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Sample records for oculata demospongiae haplosclerida

  1. Haplosclerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the coast of Maranhao State, Brazil, Southwestern Atlantic.

    Campos, M.; Mothes, B.; Eckert, R.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with haplosclerid sponges off the coast of Maranhão State, northeastern coast of Brazilian shelf (southwestern Atlantic). A new species is described, Haliclona (Halichoclona) lernerae. Four species are recorded for the first time for the Brazilian coast: Amphimedon caribica

  2. Integrative Taxonomy of Amazon Reefs' Arenosclera spp.: A New Clade in the Haplosclerida (Demospongiae

    Camille V. Leal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new Arenosclera are described here on the basis of materials obtained from Amazon reefs in 2014, A. amazonensis sp. nov. and A. klausi sp. nov. Both are clearly distinct from all other Arenosclera by their erect, solid funnel to lamellate habit, larger oxeas, and ectosomal architecture bearing occasional multispicular tracts. An integrative approach to find the best classification for both new species failed to group them and A. heroni, the genus' type species. Nearly complete 28S rRNA sequences obtained from these species' metagenomes suggested instead a better placement for the new species and A. brasiliensis in clade C (sensu Redmond et al., 2013, while A. heroni fits best in clade A. We propose to name three clades according to the rules of the PhyloCode: Arenospiculap, Dactyclonap, and Dactyspiculap, respectively for the clade originating with the most recent common ancestor of the three Brazilian Arenosclera spp.; the most inclusive clade containing Dactylia varia (Gray, 1843 and Haliclona curacaoensis (van Soest, 1980; and the least inclusive clade containing Arenospiculap and Dactyclonap. A Karlin dinucleotide dissimilarity analysis of metagenomes carried out on cryopreserved samples recognized A. amazonensis sp. nov. as the most dissimilar species, thus suggesting a more particular microbiota is present in this Amazon species, an open avenue for extended applied study of this holobiont.

  3. A new species of Cladocroce Topsent, 1892 (Porifera, Haplosclerida) from the Gulf Thailand

    Putchakarn, S.; de Weerdt, W.H.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new sponges species, Cladocroce burapha n.sp. (Chalinidae, Haplosclerida, Porifera) is described from Chonburi province, eastern coast of the Gulf of Thailand. The new species can be separated from other Cladocroce speices bya combination of characters, including growth form, form and size of the

  4. Amphimedon denhartogi spec. nov. (Porifera: Haplosclerida) from deep reef habitats in Indonesia

    Voogd, de N.J.

    2003-01-01

    A new sponge species Amphimedon denhartogi spec. nov., belonging to the family Niphatidae of the order Haplosclerida, is described from 3 localities in Indonesia: Tulamben (NE Bali), Siladen Island (NE Sulawesi) and Kambing Island (SW Sulawesi). Amphimedon denhartogi spec. nov. is characterised by

  5. Genetic assessment of connectivity in the common reef sponge, Callyspongia vaginalis (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida) reveals high population structure along the Florida reef tract

    Debiasse, M. B.; Richards, V. P.; Shivji, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    The genetic population structure of the common branching vase sponge, Callyspongia vaginalis, was determined along the entire length (465 km) of the Florida reef system from Palm Beach to the Dry Tortugas based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. Populations of C. vaginalis were highly structured (overall ΦST = 0.33), in some cases over distances as small as tens of kilometers. However, nonsignificant pairwise ΦST values were also found between a few relatively distant sampling sites suggesting that some long distance larval dispersal may occur via ocean currents or transport in sponge fragments along continuous, shallow coastlines. Indeed, sufficient gene flow appears to occur along the Florida reef tract to obscure a signal of isolation by distance, but not to homogenize COI haplotype frequencies. The strong genetic differentiation among most of the sampling locations suggests that recruitment in this species is largely local source-driven, pointing to the importance of further elucidating general connectivity patterns along the Florida reef tract to guide the spatial scale of management efforts.

  6. Erste Nachweise sowie Kenntnisse zur Biologie von Cyclosa oculata (Araneae: Araneidae in der Schweiz

    Zschokke, Samuel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The orb-web spider Cyclosa oculata (Walckenaer, 1802 was found at eleven localities in north-western Switzerland. All records were from wildflower strips ("Buntbrachen" with a relatively high proportion of dried vegetation from the previous year, a relatively low vegetation height and a low proportion of grasses in the vegetation. C. oculata built its vertical orb-web near the ground, deep in the vegetation. Among ecribellate orb-web spiders in Central Europe, C. oculata is unique because it sometimes builds rudimentary webs on which it stays, because it builds its cocoons into the web, and because its stabilimentum is long-lasting and consists largely of debris. Based on our observations, we deduce that the stabilimentum of C. oculata serves as camouflage.

  7. The Effects of Trace Elements on the Lipid Productivity and Fatty Acid Composition of Nannochloropis oculata

    Xiao Dou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of trace elements on the lipid productivity and fatty acid composition of Nannochloropis oculata (N. oculata were studied. The results showed that trace elements had a strong influence on not only the lipid productivity but also the fatty acid composition. The addition of Fe3+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Mo6+, and EDTA and the deletion of Cu2+ and Co2+ can increase the lipid productivity. The optimum concentrations of the trace elements in the culture medium are 6 times of Fe3+ and EDTA, the same concentration of Zn2+, Mn2+, and Mo6+ as the control group, but the optimum medium has no Cu2+ or Co2+. Fe3+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Mo6+, and EDTA are indispensable during the EPA formation of N. oculata. The addition of Fe3+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Mo6+, and EDTA can strongly increase the content of EPA in the lipid of N. oculata, but the concentration of the trace elements had little influence on the level of EPA.

  8. Marine microalgae flocculation using plant: the case of Nannochloropsis oculata and Moringa oleifera

    Baharuddin, N.; Aziz, N. S.; Sohif, H. N.; Basiran, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been commercially used as live feed for aquaculture and nutritional supplements. However, harvesting of marine microalgae is a major obstacle for industrial scale and one of the promising harvesting techniques is bio-flocculation. Nannochloropsis oculata from the culture broth was investigated. The potential of Moringa oleifera as a flocculant has been evaluated using jar test experiments. Moringa oleifera after oil extraction (MOAE) and with non-extracted Moringa oleifera (MOWE) have been studied and compared to chemical flocculant, aluminium sulphate. Three parameters involved: pH, settling time and flocculant dosage. When MOAE and MOWE were used as flocculants, the highest flocculation efficiency of Nannochloropsis oculata was observed at 93.77 percent (pH 7, 150 minutes, 5000 mg/L) and 70.56 percent (pH 7, 90 minutes, 4000 mg/L) respectively. Harvesting efficiency of 99.98 percent with short settling time, 30 minutes and 2000 mg/L of flocculant dosage at pH 6 was achieved using aluminium sulphate. The concentrated of Nannochloropsis oculata was then fed to the Brachionus plicatilis (rotifers) to observe the growth characteristics in 12 days period. Concentrates of MOWE gave better growth of Brachionus plicatilis than growth in concentrates of MOAE and live Nannochloropsis oculata. In contrast, growth of Brachionus plicatilis in aluminium sulphate was tremendously decline. In Conclusion, bio-flocculation using Moringa oleifera was rapid, inexpensive and eco-friendly technology as no addition of chemical flocculants was required. (author)

  9. Functional Foods Enriched with Marine Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata as a Source of ω-3 Fatty Acids

    Srinivasan Babuskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for functional food incorporated with ω-3 fatty acids is increasing over the years due to their added health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, ocular diseases, arthritis, etc. This study mainly aims to develop functional cookies and pasta enriched with ω-3 fatty acids. Nannochloropsis oculata was used because of its relatively high growth rate, high lipid content, resistance to mixing and contamination together with high nutritional values. The effect of the incorporation of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass on colour, firmness, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of cookies and pasta were evaluated. The colour values were found to be stable for two months of storage and the firmness increased with the addition of microalgal biomass. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids of 98 mg per 100 g and 63 mg per 100 g were observed in cookies and pasta, respectively, enriched with 1 % of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of up to 2 and 3 % of microalgal biomass was positively evaluated and accepted for cookies and pasta, respectively. This study confirms that the cookies and pasta enriched with Nannochloropsis oculata biomass might be used as a potential source of ω-3 fatty acids.

  10. A new Suberites (Demospongiae: Hadromerida: Suberitidae) from the tropical Indo-West Pacific

    Becking, L.E.; Lim, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe Suberites diversicolor spec. nov. (Porifera: Demospongiae: Hadromerida: Suberitidae) from four enclosed anchialine lakes located in Indonesia and from a confined system in Singapore. Initially this species was thought to be specific to anchialine lakes, but further

  11. Assessment of the shelf-life of Nannochloropsis oculata flocculates stored at different temperatures

    Constanza Low

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cell and culture viability of concentrates of the microalga Nannochloropsis oculata were assessed after storage for a period of 16 weeks at -18, 0 and 5°C. The concentrates were obtained from the crop of N. oculata, which was harvested at the start of the seasonal growth period using a process of flocculation. Flocotac Plus was used as the flocculation agent, achieving flocculation of 90% of the suspended microalgae. It was observed that the chemical process did not affect the number of live cells. The concentrate stored at -18°C presented slow freezing, which deteriorated the cells and therefore reduced cell viability after five weeks (75%. The concentrates stored at 0 and 5°C showed cell viability over 97% after the 16 weeks. Culture viability was only seen in the concentrates stored at 0 and 5°C, which showed specific growth rates similar to those of the control culture. It may be concluded that it is possible to use flocculates stored at 0 and 5°C after 16 weeks as inoculum for mass crops of N. oculata for food, green water and other uses.

  12. Time-dependent radiation characteristics of Nannochloropsis oculata during batch culture

    Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the temporal evolution of the scattering and absorbing cross-sections of marine eustigmatophycease Nannochloropsis oculata grown in a flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR). The PBR was operated in batch mode under constant irradiance of 7500 or 10,000 lux provided by red LEDs emitting at 630 nm. The radiation characteristics between 400 and 750 nm and pigment concentrations of N. oculata were measured systematically every 24 h for up to 18 days. They were found to vary significantly with time in response to changes in light and nutrients availability. The results were interpreted in terms of up- and down-regulations of pigments and other intracellular components. Finally, this study demonstrates that the light transfer in the PBR could be predicted using constant radiation characteristics measured during the exponential growth phase with reasonable accuracy provided that the cultures were not nitrogen limited. During nitrogen starvation, pigment concentrations decreased and radiation characteristics evolved rapidly. These results will be useful in the design and operation of PBRs for biofuel production at both small and large scales. - Highlights: • N. oculata cultures were grown in batch mode under two different irradiances. • Temporal evolution of their absorption and scattering cross-sections was reported. • The effects of photoacclimation and nitrogen starvation were quantified. • Results were interpreted in terms of regulation of cell constituents

  13. Optimization of culture media for lipid production by Nannochloropsis oculata for Biodiesel production

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study quantified the effect of four popular culture media in a biodiesel production study on the qualitative and quantitative lipid content, dry biomass, and lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis oculata. Methods: Culture of microalgae was done separately in Walne, F/2, Sato, and TMRL media. In the logarithmic and stationary growth phases, biomass production and lipid accumulation of microalgae were measured and the constituents were identified by gas chromatography. Results: N. oculata exhibited the highest rate of cell growth and biomass productivity of 0.2616 day-1 and 2.652 gl-1 in the Walne medium. The highest level of biomass conversion into lipids in TMRL medium revealed a cell dry weight of 37.22%. Walne medium proved to have the most efficient lipid productivity which was 0.1057 gl-1 day-1. The highest amount of triacylglycerol (TAG was obtained in Sato medium in the stationary growth phase and was 75.25% of the fatty acids. Conclusion: The present study provides a practical benchmark, which allows the introduction of Walne as a suitable culture medium for N. oculata in biodiesel studies.

  14. Effect of carbon limitation on photosynthetic electron transport in Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Zavřel, Tomáš; Szabó, Milán; Tamburic, Bojan; Evenhuis, Christian; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Literáková, Petra; Larkum, Anthony W D; Raven, John A; Červený, Jan; Ralph, Peter J

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the impacts of inorganic carbon limitation on the photosynthetic efficiency and operation of photosynthetic electron transport pathways in the biofuel-candidate microalga Nannochloropsis oculata. Using a combination of highly-controlled cultivation setup (photobioreactor), variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and transient spectroscopy methods (electrochromic shift (ECS) and P 700 redox kinetics), we showed that net photosynthesis and effective quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII) decreased in N. oculata under carbon limitation. This was accompanied by a transient increase in total proton motive force and energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching as well as slightly elevated respiration. On the other hand, under carbon limitation the rapid increase in proton motive force (PMF, estimated from the total ECS signal) was also accompanied by reduced conductivity of ATP synthase to protons (estimated from the rate of ECS decay in dark after actinic illumination). This indicates that the slow operation of ATP synthase results in the transient build-up of PMF, which leads to the activation of fast energy dissipation mechanisms such as energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching. N. oculata also increased content of lipids under carbon limitation, which compensated for reduced NAPDH consumption during decreased CO 2 fixation. The integrated knowledge of the underlying energetic regulation of photosynthetic processes attained with a combination of biophysical methods may be used to identify photo-physiological signatures of the onset of carbon limitation in microalgal cultivation systems, as well as to potentially identify microalgal strains that can better acclimate to carbon limitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryptic species obscure introduction pathway of the blue Caribbean sponge (Haliclona (Soestella caerulea, (order: Haplosclerida to Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    Ingrid S. Knapp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic species are widespread across the phylum Porifera making the identification of non-indigenous species difficult, an issue not easily resolved by the use of morphological characteristics. The widespread order Haplosclerida is a prime example due to limited and plastic morphological features. Here, we study the reported introduction of Haliclona (Soestella caerulea from the Caribbean to Palmyra Atoll via Hawaiʻi using morphological characteristics and genetic analyses based on one nuclear (18s rDNA and three mitochondrial (COI, the barcoding COI extension (COI ext. and rnl rDNA markers. Despite no clear division in lengths of the oxea spicules between the samples, both mtDNA and nDNA phylogenetic trees supported similar topologies resolving two distinct clades. Across the two clades, the concatenated mtDNA tree resolved twelve subclades, with the COI ext. yielding most of the variability between the samples. Low sequence divergence values (0.68% between two of the subclades indicate that the same species is likely to occur at Palmyra, Hawaiʻi and the Caribbean, supporting the hypothesis that H. caerulea was introduced to Palmyra from the Caribbean, although whether species came directly from the Caribbean to Palmyra or from Hawaiʻi remains unresolved. Conversely, the pattern of highly divergent cryptic species supports the notion that traditionally used spicule measurements are taxonomically unreliable in this group. This study illustrates how understanding the scale of within- as opposed to between-species level genetic variation is critical for interpreting biogeographic patterns and inferring the origins of introduced organisms.

  16. CO2 gasification of microalgae (N. Oculata – A thermodynamic study

    Adnan Muflih Arisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model of CO2 gasification has been developed in the Aspen Plus. The potential of microalgae (N. oculata for CO2 gasification also has been investigated. The present gasification process utilizes the CO2 at atmospheric pressure as the gasifying agent. The steam is also injected to the gasification to enhance the H2 production. The composition of the producer gas and gasification system efficiency (GSE are used for performance evaluation. It is found that the CO2 gasification of microalgae produces a producer gas with a high concentration of CO and H2. The GSE indicates that the process works at high performance.

  17. Affinities of the Aphanocapsa feldmanni-like cyanobacteria from the marine sponge Xestospongia muta based on genetic and morphological analyses

    Gomez, R.; Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; Richelle-Maurer, E.; van Dijk, T.R.; Woldringh, C.L.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The marine sponge Xestospongia muta (Porifera: Demospongiae: Haplosclerida) harbours cyanobacteria in its peripheral tissue that have been described as having an Aphanocapsa feldmanni-type appearance. Through subsequent cell fractionation steps we obtained a virtually pure cell suspension of the

  18. Combined Effects of Nitrogen Concentration and Seasonal Changes on the Production of Lipids in Nannochloropsis oculata

    Martin Olofsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Instead of sole nutrient starvation to boost algal lipid production, we addressed nutrient limitation at two different seasons (autumn and spring during outdoor cultivation in flat panel photobioreactors. Lipid accumulation, biomass and lipid productivity and changes in fatty acid composition of Nannochloropsis oculata were investigated under nitrogen (N limitation (nitrate:phosphate N:P 5, N:P 2.5 molar ratio. N. oculata was able to maintain a high biomass productivity under N-limitation compared to N-sufficiency (N:P 20 at both seasons, which in spring resulted in nearly double lipid productivity under N-limited conditions (0.21 g L−1 day−1 compared to N-sufficiency (0.11 g L−1 day−1. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased from 76% to nearly 90% of total fatty acids in N-limited cultures. Higher biomass and lipid productivity in spring could, partly, be explained by higher irradiance, partly by greater harvesting rate (~30%. Our results indicate the potential for the production of algal high value products (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acids during both N-sufficiency and N-limitation. To meet the sustainability challenges of algal biomass production, we propose a dual-system process: Closed photobioreactors producing biomass for high value products and inoculum for larger raceway ponds recycling waste/exhaust streams to produce bulk chemicals for fuel, feed and industrial material.

  19. Application of Plackett–Burman design for the high production of some valuable metabolites in marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata

    Mostafa M. El-Sheekh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have efficient nutritional influence to obtain high survival growth and quality of fish larvae and to promote the growth of brine shrimp. In this work the Plackett–Burman statistical design was applied to specify which nutrient factor(s optimize the nutritional contents [protein, carbohydrate, β-carotene, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH] in the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata used in aquaculture to maximize marine hatchery production. N. oculata was cultured on F/2 medium (as control to reach its maximum growth. The obtained results showed that the maximum growth, chlorophyll-a,b and carotenoid contents were attained after 10 days. The contents of all studied parameters in N. oculata grown on the optimized medium after10 days increased significantly (P ⩽ 0.1 than those on control with low concentration of PO4 (2.5 g l−1 and with high concentration of NO3 (112.5 g l−1 except for cell numbers and DPPH. Significant increases in the protein, carbohydrate, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and DPPH in Artemia franciscana enriched with N. oculata cultured on the newly optimized medium were observed.

  20. New species and a molecular dating analysis of Vetulina Schmidt, 1879 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Sphaerocladina) reveal an ancient relict fauna with Tethys origin

    Schuster, Astrid; Pisera, Andrzej; Kelly, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Vetulina Schmidt, 1879 (Demospongiae, Sphaerocladina, Vetulinidae) currently constitutes the only living repre -sentative of a once diverse Mesozoic group. Molecular data place Vetulina as a sister taxon to freshwater sponges (Spongillida) despite different skeletal composition. To date, only thr...

  1. The effect of Diel temperature and light cycles on the growth of nannochloropsis oculata in a photobioreactor matrix.

    Bojan Tamburic

    Full Text Available A matrix of photobioreactors integrated with metabolic sensors was used to examine the combined impact of light and temperature variations on the growth and physiology of the biofuel candidate microalgal species Nannochloropsis oculata. The experiments were performed with algal cultures maintained at a constant 20 °C versus a 15 °C to 25 °C diel temperature cycle, where light intensity also followed a diel cycle with a maximum irradiance of 1920 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1. No differences in algal growth (Chlorophyll a were found between the two environmental regimes; however, the metabolic processes responded differently throughout the day to the change in environmental conditions. The variable temperature treatment resulted in greater damage to photosystem II due to the combined effect of strong light and high temperature. Cellular functions responded differently to conditions before midday as opposed to the afternoon, leading to strong hysteresis in dissolved oxygen concentration, quantum yield of photosystem II and net photosynthesis. Overnight metabolism performed differently, probably as a result of the temperature impact on respiration. Our photobioreactor matrix has produced novel insights into the physiological response of Nannochloropsis oculata to simulated environmental conditions. This information can be used to predict the effectiveness of deploying Nannochloropsis oculata in similar field conditions for commercial biofuel production.

  2. Nannochloropsis oculata D. microalgae growth in a treated effluent from superintensive shrimp cultivation

    Bruno Menezes Galindro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of microalgae biomass in order to obtain lipids is an important alternative to be studied and it has great potential to be applied in order to produce food and biofuel, for instance. However, there are some processes of its production which need further study, such as the cultivation inputs. A possibility for an alternative raw material is the effluent from superintensive shrimp cultivation with bioflocs (BF. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the productivity and nutrient removal rate of Nannochloropsis oculata cultivation in three systems: (i f/2 - produced integrally with chemical fertilizers, (ii BF - using of 100% of the effluent for superintensive shrimp cultivation with bioflocs and (iii 50/50 – using 50% of shrimp cultivation effluents  and  50% from f/2 system. The microalgae presented greater biomass growth and productitvity in BF system but less lipids and esters accumulation. Concerning nutrient removal, f/2 system showed better performance, which may indicate that the cultivation in BF systems takes longer to reach the stationary growth phase.

  3. Biodiversity in South East Asia: an overview of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillina

    Renata Manconi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that South East (SE Asia is considered as a biodiversity hotspot, knowledge of sessile invertebrates such as freshwater sponges (Porifera: Haplosclerida: Spongillina in this region is poor and scarcely reported. For this synopsis, diversity and distribution of SE Asian inland water sponges is reported on the basis of available literature and a recent biodiversity assessment of the Lower Mekong basin. A diagnostic key of families/genera from SE Asia is provided together with Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy protocols to prepare the basic spicular complement for taxonomic identification. So far, SE Asian freshwater sponges consist of widespread and/or endemic species belonging to the families Metaniidae, Potamolepidae, and Spongillidae. The highest diversity is recorded from Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Myanmar, respectively. Data from the other countries are necessary for our understanding of their diversity and distribution. Biodiversity in SE Asia is strongly underestimated, as indicated by recent new records and the discovery of new species of freshwater sponges in Thailand. Further investigations should reveal higher values of taxonomic richness, highlighting biogeographic patterns at the family/genus/species levels. A cooperative network involving Thai, Laotian and Italian researchers, was set up to contribute and fulfil knowledge on taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potentialities of these neglected filter feeders, playing a key role in water purification and biomass production in both lentic and lotic ecosystems in the tropics.

  4. Reproduction cycles and strategies of the cold-water sponges Halisarca dujardini (Demospongiae, Halisarcida), Myxilla incrustans and Iophon piceus (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the White Sea.

    Ereskovsky, A V

    2000-02-01

    The reproductive development of the Demospongiae species Halisarca dujardini (Halisarcida), Myxilla incrustans and Iophon piceus (Poecilosclerida) from Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, the White Sea) was studied histologically during 1982-1994 and 1997. These species are all viviparous. Halisarca dujardini inhabits shallow waters (1.5-5 m); M. incrustans and I. piceus are common in a more stable environment at depths between 15 and 25 m. Initiation of sexual reproduction stages is dependent upon water temperature. Reproductive effort is low in Myxilla incrustans and I. piceus (reproductive elements contribute 7.3% and 12% of maternal tissue volume respectively), but much higher in H. dujardini (up to 69% of the parental tissue volume). Reproduction leads to localized destruction of maternal tissue for M. incrustans and I. piceus and complete disorder of central and basal parts of the choanosoma of H. dujardini after each period of reproduction. Myxilla incrustans and I. piceus reproduce throughout the hydrological summer, but reproduction in H. dujardini is restricted to 3 weeks. The average life span of M. incrustans and I. piceus is more than 4 years, and that of H. dujardini is about 7-12 months. The data suggest that M. incrustans and I. piceus are K-strategists, whereas H. dujardini is an r-strategist.

  5. Optimization of bead milling parameters for the cell disruption of microalgae: process modeling and application to Porphyridium cruentum and Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Montalescot, V; Rinaldi, T; Touchard, R; Jubeau, S; Frappart, M; Jaouen, P; Bourseau, P; Marchal, L

    2015-11-01

    A study of cell disruption by bead milling for two microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata and Porphyridium cruentum, was performed. Strains robustness was quantified by high-pressure disruption assays. The hydrodynamics in the bead mill grinding chamber was studied by Residence Time Distribution modeling. Operating parameters effects were analyzed and modeled in terms of stress intensities and stress number. RTD corresponded to a 2 CSTR in series model. First order kinetics cell disruption was modeled in consequence. Continuous bead milling was efficient for both strains disruption. SI-SN modeling was successfully adapted to microalgae. As predicted by high pressure assays, N. oculata was more resistant than P. cruentum. The critical stress intensity was twice more important for N. oculata than for P. cruentum. SI-SN modeling allows the determination of operating parameters minimizing energy consumption and gives a scalable approach to develop and optimize microalgal disruption by bead milling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of flocculants on lipid extraction and fatty acid composition of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata and Thalassiosira weissflogii

    Borges, Lucelia; Moron-Villarreyes, Joaquin A.; D'Oca, Marcelo G. Montes; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interference of anionic and cationic flocculants in the lipid extraction and fatty acid profiles of two species of marine microalgae: Nannochloropsis oculata and Thalassiosira weissflogii. Cells were grown in batch cultures (f/2 medium, salinity of 28, temperature of 20 o C, light intensity of 40 μmol photons m -2 s -1 and 12/12 h L/D photoperiod) and concentrated using sodium hydroxide (control), sodium hydroxide and the anionic polyacrylamide flocculant Magnafloc ® LT-25 (APF treatment) and sodium hydroxide plus the cationic polyacrylamide flocculant Flopam ® (CPF treatment). There were no statistically significant differences among treatments with respect to lipid extraction for both species. However, N. oculata which presented higher percentages of C16:0, C16:1 and C20:5 fatty acids showed an increase of C14:0 and a decrease of C20:5 with the use of anionic flocculant. Additionally, T. weissflogii which had high percentages of C16:0, C16:1, C16:3 and C20:5, showed a decrease of C18:0 and C18:1n9c when both flocculants were used and a small decrease of C16:0 in the APF treatment. The results indicate that the choice of flocculant should be based on the level of saturation desirable, i.e., if the goal is to produce more stable biodiesel, with low percentage unsaturated fatty acids, then anionic flocculants should be used. On the other hand, if the aim is to produce unsaturated fatty acids for commercial uses in the pharmacy or food industries, then anionic polymers should be avoided. -- Highlights: → Interference of flocculants on biochemical of two marine microalgae. → Lipids extraction and fatty acids profile from Nannochloropsis oculata and Thalassiosira weissflogii. → No differences in the lipids but some differences on fatty acids profile.

