants must perform dynamic whole-body movements to initiate rolling, a key motor skill. However, little is known regarding limb coordination and postural control in infant rolling. To address this lack of knowledge, we examined movement patterns and limb coordination during rolling in younger infants (aged 5-7 months) that had just begun to roll and in older infants (aged 8-10 months) with greater rolling experience. Due to anticipated difficulty in obtaining measurements over the second half of the rolling sequence, we limited our analysis to the first half. Ipsilateral and contralateral limbs were identified on the basis of rolling direction and were classified as either a stationary limb used for postural stability or a moving limb used for controlled movement. We classified the observed movement patterns by identifying the number of stationary limbs and the serial order of combinational limb movement patterns. Notably, older infants performed more movement patterns that involved a lower number of stationary limbs than younger infants. Despite the wide range of possible movement patterns, a small group of basic patterns dominated in both age groups. Our results suggest that the fundamental structure of limb coordination during rolling in the early acquisition stages remains unchanged until at least 8-10 months of age. However, compared to younger infants, older infants exhibited a greater ability to select an effective rotational movement by positioning themselves with fewer stationary limbs and performing faster limb movements.

  5. Progress towards modeling tokamak boundary plasma turbulence and understanding its role in setting divertor heat flux widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Xu, X. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Li, N. M.; Porkolab, M.; Edlund, E.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J.; Hughes, J. W.; Ye, M. Y.; Wan, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    The heat flux distributions on divertor targets in H-mode plasmas are serious concerns for future devices. We seek to simulate the tokamak boundary plasma turbulence and heat transport in the edge localized mode-suppressed regimes. The improved BOUT++ model shows that not only Ip but also the radial electric field Er plays an important role on the turbulence behavior and sets the heat flux width. Instead of calculating Er from the pressure gradient term (diamagnetic Er), it is calculated from the plasma transport equations with the sheath potential in the scrape-off layer and the plasma density and temperature profiles inside the separatrix from the experiment. The simulation results with the new Er model have better agreement with the experiment than using the diamagnetic Er model: (1) The electromagnetic turbulence in enhanced Dα H-mode shows the characteristics of quasi-coherent modes (QCMs) and broadband turbulence. The mode spectra are in agreement with the phase contrast imaging data and almost has no change in comparison to the cases which use the diamagnetic Er model; (2) the self-consistent boundary Er is needed for the turbulence simulations to get the consistent heat flux width with the experiment; (3) the frequencies of the QCMs are proportional to Er, while the divertor heat flux widths are inversely proportional to Er; and (4) the BOUT++ turbulence simulations yield a similar heat flux width to the experimental Eich scaling law and the prediction from the Goldston heuristic drift model.

  6. Limb sparing approach: Adjuvant radiation therapy in adults with intermediate or high-grade limb soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merimsky, Ofer; Soyfer, Vjacheslav; Kovner, Felix; Bickels, Jacob; Issakov, Josephine; Flusser, Gideon; Meller, Isaac; Ofer, Oded; Kollender, Yehuda

    2005-01-01

    Background: Limb soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are currently treated with limb sparing surgery (LSS) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Patients and methods: Between October 1994 and October 2002, 133 adult patients with intermediate or high-grade limb STS were approached by LSS+RT. Results: RT related toxicity was manageable, with a low rate of severe effects. At 4-year median follow-up, there were 48 recurrences of any type, 23 of isolated local failure, and 35 of systemic spread w/o local failure. DFS and OS were influenced by disease stage II vs I, primary site in the upper limb vs lower limb, MPNST vs other types, induction therapy vs no induction, adequate resection vs marginal resection or involved margins, and good response to induction therapy vs bad response. DFS and OS were Patient's age and sex, tumor depth, acute or late toxicity of RT, or the interval of time between the date of definitive surgery and the start of RT did not affect DFS and or OS. Conclusions: The RT protocol is applicable in the era of complicated, expensive and time-consuming 3D therapy. Our results of LSS+RT in adults with limb HG STS are satisfactory

  7. Cross-limb interference during motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Lauber

    Full Text Available It is well known that following skill learning, improvements in motor performance may transfer to the untrained contralateral limb. It is also well known that retention of a newly learned task A can be degraded when learning a competing task B that takes place directly after learning A. Here we investigate if this interference effect can also be observed in the limb contralateral to the trained one. Therefore, five different groups practiced a ballistic finger flexion task followed by an interfering visuomotor accuracy task with the same limb. Performance in the ballistic task was tested before the training, after the training and in an immediate retention test after the practice of the interference task for both the trained and the untrained hand. After training, subjects showed not only significant learning and interference effects for the trained limb but also for the contralateral untrained limb. Importantly, the interference effect in the untrained limb was dependent on the level of skill acquisition in the interfering motor task. These behavioural results of the untrained limb were accompanied by training specific changes in corticospinal excitability, which increased for the hemisphere ipsilateral to the trained hand following ballistic training and decreased during accuracy training of the ipsilateral hand. The results demonstrate that contralateral interference effects may occur, and that interference depends on the level of skill acquisition in the interfering motor task. This finding might be particularly relevant for rehabilitation.

  8. Hybridization approach to in-