  7. Effects of tributyltin on the chlorophyll contents of marine microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele, Nannochloropsis oculata and Dunaliella sp

    Rumampuk, Natalie D. C.; Rumengan, Inneke F. M.; Ohji, Madoka; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Three species of marine microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele, Nannochloropsis oculata and Dunaliella sp., the important phyto-plankton in many hatcheries, were used in an acute toxicity test of TBT with emphasis on the chlorophyll a and b contents. After a very short exposure time of three concentrations of TBT, 0.1, 0.5 and 1μgl^, the three species of algae showed different responses. The chlorophyll a and b contents of T. tetrathele in all treatments were higher than those in controls, even be ...

  8. Critical micelle concentrations of allelopathic substances produced by Nannochloris oculata which affect a red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve.

    Pérez, E; Martin, D F

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory cultures of the green algae Nannochloris oculata and Nannochloris eucaryotum are known to cause lysis of Gymnodinium breve, which is Florida's red tide organism. Two cytolytic agents were previously identified as methyl palmitate and methyl stearate. In this study, the critical micelle concentrations of these substances were determined by ultraviolet light and turbidimetric methods to be 3.5 +/- 0.3 ppm (methyl stearate) and 4.3 +/- 0.6 (methyl palmitate). There were no significant differences in results obtained using the two methods.

  9. Transesterification of Nannochloropsis oculata microalga's oil to biodiesel using calcium methoxide catalyst

    Teo, Siow Hwa; Islam, Aminul; Yusaf, Talal; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is an environmental friendly liquid fuel similar to conventional diesel in combustion properties. It has received international attention in recent times, as that biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic and safe to store. In this study, high grade biodiesel was produced from microalgae (Nannochloropsis oculata) derived lipids via transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of heterogeneous Ca(OCH 3 ) 2 (calcium methoxide) catalyst. The biodiesel was produced with high yield; (92%) at 60 °C compared to the highest yield reported as 22% with the use of a Mg–Zr catalyst. The product exhibited excellent performances. The catalyst was characterized by TG/DTA (thermogravimetric-differential thermal analyses), XRD (X-ray diffraction), BET (Brunauer – Emmett – Teller), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared), SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) analysis. The effect of different reaction parameters including reaction time, methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst dosage on the yield of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) was studied. Interestingly, the catalyst can be reused five times successively without affecting the biodiesel yield. Biodiesel produced from microalgae oil consists of high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, making it highly suitable as winter grade biodiesel. - Highlights: • Biodiesel synthesis from microalgae derived oil by Ca(OCH 3 ) 2 solid catalyst. • Studied effects of methanol/oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time. • Biodiesel yields >90% in 3 h using 12 wt.% catalyst, 30:1 methanol/oil at 60 °C. • Catalyst could be reused up to five times without significant lost of activity

  10. Reconstruction of family-level phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera using nuclear encoded housekeeping genes.

    Malcolm S Hill

    Full Text Available Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges.We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha, but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosa(p, Myxospongiae(p, Spongillida(p, Haploscleromorpha(p (the marine haplosclerids and Democlavia(p. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosa(p and Myxospongiae(p to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorpha(p+Spongillida(p+Democlavia(p. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillida(p are sister to Haploscleromorpha(p rather than part of Democlavia(p. Within Keratosa(p, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiae(p, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlavia(p, Tetractinellida(p, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis, was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlavia(p. Within Tetractinellida(p, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae, and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida.These results, using an independent nuclear gene set, confirmed

  11. Reconstruction of family-level phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) using nuclear encoded housekeeping genes.

    Hill, Malcolm S; Hill, April L; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C; Thacker, Robert W; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cárdenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rützler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E; Collins, Allen G

    2013-01-01

    Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosa(p), Myxospongiae(p), Spongillida(p), Haploscleromorpha(p) (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlavia(p). We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosa(p) and Myxospongiae(p) to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorpha(p)+Spongillida(p)+Democlavia(p). In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillida(p)) are sister to Haploscleromorpha(p) rather than part of Democlavia(p). Within Keratosa(p), we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiae(p), Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlavia(p), Tetractinellida(p), composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlavia(p). Within Tetractinellida(p), we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. These results, using an independent nuclear gene set

  12. Seven new deep-water Tetractinellida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Galápagos Islands –morphological descriptions and DNA barcodes

    Schuster, Astrid; Cárdenas, Paco; Pisera, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    , but little is known about the deep- and shallow-water sponge fau -nas. To date, only 70 sponge species have been described from the Galápagos Islands, 37 of which are endemic. Of these 70 species, only one shallow-water species of desma-bearing Tetractinellida (Demospongiae), Corallistes isabela , has been...

  13. Species-specific physiological response by the cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata to variations within their natural temperature range

    Naumann, Malik S.; Orejas, Covadonga; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC) Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata represent two major deep-sea reef-forming species that act as key ecosystem engineers over a wide temperature range, extending from the northern Atlantic (ca. 5-9 °C) to the Mediterranean Sea (ca. 11-13 °C). Recent research suggests that environmental parameters, such as food supply, settling substrate availability or aragonite saturation state may represent important precursors controlling habitat suitability for CWC. However, the effect of one principal environmental factor, temperature, on CWC key physiological processes is still unknown. In order to evaluate this effect on calcification, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) net flux, colonies of Mediterranean L. pertusa and M. oculata were acclimated in aquaria to three temperatures (12, 9 and 6 °C), by consecutive decrements of 1 month duration. L. pertusa and M. oculata maintained at Mediterranean control conditions (i.e. 12 °C) displayed constant rates, on average respiring 4.8 and 4.0 μmol O2 cm-2 coral surface area d-1, calcifying 22.3 and 12.3 μmol CaCO3 g-1 skeletal dry weight d-1 and net releasing 2.6 and 3.1 μmol DOC cm-2 coral surface area d-1, respectively. Respiration of L. pertusa was not affected by lowered temperatures, while M. oculata respiration declined significantly (by 48%) when temperature decreased to 9 °C and 6 °C relative to controls. L. pertusa calcification at 9 °C was similar to controls, but decreased significantly (by 58%) at 6 °C. For M. oculata, calcification declined by 41% at 9 °C and by 69% at 6 °C. DOC net flux was similar throughout the experiment for both CWC. These findings reveal species-specific physiological responses by CWC within their natural temperature range. L. pertusa shows thermal acclimation in respiration and calcification, while these mechanisms appear largely absent in M. oculata. Conclusively, species-specific thermal acclimation may significantly affect

  14. Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiae p) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy

    Cárdenas, Paco; Xavier, Joana R.; Reveillaud, Julie; Schander, Christoffer; Rapp, Hans Tore

    2011-01-01

    Background The Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiae p) is geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed. Systema Porifera currently includes five families in this order: Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae and Thrombidae. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies including Astrophorida species are scarce and offer limited sampling. Phylogenetic relationships within this order are therefore for the most part unknown and hypotheses based on morphology largely untested. Astrophorida taxa have very diverse spicule sets that make them a model of choice to investigate spicule evolution. Methodology/Principal Findings With a sampling of 153 specimens (9 families, 29 genera, 89 species) covering the deep- and shallow-waters worldwide, this work presents the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Astrophorida, using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene partial sequence and the 5′ end terminal part of the 28S rDNA gene (C1-D2 domains). The resulting tree suggested that i) the Astrophorida included some lithistid families and some Alectonidae species, ii) the sub-orders Euastrophorida and Streptosclerophorida were both polyphyletic, iii) the Geodiidae, the Ancorinidae and the Pachastrellidae were not monophyletic, iv) the Calthropellidae was part of the Geodiidae clade (Calthropella at least), and finally that v) many genera were polyphyletic (Ecionemia, Erylus, Poecillastra, Penares, Rhabdastrella, Stelletta and Vulcanella). Conclusion The Astrophorida is a larger order than previously considered, comprising ca. 820 species. Based on these results, we propose new classifications for the Astrophorida using both the classical rank-based nomenclature (i.e., Linnaean classification) and the phylogenetic nomenclature following the PhyloCode, independent of taxonomic rank. A key to the Astrophorida families, sub-families and genera incertae sedis is also included. Incongruences between our molecular tree and the current classification

  15. Increased lipids production of Nannochloropsis oculata and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel synthesis through the optimization of growth medium composition arrangement by using bicarbonate addition

    Dianursanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis oculata are a highly potential microalgae to be used in pilot-scale of biodiesel synthesis. The essential content from these microalgae is the fatty acid of lipid which is the main target for the feed and biodiesel industries. One of the key factor in improving lipid microalgae are the arrangemment of nutrients in the growth medium. Research on the regulation of nutrients using bicarbonate (HCO3- as an additional inorganic carbon source has been done by many studies, but the yield of lipids obtained has not been much. The aim of the study was to improve the lipid yield of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis oculata. Variation of [HCO3-] which added to Walne medium were 25 ppm and 75 ppm, while the Walne medium without the addition of bicarbonate acts as control. The results showed that [HCO3-] 75 ppm could increase Chlorella vulgaris biomass by 0.9162 g/l with 17.0% wt, while Nannochloropsis oculata produced the greatest lipid content in [HCO3-] 25 ppm of 20.3% wt and the largest biomass on [HCO3-] 75 ppm of 1.7233 g/l.

  16. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and anticholinesterase activities of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis oculata

    Ben Hafsa Mhammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is carried out to evaluate potential applications of aqueous extracts of two microalgae Isochrysis galbana (PEA and Nannochloropsis oculata (PEB containing mainly polysaccharides. The monosaccharide composition of microalgal extracts was determined. GC–MS analyses after derivatization show that glucose is the major compound in both microalgae PEA (56.88 % and PEB (68.23 %. Mannitol (38.8 % and inositol (20.32 % are respectively the second major compounds in PEA and PEB. Silylation of monosaccharides allows the determination of sorbitol that attained 3.38 % in PEB. The determination of antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties were also analyzed. Antioxidant activity was evaluated from the DPPH scavenging activity. PEA and PEB show a concentration dependent DPPH·radical scavenging activity. At concentration of 10 mg/mL, both PEA and PEB exhibit an antioxidant activity of 41.45 and 59.07 %, respectively. PEB and PEA are able to inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, Grampositive bacteria and three Candida species. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated on human HeLa cervical cancer cells. HeLa cell proliferation was totally inhibited after treatment with PEA and PEB (1 mg/mL and the inhibition was dose dependent (from 0.031 to 1 mg/mL. Their anticholinesterase activity was also investigated against butyrylcholinesterase enzymes. These polysaccharides possess interesting antimicrobial, anticancer and anticholinesterase activities that could represent an additional value for these microalgal products.

  17. Use of natural pH variation to increase the flocculation of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Sales, Rafael; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

    2015-02-01

    Microalgae is largely used in aquaculture as feed. More recently, these microorganisms have been considered as an important feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the concentration of produced biomass represents a large parcel of production costs. In this study, we have evaluated the influence of natural pH variation of culture medium, caused by photosynthetic activity, on the flocculation of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata. Experiments were conducted with the same culture with different pH values (8.5 and 9.6), obtained after exposing the cells to different light conditions. For each pH value, different treatments were composed by adding 0, 5, 10, and 30 mM of NaOH and the flocculant Flopam® (FO4800 SH) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, and 5 ppm. Higher flocculation efficiencies were obtained for the culture with pH 9.6 in comparison to 8.5 for the same NaOH and Flopam concentrations. Lower concentrations of base and flocculant were needed for flocculating the culture in higher pH, representing an economy of 20 % in the costs of crop harvesting.

  18. Two ;pillars; of cold-water coral reefs along Atlantic European margins: Prevalent association of Madrepora oculata with Lophelia pertusa, from reef to colony scale

    Arnaud-Haond, S.; Van den Beld, I. M. J.; Becheler, R.; Orejas, C.; Menot, L.; Frank, N.; Grehan, A.; Bourillet, J. F.

    2017-11-01

    The scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa has been the focus of deep-sea research since the recognition of the vast extent of coral reefs in North Atlantic waters two decades ago, long after their existence was mentioned by fishermen. These reefs where shown to provide habitat, concentrate biomass and act as feeding or nursery grounds for many species, including those targeted by commercial fisheries. Thus, the attention given to this cold-water coral (CWC) species from researchers and the wider public has increased. Consequently, new research programs triggered research to determine the full extent of the corals geographic distribution and ecological dynamics of ;Lophelia reefs;. The present study is based on a systematic standardised sampling design to analyze the distribution and coverage of CWC reefs along European margins from the Bay of Biscay to Iceland. Based on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) image analysis, we report an almost systematic occurrence of Madrepora oculata in association with L. pertusa with similar abundances of both species within explored reefs, despite a tendency of increased abundance of L. pertusa compared to M. oculata toward higher latitudes. This systematic association occasionally reached the colony scale, with ;twin; colonies of both species often observed growing next to each other when isolated structures were occurring off-reefs. Finally, several ;false chimaera; were observed within reefs, confirming that colonial structures can be ;coral bushes; formed by an accumulation of multiple colonies even at the inter-specific scale, with no need for self-recognition mechanisms. Thus, we underline the importance of the hitherto underexplored M. oculata in the Eastern Atlantic, re-establishing a more balanced view that both species and their yet unknown interactions are required to better elucidate the ecology, dynamics and fate of European CWC reefs in a changing environment.

  19. Alcalóides alquilpiridínicos de esponjas marinhas Alkylpyridine alkaloids from marine sponges

    Adaíla M. P. Almeida

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of alkylpyridine alkaloids originating from marine sponges is comprehensively reviewed, with emphasis on their natural occurrence, methods for their isolation, spectroscopic characterization, biological activities e chemical synthesis. A likely chemotaxonomic role is suggested, as markers for sponges of the Order Haplosclerida (Demospongiae.

  20. High Acidification Rate of Norwegian Sea Revealed by Boron Isotopes in the Deep-Sea Coral Madrepora Oculata

    Gonzalez, C.; Douville, E.; Hall-Spencer, J.; Montagna, P.; Louvat, P.; Gaillardet, J.; Frank, N.; Bordier, L.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming due to the increase of anthropogenic CO2 are major threats for marine calcifying organisms, such as deep-sea corals, particularly in high-latitude regions. In order to evaluate the current anthropogenic perturbation and to properly assess the impacts and responses of calcifiers to previous changes in pH it is critical to investigate past changes of the seawater carbonate system. Unfortunately, current instrumental records of oceanic pH are limited, covering only a few decades. Scleractinian coral skeletons record chemical parameters of the seawater in which they grow. However, pH variability over multidecadal timescales remains largely unknown in intermediate and deep seawater masses. Here we present a study that highlights the potential of deep-sea-corals to overcome the lack of long-term pH records and that emphasizes a rapid acidification of high latitude subsurface waters of Norwegian Sea during the past decades. We have reconstructed seawater pH and temperature from a well dated deep-sea coral specimen Madrepora oculata collected alive from Røst reef in Norwegian Sea (67°N, 9°E, 340 m depth). This large branching framework forming coral species grew its skeleton over more than four decades determined using AMS 14C and 210Pb dating (Sabatier et al. 2012). B-isotopes and Li/Mg ratios yield an acidification rate of about -0.0030±0.0008 pH-unit.year-1 and a warming of 0.3°C during the past four decades (1967-2007). Overall our reconstruction technique agrees well with previous pH calculations (Hönisch et al., 2007 vs. Trotter et al., 2011 and McCulloch et al., 2012, i.e. the iterative method), but additional corrections are here applied using stable isotope correlations (O, C, B) to properly address kinetic fractionation of boron isotopes used for pH reconstruction. The resulting pH curve strongly anti-correlates with the annual NAO index, which further strengthens our evidence for the ocean acidification rate

  1. Taxonomy of the Caribbean sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Porifera, Demospongiae, Axinellida), with the description of a new species.

    Zea, Sven; Pulido, Alejandra

    2016-05-25

    Although there is a long history of taxonomic investigation in Caribbean sponges, there are still many undescribed species. Furthermore, field observations and corroborating morphological analyses are revealing that what was believed to be single, somewhat variable species, may consist of two or more species, often easier to distinguish once well characterized. This is the case for Dragmacidon reticulatum (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Porifera, Demospongiae, Axinellida, Axinellidae), a rather well-known sponge, with an ample distribution and presence in rocky and reef environments of the tropical and subtropical Western Atlantic, with local records in the majority of the countries of the area, from Bermuda to Brazil. Field observations and a detailed review of material from different areas, including some type specimens, led us to the distinction of two different species in terms of external morphology, size of spicules, and skeletal architecture. The distinction was confirmed in the Bahamas and Santa Marta, Colombia, where the two species coexist. One of the species is Dragmacidon reticulatum sensu stricto, but for the other there is need to erect a new name, for which we propose Dragmacidon alvarezae n. sp. The purpose of the present work is to describe, illustrate and compare these two species.

  2. Growth and regeneration in cultivated fragments of the boreal deep water sponge Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 (Geodiidae, Tetractinellida, Demospongiae).

    Hoffmann, Friederike; Rapp, Hans Tore; Zöller, Tobias; Reitner, Joachim

    2003-01-23

    A cultivation method has been developed for the boreal deep-water sponge Geodia barretti (Demospongiae, Geodiidae), a species which is common in the deep Norwegian fjords. The species is known to contain secondary metabolites which are biologically active. Choanosomal fragments of 2-4 cm(3) (approximately 3-7 g) were kept in half-open systems. Cicatrisation and regeneration processes were surveyed by histological examination during 8 months of cultivation. During the first weeks, the weight of the fragments decreased. However, after about 6 weeks the weight equalled the original weight, and after 1 year the weight had increased by about 40% compared to the original weight. The initial decrease was due to complex healing processes and the regeneration of the cortex, a sterrastral layer typical for the family of the Geodiidae. We document, for the first time, the complete cortex reconstruction in an adult G. barretti, as well as the development of egg cells during cultivation. Our study represents the first attempt at biotechnological production of boreal sponge tissue. For successful farming of G. barretti and other boreal and arctic sponges, however, further investigation is needed on factors stimulating growth and secondary metabolite production in the target species.

  3. 210Pb-226Ra chronology reveals rapid growth rate of Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa on world's largest cold-water coral reef

    N. Tisnérat-Laborde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1 (2.6 polyps per year. Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr−1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years. We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost

  4. Scleractinia Oculinidae Madrepora Oculata

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data represent predicted habitat suitability for several taxa of deep-sea corals. Predictions were modeled using a statistical machine-learning algorithm called...

  5. Biogeochemical analysis of the calcification patterns of cold-water corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa along contact surfaces with calcified tubes of the symbiotic polychaete Eunice norvegica: Evaluation of a 'mucus' calcification hypothesis

    Oppelt, Alexandra; López Correa, Matthias; Rocha, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    The scleractinian cold-water corals (CWCs), including the species Madrepora oculata and especially Lophelia pertusa, have been studied extensively in an attempt to decipher environmental signals recorded during biomineralisation in order to extract environmental chronologies. However, understanding the mechanisms of carbonate precipitation is a prerequisite to interpret variations in geochemical signatures locked into the skeleton during coral growth; to date results are still inconclusive. Here a novel approach, comparing the calcification patterns within the coral microstructure of species L. pertusa and M. oculata and the geochemistry along the contact surfaces with calcified polychaete tubes is undertaken to provide additional information on the mechanisms of biomineralisation in colonial corals. The fact that no significant difference in microstructures, variations in growth rate, or geochemical composition between the corallite theca and the calcified polychaete tube was detectable leads to the conclusion that both have been deposited by the coral tissue in L. pertusa and M. oculata. Based on prior knowledge on the symbiotic relationship between CWCs and the polychaete Eunice norvegica, an involvement of mucus in the calcification of the parchment tubes had been suspected. However, we found only evidence for aragonite precipitated by coral tissue, without evidence for an involvement of mucus in the calcification.

  6. Evaluation of factors affecting on lipid extraction for recovery of fatty acids from Nannochloropsis oculata micro-algae to biodiesel production

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the appropriate method for dewatering and drying biomass and selecting a suitable organic solvent for lipid extraction. Methods: NannochloropsisOculata was cultured in Gillard F/2 medium and after reaching the end of the stationary growth phase, algal biomass was separated from aqueous by centrifuge and dried through three methods: Oven, Air-dried and Lyophilized. Soxhlet apparatus achieved lipid extraction of all samples: diethyl ether, n-hexane and n-pentane using three solvents. At each stage, the quantity and quality of the extracted lipids were determined by Gas Chromatography. Results: In all three drying methods, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid, and most significantly fatty acid composition of microalgae were extracted. The fatty acid composition of palmitic acid extracted by Diethyl ether was significantly more than the other two solvents. Maximum production of triglyceride was observed in Lyophilized and air-dried microalgae where lipid extraction was performed with diethyl ether solvents and are 75.03% and 76.72% of fatty acid. Conclusion: The use of Lyophilized method for dewatering and drying of biomass and Diethyl ether as solvent for the extraction of lipids from biomass, studied in this paper, as compared to other methods, had higher yields and researches proved that the production of biodiesel from microalgae’s lipid was more efficient.

  7. Simultaneous effect of nitrate (NO3- concentration, carbon dioxide (CO2 supply and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipids, carbohydrates and proteins accumulation in Nannochloropsis oculata

    Aarón Millán-Oropeza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from microalgae is a promising technology. Nutrient limitation and the addition of CO2 are two strategies to increase lipid content in microalgae. There are two different types of nitrogen limitation, progressive and abrupt limitation. In this work, the simultaneous effect of initial nitrate concentration, addition of CO2, and nitrogen limitation on biomass, lipid, protein and carbohydrates accumulation were analyzed. An experimental design was established in which initial nitrogen concentration, culture time and CO2 aeration as independent numerical variables with three levels were considered. Nitrogen limitation was taken into account as a categorical independent variable. For the experimental design, all the experiments were performed with progressive nitrogen limitation. The dependent response variables were biomass, lipid production, carbohydrates and proteins. Subsequently, comparison of both types of limitation i.e. progressive and abrupt limitation, was performed. Nitrogen limitation in a progressive mode exerted a greater effect on lipid accumulation. Culture time, nitrogen limitation and the interaction of initial nitrate concentration with nitrogen limitation had higher influences on lipids and biomass production. The highest lipid production and productivity were at 582 mgL-1 (49.7 % lipid, dry weight basis and 41.5 mgL-1d-1, respectively; under the following conditions: 250 mgL-1 of initial nitrate concentration, CO2 supply of 4% (v/v, 12 d of culturing and 2 d in state of nitrogen starvation induced by progressive limitation. This work presents a novel way to perform simultaneous analysis of the effect of the initial concentration of nitrate, nitrogen limitation, and CO2 supply on growth and lipid production of Nannochloropsis oculata, with the aim to produce potential biofuels feedstock.

  8. The infauna of three widely distributed sponge species (Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) from the deep Ekström Shelf in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte

    2014-10-01

    Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.

  9. Biomassa de microalgas : separação da microalga marinha nannochloropsis oculata por coagulação, floculação e flotação por ar dissolvido

    Cauã Brum Borges

    2014-01-01

    As microalgas são microrganismos fotossintetizantes que possuem uma alta produtividade por área e não necessitam de terrenos agriculturáveis, nem água agriculturável. Neste trabalho foi avaliado um processo de coleta com uso dos processos físico-químicos de coagulação, floculação e flotação por ar dissolvido (FAD) para a microalga marinha Nannochloropsis oculata. Uma varredura com coagulantes inorgânicos (Al2(SO4)3 e FeCl3), polieletrólitos catiônicos naturais (Veta Organic®, Tanfloc SL®, Tan...

  10. (Ridley, 1884) (Phylum: Porifera, Class: Demospongiae)

    Abstract—The distribution and abundance of the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda (Ridley, 1884) was investigated in a shallow lagoon (Albion) of. Mauritius (Western Indian Ocean). Sponge abundance and environmental parameters were assessed. Sponges in Albion lagoon were mostly distributed in the central part of ...

  11. Phylogenetic classification of the halichondrids (Porifera, Demospongiae)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Díaz, Maria Cristina; Pomponi, Shirley A.

    1990-01-01

    Using a multicharacter approach and numerical cladistic computer programs a phylogenetic analysis is made of a newly defined order Halichondrida (which includes all Halichondrida and parts of the Axinellida sensu Lévi, 1973), with emphasis on the newly defined family Halichondriidae (which includes

  12. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloris oculata in effluents of ...

    Luis Alfredo Ortega Clemente

    2015-01-27

    Jan 27, 2015 ... atmospheric environmental pollution (Ahmad et al., 2011;. Amaro et al., 2011). ... of microalgal biomass is waste water of production aquaculture, which ..... microalgae with the greatest potential as a generator of biodiesel.

  13. Mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase 1 phylogeny supports alternative taxonomic scheme for the marine Haplosclerida

    Raleigh, J.; Redmond, N.E.; Delahan, E.; Tropey, S.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Kelly, M.; McCormack, G.P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent molecular studies have shown that the sponge order Haploslcerida is polyphyletic as the freshwater sponges appear to be more closely related to other demosponges than they are to the marine haplosclerids. Within the marine haplosclerid clade relationships viewed via 18S and 28S rRNA gene

  14. Affinities of the family Sollasellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae). II. Molecular evidence

    Erpenbeck, D.; Hooper, J.N.A.; List-Armitage, S.E.; Degnan, B.M.; Wörheide, G.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    This is the second part of a revision and re-classification of the demosponge family Sollasellidae, and an example of a successful use of combined morphological and molecular data. Sollasella had been a poorly known, long forgotten taxon, placed incertae sedis in the order Hadromerida in the last

  15. Affinities of the family Sollasellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae). I. Morphological evidence

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Beglinger, E.; Erpenbeck, D.

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of Sollasella digitata Lendenfeld, 1888, up until the present assigned to its own family Sollasellidae Lendenfeld, 1887 in the order Hadromerida, and Raspailopsis cervicornis Burton, 1959, assigned to Raspailiidae Nardo, 1833 in the order Poecilosclerida, leads to the conclusion that both

  16. Affinities of the family Sollasellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae). II. Molecular evidence.

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; Hooper, J.N.A.; List-Armitage, S.E.; Degman, B.M.; Wördheide, G.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    This is the second part of a revision and re-classification of the demosponge family Sollasellidae, and an example of a successful use of combined morphological and molecular data. Sollasella had been a poorly known, long forgotten taxon, placed incertae sedis in the order Hadromerida in the last major revision of the demosponges. It has recently been suggested to belong to Raspailiidae in the order Poecilosclerida due to striking morphological similarities. The present analysis verified this...

  17. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response.

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions.

  18. Taxonomic and Functional Microbial Signatures of the Endemic Marine Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

  19. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

    Amanda Leigh Waters

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp. that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899 (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae. These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

  20. Effect of carbon limitation on photosynthetic electron transport in Nannochloropsis oculata

    Zavřel, Tomáš; Szabo, M.; Tamburic, B.; Evenhuis, C.; Kuzhiumparambil, U.; Literáková, Petra; Larkum, A. W. D.; Raven, J. A.; Červený, Jan; Ralph, P. J.

    Roč. 181, APR ( 2018 ), s. 31-43 ISSN 1011-1344 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : chlorophyll fluorescence * biomass production * in-vivo * energy * microalgae * algae * microorganisms * induction * apparatus * complex * Photosynthesis * Microalgae * Bioenergetics * Photobiology * Stress physiology * Photobioreactor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.673, year: 2016

  1. Countercurrent flow of supercritical anti-solvent in the production of pure xanthophylls from Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Cho, Yueh-Cheng; Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Lin, Justin Chun-Te; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Han, Esther

    2012-08-10

    This study examined pilot scaled elution chromatography coupled with supercritical anti-solvent precipitation (using countercurrent flow) in generating zeaxanthin-rich particulates from a micro-algal species. Ultrasonic agitated acetone extract subjected to column fractionation successfully yielded a fraction containing 349.4 mg/g of zeaxanthin with a recovery of 85%. Subsequently, supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) precipitation of the column fraction at 150 bar and 343 K produced submicron-sized particulates with a concentration of 845.5mg/g of zeaxanthin with a recovery of 90%. Experimental results from a two-factor response surface method SAS precipitation indicated that purity, mean size and morphology of the precipitates were significantly affected by the flow type configuration, feed flow rate and injection time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term experimental in situ farming of Crambe crambe (Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida).

    Padiglia, Andrea; Ledda, Fabio D; Padedda, Bachisio M; Pronzato, Roberto; Manconi, Renata

    2018-01-01

    The marine sponge Crambe crambe was chosen as an experimental model of sustainable shallow-water mariculture in the Sardinian Sea (Western Mediterranean) to provide biomass with high potential in applied research. Explants were cultured in four long-term experiments (19 and 31 months at ca. 2.5 m depth), to determine the suitability of new culture techniques by testing substrata and seeding time (season), and monitoring survival and growth. Explants were excised and grown in an experimental plant close to the wild donor sponge population. Percentage growth rate (GR%) was measured in terms of surface cover area, and explant survival was monitored in situ by means of a digital photo camera. Explant survival was high throughout the trial, ranging from 78.57% to 92.85% on travertine tiles and from 50% to 71.42% on oyster shells. A few instances of sponge regression were observed. Explant cover area correlated positively with season on two substrata, i.e., tiles and shells. The surface cover area and GR% of explants were measured in the starting phase and monitored up to the end of the trial. High GR% values were observed both on tiles (>21%) and on oyster shells (>15%). The data on the behaviour and life-style of cultured fragments, together with an increase >2,400% in cover area, demonstrate that in situ aquaculture is a viable and sustainable method for the shallow-water biomass supply of Crambe crambe .

  3. Long-term experimental in situ farming of Crambe crambe (Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida

    Andrea Padiglia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The marine sponge Crambe crambe was chosen as an experimental model of sustainable shallow-water mariculture in the Sardinian Sea (Western Mediterranean to provide biomass with high potential in applied research. Methods Explants were cultured in four long-term experiments (19 and 31 months at ca. 2.5 m depth, to determine the suitability of new culture techniques by testing substrata and seeding time (season, and monitoring survival and growth. Explants were excised and grown in an experimental plant close to the wild donor sponge population. Percentage growth rate (GR% was measured in terms of surface cover area, and explant survival was monitored in situ by means of a digital photo camera. Results Explant survival was high throughout the trial, ranging from 78.57% to 92.85% on travertine tiles and from 50% to 71.42% on oyster shells. A few instances of sponge regression were observed. Explant cover area correlated positively with season on two substrata, i.e., tiles and shells. The surface cover area and GR% of explants were measured in the starting phase and monitored up to the end of the trial. High GR% values were observed both on tiles (>21% and on oyster shells (>15%. Discussion The data on the behaviour and life-style of cultured fragments, together with an increase >2,400% in cover area, demonstrate that in situ aquaculture is a viable and sustainable method for the shallow-water biomass supply of Crambe crambe.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of organic extracts isolated from Aplysina fistularis (Demospongiae: Aplysinidae)

    Morales, Teobaldo; Cubero, Juan; Lanz, Zorina; Gomez-Guinan, Yrma; Segnini-Bravo, M. I.

    2000-01-01

    Organic extracts of the sponge Aplysina fistularis (Pallas 1766), were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and toxic activity of bioactive extract were determined. Susceptibility trials of organic fractions obtained by VLC. Hexane, EtOAc and CHCl 3 showed that EtOAc fraction has antibacterial activity against E. coli, while CHCl 3 fraction inhibited E. coli and S. aureus growth. The later refractioning of EtOAc fraction and the biodirected assays showed that fractions F12 and F13 of EtOAc/Hex and EtOAc F14 were bioactive against E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Only EtOAc/MeOH Sf 2 from subfractioning of EtOAc F14 produced inhibition for E. coli and S. aureus. In Sf2 EtOAc/MeOH, MIC was moderate for S. aureus (MIC > 256 μg/ml). F4 CHCl 3 /MeOH produced a high inhibition in S. aureus (MIC = 0.125 μg/ml) and for E. coli (MIC > 16 μg/ml). F10 CHCl 3 /MeOH showed a moderate activity against S. aureus (MIC > 128 μg/ml) and low activity against E. coli (MIC = 512 μg/ml). F10 CHCI 3 /MeOH did no present toxic activity against Artemia salina. The fractiorts F4 CHCI 3 /MeOH and Sf2 EtOAc/MeOH were toxic for this organism when the concentration was higher than 100 μg/ml. LC50 in both cases was 548.4 and 243.4 μg/ml respectively. The conclusion is that secondary metabolites of medium polarity obtained from A. fistularis have a wide spectrum of anti bacterial activity. Toxicity analysis suggests that only F10 CHCI 3 /MeOH has potential as an antimicrobial agent for clinical use. (author) [es

  5. Revision of the genus Placospongia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida, Placospongiidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    Becking, Leontine E

    2013-01-01

    Species of the genus Placospongia are common within the tropical Indo-West Pacific, demonstrating a wide variety of colors and either branching or encrusting growth forms. A revision of Indo-West Pacific Placospongia was undertaken based on a redescription of the holotypes of species of Placospongia from the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific and an examination of an additional 103 specimens of Placospongia ssp. collected from Indonesia (including Vosmaer and Vernhout 1902 material), Seychelles, India, Singapore and Micronesia. One mitochondrial (COI) and one nuclear (ITS) marker were subsequently used to differentiate species. All Placospongia species are characterized by selenasters and tylostyles in two size classes. The combination of microsclere diversity and morphology as well as megasclere size were shown to be informative morphometric characters, supported by molecular evidence. Live coloration and growth form is shown to be unreliable for diagnoses. The study of holotypes found that Placospongia mixta is a valid species and that two genus transfers are necessary: Geodinella anthosigma is a Placospongia and Placospongia labyrinthica is a Geodia. A new species is also described from an anchialine pool in Indonesia, Placospongia santodomingoae sp. n.; bringing the total fauna of Placospongia species in the Indo-West Pacific to five: Placospongia anthosigma, Placospongia carinata, Placospongia mixta, Placospongia melobesioides, and Placospongia santodomingoae sp. n. An identification key is given. Two additional species, possibly morphologically cryptic, have been identified by molecular markers.

  6. Revision of the genus Placospongia (Porifera, Demospongiae, hadromerida, Placospongiidae) in the Indo-West Pacific

    Becking, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    Species of the genus Placospongia are common within the tropical Indo-West Pacific, demonstrating a wide variety of colors and either branching or encrusting growth forms. A revision of Indo-West Pacific Placospongia was undertaken based on a redescription of the holotypes of species of Placospongia

  7. Revision of the genus Placospongia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida, Placospongiidae in the Indo-West Pacific

    Leontine Becking

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Placospongia are common within the tropical Indo-West Pacific, demonstrating a wide variety of colors and either branching or encrusting growth forms. A revision of Indo-West Pacific Placospongia was undertaken based on a redescription of the holotypes of species of Placospongia from the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific and an examination of an additional 103 specimens of Placospongia ssp. collected from Indonesia (including Vosmaer and Vernhout 1902 material, Seychelles, India, Singapore and Micronesia. One mitochondrial (COI and one nuclear (ITS marker were subsequently used to differentiate species. All Placospongia species are characterized by selenasters and tylostyles in two size classes. The combination of microsclere diversity and morphology as well as megasclere size were shown to be informative morphometric characters, supported by molecular evidence. Live coloration and growth form is shown to be unreliable for diagnoses. The study of holotypes found that P. mixta is a valid species and that two genus transfers are necessary: Geodinella anthosigma is a Placospongia and P. labyrinthica is a Geodia. A new species is also described from an anchialine pool in Indonesia, Placospongia santodomingoae sp. n.; bringing the total fauna of Placospongia species in the Indo-West Pacific to five: Placospongia anthosigma, Placospongia carinata, Placospongia mixta, Placospongia melobesioides, and Placospongia santodomingoae sp.n. An identification key is given. Two additional species, possibly morphologically cryptic, have been identified by molecular markers.

  8. ROCK inhibition abolishes the establishment of the aquiferous system in Ephydatia muelleri (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    Schenkelaars, Quentin; Quintero, Omar; Hall, Chelsea; Fierro-Constain, Laura; Renard, Emmanuelle; Borchiellini, Carole; Hill, April L

    2016-04-15

    The Rho associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK) plays crucial roles in development across bilaterian animals. The fact that the Rho/Rock pathway is required to initiate epithelial morphogenesis and thus to establish body plans in bilaterians makes this conserved signaling pathway key for studying the molecular mechanisms that may control early development of basally branching metazoans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not the main components of this signaling pathway exist in sponges, and if present, to investigate the possible role of the regulatory network in an early branching non-bilaterian species by evaluating ROCK function during Ephydatia muelleri development. Molecular phylogenetic analyses and protein domain predictions revealed the existence of Rho/Rock components in all studied poriferan lineages. Binding assays revealed that both Y-27632 and GSK429286A are capable of inhibiting Em-ROCK activity in vitro. Treatment with both drugs leads to impairment of growth and formation of the basal pinacoderm layer in the developing sponge. Furthermore, inhibition of Em-Rock prevents the establishment of a functional aquiferous system, including the absence of an osculum. In contrast, no effect of ROCK inhibition was observed in juvenile sponges that already possess a fully developed and functional aquiferous system. Thus, the Rho/Rock pathway appears to be essential for the proper development of the freshwater sponge, and may play a role in various cell behaviors (e.g. cell proliferation, cell adhesion and cell motility). Taken together, these data are consistent with an ancestral function of Rho/Rock signaling in playing roles in early developmental processes and may provide a new framework to study the interaction between Wnt signaling and the Rho/Rock pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Unravelling host and symbiont phylogenies of halichondrid sponges (Demospongiae, Porifera) using a mitochondrial marker

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; van der Velde, H.C.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first comparative phylogenetic analysis of a selected set of marine sponges and their bacterial associates. The Halichondrida for an important order in demosponge systematics and are of a particular interest due to the production of secondary metabolites. We sequenced a fragment of

  10. Systematic account of new Porifera (Demospongiae) records from the oceanic Island of Madeira (NE Atlantic).

    Pestana, Rosa; Ribeiro, ClÁudia; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Biscoito, Manuel

    2018-03-28

    Few surveys on benthic fauna have been performed on the island of Madeira (Alves et al. 2003 and references therein), and the first sponge specimens were collected opportunistically (Johnson 1863, 1899; Topsent 1904, 1928). Porifera can be considered one of the least studied phyla in the Madeira archipelago, within the Lusitanian province. This is not the case for other regions as the Mediterranean (Boury-Esnault 1971 and references therein), Alboran Sea (Carballo 1994), Canary Islands (Cruz 2002), and the Azores (Topsent 1904; Boury-Esnault Lopes 1985; Xavier 2009), where sponges have been more thoroughly studied.

  11. First European record of Haliclona loosanoffi Hartman, 1958 (Porifera, Haplosclerida), a species hitherto known only from the New England coast (U.S.A.)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1976-01-01

    An encrusting gemmuliferous haliclonid species is described from the Oosterschelde (S.W.- part of the Netherlands), which is demonstrated to be conspecific with Haliclona loosanoffi Hartman, 1958. This species was hitherto only known from the New England coast (U.S.A.). The species is compared with

  12. Esponjas (Porifera, Demospongiae da plataforma continental ao largo do Estado do Amapá, Brasil Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the continental shelf off the coast of Amapá State, Brazil

    Beatriz Mothes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As amostras foram coletadas com draga retangular ao largo da costa (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W, pela Comissão Pesca Norte I, em 1968, através da Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil com o N./Oc. " Almirante Saldanha" em profundidades que variaram de 56 a 95 m. Oito espécies são aqui registradas, entre as quais Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 e Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 são identificadas pela primeira vez para a costa brasileira. As demais espécies, Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 e Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 são conhecidas pela primeira vez para a área estudada. Todas as espécies identificadas são também registradas para o Caribe. Os espécimes encontram-se depositados na Coleção de Porifera do Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The collections were dredged off the coast (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W. They were collected between 56 to 95 depths, during an oceanographic expedition, Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil, by R/V " Almirante Saldanha" in 1968. Eight species are here registered, among which Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 and Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 represent new registers for Brazil. The other species: Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 and Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 represent new records to the studied area. All registered species are also known from Caribbean. Specimens are deposited in the Porifera Collection of the Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  13. Anti HSV-1 Activity of Halistanol Sulfate and Halistanol Sulfate C Isolated from Brazilian Marine Sponge Petromica citrina (Demospongiae)

    da Rosa Guimarães, Tatiana; Quiroz, Carlos Guillermo; Rigotto, Caroline; de Oliveira, Simone Quintana; Rojo de Almeida, Maria Tereza; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Moritz, Maria Izabel Goulart; Carraro, João Luís; Palermo, Jorge Alejandro; Cabrera, Gabriela; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The n-butanol fraction (BF) obtained from the crude extract of the marine sponge Petromica citrina, the halistanol-enriched fraction (TSH fraction), and the isolated compounds halistanol sulfate (1) and halistanol sulfate C (2), were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain) by the viral plaque number reduction assay. The TSH fraction was the most effective against HSV-1 replication (SI = 15.33), whereas compounds 1 (SI = 2.46) and 2 (SI = 1.95) were less active. The most active fraction and these compounds were also assayed to determine the viral multiplication step(s) upon which they act as well as their potential synergistic effects. The anti-HSV-1 activity detected was mediated by the inhibition of virus attachment and by the penetration into Vero cells, the virucidal effect on virus particles, and by the impairment in levels of ICP27 and gD proteins of HSV-1. In summary, these results suggest that the anti-HSV-1 activity of TSH fraction detected is possibly related to the synergic effects of compounds 1 and 2. PMID:24172213

  14. New records of Chondrilla australiensis and Chondrilla grandistellata (Demospongiae: Chondrosida: Chondrillidae from Havelock Island, South Andaman, India

    Titus Immanuel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Chondrilla is reported from the Andaman group of Islands off Havelock Island for the first time, with two species, C. grandistellata and C. australiensis in this study.  This genus has previously been reported and represented by four species in Indian waters viz., Chondrilla mixta, C. sacciformis, C. kilakaria and C. australiensis. C. australiensis is light brown to reddish-brown in colour; encrusts primarily on live boulder corals; contains oxyasters measuring 14.8-(18.5-22.2 µm and spherasters measuring 17.3-(26-29.7 µm. C. grandistellata is tan or brown in colour with unevenly distributed white speckles; Contains large spherasters that measure 106.3-(143.3-175.6 µm.  In this study it is suggested that C. sacciformis specimens reported previously from India may be C. grandistellata; this probable conspecificity is also discussed.  

  15. A new species of the sponge Raspailia (Raspaxilla) (Porifera: Demospongiae: Axinellida: Raspailiidae) from deep seamounts of the Western Pacific.

    Ekins, Merrick; Debitus, CÉcile; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Hooper, John N A

    2018-04-17

    A new species of Raspailia (Raspaxilla) frondosa sp. nov. is described from the deep seamounts of the Norfolk and New Caledonia Ridges. The morphology of the species resembles that of a frond or a fern, and its unique highly compressed axial skeleton of interlaced spongin fibres without spicules in combination with a radial extra axial skeleton of a perpendicular palisade of spicules, differentiate it from all other species of the subgenus. This species is compared morphologically to all 18 other valid species described in Raspailia (Raspaxilla).

  16. Diversity and biological activities of the bacterial community associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    Dupont, S; Carré-Mlouka, A; Descarrega, F; Ereskovsky, A; Longeon, A; Mouray, E; Florent, I; Bourguet-Kondracki, M L

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the cultivable microbiota of the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea was investigated, and its potential as a source of antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiplasmodial compounds was evaluated. The cultivable bacterial community was studied by isolation, cultivation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Twenty-three bacterial strains were isolated and identified in the Proteobacteria (α or γ classes) and Actinobacteria phyla. Furthermore, three different bacterial morphotypes localized extracellularly within the sponge tissues were revealed by microscopic observations. Bacterial strains were assigned to seven different genera, namely Vibrio, Photobacterium, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Ruegeria, Pseudovibrio and Citricoccus. The strains affiliated to the same genus were differentiated according to their genetic dissimilarities using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Eleven bacterial strains were selected for evaluation of their bioactivities. Three isolates Pseudovibrio P1Ma4, Vibrio P1MaNal1 and Citricoccus P1S7 revealed antimicrobial activity; Citricoccus P1S7 and Vibrio P1MaNal1 isolates also exhibited antiplasmodial activity, while two Vibrio isolates P1Ma8 and P1Ma5 displayed antioxidant activity. These data confirmed the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria associated with marine sponges as a reservoir of bioactive compounds. This study presents the first report on the diversity of the cultivable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior, frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the isolates has been investigated and allowed to select bacterial strains, confirming the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria as sources of bioactive compounds. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Macrofaunal assemblages associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862 (Porifera: Demospongiae) at the coasts of Cyprus and Greece.

    Pavloudi, Christina; Christodoulou, Magdalini; Mavidis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a dataset of macrofaunal organisms associated with the sponge Sarcotragus foetidus Schmidt, 1862, collected by scuba diving from two sampling sites: one in Greece (North Aegean Sea) and one in Cyprus (Levantine Sea). This dataset includes macrofaunal taxa inhabiting the demosponge Sarcotragus foetidus and contributes to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) which aims at filling the gaps in our current knowledge of the world's oceans. This is the first paper, to our knowledge, where the macrofauna associated with S. foetidus from the Levantine Basin is being recorded. In total, 90 taxa were recorded, from which 83 were identified to the species level. Eight of these species are new records for the Levantine Basin. The dataset contains 213 occurrence records, fully annotated with all required metadata. It is accessible at http://lifewww-00.her.hcmr.gr:8080/medobis/resource.do?r=organismic_assemblages_sarcotragus_foetidus_cyprus_greece.

  18. Influence of spatial competitor on the growth and regeneration of the marine sponge Cinachyrella cf. cavernosa (Porifera, demospongiae)

    Singh, A.; Thakur, N.L.

    of the competitor species, Z. sansibaricus. The protein synthesis ability (RNA to DNA ratio), which is an index for physiological activity was adversely affected by sponge size and competitor abundance. Results suggest that in a space-limited region, the presence...

  19. CO I barcoding reveals new clades and radiation patterns of Indo-Pacific sponges of the family Irciniidae (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida.

    Judith Pöppe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a promising tool to facilitate a rapid and unambiguous identification of sponge species. Demosponges of the order Dictyoceratida are particularly challenging to identify, but are of ecological as well as biochemical importance.Here we apply DNA barcoding with the standard CO1-barcoding marker on selected Indo-Pacific specimens of two genera, Ircinia and Psammocinia of the family Irciniidae. We show that the CO1 marker identifies several species new to science, reveals separate radiation patterns of deep-sea Ircinia sponges and indicates dispersal patterns of Psammocinia species. However, some species cannot be unambiguously barcoded by solely this marker due to low evolutionary rates.We support previous suggestions for a combination of the standard CO1 fragment with an additional fragment for sponge DNA barcoding.

  20. The morphological variability, distribution patterns and endangerment in the Ogulin cave sponge Eunapius subterraneus Sket & Velikonja, 1984 (Demospongiae, Spongillidae)

    Bilandžija, H.; Bedek, J.; Jalžić, B.; Gottstein, S.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and morphological variability of the troglobiotic freshwater sponge Eunapius subterraneus Sket & Velikonja, 1984 registered in Croatia as a threatened species in the IUCN category Endangered (EN) was investigated. The research area encompassed Velika and Mala Kapela Mountains as well as the upper catchment area of the Dobra and Mrežnica rivers on the NE side of Velika and Mala Kapela Mountains, mostly in the Ogulin–Plaški karst plateau. The species was registered in six local...

  1. Revised description of a poorly known Mediterranean Dictyoceratid bath sponge, Spongia (Spongia) zimocca (Schmidt, 1862) (Porifera: Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida)

    Castritsi-Catharios, J.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Kefalas, E.; Vacelet, J.

    2011-01-01

    Spongia (Spongia) zimocca (Schmidt, 1862) is a real problem for taxonomists. This is due to the fact that it exhibits a wide diversity of forms as well as similarities with other species of the genus. Nevertheless, professional sponge fishermen are able to recognize this species easily based on

  2. New species of Ulosa and Biemna (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) from the N-NE Brazilian continental shelf

    Mothes, B.; Hajdu, E.; Lerner, C.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Two new species collected off the coast between Amapa and Maranhao state, NNE coast of the Brazilian shelf. Two new species are described, Ulosa longimycalostylifera sp.nov. and Biemna microacanthosigma sp.nov. The former can be distinguished by the possession of long and thin mycalostyles, and the

  3. Temporal variation of the gammaridean fauna (Crustacea, Amphipoda associated with the sponge Mycale angulosa (Porifera, Demospongiae in southeastern Brazil

    Mariana Fernandes de Britto Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMarine sponges are advantageous microhabitats because of their complex architecture. The system of internal canals provides circulation of water and deposition of particulate organic matter, ensuring availability of food and shelter. Diminutive amphipods have little difficulty penetrating the spaces of sponges and remain in their aquiferous systems as one of the most abundant taxa in this association. This study evaluated the temporal variation of the gammaridean amphipod species associated with the sponge Mycale angulosa. Sponge samples were collected every three months over one year at Pontal da Cruz Beach, São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil. The amphipod assembly varied over time, while the amphipod density and sponge biomass remained approximately constant. Six species contributed to the temporal variation infaunal composition, highlighting the importance of the natural history of each species.

  4. Two new species of Aulospongus Norman, 1878 with a key to the Atlantic species (Poecilosclerida; Demospongiae; Porifera).

    Cavalcanti, Thaynã; Santos, George Garcia; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-07-03

    We describe two new species: Aulospongus trirhabdostylus sp. nov. and Aulospongus mandela sp. nov. from Potiguar Basin (Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil). Both species were compared with their congeners and an identification key for the Atlantic species of Aulospongus is provided. The genus Aulospongus now contains 16 species.

  5. PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY INDUCED IN TRANSPLANT EXPERIMENTS IN A MUTUALISTIC ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE RED ALGA JANIA ADHAERENS (RHODOPHYTA, CORALLINALES) AND THE SPONGE HALICLONA CAERULEA (PORIFERA: HAPLOSCLERIDA): MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE ALGA(1).

    Enríquez, Susana; Ávila, Enrique; Carballo, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    The association between the red macroalga Jania adhaerens J. V. Lamour. and the sponge Haliclona caerulea is the most successful life-form between 2 and 4 m depth in Mazatlán Bay (Mexican Pacific). J. adhaerens colonizes the rocky intertidal area and penetrates into deeper areas only when it lives in association with H. caerulea. The aposymbiotic form of the sponge has not been reported in the bay. To understand the ecological success of this association, we examined the capacity of J. adhaerens to acclimate in Mazatlán Bay using transplant experiments. The transplanted aposymbiotic J. adhaerens did not survive the first 2 weeks; however, J. adhaerens when living in association with H. caerulea, acclimated easily to depth, showing no sign of mortality during the 103 d of the experiment. We conclude that the ability of J. adhaerens to colonize in deeper areas in this hydrodynamic environment may in part rely on the protection provided by the sponge to the algal canopy. Both species contribute to the shape of the associated form. Nevertheless, the morphological variation in the association appears to be dominated by the variation in J. adhaerens canopy to regulate pigment self-shading under light-limited conditions and/or tissue resistance under high hydrodynamics. Consequently, our results are consistent with light as the abiotic controlling factor, which regulates the lower depth distribution of the association in Mazatlán Bay, through limiting the growth rate of J. adhaerens. Hydrodynamics may determine the upper limit of the association by imposing high mass losses. © 2009 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Ecology and distribution of two sympatric, closely related sponge species, Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) and H. bowerbanki Burton, 1930 (Porifera, Demospongiae), with remarks on their speciation

    Vethaak, A.D.; Cronie, R.J.A.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    1982-01-01

    North Atlantic coastal waters harbour two closely related sympatric sponges belonging to the genus Halichondria, viz. H. panicea and H. bowerbanki. From the study of their littoral and sublittoral microdistribution and ecology in the Oosterschelde area (= Eastern Scheldt, S.W. part of The

  7. A NGS approach to the encrusting Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida): transcriptome sequencing, characterization and overview of the gene expression along three life cycle stages.

    Pérez-Porro, A R; Navarro-Gómez, D; Uriz, M J; Giribet, G

    2013-05-01

    Sponges can be dominant organisms in many marine and freshwater habitats where they play essential ecological roles. They also represent a key group to address important questions in early metazoan evolution. Recent approaches for improving knowledge on sponge biological and ecological functions as well as on animal evolution have focused on the genetic toolkits involved in ecological responses to environmental changes (biotic and abiotic), development and reproduction. These approaches are possible thanks to newly available, massive sequencing technologies-such as the Illumina platform, which facilitate genome and transcriptome sequencing in a cost-effective manner. Here we present the first NGS (next-generation sequencing) approach to understanding the life cycle of an encrusting marine sponge. For this we sequenced libraries of three different life cycle stages of the Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans and generated de novo transcriptome assemblies. Three assemblies were based on sponge tissue of a particular life cycle stage, including non-reproductive tissue, tissue with sperm cysts and tissue with larvae. The fourth assembly pooled the data from all three stages. By aggregating data from all the different life cycle stages we obtained a higher total number of contigs, contigs with blast hit and annotated contigs than from one stage-based assemblies. In that multi-stage assembly we obtained a larger number of the developmental regulatory genes known for metazoans than in any other assembly. We also advance the differential expression of selected genes in the three life cycle stages to explore the potential of RNA-seq for improving knowledge on functional processes along the sponge life cycle. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Gulf of México, new records and redescription of Erylus trisphaerus (de Laubenfels, 1953).

    Ugalde, Diana; Gómez, Patricia; Simões, Nuno

    2015-01-19

    Marine sponges usually constitute the most diverse group of the benthic community in coral reefs. Although they are reasonably well studied at the northern Gulf of Mexico (GMx), the southern GMx is poorly known and lacks records from many major reef systems that lie off the Mexican coast. The present taxonomic study is the first sponge account from Alacranes reef, the largest coral reef system in the GMx, and from the shallow reef banks of Sisal, both in the northwest Yucatan Peninsula. The 19 species herein described represent the first sponge fauna records from these reefs. Among these, seven species represent new record for GMx: Erylus formosus, Cliona flavifodina, Spirastrella aff. mollis, Strongylacidon bermuda, Topsentia bahamensis, Agelas tubulata and Chelonaplysilla aff. erecta. Twelve species are new records for the Southern GMx: Erylus trisphaerus, Cliona amplicavata, Chondrilla caribensis, Halichondria lutea, Hymeniacidon caerulea, Axinella corrugata, Dragmacidon reticulatum, Chalinula molitba, Amphimedon caribica, A. complanata, Hyatella cavernosa and Dysidea variabilis. Additionally, a redescription of Erylus trisphaerus is presented which had not been reviewed since its original description in 1953 off Western Florida, except that it was listed for north La Habana, Cuba. 

  9. Molecular phylogenies confirm the presence of two cryptic Hemimycale species in the Mediterranean and reveal the polyphyly of the genera Crella and Hemimycale (Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida

    Maria J. Uriz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Sponges are particularly prone to hiding cryptic species as their paradigmatic plasticity often favors species phenotypic convergence as a result of adaptation to similar habitat conditions. Hemimycale is a sponge genus (Family Hymedesmiidae, Order Poecilosclerida with four formally described species, from which only Hemimycale columella has been recorded in the Atlanto-Mediterranean basin, on shallow to 80 m deep bottoms. Contrasting biological features between shallow and deep individuals of Hemimycale columella suggested larger genetic differences than those expected between sponge populations. To assess whether shallow and deep populations indeed belong to different species, we performed a phylogenetic study of Hemimycale columella across the Mediterranean. We also included other Hemimycale and Crella species from the Red Sea, with the additional aim of clarifying the relationships of the genus Hemimycale. Methods Hemimycale columella was sampled across the Mediterranean, and Adriatic Seas. Hemimycale arabica and Crella cyathophora were collected from the Red Sea and Pacific. From two to three specimens per species and locality were extracted, amplified for Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI (M1–M6 partition, 18S rRNA, and 28S (D3–D5 partition and sequenced. Sequences were aligned using Clustal W v.1.81. Phylogenetic trees were constructed under neighbor joining (NJ, Bayesian inference (BI, and maximum likelihood (ML criteria as implemented in Geneious software 9.01. Moreover, spicules of the target species were observed through a Scanning Electron microscope. Results The several phylogenetic reconstructions retrieved both Crella and Hemimycale polyphyletic. Strong differences in COI sequences indicated that C. cyathophora from the Red Sea might belong in a different genus, closer to Hemimycale arabica than to the Atlanto-Mediterranean Crella spp. Molecular and external morphological differences between Hemimycale arabica and the Atlanto-Mediterranean Hemimycale also suggest that Hemimycale arabica fit in a separate genus. On the other hand, the Atlanto-Mediterranean Crellidae appeared in 18S and 28S phylogenies as a sister group of the Atlanto-Mediterranean Hemimycale. Moreover, what was known up to now as Hemimycale columella, is formed by two cryptic species with contrasting bathymetric distributions. Some small but consistent morphological differences allow species distinction. Conclusions A new family (Hemimycalidae including the genus Hemimycale and the two purported new genera receiving C. cyathophora and Hemimycale arabica might be proposed according to our phylogenetic results. However, the inclusion of additional Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTUs appears convenient before taking definite taxonomical decisions. A new cryptic species (Hemimycale mediterranea sp. nov. is described. Morphologically undifferentiated species with contrasting biological traits, as those here reported, confirm that unidentified cryptic species may confound ecological studies.

  10. Hamacantha (Hamacantha) boomerang sp. nov. from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin, SW Atlantic, and redescription of H. (H.) schmidtii (Carter, 1882) (Hamacanthidae, Poecilosclerida, Demospongiae).

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Castello-Branco, Cristiana

    2014-01-08

    There are 22 species of Hamacantha registered from all over the world, and frequently from deep-waters, only two of which had previously been reported from the SW Atlantic. Here we describe a third species for this area, Hamacantha (H.) boomerang sp. nov., collected from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin (off Rio de Janeiro state). We found oxeas 271-630 µm long, diancistras in three size classes, 125-155, 45-69 and 20-29 µm, and toxas, 58-82 µm. This is the only Hamacantha combining oxeas and toxas, but the latter are very rare. The species approaches the Caribbean H. (H.) schmidtii (Carter, 1882), where we observed oxeas 390-495 µm long, and diancistras in three size classes, 109-124,  44-54 and 26-41 μm, however toxas appear to be absent. Both species are clearly distinct by micrometric values, as well as the overall morphology of the smaller diancistras, distinct from the intermediate category in the new species, but quite similar in H. (H.) schmidtii. Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula approaches the new species very closely in microsclere dimensions and morphology, but is set apart by its styloid and smaller megascleres.

  11. Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of Geodia species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region

    Cárdenas, Paco; Rapp, Hans Tore; Klitgaard, Anne Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic, namely G.nodastrella and G.cydonium (and its synonyms Cydonium muelleri and Geodia gigas). In this paper, we revise the boreo-arctic Geodia species using morphological, molecular, and biogeographical data. We notably compare northwest and northeast Atlantic specimens. Biological data.......atlantica, G.barretti, G.phlegraei, G.macandrewii). No morphological differences were found between specimens from the northeast and northwest Atlantic, except for G.parva. The Folmer cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) fragment is unique for every species and invariable over their whole distribution range......, except for G.barretti which had two haplotypes. 18S is unique for four species but cannot discriminate G.phlegraei and G.parva. Two keys to the boreo-arctic Geodia are included, one based on external morphology, the other based on spicule morphology.(c) 2013 The Linnean Society of London...

  12. Revision of the genus Latrunculia du Bocage, 1869 (Porifera : Demospongiae : Latrunculiidae) with descriptions of new species from New Caledonia and the Northeastern Pacific

    Samaai, T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available . Discovery report, Vol. 11, pp. 237–392. Burton, M. (1934a) Sponges. Scientific Report of the Great Barrier Reef, 4, 513–621 pls 1–2. Burton, M. (1940) Las esponjas marinas del museo Argentino de ciencias naturales. Anales del Museo Argentino de Ciencias...

  13. Long-chain aliphatic wax esters isolated from the sponge Chalinula saudensis (Demospongia along the Jeddah coast of the Red Sea

    Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Chalinula saudensis, which occurs along the Jeddah coast, has only recently been isolated and identified. In this study, the total crude organic matter of the sponge was extracted by solvents. The total crude extract was further separated by partitioning it with hexane and water, then with water and chloroform, and finally with water and t-butanol. The chloroform layer was subjected to separation by preparative layer chromatography on silica. One fraction contained four long-chain fatty acid esters, C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 and C36H70 O2. The second ester, C30H60O2, has been identified in the fire corals Millepora dichotoma and Millepora platyphylla. The others have not previously been reported from marine organisms; however similar long-chain esters with different long aliphatic chains and with different molecular weights have been identified from other marine organisms. These compounds are normally waxy and their presence in Chalinula saudensis plays a vital role in the biosynthetic pathways. They also act as insulators against seasonal variations.A esponja Chalinula saudensis ocorre ao longo da costa de Jeddah, Arabia Saudita, mas apenas recentemente foi isolada e identificada. No presente estudo a matéria orgânica total da esponja foi extraída por solventes e o extrato foi separado por partição sucessiva através do emprego de hexano e água, clorofórmio e água e finalmente t-butanol e água. A camada contendo clorofórmio foi então separada por cromatografia em sílica. Os resultados mostraram a presença de ésteres de quatro ácidos graxos de cadeira longa (C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 e C36H70O2, sendo que o segundo deles foi também identificado nos corais Millepora dichotoma e Millepora platyphylla. Não se tem evidência da presença dos demais compostos em outros organismos marinhos, embora haja relatos para ésteres semelhantes de cadeia longa, mas contendo diferentes cadeias alifáticas e diferentes pesos moleculares. Os compostos isolados em C. saudensis são geralmente ceras e sua presença na esponja tem importância não só nas rotas de biosíntese, mas servem como isolantes nas variações sazonais adversas.

  14. Segundo registro de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae com descrição do habitat e de assembléia, Bacia do Rio Paraná, Brasil Second register of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae with description of the habitat and of assembly, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Cecília Volkmer-Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta recente, no fundo rochoso do Rio Piquiri, Bacia do Paraná, Brasil, de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, uma espécie de esponja continental ameaçada, possibilitou o registro fotográfico de espécimes vivos, o aperfeiçoamento das ilustrações ao MEV e da descrição de algumas características, a descrição do habitat e o registro de uma assembléia de esponjas composta por S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, 1881 e Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli tem seu primeiro registro para águas brasileiras e para a Bacia do Paraná. Gêmulas de O. navicella são tambem ilustradas ao MEV.The recent discovery of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, a brazilian endangered freshwater sponge, at the rocky bottom of River Piquiri, Paraná Basin, Brazil, enhanced the photographing of living specimens, the improving of SEM illustration and description for some characteristics, the description of the habitat and the register of an sponge assembly composed by S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, l881 and Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli has its first register for Brazilian waters and for the Parana Basin. Gemmules of O. navicella are also SEM illustrated.

  15. Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia ...

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2013) > ... Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda (Phylum: Porifera, Class: Demospongiae) in a shallow lagoon of ...

  16. Grazing, differential size-class dynamics and survival of the Mediterranean sponge Corticium candelabrum

    Caralt, de S.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    The growth dynamics and survival of the sponge Corticium candelabrum (Demospongiae: Homosclerophorida) were surveyed in the northwestern Mediterranean for more than 3 yr. Growth and regeneration rates, fission and fusion events and survival were monitored monthly. Moreover, in situ punctual

  17. Antimicrobial properties of poriferan species from Indian waters

    Mokashe, S.S.; Tulaskar, A.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Poriferan species belonging to Class Demospongiae were collected from the rocky intertidal pools of Ratnagiri (Maharashtra, India) and extracted with methanol. The methanol extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six fouling...

  18. Freshwater sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae indicators of some coastal habitats in South America: redescriptions and key to identification Esponjas de água doce (Porifera, Demonspongiae indicadoras de alguns ambientes costeiros na América do Sul: redescrição e chave para identificação

    Cecilia Volkmer-Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Surveys for freshwater sponges were performed at several water bodies at sandy environments along a north-south direction of particularly the Brazilian coastal line. The results allowed for the distinction of four different species-specific environments along this coastal border. The main fact considered was the dominant or the sole recurrent occurrence of a single sponge species at one particular habitat. The first one is that of the lagoonal mesohaline habitats at the tropical and subtropical realms, indicated by Spongilla alba Carter, 1849. The second one refers to shallow ponds among dunes at the tropical area indicated by Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974. The third one is that of also shallow ponds close to the dune belt at the temperate region indicated by Racekiela sheilae (Volkmer-Ribeiro, De Rosa-Barbosa & Tavares, 1988. The fourth one is that of organically enriched environments, at the marginal areas of lagoons and mouth of small rivers, evolving towards freshwater muddy ponds and coastal swamps, not far from the ocean border: Ephydatia facunda Weltner, 1895 is the species to occupy this habitat with almost exclusiveness. The above species are thus proposed as indicators of such habitats and have their descriptions improved and that of their environments summarized. A taxonomic key based on the spicules of the four species is proposed. The results presented aim to contribute to the identification of spicules of these sponges in sediment columns recovered at the Brazilian and South American coastal area. Determination of paleo ocean borders are a present issue of upmost importance in what respects projections of timing and fluctuations of ascending/regressing sea levels.Levantamentos para detecção de esponjas dulcícolas foram conduzidos em diversos corpos d'água da faixa arenosa costeira, de norte a sul, particularmente no Brasil. Os resultados permitiram a distinção de quatro ambientes específicos em relação à presença de certas espécies, considerando-se como fator determinante a ocorrência recorrente, exclusiva ou preponderante de uma espécie nos tipos de habitats examinados. O primeiro grupo é o de habitats mesohalinos de lagunas, nas faixas tropical e subtropical, indicado por Spongilla alba Carter, 1849. O segundo é constituído por lagoas rasas, entre dunas, situado na faixa tropical, com a presença de Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974. O terceiro é o de lagoas/banhados, também rasos, vizinhos ao cordão de dunas, na região temperada, com Racekiela sheilae (Volkmer-Ribeiro, De Rosa-Barbosa & Tavares, 1988. O quarto é constituído por ambientes organicamente enriquecidos, nas áreas marginais de lagunas e proximidades de barras de pequenos rios, evoluindo para lagoas e banhados em processos de colmatação, com fundos lodosos, não distantes da borda oceânica, com a presença quase exclusiva de Ephydatia facunda Weltner, 1895. Essas espécies são por isto propostas como indicadoras de tais habitats, promovendo-se a ampliação de suas descrições e a caracterização sintética desses ambientes. É proposta chave para identificação baseada nas espículas dessas esponjas. Os resultados apresentados visam contribuir para a identificação de suas espículas em colunas de sedimentos recuperados em áreas costeiras do Brasil e da América do Sul. As determinações de paleobordas oceânicas integram estudos com alto grau de interesse no que respeita a projeções temporais e flutuações de níveis ascendentes/regressivos dos oceanos.

  19. Shallow-water Aplysina Nardo (Aplysinidae, Verongida, Demospongiae from the São Sebastião Channel and its environs (Tropical southwestern Atlantic, with the description of a new species and a literature review of other brazilian records of the genus

    Ulisses dos Santos Pinheiro

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Aplysina Nardo, 1834 are described in this article, Aplysina caissara sp. n. and A. fulva (Pallas, 1766. Additionally, a possible third species was identified as A. aff. cauliformis. Collections were done in the São Sebastião Channel area as an ongoing effort to assess the poriferan biodiversity of the northern sector of the São Paulo State coastline. Specimens were collected by scuba diving, and descriptions of external morphology are based on the observation of populations alive, and on extensive underwater photography. A literature review of other brazilian records of Aplysina was undertaken, and an ammended species list is offered.

  20. 78 FR 69376 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 19 Species and 3...

    2013-11-19

    ..., Squatina argentina, Squatina guggenheim, Squatina oculata, and Squatina squatina. Therefore, we will..., Mustelus schmitti, Squatina aculeata, Squatina argentina, Squatina formosa, Squatina guggenheim, Squatina..., 2009; White et al., 2010). As such, the life history and ecology of this species is largely unknown...

  1. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis Reduces Vibrio anguillarum in Cultures of Microalgae and Rotifers, and Prevents Vibriosis in Cod Larvae

    D'Alvise, Paul; Lillebø, Siril; Prol García, María Jesús

    2012-01-01

    -antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 10(7) cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio...

  2. Carbon conversion and metabolic rate in two marine sponges

    Koopmans, M.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Martens, D.; Egorova-Zachernyuk, T.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The carbon metabolism of two marine sponges, Haliclona oculata and Dysidea avara, has been studied using a 13C isotope pulse-chase approach. The sponges were fed 13C-labeled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) for 8 h and they took up between 75 and 85%. At different times, sponges were sampled for total

  3. An experimental study on food and salinity preferences of two ...

    Effects of feeding on four algal species (Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata, Isochrysis galbana and Scenedesmus obliques) at salinities of 5, 15 and 25 on the population growth parameters of two Iranian strains of the widespread rotifer species Brachionus plicatilis were examined. Maximum specific growth rate of ...

  4. Patterns of bacteria-host associations suggest different ecological strategies between two reef building cold-water coral species

    Meistertzheim, Anne.-Leila; Lartaud, Franck; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Bessalam, Manon; Le Bris, Nadine; Galand, Pierre E.

    2016-08-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) are main ecosystem engineers of the deep sea, and their reefs constitute hot-spots of biodiversity. However, their ecology remains poorly understood, particularly, the nature of the holobiont formed by corals with their associated bacterial communities. Here, we analyzed Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa samples, collected from one location in a Mediterranean canyon in two different seasons (autumn and spring), in order to test for species specificity and temporal stability of the host-bacteria associations. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed host-specific patterns of bacterial communities associated with L. pertusa and M. oculata, both in terms of community composition and diversity. All analyzed M. oculata polyps exhibited temporally and spatially similar bacterial communities dominated by haplotypes homologous to the known cnidarians-associated genus Endozoicomonas. In contrast, the bacterial communities associated with L. pertusa varied among polyps from the same colony, as well as among distinct colonies and between seasons. While the resilient consortium formed by M. oculata and its bacterial community fit the definition of holobiont, the versatility of the L. pertusa microbiome suggests that this association is more influenced by the environmental conditions or nutritional status. Our results thus highlight distinct host/microbes association strategies for these two closely related Scleractinians sharing the same habitat, suggesting distinct sensitivity to environmental change.

  5. Nuevos registros con notas ecológicas y taxonómicas de esponjas dulceacuícolas (Porifera, Spongillidae) en la cuenca del Duero

    Morales, Javier; Negro, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the knowledge of freshwater sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spongillidae) of the Douro River watershed. Specimens were found in 24 of 32 transects in 16 sampling stations. Distribution and several ecological data were obtained in 25 wadeable river transects (20+/5−) and 7 deep lakes (4+/3−) of six sub-basins of the northern Iberian plateau. Four species (Ephydatia fluviatilis, E. muelleri, Heteromeyenia baileyi and Spongilla lacustris) were recorded throughout ...

  6. The potential of achiral sponge-derived and synthetic bromoindoles as selective cytotoxins against PANC-1 tumor cells.

    Lorig-Roach, Nicholas; Hamkins-Indik, Frances; Johnson, Tyler A; Tenney, Karen; Valeriote, Frederick A; Crews, Phillip

    2018-01-11

    Our quest to isolate and characterize natural products with in vitro solid tumor selectivity is driven by access to repositories of Indo-Pacific sponge extracts. In this project an extract of a species of Haplosclerida sponge obtained from the US NCI Natural Products Repository displayed, by in vitro disk diffusion assay (DDA) and IC 50 determinations, selective cytotoxicity with modest potency to a human pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1) relative to the human lymphoblast leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM). Two brominated indoles, the known 6-bromo conicamin ( 1 ) and the new derivative, 6-Br-8-keto-conicamin A ( 2 ), were identified and 2 (IC 50 1.5 μM for the natural product vs 4.1 μM for the synthetic material) was determined to be responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the extract against the PANC-1 tumor cell line. The new natural product and ten additional analogs were prepared for further SAR testing.

  7. The Role of Forkhead Genes in Ascidian Development

    Olsen, Catherine L.

    1998-01-01

    Two modes of development have been observed in ascidians: tailed species produce a larva featuring a tail with notochord, spinal cord, and rows of muscle cells, as well as a pigmented otolith sensory organ in the brain, while tailless species produce a larva lacking the tail and otolith. Investigation of the closely related ascidian species Molgula oculata (tailed) and Molgula occulta (tailless), as well as hybrids produced by their cross-fertilization and exhibiting a tail and otolith, has p...

  8. Cold-water coral ecosystems in Cassidaigne Canyon: An assessment of their environmental living conditions

    Fabri, Marie-claire; Bargain, Annaelle; Pairaud, Ivane; Pedel, Laura; Taupier-letage, I.

    2017-01-01

    The Cassidaigne canyon is one of the two canyons (together with Lacaze-Duthiers) of the French Mediterranean coast in which cold-water corals have settled and formed large colonies, providing a structural habitat for other species. Nevertheless, the communities settled in the Cassidaigne canyon are physically impacted by discharges of bauxite residues. New information on the distribution of the species Madrepora oculata and the associated species diversity in Cassidaigne canyon was provid...

  9. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    Fabri, Marie-claire; Pedel, Laura; Beuck, L.; Galgani, Francois; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in...

  10. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    Leenawaty Limantara3); Budhi Prasetyo1); AB. Susanto2); Helly de Fretes1)*

    2012-01-01

    Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarez...

  11. Microalgal Species Selection for Biodiesel Production Based on Fuel Properties Derived from Fatty Acid Profiles

    Md. Nurun Nabi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are influenced by structural features of the fatty acids, such as chain length, degree of unsaturation and branching of the carbon chain. This study investigated if microalgal fatty acid profiles are suitable for biodiesel characterization and species selection through Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA analysis. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profiles were used to calculate the likely key chemical and physical properties of the biodiesel [cetane number (CN, iodine value (IV, cold filter plugging point, density, kinematic viscosity, higher heating value] of nine microalgal species (this study and twelve species from the literature, selected for their suitability for cultivation in subtropical climates. An equal-parameter weighted (PROMETHEE-GAIA ranked Nannochloropsis oculata, Extubocellulus sp. and Biddulphia sp. highest; the only species meeting the EN14214 and ASTM D6751-02 biodiesel standards, except for the double bond limit in the EN14214. Chlorella vulgaris outranked N. oculata when the twelve microalgae were included. Culture growth phase (stationary and, to a lesser extent, nutrient provision affected CN and IV values of N. oculata due to lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA contents. Application of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA weighting to saturation led to a lower ranking of species exceeding the double bond EN14214 thresholds. In summary, CN, IV, C18:3 and double bond limits were the strongest drivers in equal biodiesel parameter-weighted PROMETHEE analysis.

  12. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea.

    Claudio Stalder

    Full Text Available Cold-water coral (CWC ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago. However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents.

  13. The Role of Epibionts of Bacteria of the Genus Pseudoalteromonas and Cellular Proteasomes in the Adaptive Plasticity of Marine Cold-Water Sponges.

    Kravchuk, O I; Lavrov, A I; Finoshin, A D; Gornostaev, N G; Georgiev, A A; Abaturova, S B; Mikhailov, V S; Lyupina, Yu V

    2018-03-01

    It was found that cells of different color morphs of the cold-water marine sponges Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) of the class Demospongiae differ in the content of epibionts of bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas. The sponge cells with elevated levels of epibionts of bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas showed an increased expression of Hsp70 proteins but had a reduced level of the proteasomal catalytic beta 5 subunit, which was accompanied by a change in their activity. Probably, epibionts of bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas may affect the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the cells of cold-water marine sponges and, thereby, ensure their adaptive plasticity.

  14. Evolutionary loss of melanogenesis in the tunicate Molgula occulta

    Claudia Racioppi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyzing close species with diverse developmental modes is instrumental for investigating the evolutionary significance of physiological, anatomical and behavioral features at a molecular level. Many examples of trait loss are known in metazoan populations living in dark environments. Tunicates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates and typically present a lifecycle with distinct motile larval and sessile adult stages. The nervous system of the motile larva contains melanized cells associated with geotactic and light-sensing organs. It has been suggested that these are homologous to vertebrate neural crest-derived melanocytes. Probably due to ecological adaptation to distinct habitats, several species of tunicates in the Molgulidae family have tailless (anural larvae that fail to develop sensory organ-associated melanocytes. Here we studied the evolution of Tyrosinase family genes, indispensible for melanogenesis, in the anural, unpigmented Molgula occulta and in the tailed, pigmented Molgula oculata by using phylogenetic, developmental and molecular approaches. Results We performed an evolutionary reconstruction of the tunicate Tyrosinase gene family: in particular, we found that M. oculata possesses genes predicted to encode one Tyrosinase (Tyr and three Tyrosinase-related proteins (Tyrps while M. occulta has only Tyr and Tyrp.a pseudogenes that are not likely to encode functional proteins. Analysis of Tyr sequences from various M. occulta individuals indicates that different alleles independently acquired frameshifting short indels and/or larger mobile genetic element insertions, resulting in pseudogenization of the Tyr locus. In M. oculata, Tyr is expressed in presumptive pigment cell precursors as in the model tunicate Ciona robusta. Furthermore, a M. oculata Tyr reporter gene construct was active in the pigment cell precursors of C. robusta embryos, hinting at conservation of the regulatory network underlying

  15. Sponge fossils of Middle Dnieper River Upper Eocenian deposits (geological survey sheet area «Kobelyaki»

    Stephanska T.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the first time sponge spicules of the Paleogene on the geological survey sheet area «Kobelyaki» were studied. Using artificial classification M.M. Ivanik (2003 45 taxa spicules were found in rocks. Morphological types spicules were defined. In the complexes following megascleres of «soft» Demospongiae are dominant: pro-, plagio-, ortho-, dicho-, anatriaenes, caltrops, smooth and echinated oxeas, subtylostyls, strongyls, ophioxeas. Diaenes, monenes, caltrops with reduced beam (olimtriaenes, are less common. Microscleres are numerous: sterrasters, sphaerasters, oxysphaerasters, oxyasters. Fragments of dyctional gratings without lychnisks and free spicules of hexactinellid sponges are frequent (pentactines, hexactines. Megascleres of lithistid sponges (phyllotriaenes, tetracrepid desmas, triders, megaclones, dicranoclones are relatively few. The palaeocenosis structure that existed in the Obukhov Sea on this area, it was found by morphological analysis of sponges spicules. In the Obukhov time following sponges dominated here: «soft» sponges with unrelated skeleton that belonged to the class Demospongiae (orders Poecilosclerida, Astrophorida and families Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae, Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Tethyidae, Crellidae and hexactinellids of class Hexactinellida (orders Hexactinosida and Lyssacinosida. А few sponges spicules (belonged to the subclass Lithistida, families Corallistidae, Theonellidae, Phymaraphiniidae, Chenendoporidae, Pleromidae and lack lithistid skeletal gratings fragments in the studied complexes may indicate a desmas transfer from neighboring, a shallow Obukhov stations, which were confined to the nearby slope of the Ukrainian Shield. On the base of sponge spicules studying the Late Eocene (Obukhov age of surrounding deposits is proved. spongе spicula, Upper Eocene, Obuchovian Suite, Middle Dnieper region.

  16. Effect of Kind and Dosage of Enrichment Materials on the Nutritional Quality of Rotifers Especially n3-HUFA

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the quality of rotifer enriched with four  kinds of enrichement materials from the stand point of essensial fatty acids. Rotifer was enriched at 24 - 25oC for 18 hours at a density of 1000 ind/ml.  Rotifers were treated by four kinds of enrichment materials such as oleic acid (R-OA, two different density of Nannochloropsis oculata, (4x107 and 16x107 cell/ml; R-N18 and R-N42 two different levels of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA triglyceride type (EPA-TAG (20 and 40 ml/ml; R-E20, R-E40 and two different level of EPA ethyl ester (EPA-EE (R-EE25 and R-EE50% respectively. Rotifers enriched with Nannochloropsis oculata and EPA-EE type have a similar profile of essensial fatty acid especially on n3-HUFA that dominated by EPA, while DHA was in a trace amount or not detected.  In addition Nannochloropsis oculata as an enrichment material showed the highest population density of rotifers during enrichment periods.  Rotifer enriched with EPA-TAG has a more complete of essential fatty acid profile compared to other enrichment materials due to their contained both of EPA and DHA. We conclude that rotifer enriched with EPA-TAG as enrichment material showed the best nutritional quality of rotifers from the stand point of essential fatty acid. Key words :  Rotifers, enrichment, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosaheksaenoic acid,  n3-HUFA   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui profil asam lemak rotifera yang diperkaya dengan berbagai macam jenis dan dosis pengkaya. Rotifera dengan kepadatan 1000 ind./ml diperkaya dengan bebagai bahan pengkaya seperti asam oleat (R-OA; Nannochloropsis oculata dengan kepadatan 4x107 dan 16x107 sel/ml (R-N18 dan R-N42; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA tipe triglicerida (EPA-TAG  dengan dosis 20 dan 40 μl (R-E20 dan R-E40 dan EPA tipe ethyl esther (EPA-EE  dengan dosis 25 dan 50 μl per liter (R-EE25 and R-EE50%. Rotifera diperkaya selama 18 jam pada suhu 24-25oC. Rotifera yang

  17. Brachyury expression in tailless Molgulid ascidian embryos.

    Takada, Norio; York, Jonathan; Davis, J Muse; Schumpert, Brenda; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi; Satoh, Nori; Swalla, Billie J

    2002-01-01

    The T-box transcription factor gene Brachyury is important for the differentiation of notochord in all chordates, including the ascidians Halocynthia roretzi and Ciona intestinalis. We isolated Brachyury from molgulid ascidians, which have evolved tailless larvae multiple times independently, and found the genes appear functional by cDNA sequence analyses. We then compared the expression of Mocu-Bra in tailed Molgula oculata embryos to two tailless species, Molgula occulta (Mocc-Bra) and Molgula tectiformis (Mt-Bra). Here we show that both tailless species express Brachyury in the notochord lineage during embryogenesis. Initial expression of Mocu-Bra is normal in tailed M. oculata embryos; 10 precursor notochord cells divide twice to result in 40 notochord cells that converge and extend to make a notochord down the center of the tail. In contrast, in tailless Molgula occulta, Mocc-Bra expression disappears prematurely, and there is only one round of division, resulting in 20 cells in the final notochord lineage that never converge or extend. In M. occulta x M. oculata hybrid embryos, expression of Mocu-Bra is prolonged, and the embryos form a tail with 20 notochord cells that converge and extend normally. However, in Molgula tectiformis, a different tailless ascidian, Mt-Bra was expressed only in the 10 notochord precursor cells, which never divide, converge, or extend. In summary, neither Brachyury function nor the early establishment of the notochord lineage appears to be impaired in tailless embryos. In light of these results, we are continuing to investigate how and why notochord development is lost in tailless molgulid ascidian embryos.

  18. Low incidence of clonality in cold water corals revealed through the novel use of a standardized protocol adapted to deep sea sampling

    Becheler, Ronan; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Noël, Philippe; Mouchel, Olivier; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2017-11-01

    Sampling in the deep sea is a technical challenge, which has hindered the acquisition of robust datasets that are necessary to determine the fine-grained biological patterns and processes that may shape genetic diversity. Estimates of the extent of clonality in deep-sea species, despite the importance of clonality in shaping the local dynamics and evolutionary trajectories, have been largely obscured by such limitations. Cold-water coral reefs along European margins are formed mainly by two reef-building species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Here we present a fine-grained analysis of the genotypic and genetic composition of reefs occurring in the Bay of Biscay, based on an innovative deep-sea sampling protocol. This strategy was designed to be standardized, random, and allowed the georeferencing of all sampled colonies. Clonal lineages discriminated through their Multi-Locus Genotypes (MLG) at 6-7 microsatellite markers could thus be mapped to assess the level of clonality and the spatial spread of clonal lineages. High values of clonal richness were observed for both species across all sites suggesting a limited occurrence of clonality, which likely originated through fragmentation. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation analysis underlined the possible occurrence of fine-grained genetic structure in several populations of both L. pertusa and M. oculata. The two cold-water coral species examined had contrasting patterns of connectivity among canyons, with among-canyon genetic structuring detected in M. oculata, whereas L. pertusa was panmictic at the canyon scale. This study exemplifies that a standardized, random and georeferenced sampling strategy, while challenging, can be applied in the deep sea, and associated benefits outlined here include improved estimates of fine grained patterns of clonality and dispersal that are comparable across sites and among species.

  19. miRNA Repertoires of Demosponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2016-02-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that are involved in many biological process in eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in modulating genetic expression of their targets, which makes them integral components of transcriptional regulatory networks. As sponges (phylum Porifera) are commonly considered the most basal metazoan, the in-depth capture of miRNAs from these organisms provides additional clues to the evolution of miRNA families in metazoans. Here, we identified the core proteins involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs, and obtained evidence for bona fide miRNA sequences for two marine sponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria (11 and 19 respectively). Our analysis identified several miRNAs that are conserved amongst demosponges, and revealed that all of the novel miRNAs identified in these two species are specific to the class Demospongiae.

  20. miRNA Repertoires of Demosponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria

    Liew, Yi Jin; Ryu, Tae Woo; Aranda, Manuel; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that are involved in many biological process in eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in modulating genetic expression of their targets, which makes them integral components of transcriptional regulatory networks. As sponges (phylum Porifera) are commonly considered the most basal metazoan, the in-depth capture of miRNAs from these organisms provides additional clues to the evolution of miRNA families in metazoans. Here, we identified the core proteins involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs, and obtained evidence for bona fide miRNA sequences for two marine sponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria (11 and 19 respectively). Our analysis identified several miRNAs that are conserved amongst demosponges, and revealed that all of the novel miRNAs identified in these two species are specific to the class Demospongiae.

  1. Zoogeografía de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de la costa de Chile: contribución para la conservación marina Zoogeography of benthic macroinvertebrates of the Chilean coast: contribution for marine conservation

    DOMINGO A. LANCELLOTTI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad de macroinvertebrados marinos ha recibido una atención creciente, no obstante, con un escaso tratamiento en el contexto biogeográfico. Este estudio analiza los registros de 1.601 especies de macroinvertebrados bentónicos pertenecientes a: Demospongiae, Anthozoa, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata y Ascideacea, agrupados en 10 zonas y tratados desde una perspectiva zoogeográfica. Mollusca (611 especies, Polychaeta (403 y Crustacea (370 corresponden a los grupos mejor representados a lo largo de la costa chilena, determinantes en el patrón global de la biodiversidad. Este aumenta suavemente de norte a sur, interrumpido por máximos que sugieren esfuerzos diferenciales de estudio más que un comportamiento natural de la biodiversidad. El grado de agrupamiento entre las zonas muestra las tres unidades biogeográficas definidas recientemente por Lancellotti & Vásquez. Este arreglo, que representa lo exhibido por los grupos más diversos, se ve alterado en los grupos menos representados donde las diferencias obedecen al patrón de afinidades mostradas por las zonas comprendidas dentro de la Región Templada Transicional. El quiebre zoogeográfico alrededor de los 41º S, sugerido largamente en la literatura, sólo ocurre en Echinodermata y Demospongiae, evidenciando en los otros taxa la existencia de un área de transición entre los 35º y 48º S, caracterizada por un reemplazo gradual de especies. Dentro de las regiones la biodiversidad muestra homogeneidad, contrario al endemismo, el que alcanza un máximo de 52% en la Región Templada Fría y que parece ser consecuencia del alto número de especies con registros únicos (38,2% de especies citadas para una sóla zona. Esto sugiere un desconocimiento de los macroinvertebrados chilenos (distribución y diversidad, sobrestimando el endemismo regional y distorsionando los patrones locales de biodiversidadThe diversity of marine macroinvertebrates has received increasing

  2. Heavy metal distribution in organic and siliceous marine sponge tissues measured by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Scarponi, G

    2016-10-15

    May sponge spicules represent a "tank" to accumulate heavy metals? In this study we test this hypothesis determining the distribution of Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations between organic and siliceous tissues in Antarctic Demospongia (Sphaerotylus antarcticus, Kirkpatrikia coulmani and Haliclona sp.) and in the Mediterranean species Petrosia ficiformis. Results show that although, in these sponges, spicules represent about 80% of the mass content, the accumulation of pollutant is lower in the spicules than in the corresponding organic fraction. The contribution of tissues to the total sponge content of Cd, Pb and Cu is respectively 99%, 82% and 97% for Antarctic sponges and 96%, 95% and 96% for P. ficiformis, similar in polar and temperate organisms. These results pave the way to a better understanding of the role of marine sponges in uptaking heavy metals and to their possible use as monitor of marine ecosystems, recommend by the Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. BIOREMOVAL OF LEAD IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER BY MICROALGAE

    M. RANITHA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metals from our environment especially wastewater is now shifting from the use of conventional removal method such as chemical precipitation, coagulation and membrane filtration to the use of bioremoval method. The presence of heavy metals in the environment is of major concern because of their toxicity, bioaccumulating tendency, and threat to human life and the environment. In recent years, many low cost sorbents such as microalgae, fungi bacteria and lignocellulosic agricultural by-products have been investigated for their biosorption capacity towards heavy metals. In this project, the focus is on bioremoval of heavy metals in wastewater using marine microalgae. The study will be emphasize on the efficiency of two marine microalgae named Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis chuii in treating the Lead (Pb content in industrial wasterwater. An experiment on the effect of various Pb concentration (10/20/40/60/80/100mg/L towards the microalgae has been studied. The obtained result showed that the content of chlorophyll-A in the microalgae sample, after 7 days of exposures to Pb, decreased as the Pb concentration increased. Besides that, Tetraselmis chuii was found to be more sensitive compared to Nannochloropsis oculata where both were able to tolerate the Pb concentration of up to only 20mg/L and 60mg/L, respectively.

  4. Resistance of Two Mediterranean Cold-Water Coral Species to Low-pH Conditions

    Juancho Movilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water ecosystems are characterized by relatively low carbonate concentration values and, due to ocean acidification (OA, these habitats might be among the first to be exposed to undersaturated conditions in the forthcoming years. However, until now, very few studies have been conducted to test how cold-water coral (CWC species react to such changes in the seawater chemistry. The present work aims to investigate the mid-term effect of decreased pH on calcification of the two branching CWC species most widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. No significant effects were observed in the skeletal growth rate, microdensity and porosity of both species after 6 months of exposure. However, while the calcification rate of M. oculata was similar for all colony fragments, a heterogeneous skeletal growth pattern was observed in L. pertusa, the younger nubbins showing higher growth rates than the older ones. A higher energy demand is expected in these young, fast-growing fragments and, therefore, a reduction in calcification might be noticed earlier during long-term exposure to acidified conditions.

  5. Effects of different algae in diet on growth and interleukin (IL-10 production of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Md Anisuzzaman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different algae in diet on growth, survival, and interleukin-10 productions of sea cucumber. At first, a 9-week feeding trail was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and survival of the sea cucumber fed one of the six experimental diets containing ST (Sargassum thunbergii, UL (Ulva lactuca, UP (Undaria pinnatifida, LJ (Laminaria japonica, SS (Schizochytrium sp., and NO (Nannochloropsis oculata in a recirculating aquaculture system. The result showed that survival was not significantly different among the dietary treatments, and the specific growth rate (SGR of sea cucumber fed the UL diet (1.58% d−1 was significantly higher than that of sea cucumber fed the other diets (P < 0.05, except for the LJ and NO diets. Secondly, interleukin (IL-10 gene expression was determined where mice splenocytes were stimulated with 10 μg ml−1 of sea cucumber extracts for 2 h. The result showed that IL-10 gene expression levels were significantly increased in UL, LJ, and NO diets fed sea cucumber extracts compared to other experimental diets. The results suggest that dietary inclusion with Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica, and Nannochloropsis oculata algae may improve the growth of juvenile sea cucumber and could upregulate IL-10 gene expression in mice splenocytes. Such detailed information could be helpful in further development of more appropriate diets for sea cucumber culture.

  6. Impaired reproduction and individual growth of the water flea Daphnia magna as consequence of exposure to the non-ester pyrethroid etofenprox.

    Sancho, Encarna; Banegas, Sandra; Villarroel, María José; Ferrando, Dolores

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the pesticide etofenprox (0.76, 0.95, 1.18, 1.48, and 1.85 μg L -1 ) on survival, reproduction, and growth of Daphnia magna organisms was monitored using 21-day exposure tests. In order to test pesticide effects on D. magna, survival, length, mean total neonates per female, mean brood size, time to first reproduction, mean number broods per female, cumulative molting, and the population parameter intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were used. Reproduction was seriously affected by etofenprox. Concentrations of etofenprox higher than 1.18 μg L -1 affected all the reproductive parameters analyzed as well as individual length. However, daphnids' survival after 21 days of pesticide exposure did not exhibited differences among experimental and control groups. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC), the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC), and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) were calculated for the different parameters. A MATC estimation of 1.32 μg L -1 was calculated for mean brood size, mean number of broods per female, mean number of neonates per female, and the intrinsic rate of growth population. Etofenprox effect on the algae Nannochloris oculata was also evaluated. The selected etofenprox concentrations did not affect algal growth rate (μ) after 24 h; however, N. oculata exposed during 48 and 72 h to the highest etofenprox concentration showed a decreased in its population rate.

  7. Growth of microalgae in autotrophic stationary systems

    Paulo Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the growth of nine marine microalgae species (Nannochloropsis oculata, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii, Chaetoceros muelleri, Thalassiosira fluviatilis and Isochrysis sp. and one freshwater species (Chlorella vulgaris under stationary autotrophy conditions, using erlenmeyers fl asks with 800mL of culture medium exposed to constant light intensities providing a photon flux density of about 150μmol.m-2.s-1 and 25±2oC temperature and constant air flow. The experiment was carried out in a controlled environment considering a block delineating randomized over time with three replicates. The Nannochloropsis oculata showed the highest value of maximum cellular density, but with a longer period of time and a lower growth rate. This was probably due to its tiny cell size, demanding a large number of cells per volume to attain its optimum conditions for light, nutrients, water and atmospheric carbon dioxide. In addition, in spite of showing one of the lowest values of maximum cellular density, Thalassiosira fluviatilis was the species that reached its maximum in a short period of time at the highest growth rate. Chlorella vulgaris was the only freshwater species tested and it showed the poorest performance for all the variables analyzed in the current study.

  8. New procedure for extraction of algal lipids from wet biomass: a green clean and scalable process.

    Dejoye Tanzi, Celine; Abert Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-04-01

    A new procedure, called Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Process (SDEP), for lipid extraction from wet microalgae (Nannochloropsis oculata and Dunaliella salina) was reported. This method does not require a pre-drying of the biomass and employs alternative solvents such as d-limonene, α-pinene and p-cymene. This procedure has been compared with Soxhlet extraction (Sox) and Bligh & Dyer method (B&D). For N. oculata, results showed that SDEP-cymene provided similar lipid yields to B&D (21.45% and 23.78%), while SDEP-limonene and pinene provided lower yields (18.73% and 18.75% respectively). For D. salina, SDEP-pinene provided the maximum lipid yield (3.29%) compared to the other solvents, which is quite close to B&D result (4.03%). No significant differences in terms of distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition have been obtained for different techniques. Evaluation of energy consumption indicates a substantial saving in the extraction cost by SDEP compared to the conventional extraction technique, Soxhlet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Produção de biomassa e teores de carbono, hidrogênio, nitrogênio e proteína em microalgas Production of biomass and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and protein contents in microalgae

    Silvana Ohse

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da emissão de CO2 e de outros gases efeito estufa tem gerado debates em nível mundial sobre alterações climáticas e estimulado o desenvolvimento de estratégias mitigadoras. Trabalhos nessa área incluem sequestro de CO2 por meio da produção de microalgas aquáticas. Por essa razão, desenvolveu-se um estudo visando determinar os teores de carbono, hidrogênio, nitrogênio e proteína e a produção de biomassa seca de nove espécies de microalgas marinhas (Nannochloropsis oculata, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii Chaetoceros muelleri, Thalassiosira fluviatilis e Isochrysis sp. e uma de água doce (Chlorella vulgaris, em cultivo autotrófico estacionário com objetivo de identificar as mais produtivas e com maior capacidade de fixação de carbono. O experimento foi desenvolvido em sala de cultivo, na Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, com iluminação contínua e radiação em torno de 150µmol m-2 s-1, temperatura de 25±2°C, suplementação de ar constante, sendo utilizados erlenmeyers com 800mL de meio de cultura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados no tempo com três repetições. As espécies C. vulgaris e T. suecica são menos produtivas. Quando se visa à suplementação alimentar, as espécies C. vulgaris e T. Chuii são consideradas interessantes, uma vez que apresentam altos teores de C, N, H e proteína. As espécies N. Oculata, T. pseudonana e C. vulgaris apresentam altos teores de C, demonstrando alta capacidade de fixação de carbono.The increase of CO2 emission and other gases greenhouse effect, caused global debates about climatic alterations and stimulated the development of mitigative strategies. Researches in this area includes CO2 kidnapping through the aquatic microalgae production. For this reason, a study was developed aiming to determine the production of dry biomass, carbon content, hydrogen

  10. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    Leenawaty Limantara3

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarezii, Sargassum sp, and Caulerpa sp. Carotenoids from algae has been proven as a powerful antioxidant and may prevent some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular, and cancer. Carotenoid also has been applied as a natural dye and dietary supplements. Biotechnology has been developed to increase the production of carotenoids from micro- and macroalgae. The large-scale cultivation of microalgae, either in open or closed system are shown to increase carotenoid production. During cultivation, some stress conditions can be specifically manipulated to optimize carotenoid production from microalgae.

  11. Hydrothermal Disintegration and Extraction of Different Microalgae Species

    Michael Kröger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the disintegration and extraction of microalgae to produce lipids and biofuels, a novel processing technology was investigated. The utilization of a hydrothermal treatment was tested on four different microalgae species (Scenedesmus rubescens, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata and Arthorspira platensis (Spirulina to determine whether it has an advantage in comparison to other disintegration methods for lipid extraction. It was shown, that hydrothermal treatment is a reasonable opportunity to utilize microalgae without drying and increase the lipid yield of an algae extraction process. For three of the four microalgae species, the extraction yield with a prior hydrothermal treatment elevated the lipid yield up to six times in comparison to direct extraction. Only Scenedesmus rubescens showed a different behaviour. Reason can be found in the different cell wall of the species. The investigation of the differences in cell wall composition of the used species indicate that the existence of algaenan as a cell wall compound plays a major role in stability.

  12. Free ammonia offers algal crop protection from predators in dairy wastewater and ammonium-rich media.

    Thomas, Patrick K; Dunn, Gary P; Passero, Maxine; Feris, Kevin P

    2017-11-01

    Cost-effective methods for protecting crops from grazing organisms like rotifers are needed to reduce the risk of pond crashes in mass algal cultures. We present a novel strategy to optimize the exposure time to free ammonia, via control of media pH, in both defined media and dairy anaerobic digester effluent to suppress rotifers and maintain algal productivity. We tested five different free ammonia exposure times (0, 1, 2, 6, and 12h) and found a significant nonlinear effect of exposure time (p0.9) on rotifer survival. In both media types, 6-12h of elevated free ammonia significantly reduced Brachionus plicatilis rotifer survival with no negative effects on Nannochloropsis oculata, while shorter exposure times were insufficient to inhibit rotifers, leading to severe algal culture crashes. These results suggest that algal crops can be protected from rotifers, without productivity loss, by elevating free ammonia for 6 or more hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EFFECT OF MICROALGAE ON GROWTH AND FATTY ACID PROFILES OF HARPACTICOID COPEPOD, Tisbe holothuriae

    Gede Suwarthama Sumiarsa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of marine copepods is influenced by feed. The purposes of this trial were to observe both growth and fatty acid compositions of harpacticoid copepod nauplii, Tisbe holothuriae by feeding with several microalgal species in laboratory: (A Isochrysis tahiti; (B Nannochloropsis oculata; (C Rhodomonas sp., and (D Tetraselmis chuii. The trial was carried out for 35 days with randomized complete design and triplicates in each treatment. The results showed that final copepod nauplii densities were not significantly different (P>0.05 in all treatments. However, lipid content of copepod nauplii fed with T. chuii was significantly higher (P<0.05 compared to that of other treatments while fatty acid profiles of EPA, DHA and DHA/EPA ratios showed both insignificant and significant differences among treatments.

  14. Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.

    Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2012-06-01

    Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range 80 μm in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were 1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiration of Mediterranean cold-water corals is not affected by ocean acidification as projected for the end of the century

    Maier, C.; Bils, F.; Weinbauer, M. G.; Watremez, P.; Peck, M. A.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2013-08-01

    The rise of CO2 has been identified as a major threat to life in the ocean. About one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 produced in the last 200 yr has been taken up by the ocean, leading to ocean acidification. Surface seawater pH is projected to decrease by about 0.4 units between the pre-industrial revolution and 2100. The branching cold-water corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are important, habitat-forming species in the deep Mediterranean Sea. Although previous research has investigated the abundance and distribution of these species, little is known regarding their ecophysiology and potential responses to global environmental change. A previous study indicated that the rate of calcification of these two species remained constant up to 1000 μatm CO2, a value that is at the upper end of changes projected to occur by 2100. We examined whether the ability to maintain calcification rates in the face of rising pCO2 affected the energetic requirements of these corals. Over the course of three months, rates of respiration were measured at a pCO2 ranging between 350 and 1100 μatm to distinguish between short-term response and longer-term acclimation. Respiration rates ranged from 0.074 to 0.266 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight)-1 h-1 and 0.095 to 0.725 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight)-1 h-1 for L. pertusa and M. oculata, respectively, and were independent of pCO2. Respiration increased with time likely due to regular feeding, which may have provided an increased energy supply to sustain coral metabolism. Future studies are needed to confirm whether the insensitivity of respiration to increasing pCO2 is a general feature of deep-sea corals in other regions.

  16. Respiration of Mediterranean cold-water corals is not affected by ocean acidification as projected for the end of the century

    C. Maier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of CO2 has been identified as a major threat to life in the ocean. About one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 produced in the last 200 yr has been taken up by the ocean, leading to ocean acidification. Surface seawater pH is projected to decrease by about 0.4 units between the pre-industrial revolution and 2100. The branching cold-water corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are important, habitat-forming species in the deep Mediterranean Sea. Although previous research has investigated the abundance and distribution of these species, little is known regarding their ecophysiology and potential responses to global environmental change. A previous study indicated that the rate of calcification of these two species remained constant up to 1000 μatm CO2, a value that is at the upper end of changes projected to occur by 2100. We examined whether the ability to maintain calcification rates in the face of rising pCO2 affected the energetic requirements of these corals. Over the course of three months, rates of respiration were measured at a pCO2 ranging between 350 and 1100 μatm to distinguish between short-term response and longer-term acclimation. Respiration rates ranged from 0.074 to 0.266 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight−1 h−1 and 0.095 to 0.725 μmol O2 (g skeletal dry weight−1 h−1 for L. pertusa and M. oculata, respectively, and were independent of pCO2. Respiration increased with time likely due to regular feeding, which may have provided an increased energy supply to sustain coral metabolism. Future studies are needed to confirm whether the insensitivity of respiration to increasing pCO2 is a general feature of deep-sea corals in other regions.

  17. Biodiesel synthesis via transesterification of lipid Chlorophyta cultivated in walne rich carbon medium using KOH/Zeolite catalyst

    Dianursanti, Hayati, Siti Zahrotul; Putri, Dwini Normayulisa

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae from the Chlorophyta division such as Nannochloropsis oculata and Chlorella vulgaris are highly potential to be developed as biodiesel feedstocks because they have a high oil content up to 58%. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and alcohols with the aid of homogeneous catalysts such as KOH. However, the use of KOH catalysts produces soaps in the biodiesel synthesis. Heterogeneous catalysts are known to solve this problem. One of them is natural zeolite. Zeolite can be used as a catalyst and as a support catalyst. Loading KOH on the zeolite surface is expected to increase alkalinity in KOH/Zeolite catalysts so as to increase the activity of KOH/Zeolite catalyst in transesterification of triglyceride with methanol. In this experimental lipid of microalgae will be used for produced biodiesel via transesterification reaction with methanol and KOH/Zeolite as a catalyst heterogeneous at 60 °C for 3h and utilized catalyst modificated KOH/Zeolite with variation 0.5 M, 1 M and 1.5 M KOH. The modified zeolite was then analyzed by XRF, XRD and BET. The result showed that the yield of biodiesel from lipid N.oculata was 81,09% by 0.5KOH/Zeolite catalyst, 86,53% by 1KOH/Zeolite catalyst, 1,5KOH/Zeolite and 88,13% by 1.5KOH/Zeolit, while the biodiesel produced from lipid C.vulgaris was 59.29% by 0.5KOH/Zeolite, 82.27% by 1KOH/Zeolite and 83.72% by 1.5KOH/Zeolite.

  18. Fragmentation, Fusion, and Genetic Homogeneity in a Calcareous Sponge (Porifera, Calcarea).

    Padua, André; Leocorny, Pedro; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Klautau, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates living on hard substrata usually present strategies such as size variations, longer life spans, fragmentation and fusion to occupy and compete for space. Calcareous sponges are usually small and short-lived, and some species are known to undergo frequent fragmentation and fusion events. However, whether fusion occurs only between genetically identical individuals remains unclear. We investigated the occurrence of chimaeras in the calcareous sponge Clathrina aurea by following the dynamics of fragmentation and fusion of 66 individuals in the field for up to 18 months and determined size variations and the life span of each individual. Microsatellites were used to determine whether fusion events occur among genetically different individuals. Growth and shrinkage of individuals were frequently observed, showing that size cannot be associated with age in C. aurea. The life span of the species ranged from 1 to 16 months (mean: 4.7 months). Short life spans and variable growth rates have been observed in other species of the class Calcarea. Fragmentation and fusion events were observed, but fusion events always occurred between genetically identical individuals, as has been suggested by graft experiments in adult Demospongiae and other Calcarea. These results suggest that at least C. aurea adults may have some mechanism to avoid chimaerism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of amonophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny

  20. Nearly Complete 28S rRNA Gene Sequences Confirm New Hypotheses of Sponge Evolution

    Thacker, Robert W.; Hill, April L.; Hill, Malcolm S.; Redmond, Niamh E.; Collins, Allen G.; Morrow, Christine C.; Spicer, Lori; Carmack, Cheryl A.; Zappe, Megan E.; Pohlmann, Deborah; Hall, Chelsea; Diaz, Maria C.; Bangalore, Purushotham V.

    2013-01-01

    The highly collaborative research sponsored by the NSF-funded Assembling the Porifera Tree of Life (PorToL) project is providing insights into some of the most difficult questions in metazoan systematics. Our understanding of phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Porifera has changed considerably with increased taxon sampling and data from additional molecular markers. PorToL researchers have falsified earlier phylogenetic hypotheses, discovered novel phylogenetic alliances, found phylogenetic homes for enigmatic taxa, and provided a more precise understanding of the evolution of skeletal features, secondary metabolites, body organization, and symbioses. Some of these exciting new discoveries are shared in the papers that form this issue of Integrative and Comparative Biology. Our analyses of over 300 nearly complete 28S ribosomal subunit gene sequences provide specific case studies that illustrate how our dataset confirms new hypotheses of sponge evolution. We recovered monophyletic clades for all 4 classes of sponges, as well as the 4 major clades of Demospongiae (Keratosa, Myxospongiae, Haploscleromorpha, and Heteroscleromorpha), but our phylogeny differs in several aspects from traditional classifications. In most major clades of sponges, families within orders appear to be paraphyletic. Although additional sampling of genes and taxa are needed to establish whether this pattern results from a lack of phylogenetic resolution or from a paraphyletic classification system, many of our results are congruent with those obtained from 18S ribosomal subunit gene sequences and complete mitochondrial genomes. These data provide further support for a revision of the traditional classification of sponges. PMID:23748742

  1. The demosponge Pseudoceratina purpurea as a new source of fibrous chitin.

    Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Lim, Swee-Cheng; Meissner, Heike; Tabachnick, Konstantin; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Wysokowski, Marcin; Bechmann, Nicole; Joseph, Yvonne; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2018-06-01

    Among marine demosponges (Porifera: Demospongiae), only representatives of the order Verongiida have been recognized to synthetize both biologically active substances as well as scaffolds-like fibrous skeletons made of structural aminopolysaccharide chitin. The unique 3D architecture of such scaffolds open perspectives for their applications in waste treatment, biomimetics and tissue engineering. Here, we focus special attention to the demosponge Pseudoceratina purpurea collected in the coastal waters of Singapore. For the first time the detailed description of the isolation of chitin from the skeleton of this sponge and its identification using diverse bioanalytical tools were carried out. Calcofluor white staining, FTIR analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), SEM, and fluorescence microscopy as well as a chitinase digestion assay were applied in order to confirm with strong evidence the finding of alpha-chitin in the skeleton of P. purpurea. We suggest that the discovery of chitin within representatives of Pseudoceratinidae family is a perspective step in evaluation of these verongiid sponges as novel renewable sources for both chitin and biologically active metabolites, which are of prospective use for marine oriented biomedicine and pharmacology, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Norwegian deep-water coral reefs: cultivation and molecular analysis of planktonic microbial communities.

    Jensen, Sigmund; Lynch, Michael D J; Ray, Jessica L; Neufeld, Josh D; Hovland, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Deep-sea coral reefs do not receive sunlight and depend on plankton. Little is known about the plankton composition at such reefs, even though they constitute habitats for many invertebrates and fish. We investigated plankton communities from three reefs at 260-350 m depth at hydrocarbon fields off the mid-Norwegian coast using a combination of cultivation and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and transcript sequencing. Eight months incubations of a reef water sample with minimal medium, supplemented with carbon dioxide and gaseous alkanes at in situ-like conditions, enabled isolation of mostly Alphaproteobacteria (Sulfitobacter, Loktanella), Gammaproteobacteria (Colwellia) and Flavobacteria (Polaribacter). The relative abundance of isolates in the original sample ranged from ∼ 0.01% to 0.80%. Comparisons of bacterial SSU sequences from filtered plankton of reef and non-reef control samples indicated high abundance and metabolic activity of primarily Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 Ia), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), but also of Deltaproteobacteria (Nitrospina, SAR324). Eukaryote SSU sequences indicated metabolically active microalgae and animals, including codfish, at the reef sites. The plankton community composition varied between reefs and differed between DNA and RNA assessments. Over 5000 operational taxonomic units were detected, some indicators of reef sites (e.g. Flavobacteria, Cercozoa, Demospongiae) and some more active at reef sites (e.g. Gammaproteobacteria, Ciliophora, Copepoda). © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma

    Nickel Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary agametic-asexual reproduction mechanisms such as budding and fission are present in all non-bilaterian and many bilaterian animal taxa and are likely to be metazoan ground pattern characters. Cnidarians display highly organized and regulated budding processes. In contrast, budding in poriferans was thought to be less specific and related to the general ability of this group to reorganize their tissues. Here we test the hypothesis of morphological pattern formation during sponge budding. Results We investigated the budding process in Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae by applying 3D morphometrics to high resolution synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SR-μCT image data. We followed the morphogenesis of characteristic body structures and identified distinct morphological states which indeed reveal characteristic spatiotemporal morphological patterns in sponge bud development. We discovered the distribution of skeletal elements, canal system and sponge tissue to be based on a sequential series of distinct morphological states. Based on morphometric data we defined four typical bud stages. Once they have reached the final stage buds are released as fully functional juvenile sponges which are morphologically and functionally equivalent to adult specimens. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that budding in demosponges is considerably more highly organized and regulated than previously assumed. Morphological pattern formation in asexual reproduction with underlying genetic regulation seems to have evolved early in metazoans and was likely part of the developmental program of the last common ancestor of all Metazoa (LCAM.

  4. Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma.

    Hammel, Jörg U; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Nickel, Michael

    2009-09-08

    Primary agametic-asexual reproduction mechanisms such as budding and fission are present in all non-bilaterian and many bilaterian animal taxa and are likely to be metazoan ground pattern characters. Cnidarians display highly organized and regulated budding processes. In contrast, budding in poriferans was thought to be less specific and related to the general ability of this group to reorganize their tissues. Here we test the hypothesis of morphological pattern formation during sponge budding. We investigated the budding process in Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae) by applying 3D morphometrics to high resolution synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SR-muCT) image data. We followed the morphogenesis of characteristic body structures and identified distinct morphological states which indeed reveal characteristic spatiotemporal morphological patterns in sponge bud development. We discovered the distribution of skeletal elements, canal system and sponge tissue to be based on a sequential series of distinct morphological states. Based on morphometric data we defined four typical bud stages. Once they have reached the final stage buds are released as fully functional juvenile sponges which are morphologically and functionally equivalent to adult specimens. Our results demonstrate that budding in demosponges is considerably more highly organized and regulated than previously assumed. Morphological pattern formation in asexual reproduction with underlying genetic regulation seems to have evolved early in metazoans and was likely part of the developmental program of the last common ancestor of all Metazoa (LCAM).

  5. Antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, Bacillus sp. at Agatti Island, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Gopi Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp., Edwardsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter brackii. The secondary metabolites produced by SEB32 from sponge Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1818 [48] was selected with broad range of antibacterial activity and subjected for production, characterization by series of chromatography techniques and spectroscopic methods. Based on the results of FT-IR and mass spectrometry, the active molecule was tentatively predicted as “Pyrrol” and the structure is Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- with molecular formula of C7H10N2O2. The LC50 of active molecule was 31 μg/ml and molecular weight of the metabolites was 154. The potential strain SEB32 was identified by gene sequence (GenBank Accession number JX985748 and identified as Bacillus sp. from GenBank database.

  6. Signal Recognition Particle 54 kD Protein (SRP54 from the Marine Sponge Geodia cydonium

    Sonja Durajlija-Žinić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systematic search for phylogenetically conserved proteins in the simplest and most ancient extant metazoan phylum – Porifera, we have identified and analyzed a cDNA encoding the signal recognition particle 54 kD protein (SRP54 from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium (Demospongiae. The signal recognition particle (SRP is a universally conserved ribonucleoprotein complex of a very ancient origin, comprising SRP RNA and several proteins (six in mammals. The nucleotide sequence of the sponge cDNA predicts a protein of 499 amino acid residues with a calculated Mr of 55175. G. cydonium SRP54 displays unusually high overall similarity (90 % with human/mammalian SRP54 proteins, higher than with Drosophila melanogaster (88 %, or Caenorhabditis elegans (82 %. The same was found for the majority of known and phylogenetically conserved proteins from sponges, indicating that the molecular evolutionary rates in protein coding genes in Porifera as well as in highly developed mammals (vertebrates are slower, when compared with the rates in homologous genes from invertebrates (insects, nematodes. Therefore, genes/proteins from sponges might be the best candidates for the reconstruction of ancient structures of proteins and genome/proteome complexity in the ancestral organism, common to all multicellular animals.

  7. A Novel GH-92 Nano-Adsorbent Using the Sponge from the Persian Gulf for Lead and Cadmium Removal

    Hossein Ghafourian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Removing pollutants from aquatic ecosystems, especially from drinking water, has always been a major concern for scientists. Recent decades have witnessed the widespread application of natural compounds used as adsorbents to remove various pollutants. On the other hand, studies have proved nanotechnology to be an effective way of removing pollutants. A new type of sponge belonging to the family Demospongiae that has nano holes and is native to the Persian Gulf was investigated for the first time in the present study for use as an adsorbent to remove calcium, magnesium, cobalt, cadmium, and lead ions from water. For this purpose, adbsorption in sponges of different aggregate sizes, contact time, particle size, and ambient pH were measured. The results showed that the proposed sponge is capable of adsorbing the above-mentioned metal ions to various degrees. While small amounts of calcium, magnesium, and cobalt were adsorbed by this sponge, cadmium recorded a higher adsorption of 2.37 mg/g at pH=5. The highest adsorption level of 79.19 mg per gram of adsorbent was recorded for lead at a pH range of 4.5-5 with a mesh size of 230. This is the highest adsorption ever recorded for lead in the literature on selective separation of lead from the other ions.

  8. Sponge epizoism in the Caribbean and the discovery of new Plakortis and Haliclona species, and polymorphism of Xestospongia deweerdtae (Porifera).

    Vicente, Jan; Zea, Sven; Hill, Russell T

    2016-10-24

    The new discovery by Vicente et al. (2014) of specialized epizoic symbioses between sponges of the genera Plakortis and Xestospongia revealed the obligate interaction of two new Plakortis spp. associating with Xestospongia deweerdtae and a new Xestospongia sp. In this study we formally describe the two new Plakortis spp. as Plakortis deweerdtaephila sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 1), Plakortis symbiotica sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 2) and describe the new Xestospongia sp. epibiont as Haliclona (Halichoclona) plakophila sp. nov.  Plakortis deweerdtaephila associates only with X. deweerdtae, and has very small to large straight diods (24.2-233.7 μm long) and triods (26.4-102.6 μm long) that form large ectosomal circular meshes (114-329 μm diameter). P. symbiotica associates with both X. deweerdtae and H. plakophila, has larger curved diods (71.9-141.8 μm long) and triods (20.4-70.6 μm long) that form smaller ectosomal circular meshes (43-121 μm diameter) than P. deweerdtaephila. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 and cob gene fragments revealed a strongly supported clade that grouped both Plakortis spp. nov. distantly from any other known Plakortis spp. H. plakophila is described as a thin encrusting veneer of tissue with occasional papillae, so far only found associated with P. symbiotica in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cox1 gene fragments place it distantly from any known clade of Haplosclerida. We found a new associated morphotype of X. deweerdtae from Bocas del Toro Panama, which completely overgrew P. deweerdtaephila. In addition, free-living morphotypes from Panama produce larger S-shaped and round bracket shaped strongyles never before observed for this species, leading us to redescribe X. deweerdtae. All X. deweerdtae morphotypes shared >99% sequence homology of cox1, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes with the holotype of X. deweerdtae. This study highlights the highly variable morphological

  9. Characterization of Methane-Seep Communities in a Deep-Sea Area Designated for Oil and Natural Gas Exploitation Off Trinidad and Tobago

    Diva J. Amon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the deep ocean (>200 m is taking on added importance as human development encroaches. Despite increasing oil and natural gas exploration and exploitation, the deep ocean of Trinidad and Tobago is almost entirely unknown. The only scientific team to image the deep seafloor within the Trinidad and Tobago Exclusive Economic Zone was from IFREMER in the 1980s. That exploration led to the discovery of the El Pilar methane seeps and associated chemosynthetic communities on the accretionary prism to the east of Trinidad and Tobago. In 2014, the E/V Nautilus, in collaboration with local scientists, visited two previously sampled as well as two unexplored areas of the El Pilar site between 998 and 1,629 m depth using remotely operated vehicles. Eighty-three megafaunal morphospecies from extensive chemosynthetic communities surrounding active methane seepage were observed at four sites. These communities were dominated by megafaunal invertebrates including mussels (Bathymodiolus childressi, shrimp (Alvinocaris cf. muricola, Lamellibrachia sp. 2 tubeworms, and Pachycara caribbaeum. Adjacent to areas of active seepage was an ecotone of suspension feeders including Haplosclerida sponges, stylasterids and Neovermilia serpulids on authigenic carbonates. Beyond this were large Bathymodiolus shell middens. Finally there was either a zone of sparse octocorals and other non-chemosynthetic species likely benefiting from the carbonate substratum and enriched production within the seep habitat, or sedimented inactive areas. This paper highlights these ecologically significant areas and increases the knowledge of the biodiversity of the Trinidad and Tobago deep ocean. Because methane seepage and chemosynthetic communities are related to the presence of extractable oil and gas resources, development of best practices for the conservation of biodiversity in Trinidad and Tobago waters within the context of energy extraction is critical. Potential impacts

  10. The carbonate mineralogy and distribution of habitat-forming deep-sea corals in the southwest pacific region

    Bostock, Helen C.; Tracey, Dianne M.; Currie, Kim I.; Dunbar, Gavin B.; Handler, Monica R.; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Smith, Abigail M.; Williams, Michael J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Habitat-forming deep-sea scleractinian and alcyonacean corals from around the southwest Pacific were analysed for their calcium carbonate mineralogy. Scleractinian coral species Solenosmilia variabilis, Enallopsammia rostrata, Goniocorella dumosa, Madrepora oculata and Oculina virgosa were all found to be 100% aragonitic, while some members of the alcyonacean taxa Keratoisis spp., Lepidisis spp., and Paragorgia spp. were determined to be high magnesium (Mg) calcite (with 8-11 mol% MgCO3) and Primnoa sp. is bimineralic with both aragonite and Mg calcite. The majority of these habitat-forming deep-sea corals are found at intermediate depths (800-1200 m) in the Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) with low salinities (~34.5), temperatures of 4-8 °C and high oxygen concentrations (>180 μmol/kg) and currently sitting above the aragonite saturation horizon (ASH). However, habitat-forming corals have been recorded from greater depths, in cooler waters (2-4 °C) that are undersaturated with respect to aragonite (Ωaragonite160 μmol/kg. To address the sampling depth bias the coral records were normalised by the number of benthic stations (sampling effort) in the same depth range. This shows that the highest number of corals per sampling effort is between 1000 and 1400 m with corals present in over 5% of the stations at these depths. The normalised records and Boot Strap analyses suggests that scleractinian corals, especially S. variabilis should be present in >1% of stations down to 1800 m water depth, with E. rostrata, M. oculata and G. dumosa slightly shallower. While alcyonacean corals are found in >1% down to 2600 m, with Keratoisis spp. the deepest down to 2600 m, while Lepidisis spp. and Paragorgia spp. found down to 1800 m. This suggests that most species can probably tolerate some undersaturation of aragonite (Ωaragonite=0.8-0.9), with several species/genera (S. variabilis; Keratoisis spp.) even more tolerant of lower carbonate concentrations ([CO3 2 -]), down

  11. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish.

    Karina Bravo-Tello

    Full Text Available Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts; Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt; Chlorella sp (Ch; Nannochloropsis oculata (No; or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen.

  12. Monoculture of the ciliate protozoan Euplotes sp. (Ciliophora; Hypotrichia fed with different diets - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.11795

    Emílio Mateus Costa Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciliate protozoa of the genus Euplotes commonly appears contaminating mass cultures of rotifers but also with potential to be used as live food in the larviculture of marine fish. To obtain a monoculture of Euplotes sp., three diets were tested: 1 microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata, 2 commercial diet for rotifers Culture Selco 3000, and 3 baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ciliates were inoculated at 10 ind. mL-¹. On day 5, protozoa densities in the groups fed the commercial diet (1,911.0 ± 248.7 ind. mL-¹ and the baker’s yeast (2,600.0 ± 195.3 ind. mL-1 did not differ, but were higher than the group fed microalgae (2.0 ± 1.4 ind. mL-1 (p -¹ than in the groups fed microalgae (3.0 ± 1.4 ind. mL-¹ or commercial diet (11,287.0 ± 1,468.0 ind. mL-¹. An exponential growth curve was observed for the protozoa fed baker’s yeast (R² = 0.992; p Euplotes sp. can result in very high densities of this protozoan.  

  13. Evidence for the bioerosion of deep-water corals by echinoids in the Northeast Atlantic

    Stevenson, Angela; Rocha, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations of echinoids interacting with deep-sea coral are common in the deep-sea, but paradoxically the deep-sea literature is devoid of reports of bioerosion by extant echinoids. Here we present evidence of contemporary bioerosion of cold-water coral by four species of deep-sea echinoids, Gracilechinus elegans, Gracilechinus alexandri, Cidaris cidaris, and Araeosoma fenestratum, showing that they actively predate on the living framework of reef building corals, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, in the NE Atlantic. Echinoid specimens were collected in six canyons located in the Bay of Biscay, France and two canyons on the north side of the Porcupine Bank and Goban Spur, Ireland. A total of 44 live specimens from the four taxa (9 of G. elegans, 4 of G. alexandri, 21 of C. cidaris and 10 of A. fenestratum) showed recent ingestion of the coral infrastructure. Upon dissection, live coral skeleton was observed encased in a thick mucus layer within the gastrointestinal tract of G. elegans and G. alexandri while both live and dead coral fragments were found in C. cidaris and A. fenestratum. Echinoid bioerosion limits the growth of shallow-water reefs. Our observations suggest that echinoids may also play an important role in the ecology of deep-water coral reefs.

  14. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    Tracy J Mincer

    Full Text Available Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus, and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans.

  15. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  16. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  17. The use of morphological and histological features as nutritional condition indices of Pagrus pagrus larvae

    Marina Vera Diaz

    Full Text Available Morphometrical and histological techniques were employed to characterize Pagrus pagrus larvae nutritional condition. Larvae were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions with the main objective of testing whether these methodologies allowed finding differences between larvae from different feeding treatments. Once yolk was consumed (three days after hatching larvae were assigned to a feeding treatment: starved during the whole experiment; delayed feeding, starved during three days; fed during the entire experiment. Algae (Nannochloropsis oculata and rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis were provided to larvae for feed treatments. Larvae were fixed daily; for morphometrical purposes in 5% formaldehyde solution, and in Bouin for histological sections. Results herein obtained showed that both methodologies are sensitive enough to distinguish larvae characterized by different nutritional condition states obtained from the feeding treatments. Consequently, these methodologies could be employed in wild red porgy larvae in order to asses their nutritional condition. These techniques could also be employed to check larval quality obtained with aquaculture purposes to estimate the effects of changes in rearing protocols or kind of food supply and thus, to guaranty a higher survival of early developmental stages of reared larvae.

  18. MORFOMETRI ROTIFER Brachionus rotundiformis STRAIN SS ASAL TAMBAK MINANGA DAN TAMBAK WATULINEY SULAWESI UTARA YANG DIKULTUR PADA SALINITAS YANG BERBEDA

    Inneke Fenny Melke Rumengan

    2016-11-01

    The rotifers Brachionus rotundiformis were found predominantly in Minanga and Watuliney brackishwater ponds in North Sulawesi. The two ponds are located 7 km apart at south-eastern coast of North Sulawesi facing to Maluku Sea. Morphometry of the two groups may associate with the original salinities of the ponds, 25—33 and 0—3 ppt in Minanga and Watuliney ponds, respectively. The rotifers were cultured at different salinities in laboratory in order to observe the plasticity of their size. Rotifers from Minanga ponds were gradually adapted by lowering salinities from 30 ppt to 25, 20 until 5 ppt. In contrast, Rotifers from Watuliney ponds were adapted gradually by increasing salinities from 5 ppt to 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ppt. In each treatment, 5 first laid eggs were put into each test tube containing Nannochloropsi oculata (3x106 cells/mL at 25°C, and after 7 days, the rotifer population remarkably increased due to parthenogenetic reproduction, and then body size of 30 egg-carrying rotifers of each treatment were measured under microscope. Body size of rotifers from Minanga ponds in all treatment was lower than that of rotifers from Watuliney ponds. Statistically, morphometry of the two groups was significantly different. However, there was a tendency for that lorica length of rotifers from Watuliney ponds to increase as the salinity increase, while rotifers from Minanga  ponds did not significantly changed in their sizes as the salinity changed.

  19. Determining surface areas of marine alga cells by acid-base titration method.

    Wang, X; Ma, Y; Su, Y

    1997-09-01

    A new method for determining the surface area of living marine alga cells was described. The method uses acid-base titration to measure the surface acid/base amount on the surface of alga cells and uses the BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) equation to estimate the maximum surface acid/base amount, assuming that hydrous cell walls have carbohydrates or other structural compounds which can behave like surface Brönsted acid-base sites due to coordination of environmental H2O molecules. The method was applied to 18 diverse alga species (including 7 diatoms, 2 flagellates, 8 green algae and 1 red alga) maintained in seawater cultures. For the species examined, the surface areas of individual cells ranged from 2.8 x 10(-8) m2 for Nannochloropsis oculata to 690 x 10(-8) m2 for Dunaliella viridis, specific surface areas from 1,030 m2.g-1 for Dunaliella salina to 28,900 m2.g-1 for Pyramidomonas sp. Measurement accuracy was 15.2%. Preliminary studies show that the method may be more promising and accurate than light/electron microscopic measurements for coarse estimation of the surface area of living algae.

  20. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    Mincer, Tracy J; Aicher, Athena C

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans.

  1. Self-Replenishing Vascularized Fouling-Release Surfaces

    Howell, C; Vu, TL; Lin, JJ; Kolle, S; Juthani, N; Watson, E; Weaver, JC; Alvarenga, J; Aizenberg, J

    2014-08-13

    Inspired by the long-term effectiveness of living antifouling materials, we have developed a method for the self-replenishment of synthetic biofouling-release surfaces. These surfaces are created by either molding or directly embedding 3D vascular systems into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and filling them with a silicone oil to generate a nontoxic oil-infused material. When replenished with silicone oil from an outside source, these materials are capable of self-lubrication and continuous renewal of the interfacial fouling-release layer. Under accelerated lubricant loss conditions, fully infused vascularized samples retained significantly more lubricant than equivalent nonvascularized controls. Tests of lubricant-infused PDMS in static cultures of the infectious bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well as the green microalgae Botryococcus braunii, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella sauna, and Nannochloropsis oculata showed a significant reduction in biofilm adhesion compared to PDMS and glass controls containing no lubricant. Further experiments on vascularized versus nonvascularized samples that had been subjected to accelerated lubricant evaporation conditions for up to 48 h showed significantly less biofilm adherence on the vascularized surfaces. These results demonstrate the ability of an embedded lubricant-filled vascular network to improve the longevity of fouling-release surfaces.

  2. Epibenthic communities of sedimentary habitats in a NE Atlantic deep seamount (Galicia Bank)

    Serrano, A.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Punzón, A.; García-Alegre, A.; Arronte, J. C.; Ríos, P.; Lourido, A.; Frutos, I.; Blanco, M.

    2017-12-01

    Galicia Bank is a deep seamount included as Site of Community Importance (SCI) in the Spanish Natura 2000 Network proposal. In the present study, epibenthic assemblages of sedimentary habitats have been described, together with the main environmental factor explaining species and communities distribution. Five epibenthic assemblages have been identified. Depth was the main factor explaining assemblage distribution, and the role of sediment type, water masses, and coral framework presence is also discussed. Three assemblages are located in the summit: the shallowest one (730-770 m), in the boundary between Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) and Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) water masses is typified by ophiuroids and characterized by medium sands. The second assemblage (770-800 m) typified by the bivalve Limopsis minuta and the solitary coral Flabellum chunii correspond with medium sands and MOW core; and the third typified by the presence of cold-water coral communities dominated by Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, also on the MOW influence. In the border of the summit, in the bank break, an assemblage located in the range 1000-1200 m is dominated by the urchin Cidaris cidaris and the sponge Thenea muricata. In the flat flanks around the bank, the deepest assemblage (1400-1800 m) is dominated by the holothurian Benthogone rosea, in a depth range dominated by the Labrador water (LSW) and in fine sands with highest contents of organic matter. Most of species appeared in a depth range smaller than 25% of total depth range sampled and in bank.

  3. Impact of temperature on fatty acid composition and nutritional value in eight species of microalgae.

    Aussant, Justine; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2018-04-25

    Microalgae are considered a sustainable source of high-value products with health benefits. Marine algae-derived omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are considered dietary elements with effects on mental health, cognition enhancement, and cardiovascular protection. This study investigated the temperature effect on omega-3 LC-PUFA production in eight species of microalgae from various taxonomic groups, with a focus on achieving an optimal balance between omega-3 accumulation and efficient growth performance. Samples were batch-cultivated at four different temperatures, with constant light, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography. Several nutritional indices were calculated to assess the potential value of biomass produced for human consumption. Two promising candidates were identified suitable for batch cultivation and large-scale production: Nannochloropsis oculata for EPA and Isochrysis galbana for DHA production, with optimum productivities obtained between 14 and 20 °C, and nutritional indices falling within the range required for nutritional benefit.

  4. Impact of feed supplementation with different omega-3 rich microalgae species on enrichment of eggs of laying hens.

    Lemahieu, Charlotte; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Muylaert, Koenraad; Buyse, Johan; Foubert, Imogen

    2013-12-15

    Four different omega-3 rich autotrophic microalgae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis oculata, Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella fusca, were supplemented to the diet of laying hens in order to increase the level of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) in egg yolk. The microalgae were supplemented in two doses: 125 mg and 250 mg extra n-3 PUFA per 100g feed. Supplementing these microalgae resulted in increased but different n-3 LC-PUFA levels in egg yolk, mainly docosahexaenoic acid enrichment. Only supplementation of Chlorella gave rise to mainly α-linolenic acid enrichment. The highest efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA enrichment was obtained by supplementation of Phaeodactylum and Isochrysis. Furthermore, yolk colour shifted from yellow to a more intense red colour with supplementation of Phaeodactylum, Nannochloropsis and Isochrysis, due to transfer of carotenoids from microalgae to eggs. This study shows that besides Nannochloropsis other microalgae offer an alternative to current sources for enrichment of hen eggs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glacial cold-water coral growth in the Gulf of Cádiz: Implications of increased palaeo-productivity

    Wienberg, Claudia; Frank, Norbert; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Stuut, Jan-Berend; Marchant, Margarita; Fietzke, Jan; Mienis, Furu; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2010-10-01

    A set of 40 Uranium-series datings obtained on the reef-forming scleractinian cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata revealed that during the past 400 kyr their occurrence in the Gulf of Cádiz (GoC) was almost exclusively restricted to glacial periods. This result strengthens the outcomes of former studies that coral growth in the temperate NE Atlantic encompassing the French, Iberian and Moroccan margins dominated during glacial periods, whereas in the higher latitudes (Irish and Norwegian margins) extended coral growth prevailed during interglacial periods. Thus it appears that the biogeographical limits for sustained cold-water coral growth along the NE Atlantic margin are strongly related to climate change. By focussing on the last glacial-interglacial cycle, this study shows that palaeo-productivity was increased during the last glacial. This was likely driven by the fertilisation effect of an increased input of aeolian dust and locally intensified upwelling. After the Younger Dryas cold event, the input of aeolian dust and productivity significantly decreased concurrent with an increase in water temperatures in the GoC. This primarily resulted in reduced food availability and caused a widespread demise of the formerly thriving coral ecosystems. Moreover, these climate induced changes most likely caused a latitudinal shift of areas with optimum coral growth conditions towards the northern NE Atlantic where more suitable environmental conditions established with the onset of the Holocene.

  6. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton

    Mincer, Tracy J.; Aicher, Athena C.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8–13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09–0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world’s oceans. PMID:26963515

  7. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deep-water scleractinian corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from 2010-2011 INDEMARES expeditions to the Galicia Bank (Spain, northeast Atlantic).

    Altuna, Alvaro

    2017-11-23

    During surveys in the Galicia Bank (northeastern Atlantic) in the years 2010-2011 (INDEMARES project), 25 species of scleractinian corals corals were collected in a depth interval of 744-1764 m. Most interesting species are described and depicted. Additionally, species list and remarks are given for the 23 species dredged in the bank during the 1987 SEAMOUNT 1 expedition at 675-1125 m depth.From a literature review and new records from Galicia Bank given herein, 31 species of scleractinian corals are known from this seamount in a depth interval of 614-1764 m depth. Six are colonial and 25 solitary, with 17 occurring on hard bottoms and 14 on soft bottoms. Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata are the most widely distributed species in both number of stations and depth range of specimens collected alive. Some species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the northeastern Atlantic. Javania pseudoalabastra is first documented for the Iberian Peninsula and Spanish faunas. Thrypticotrochus sp. is first collected from the Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Investigation of microalgae with photon density waves

    Frankovitch, Christine; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2007-09-01

    Phototropic microalgae have a large potential for producing valuable substances for the feed, food, cosmetics, pigment, bioremediation, and pharmacy industries as well as for biotechnological processes. Today it is estimated that the microalgal aquaculture worldwide production is 5000 tons of dry matter per year (not taking into account processed products) making it an approximately $1.25 billion U.S. per year industry. For effective observation of the photosynthetic growth processes, fast on-line sensor systems that analyze the relevant biological and technical process parameters are preferred. The optical properties of the microalgae culture influence the transport of light in the photobioreactor and can be used to extract relevant information for efficient cultivation practices. Microalgae cultivation media show a combination of light absorption and scattering, which are influenced by the concentrations and the physical and chemical properties of the different absorbing and scattering species (e.g. pigments, cell components, etc.). Investigations with frequency domain photon density waves (PDW) allow for the examination of absorption and scattering properties of turbid media, namely the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. The reduced scattering coefficient can be used to characterize physical and morphological properties of the medium, including the cell concentration, whereas the absorption coefficient correlates with the pigment content. Nannochloropsis oculata, a single-cell species of microalgae, were examined in a nutrient solution with photon density waves. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were experimentally determined throughout the cultivation process, and applied to gain information about the cell concentration and average cell radius.

  10. Modeling bubble dynamics and radical kinetics in ultrasound induced microalgal cell disruption.

    Wang, Meng; Yuan, Wenqiao

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal cell disruption induced by acoustic cavitation was simulated through solving the bubble dynamics in an acoustical field and their radial kinetics (chemical kinetics of radical species) occurring in the bubble during its oscillation, as well as calculating the bubble wall pressure at the collapse point. Modeling results indicated that increasing ultrasonic intensity led to a substantial increase in the number of bubbles formed during acoustic cavitation, however, the pressure generated when the bubbles collapsed decreased. Therefore, cumulative collapse pressure (CCP) of bubbles was used to quantify acoustic disruption of a freshwater alga, Scenedesmus dimorphus, and a marine alga, Nannochloropsis oculata and compare with experimental results. The strong correlations between CCP and the intracellular lipid fluorescence density, chlorophyll-a fluorescence density, and cell particle/debris concentration were found, which suggests that the developed models could accurately predict acoustic cell disruption, and can be utilized in the scale up and optimization of the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  12. Deep-sea dives reveal an unexpected hexactinellid sponge garden on the Rio Grande Rise (SW Atlantic). A mimicking habitat?

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Castello-Branco, Cristiana; Lopes, Daniela A.; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez

    2017-12-01

    Long overlooked, sponge grounds are now recognised as important habitats which support high biodiversity. Some of these deep-sea sponge aggregations are formed by hexactinellids, in varying densities, which can occur on both soft and hard substrates. Despite their ecological importance as habitat framework building taxa, hexactinellids have been little studied and only 33 species in this Class were reported from the entire South Atlantic until now. Most of this knowledge was gained from studies conducted on the eastern South America continental slope. Here we report a new hexactinellid sponge garden found by the Shinkai 6500 manned submersible on the Rio Grande Rise, a prominent topographic feature of the deep SW Atlantic. This is the first sponge garden worldwide found to be dominated by the stiff, often dichotomously branching, Sarostegia oculata which may occur in densities of over 5 individuals per square meter. This sponge, of uncertain familial allocation, seems to always carry epibiotic zoanthids, thus mimicking the 3D skeletal framework of actual coral gardens

  13. THE DISTRIBUTION OF RICKETTSIA IN THE TISSUES OF INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS.

    Cowdry, E V

    1923-03-31

    In the absence of a satisfactory definition of Rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and Gram-negative. Rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: Amblyomma americana, Amblyomma hebraeum, Boophilus decoloratus, Atomus sp., Casinaria infesta, Chrysopa oculata, Ctenocephalus canis, Dermacentor variabilis, Lepisma saccharina, Lucoppia curviseta, Margaropus annulatus, Margaropus annulatus australis, Ornithodoros turicata, Pulex irritans, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus evertsi, and Salticus scenicus. Since intracellular, Gram-negative Rickettsia have been recorded in the literature as existing in Cimex lectularius, Dermacentor venustus, Melophagus ovinus, and Pediculus humanus, the occasional occurrence of such bodies must be conceded in the following groups not closely related phylogenetically: Attidae, Trombidiidae, Argasidae, lxodidae, Cinura, Acanthiidae, Pediculidae, Hippoboscidae, Chrysopidae, Pulicidae, and Ichneumonidae. The species which harbor Rickettsia differ widely in diet and habitat. One such species is insectivorous throughout life, two are insectivorous in larval stages, becoming vegetarian in the adult condition, one is chiefly vegetarian but partakes of some animal products, and two are usually entirely vegetarian; while the remainder subsist wholly upon a diet of mammalian blood. Rickettsia are associated, in only a few cases, with diseases in mammals. The evidence at hand does not lead beyond the conclusion that the Rickettsia mentioned above are true Gram-negative microorganisms, easily distinguishable from mitochondria and all other cytoplasmic and nuclear granulations, rather completely adapted to an intracellular existence, exhibiting in some cases a remarkable degree of host specificity, and often inherited through the eggs.

  14. Marine Caves of the Mediterranean Sea: A Sponge Biodiversity Reservoir within a Biodiversity Hotspot

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Marine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean) with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%), generic (70%), and species level (47.5%), the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each), 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection. PMID:22808070

  15. Elemental composition by EDXRF of marine sponges from the Berlengas portuguese natural park - western portuguese coast

    Araujo, Maria Fatima; Conceicao, Ana; Barbosa, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Marine sponges are sedentary and unselective filter-feeding metazoans, which are nowadays represented by more than six thousand species with the Demospongiae being the most representative, inhabiting all aquatic environments. Due to their way of feeding, by filtering large amounts of water, these benthic organisms are particularly exposed to pollutants. Previous studies have demonstrated their aptitude in being used as environmental monitors. Besides, some authors have evidenced a selective bio-accumulation capability for some transition elements (e.g. Ni, Zn) which is dependent on the species. The present work aims at the investigation of marine sponges collected at the Berlengas Islands located at Western Portuguese Coastal area. These islands constitute a National Park with controlled access and low signal of anthropogenic influences, being a nearly ideal habitat to evaluate a possible selective bio-accumulation. Thirty-five sponges collected in August 1998, at the Berlengas National Park were classified and analysed by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The major, minor and some trace elements: Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, I and Pb were determined. Besides, sediment samples were also taken from the area to assess some lithological influence on the sponge composition. Due to the high percentage of elements that do not emit characteristic X-ray lines, absorption corrections for quantitative calculations were carried out taking into account the ratio between the inelastic and elastic scattered incident radiation of compounds and standard reference materials, from a silver secondary target. A lithological influence on the sponge major elemental composition is demonstrated. The absence of any trace metal contamination was confirmed and a clear selective bio-accumulation in some trace elements, such as Ni, Zn and As was detected

  16. Phylogeography of the Sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: Insights into the Evolution of Marine Lake Populations

    Becking, Leontine E.; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.; de Voogd, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea and could be regarded as the marine equivalents of terrestrial islands. The sponge Suberites diversicolor (Porifera: Demospongiae: Suberitidae) is typical of marine lake habitats in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Four molecular markers (two mitochondrial and two nuclear) were employed to study genetic structure of populations within and between marine lakes in Indonesia and three coastal locations in Indonesia, Singapore and Australia. Within populations of S. diversicolor two strongly divergent lineages (A & B) (COI: p = 0.4% and ITS: p = 7.3%) were found, that may constitute cryptic species. Lineage A only occurred in Kakaban lake (East Kalimantan), while lineage B was present in all sampled populations. Within lineage B, we found low levels of genetic diversity in lakes, though there was spatial genetic population structuring. The Australian population is genetically differentiated from the Indonesian populations. Within Indonesia we did not record an East-West barrier, which has frequently been reported for other marine invertebrates. Kakaban lake is the largest and most isolated marine lake in Indonesia and contains the highest genetic diversity with genetic variants not observed elsewhere. Kakaban lake may be an area where multiple putative refugia populations have come into secondary contact, resulting in high levels of genetic diversity and a high number of endemic species. PMID:24098416

  17. The mitochondrial genomes of sponges provide evidence for multiple invasions by Repetitive Hairpin-forming Elements (RHE

    Lavrov Dennis V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial (mt genomes of sponges possess a variety of features, which appear to be intermediate between those of Eumetazoa and non-metazoan opisthokonts. Among these features is the presence of long intergenic regions, which are common in other eukaryotes, but generally absent in Eumetazoa. Here we analyse poriferan mitochondrial intergenic regions, paying particular attention to repetitive sequences within them. In this context we introduce the mitochondrial genome of Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816; Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida and compare it with mtDNA of other sponges. Results Mt genomes of dictyoceratid sponges are identical in gene order and content but display major differences in size and organization of intergenic regions. An even higher degree of diversity in the structure of intergenic regions was found among different orders of demosponges. One interesting observation made from such comparisons was of what appears to be recurrent invasions of sponge mitochondrial genomes by repetitive hairpin-forming elements, which cause large genome size differences even among closely related taxa. These repetitive hairpin-forming elements are structurally and compositionally divergent and display a scattered distribution throughout various groups of demosponges. Conclusion Large intergenic regions of poriferan mt genomes are targets for insertions of repetitive hairpin- forming elements, similar to the ones found in non-metazoan opisthokonts. Such elements were likely present in some lineages early in animal mitochondrial genome evolution but were subsequently lost during the reduction of intergenic regions, which occurred in the Eumetazoa lineage after the split of Porifera. Porifera acquired their elements in several independent events. Patterns of their intra-genomic dispersal can be seen in the mt genome of Vaceletia sp.

  18. New and rare sponges from the deep shelf of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean).

    Sitjà, Cèlia; Maldonado, Manuel

    2014-01-31

    The sponge fauna from the deep shelf (70 to 200 m) of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) was investigated using a combination of ROV surveys and collecting devices in the frame of the EC LIFE+ INDEMARES Grant aimed to designate marine areas of the Nature 2000 Network within Spanish territorial waters. From ROV surveys and 351 examined specimens, a total of 87 sponge species were identified, most belonging in the Class Demospongiae, and one belonging in the Class Hexactinellida. Twenty six (29%) species can be regarded as either taxonomically or faunistically relevant. Three of them were new to science (Axinella alborana nov. sp.; Axinella spatula nov. sp.; Endectyon filiformis nov. sp.) and 4 others were Atlantic species recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea (Jaspis eudermis Lévi & Vacelet, 1958; Hemiasterella elongata Topsent, 1928; Axinella vellerea Topsent, 1904; Gelliodes fayalensis Topsent, 1892). Another outstanding finding was a complete specimen of Rhabdobaris implicata Pulitzer-Finali, 1983, a species only known from its holotype, which had entirely been dissolved for its description. Our second record of the species has allowed a neotype designation and a restitution of the recently abolished genus Rhabdobaris Pulitzer-Finally, 1983, also forcing a slight modification of the diagnosis of the family Bubaridae. Additionally, 12 species were recorded for the first time from the shelf of the Alboran Island, including a few individuals of the large hexactinellid Asconema setubalense Kent, 1877 that provided the second Mediterranean record of this "North Atlantic" hexactinellid. ROV explorations also revealed that sponges are an important component of the deep-shelf benthos, particularly on rocky bottoms, where they make peculiar sponge gardens characterized by a wide diversity of small, erect species forming a dense "undergrowth" among a scatter of large sponges and gorgonians. The great abundance and the taxonomic

  19. Trends in the Discovery of New Marine Natural Products from Invertebrates over the Last Two Decades – Where and What Are We Bioprospecting?

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990–2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  20. Phylogeography of the sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: insights into the evolution of marine lake populations.

    Becking, Leontine E; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; de Voogd, Nicole J

    2013-01-01

    The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea and could be regarded as the marine equivalents of terrestrial islands. The sponge Suberites diversicolor (Porifera: Demospongiae: Suberitidae) is typical of marine lake habitats in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Four molecular markers (two mitochondrial and two nuclear) were employed to study genetic structure of populations within and between marine lakes in Indonesia and three coastal locations in Indonesia, Singapore and Australia. Within populations of S. diversicolor two strongly divergent lineages (A & B) (COI: p = 0.4% and ITS: p = 7.3%) were found, that may constitute cryptic species. Lineage A only occurred in Kakaban lake (East Kalimantan), while lineage B was present in all sampled populations. Within lineage B, we found low levels of genetic diversity in lakes, though there was spatial genetic population structuring. The Australian population is genetically differentiated from the Indonesian populations. Within Indonesia we did not record an East-West barrier, which has frequently been reported for other marine invertebrates. Kakaban lake is the largest and most isolated marine lake in Indonesia and contains the highest genetic diversity with genetic variants not observed elsewhere. Kakaban lake may be an area where multiple putative refugia populations have come into secondary contact, resulting in high levels of genetic diversity and a high number of endemic species.

  1. Wnt and TGF-beta expression in the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the origin of metazoan embryonic patterning.

    Maja Adamska

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of metazoan development and differentiation was contingent upon the evolution of cell adhesion, communication and cooperation mechanisms. While components of many of the major cell signalling pathways have been identified in a range of sponges (phylum Porifera, their roles in development have not been investigated and remain largely unknown. Here, we take the first steps toward reconstructing the developmental signalling systems used in the last common ancestor to living sponges and eumetazoans by studying the expression of genes encoding Wnt and TGF-beta signalling ligands during the embryonic development of a sponge.Using resources generated in the recent sponge Amphimedon queenslandica (Demospongiae genome project, we have recovered genes encoding Wnt and TGF-beta signalling ligands that are critical in patterning metazoan embryos. Both genes are expressed from the earliest stages of Amphimedon embryonic development in highly dynamic patterns. At the time when the Amphimedon embryos begin to display anterior-posterior polarity, Wnt expression becomes localised to the posterior pole and this expression continues until the swimming larva stage. In contrast, TGF-beta expression is highest at the anterior pole. As in complex animals, sponge Wnt and TGF-beta expression patterns intersect later in development during the patterning of a sub-community of cells that form a simple tissue-like structure, the pigment ring. Throughout development, Wnt and TGF-beta are expressed radially along the anterior-posterior axis.We infer from the expression of Wnt and TGF-beta in Amphimedon that the ancestor that gave rise to sponges, cnidarians and bilaterians had already evolved the capacity to direct the formation of relatively sophisticated body plans, with axes and tissues. The radially symmetrical expression patterns of Wnt and TGF-beta along the anterior-posterior axis of sponge embryos and larvae suggest that these signalling pathways

  2. Dictyoceratidan poisons: Defined mark on microtubule-tubulin dynamics.

    Gnanambal K, Mary Elizabeth; Lakshmipathy, Shailaja Vommi

    2016-03-01

    Tubulin/microtubule assembly and disassembly is characterized as one of the chief processes during cell growth and division. Hence drugs those perturb these process are considered to be effective in killing fast multiplying cancer cells. There is a collection of natural compounds which disturb microtubule/tubulin dis/assemblage and there have been a lot of efforts concerted in the marine realm too, to surveying such killer molecules. Close to half the natural compounds shooting out from marine invertebrates are generally with no traceable definite mechanisms of action though may be tough anti-cancerous hits at nanogram levels, hence fatefully those discoveries conclude therein without a capacity of translation from laboratory to pharmacy. Astoundingly at least 50% of natural compounds which have definite mechanisms of action causing disorders in tubulin/microtubule kinetics have an isolation history from sponges belonging to the Phylum: Porifera. Poriferans have always been a wonder worker to treat cancers with a choice of, yet precise targets on cancerous tissues. There is a specific order: Dictyoceratida within this Phylum which has contributed to yielding at least 50% of effective compounds possessing this unique mechanism of action mentioned above. However, not much notice is driven to Dictyoceratidans alongside the order: Demospongiae thus dictating the need to know its select microtubule/tubulin irritants since the unearthing of avarol in the year 1974 till date. Hence this review selectively pinpoints all the compounds, noteworthy derivatives and analogs stemming from order: Dictyoceratida focusing on the past, present and future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microalgae as embedded environmental monitors

    Ogburn, Zachary L.; Vogt, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, microalgae are an important component as they transform large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass and thereby impact environmental chemistry. Of particular relevance is phytoplankton's sequestration of atmospheric CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, and nitrate, one cause of harmful algae blooms. On the other hand, microalgae sensitively respond to changes in their chemical environment, which initiates an adaptation of their chemical composition. Analytical methodologies were developed in this study that utilize microalgae's adaptation as a novel approach for in-situ environmental monitoring. Longterm applications of these novel methods are investigations of environmental impacts on phytoplankton's sequestration performance and their nutritional value to higher organisms feeding on them. In order to analyze the chemical composition of live microalgae cells (Nannochloropsis oculata), FTIR-ATR spectroscopy has been employed. From time series of IR spectra, the formation of bio-sediment can be monitored and it has been shown that the nutrient availability has a small but observable impact. Since this bio-sediment formation is governed by several biological parameters of the cells such as growth rate, size, buoyancy, number of cells, etc., this enables studies of chemical environment's impact on biomass formation and the cells' physical parameters. Moreover, the spectroscopic signature of these microalgae has been determined from cultures grown under 25 different CO 2 and NO 3 − mixtures (200 ppm-600 ppm CO 2 , 0.35 mM-0.75 mM NO 3 − ). A novel, nonlinear modeling methodology coined ‘Predictor Surfaces’ is being presented by means of which the nonlinear responses of the cells to their chemical environment could reliably be described. This approach has been utilized to measure the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere over the phytoplankton culture as well as the nitrate concentration dissolved in their growing

  4. Microalgae as embedded environmental monitors

    Ogburn, Zachary L.; Vogt, Frank, E-mail: fvogt@utk.edu

    2017-02-15

    In marine ecosystems, microalgae are an important component as they transform large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass and thereby impact environmental chemistry. Of particular relevance is phytoplankton's sequestration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas, and nitrate, one cause of harmful algae blooms. On the other hand, microalgae sensitively respond to changes in their chemical environment, which initiates an adaptation of their chemical composition. Analytical methodologies were developed in this study that utilize microalgae's adaptation as a novel approach for in-situ environmental monitoring. Longterm applications of these novel methods are investigations of environmental impacts on phytoplankton's sequestration performance and their nutritional value to higher organisms feeding on them. In order to analyze the chemical composition of live microalgae cells (Nannochloropsis oculata), FTIR-ATR spectroscopy has been employed. From time series of IR spectra, the formation of bio-sediment can be monitored and it has been shown that the nutrient availability has a small but observable impact. Since this bio-sediment formation is governed by several biological parameters of the cells such as growth rate, size, buoyancy, number of cells, etc., this enables studies of chemical environment's impact on biomass formation and the cells' physical parameters. Moreover, the spectroscopic signature of these microalgae has been determined from cultures grown under 25 different CO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} mixtures (200 ppm-600 ppm CO{sub 2}, 0.35 mM-0.75 mM NO{sub 3}{sup −}). A novel, nonlinear modeling methodology coined ‘Predictor Surfaces’ is being presented by means of which the nonlinear responses of the cells to their chemical environment could reliably be described. This approach has been utilized to measure the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere over the phytoplankton culture as well as the nitrate

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleus-Encoded Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases Targeted at the Cytosol and Plastid of Algae.

    Huerlimann, Roger

    2015-07-01

    The understanding of algal phylogeny is being impeded by an unknown number of events of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and primary and secondary/tertiary endosymbiosis. Through these events, previously heterotrophic eukaryotes developed photosynthesis and acquired new biochemical pathways. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis and elongation pathways in algae, where ACCase exists in two locations (cytosol and plastid) and in two forms (homomeric and heteromeric). All algae contain nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase in the cytosol, independent of the origin of the plastid. Nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase is also found in plastids of algae that arose from a secondary/tertiary endosymbiotic event. In contrast, plastids of algae that arose from a primary endosymbiotic event contain heteromeric ACCase, which consists of three nucleus-encoded and one plastid-encoded subunits. These properties of ACCase provide the potential to inform on the phylogenetic relationships of hosts and their plastids, allowing different hypothesis of endosymbiotic events to be tested. Alveolata (Dinoflagellata and Apicomplexa) and Chromista (Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta) have traditionally been grouped together as Chromalveolata, forming the red lineage. However, recent genetic evidence groups the Stramenopiles, Alveolata and green plastid containing Rhizaria as SAR, excluding Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Sequences coding for plastid and cytosol targeted homomeric ACCases were isolated from Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO), Chromera velia and Nannochloropsis oculata, representing three taxonomic groups for which sequences were lacking. Phylogenetic analyses show that cytosolic ACCase strongly supports the SAR grouping. Conversely, plastidial ACCase groups the SAR with the Haptophyta, Cryptophyta and Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta). These two ACCase based, phylogenetic relationships suggest that the plastidial homomeric ACCase was acquired by the

  6. The addition of hydrodynamic variables to predictive cold water coral habitat modeling: The Bari Canyon case-study, southwestern Adriatic Sea

    Foglini, Federica; Bargain, Annaëlle; Angeletti, Lorenzo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Taviani, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Predictive habitat modeling is gaining momentum because of its usefulness to recognize potential distributional patterns of ecosystems thus facilitating their proper governance when required, as it is for instance the case of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This holds particularly true for the deep-sea in front of its overwhelming areal extent on a global scale and intrinsic technological difficulties (with related costs) for its direct exploration. Cold Water Corals (CWC) is one emblematic, virtually cosmopolitan, ecosystem in the deep, that is under international attention because of its multifaceted ecological importance. CWC is currently represented in the Mediterranean basin by habitats engineered by the arborescent scleractinians Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa associated with a number of other benthic invertebrates. One major CWC hotspot located on the southwestern Adriatic margin, the Bari Canyon cold water coral province, has been targeted for producing habitat suitability maps. Initially the evaluation of the theoretical distribution of CWC in this area has been based upon visual observations, mainly extracted from geo-referenced underwater ROV imagery, coupled with the eco-geographic information derived from bathymetry. This approach relies upon the compilation and comparison of presence-only models (MaxEnt and ENFA), but also presence-absence model (GLMs). However, the pivotal role played by oceanographic factors has been soon added in order to achieve more robust predictive models. In fact, the Bari Canyon CWC province is situated on the main path of the North Adriatic Dense Water cascading, and hypothesized to be sensitive to hydrological factors. Accordingly, the statistical models to assess potential habitat extent have been implemented using hydrodynamic fields provided by ROMS for ocean currents, coupled with SWAN within the COAWST modelling system to account for wave-current interactions. The integration of results is

  7. Cytoskeletal actin genes function downstream of HNF-3beta in ascidian notochord development.

    Jeffery, W R; Ewing, N; Machula, J; Olsen, C L; Swalla, B J

    1998-11-01

    We have examined the expression and regulation of cytoskeletal actin genes in ascidians with tailed (Molgula oculata) and tailless larvae (Molgula occulta). Four cDNA clones were isolated representing two pairs of orthologous cytoskeletal actin genes (CA1 and CA2), which encode proteins differing by five amino acids in the tailed and tailless species. The CA1 and CA2 genes are present in one or two copies, although several related genes may also be present in both species. Maternal CA1 and CA2 mRNA is present in small oocytes but transcript levels later decline, suggesting a role in early oogenesis. In the tailed species, embryonic CA1 and CA2 mRNAs first appear in the presumptive mesenchyme and muscle cells during gastrulation, subsequently accumulate in the presumptive notochord cells, and can be detected in these tissues through the tadpole stage. CA1 mRNAs accumulate initially in the same tissues in the tailless species but subsequently disappear, in concert with the arrest of notochord and tail development. In contrast, CA2 mRNAs were not detected in embryos of the tailless species. Fertilization of eggs of the tailless species with sperm of the tailed species, which restores the notochord and the tail, also results in the upregulation of CA1 and CA2 gene expression in hybrid embryos. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide experiments suggest that CA1 and CA2 expression in the notochord, but not in the muscle cells, is dependent on prior expression of Mocc FHI, an ascidian HNF-3beta-like gene. The expression of the CA1 and CA2 genes in the notochord in the tailed species, downregulation in the tailless species, upregulation in interspecific hybrids, and dependence on HNF-3beta activity is consistent with a role of these genes in development of the ascidian notochord.

  8. First feeding of Eugerres brasilianus (Carapeva larvae with Acartia tonsa (Copepod nauplii increases survival and resistance to acute stress

    Wanessa de Melo Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotifer Brachionus sp. is commonly used for larval feeding in marine fish hatcheries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii in the initial diet of carapeva larvae improves their survival, growth and resistance to stress when compared to the regimen containing only rotifers. Adult copepods were collected in the wild and cultured with the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis oculata to obtain nauplii. Carapeva larvae were grown for 15 days using four treatments and three replicates: 1 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (10 to 15/mL; 2 A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5/mL; 3 Brachionus plicatilis rotifers (5 to 7.5/mL + A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25/mL, and 4 no supply of live feed. After 15 days, the carapeva larvae were subjected to stress by exposure to air for 10 seconds and then returned to the source tank to evaluate survival after 24 h. Survival and stress resistance were higher in carapeva larvae fed B. plicatilis + A. tonsa nauplii (P<0.05, 20.9 ± 11.2% and 88.9%, respectively. These results confirm the positive effect of the inclusion of copepod nauplii in the diet of fish larvae. However, more research is needed to validate these results.

  9. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

    Mark P Johnson

    Full Text Available We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm, and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs.

  10. Modeling Microalgal Biosediment Formation Based on Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Monitoring.

    Ogburn, Zachary L; Vogt, Frank

    2018-03-01

    With increasing amounts of anthropogenic pollutants being released into ecosystems, it becomes ever more important to understand their fate and interactions with living organisms. Microalgae play an important ecological role as they are ubiquitous in marine environments and sequester inorganic pollutants which they transform into organic biomass. Of particular interest in this study is their role as a sink for atmospheric CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, and nitrate, one cause of harmful algal blooms. Novel chemometric hard-modeling methodologies have been developed for interpreting phytoplankton's chemical and physiological adaptations to changes in their growing environment. These methodologies will facilitate investigations of environmental impacts of anthropogenic pollutants on chemical and physiological properties of marine microalgae (here: Nannochloropsis oculata). It has been demonstrated that attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can gain insights into both and this study only focuses on the latter. From time-series of spectra, the rate of microalgal biomass settling on top of a horizontal ATR element is derived which reflects several of phytoplankton's physiological parameters such as growth rate, cell concentrations, cell size, and buoyancy. In order to assess environmental impacts on such parameters, microalgae cultures were grown under 25 different chemical scenarios covering 200-600 ppm atmospheric CO 2 and 0.35-0.75 mM dissolved NO 3 - . After recording time-series of ATR FT-IR spectra, a multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm extracted spectroscopic and time profiles from each data set. From the time profiles, it was found that in the considered concentration ranges only NO 3 - has an impact on the cells' physiological properties. In particular, the cultures' growth rate has been influenced by the ambient chemical conditions. Thus, the presented spectroscopic

  11. Effects of clam size, food type, sediment characteristic, and seawater carbonate chemistry on grazing capacity of Venus clam Cyclina sinensis (Gmelin, 1791)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Xin; Lai, Qifang; Zhang, Dong; Shi, Liyan

    2017-09-01

    Aquaculture in saline-alkaline water has a major problem: microalgal blooming causes the pH of water to increase dramatically, thereby causing damage to the reared organisms. To solve this problem, we set out to find a candidate filter-feeding bivalve species suitable for saline-alkaline water to graze on microalgae and to control the pH. In the current study, we investigated the effect of carbonate alkalinity (CA, 2.5, 10.0, and 20.0 meq/L) and pH (8.0, 8.5, and 9.0) on the grazing capacity (GC) of the clam Cyclina sinensis. Additionally, the effect of clam size (small, medium, and large) and microalgae species ( Nannochloropsis oculata, Chaetoceros müelleri, and Isochrysis galbana), and the effect of bottom sediment characteristic (mud, sandy mud, and muddy sand) and thickness (3 and 6 cm) were analyzed as well. The results show that the GC on I. galbana was the highest and small size had the maximum GC/ W ( W: wet weight including body and shells). No significant differences were observed between sediment type and thickness. Regarding CA and pH, a significant decrease in GC by the pH or by their interaction was found. The GC of C. sinensis was not greatly reduced in the treatments of pH≤8.5 and CA≤20.0, and also not affected by bottom sediment type, indicating that this clam is capable to manage microalgal concentrations and might be a candidate species for pH reduction in saline-alkaline water ponds.

  12. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis Reduces Vibrio anguillarum in Cultures of Microalgae and Rotifers, and Prevents Vibriosis in Cod Larvae

    D’Alvise, Paul W.; Lillebø, Siril; Prol-Garcia, Maria J.; Wergeland, Heidrun I.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Bergh, Øivind; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Phaeobacter gallaeciensis can antagonize fish-pathogenic bacteria in vitro, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the organism as a probiont for marine fish larvae and their feed cultures. An in vivo mechanism of action of the antagonistic probiotic bacterium is suggested using a non-antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 107 cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio anguillarum was significantly reduced by wild-type P. gallaeciensis, when introduced into these cultures. A P. gallaeciensis mutant that did not produce the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA) did not reduce V. anguillarum numbers, suggesting that production of the antibacterial compound is important for the antagonistic properties of P. gallaeciensis. The ability of P. gallaeciensis to protect fish larvae from vibriosis was determined in a bath challenge experiment using a multidish system with 1 larva per well. Unchallenged larvae reached 40% accumulated mortality which increased to 100% when infected with V. anguillarum. P. gallaeciensis reduced the mortality of challenged cod larvae (Gadus morhua) to 10%, significantly below the levels of both the challenged and the unchallenged larvae. The TDA mutant reduced mortality of the cod larvae in some of the replicates, although to a much lesser extent than the wild type. It is concluded that P. gallaeciensis is a promising probiont in marine larviculture and that TDA production likely contributes to its probiotic effect. PMID:22928051

  13. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis reduces Vibrio anguillarum in cultures of microalgae and rotifers, and prevents vibriosis in cod larvae.

    Paul W D'Alvise

    Full Text Available Phaeobacter gallaeciensis can antagonize fish-pathogenic bacteria in vitro, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the organism as a probiont for marine fish larvae and their feed cultures. An in vivo mechanism of action of the antagonistic probiotic bacterium is suggested using a non-antagonistic mutant. P. gallaeciensis was readily established in axenic cultures of the two microalgae Tetraselmis suecica and Nannochloropsis oculata, and of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. P. gallaeciensis reached densities of 10(7 cfu/ml and did not adversely affect growth of algae or rotifers. Vibrio anguillarum was significantly reduced by wild-type P. gallaeciensis, when introduced into these cultures. A P. gallaeciensis mutant that did not produce the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA did not reduce V. anguillarum numbers, suggesting that production of the antibacterial compound is important for the antagonistic properties of P. gallaeciensis. The ability of P. gallaeciensis to protect fish larvae from vibriosis was determined in a bath challenge experiment using a multidish system with 1 larva per well. Unchallenged larvae reached 40% accumulated mortality which increased to 100% when infected with V. anguillarum. P. gallaeciensis reduced the mortality of challenged cod larvae (Gadus morhua to 10%, significantly below the levels of both the challenged and the unchallenged larvae. The TDA mutant reduced mortality of the cod larvae in some of the replicates, although to a much lesser extent than the wild type. It is concluded that P. gallaeciensis is a promising probiont in marine larviculture and that TDA production likely contributes to its probiotic effect.

  14. IODP Expedition 307 Drills Cold-Water Coral Mound Along the Irish Continental Margin

    Trevor Williams

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over the past decade, oceanographic and geophysical surveys along the slope of the Porcupine Seabight off the southwestern continental margin of Ireland have identified upwards of a thousand enigmatic mound-like structures (Figs. 1 and 2. The mounds of the Porcupine Seabight rise from the seafl oor in water depths of 600–900 m and formimpressive conical bodies several kilometers wide and up to 200 m high. Although a few mounds such as Thérèse Mound and Galway Mound are covered by a thriving thicket of coldwater corals, most mound tops and fl anks are covered by dead coral rubble or are entirely buried by sediment (De Mol et al., 2002; Fig. 2, Beyer et al., 2003. Lophelia pertusa (Fig.3 and Madrepora oculata are the most prominent cold-water corals growing without photosynthetic symbionts. The widespread discovery of large and numerous coral-bearing banks and the association of these corals with the mounds have generated signifi cant interest as to the composition, origin and development of these mound structures.Challenger Mound, in the Belgica mound province, has an elongated shape oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis and ispartially buried under Pleistocene drift sediments. In high-resolution seismic profiles the mounds appear to root on an erosion surface (van Rooij et al., 2003. During IODP Expedition307 the Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight was drilled with the goal of unveiling the origin and depositional processes withinthese intriguing sedimentary structures. Challenger Mound, unlike its near neighbors the Thérèse and Galway mounds, has little to no livecoral coverage and, therefore, was chosen as the main target for drilling activities, so that no living ecosystem would be disturbed.

  15. End of the century pCO₂ levels do not impact calcification in Mediterranean cold-water corals.

    Cornelia Maier

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification caused by anthropogenic uptake of CO₂ is perceived to be a major threat to calcifying organisms. Cold-water corals were thought to be strongly affected by a decrease in ocean pH due to their abundance in deep and cold waters which, in contrast to tropical coral reef waters, will soon become corrosive to calcium carbonate. Calcification rates of two Mediterranean cold-water coral species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were measured under variable partial pressure of CO₂ (pCO₂ that ranged between 380 µatm for present-day conditions and 930 µatm for the end of the century. The present study addressed both short- and long-term responses by repeatedly determining calcification rates on the same specimens over a period of 9 months. Besides studying the direct, short-term response to elevated pCO₂ levels, the study aimed to elucidate the potential for acclimation of calcification of cold-water corals to ocean acidification. Net calcification of both species was unaffected by the levels of pCO₂ investigated and revealed no short-term shock and, therefore, no long-term acclimation in calcification to changes in the carbonate chemistry. There was an effect of time during repeated experiments with increasing net calcification rates for both species, however, as this pattern was found in all treatments, there is no indication that acclimation of calcification to ocean acidification occurred. The use of controls (initial and ambient net calcification rates indicated that this increase was not caused by acclimation in calcification response to higher pCO₂. An extrapolation of these data suggests that calcification of these two cold-water corals will not be affected by the pCO₂ level projected at the end of the century.

  16. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  17. New insights into the abyssal sponge fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka plain and Trench region (Northwest Pacific)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Janussen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    The under-explored abyssal depths of the Kurile-Kamchatka region have been re-examined during the KuramBio (Kurile-Kamchatka Biodiversity Study) expedition. Combining new KuramBio data with previous expedition data in this region has enhanced our understanding abyssal sponge fauna, in particular, the patchiness, rarity, and exceptional richness of the Cladorhizidae family. In total, 14 sponge species, from 7 genera, in 5 families, within two classes (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) were collected. Of the 14 species, 29% (4 spp.) have been found previously in this region, 36% (5 spp.) were new to the regional abyssal fauna, and 21% (3 spp.) were new to science. The number of abyssal species in this region has now been increased by 26% (8 spp.) and genera by nearly 15% (2 genera). Rarity is a prominent feature of this abyssal fauna, with more than half of species only found at one station, and 83% (19 spp.) of species found previously in this region were not re-found during KuramBio. Cladorhizid sponges dominate demosponge species and genera richness in the abyssal Kurile-Kamchatka region; accounting for 87% (20 spp.) of all demosponge species, and accounting for over 60% (5 genera) of all demosponge genera. Sponge richness in this region is potentially aided by the productivity of the ocean waters, the geological age of the Pacific Ocean, low population densities, and the varied topographic features (ridges, trenches, and seamounts) found in this region. Unusually, the dominance of demosponges in the Kurile-Kamchatka sponge faunal composition is not replicated in other well-sampled abyssal regions, which tend to be richer in deep-sea hexactinellid fauna. Broad depth, latitudinal and longitudinal ranges in Kurile-Kamchatka abyssal fauna are a key characteristic of this faunal assemblage. Strong abyssal faunal connectivity is found between the Kurile-Kamchatka region and North Pacific abyssal fauna, with weaker faunal connections found with the adjacent semi

  18. Expression of an Msx homeobox gene in ascidians: insights into the archetypal chordate expression pattern.

    Ma, L; Swalla, B J; Zhou, J; Dobias, S L; Bell, J R; Chen, J; Maxson, R E; Jeffery, W R

    1996-03-01

    The Msx homeobox genes are expressed in complex patterns during vertebrate development in conjunction with inductive tissue interactions. As a means of understanding the archetypal role of Msx genes in chordates, we have isolated and characterized an Msx gene in ascidians, protochordates with a relatively simple body plan. The Mocu Msx-a and McMsx-a genes, isolated from the ascidians Molgula oculata and Molgula citrina, respectively, have homeodomains that place them in the msh-like subclass of Msx genes. Therefore, the Molgula Msx-a genes are most closely related to the msh genes previously identified in a number of invertebrates. Southern blot analysis suggests that there are one or two copies of the Msx-a gene in the Molgula genome. Northern blot and RNase protection analysis indicate that Msx-a transcripts are restricted to the developmental stages of the life cycle. In situ hybridization showed that Msx-a mRNA first appears just before gastrulation in the mesoderm (presumptive notochord and muscle) and ectoderm (neural plate) cells. Transcript levels decline in mesoderm cells after the completion of gastrulation, but are enhanced in the folding neural plate during neurulation. Later, Msx-a mRNA is also expressed in the posterior ectoderm and in a subset of the tail muscle cells. The ectoderm and mesoderm cells that express Msx-a are undergoing morphogenetic movements during gastrulation, neurulation, and tail formation. Msx-a expression ceases after these cells stop migrating. The ascidian M. citrina, in which adult tissues and organs begin to develop precociously in the larva, was used to study Msx-a expression during adult development. Msx-a transcripts are expressed in the heart primordium and the rudiments of the ampullae, epidermal protrusions with diverse functions in the juvenile. The heart and ampullae develop in regions where mesenchyme cells interact with endodermal or epidermal epithelia. A comparison of the expression patterns of the Molgula genes

  19. Coral Patch seamount (NE Atlantic – a sedimentological and megafaunal reconnaissance based on video and hydroacoustic surveys

    C. Wienberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides new knowledge about the so far largely unexplored Coral Patch seamount which is located in the NE Atlantic Ocean half-way between the Iberian Peninsula and Madeira. For the first time a detailed hydroacoustic mapping (MBES in conjunction with video surveys (ROV, camera sled were performed to describe the sedimentological and biological characteristics of this sub-elliptical ENE-WSW elongated seamount. Video observations were restricted to the southwestern summit area of Coral Patch seamount (water depth: 560–760 m and revealed that this part of the summit is dominated by exposed hard substrate, whereas soft sediment is just a minor substrate component. Although exposed hardgrounds are dominant for this summit area and, thus, offer suitable habitat for settlement by benthic organisms, the benthic megafauna shows rather scarce occurrence. In particular, scleractinian framework-building cold-water corals are apparently rare with very few isolated and small-sized live occurrences of the species Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. In contrast, dead coral framework and coral rubble are more frequent pointing to a higher abundance of cold-water corals on Coral Patch during the recent past. This is even supported by the observation of fishing lines that got entangled with rather fresh-looking coral frameworks. Overall, long lines and various species of commercially important fish were frequently observed emphasising the potential of Coral Patch as an important target for fisheries that may have impacted the entire benthic community. Hydroacoustic seabed classification covered the entire summit of Coral Patch and its northern and southern flanks (water depth: 560–2660 m and revealed extended areas dominated by mixed and soft sediments at the northern flank and to a minor degree at its easternmost summit and southern flank. Nevertheless, these data also predict most of the summit area to be dominated by exposed bedrock

  20. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro; Montagna, Paolo; Mortimer, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short (∼ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ 14 C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ 14 C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T isol ) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ 14 C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ∼ 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in

  1. Modeling the transformation of atmospheric CO2 into microalgal biomass.

    Hasan, Mohammed Fahad; Vogt, Frank

    2017-10-23

    Marine phytoplankton acts as a considerable sink of atmospheric CO 2 as it sequesters large quantities of this greenhouse gas for biomass production. To assess microalgae's counterbalancing of global warming, the quantities of CO 2 they fix need to be determined. For this task, it is mandatory to understand which environmental and physiological parameters govern this transformation from atmospheric CO 2 to microalgal biomass. However, experimental analyses are challenging as it has been found that the chemical environment has a major impact on the physiological properties of the microalgae cells (diameter typ. 5-20 μm). Moreover, the cells can only chemically interact with their immediate vicinity and thus compound sequestration needs to be studied on a microscopic spatial scale. Due to these reasons, computer simulations are a more promising approach than the experimental studies. Modeling software has been developed that describes the dissolution of atmospheric CO 2 into oceans followed by the formation of HCO 3 - which is then transported to individual microalgae cells. The second portion of this model describes the competition of different cell species for this HCO 3 - , a nutrient, as well as its uptake and utilization for cell production. Two microalgae species, i.e. Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata, were cultured individually and in a competition situation under different atmospheric CO 2 conditions. It is shown that this novel model's predictions of biomass production are in very good agreement with the experimental flow cytometry results. After model validation, it has been applied to long-term prediction of phytoplankton generation. These investigations were motivated by the question whether or not cell production slows down as cultures grow. This is of relevance as a reduced cell production rate means that the increase in a culture's CO 2 -sinking capacity slows down as well. One implication resulting from this is that an increase in

  2. Benthic habitat characterization and distribution from two representative sites of the deep-water SML Coral Province (Mediterranean)

    Vertino, A.; Savini, A.; Rosso, A.; Di Geronimo, I.; Mastrototaro, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gay, G.; Etiope, G.

    2010-03-01

    Two sites (MS04 and MS06) from the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) Coral Province were analyzed by a video and acoustic survey during the National Italian Project Apulian Plateau Bank Ecosystem Study (APLABES). Site MS04 (Atlantis Mound) is characterized by a sub-conical mound, 500 m wide and 25 m high, located at a water depth of about 650 m. Site MS06 (Yellow Chain) comprises several elongated reliefs (NNW-SSE-oriented), up to 25 m high and 500 m in maximum lateral extent, located at a depth of between 490 and 540 m. At both sites, two main mesohabitats (mound and intermound) containing several coral-bearing and -barren macrohabitats were observed in recorded videos and detected in side-scan sonographs. The coral-rich macrohabitats, characterized by densely packed colonies of the scleractinians Madrepora oculata and, secondarily, Lophelia pertusa ( M/ L), are typically restricted to the mound areas. The mud-dominated ones, almost devoid of M/L colonies, are more common within the intermound mesohabitat. However, on the most extensive mounds, both macrohabitat typologies exist. They are heterogeneously distributed on the mound surface, often showing a clear differentiation along two opposite flanks of the same topographic feature. M/ L-rich macrohabitats are preferentially located on top and along the mound northeastern flank, showing a typical step-like distribution, probably reflecting the arrangement of hard substrate outcrops. Along this flank, fan-shaped Madrepora colonies and sponges are often oriented NNW-SSE, implying, together with other evidence, a primary southwestern current flow. The hard-bottom macrohabitats of the southwestern mound flank are generally restricted to sparse exposed, subvertical to overhanging scarps as well as to heterometric boulders located at the scarp base. Their fauna is mainly characterized by small-sized organisms (such as sponges and solitary scleractinians) although m-sized boulders may locally host very large antipatharian

  3. Pilot scale harvesting, separation and drying of microalgae biomass from compact photo-bioreactor

    Cardoso, Alberto Tadeu Martins; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: luzjr@ufpr.br; Mariano, Andre Bellin; Ghidini, Luiz Francisco Correa; Gnoatto, Victor Eduardo; Locatelli Junior, Vilson; Mello, Thiago Carvalho de; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Nucleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Autossustentavel (NPDEAS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2010-07-01

    sizing of sedimentation tanks in pilot scale. The next process step, the filtration, was conducted with several filtering media and situations, followed by a incubator or spray drying. The flocculated material was then concentrated by centrifugation and submitted to spray dryer. The dry material (with 4.3 % of humidity) was collected in a vessel at the exit of the side cyclone, which was maintained opened. With this process we obtained, in the end, powdered 'Nannochloropsis oculata' biomass, which was submitted to lipid extraction, and thereafter to biodiesel synthesis. The experimental results suggest that the proposed process is a suitable methodology for microalgae separation. The extraction of the oil form biomass by direct pressing was also tested. These processes were compared and quantified, giving priority to product quality and minimum energy consumption. (author)

  4. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in 2009 (Aamp/Comex). Qualitative information was extracted from four other cruises (two Marum/Comex cruises in 2009 and 2011 and two Ifremer cruises in 1995 and 2010) to support the previous observations in the Cassidaigne and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons. All the species, fishing impacts and litter recognized in the video films recorded from 180 to 700 m depth were mapped using GIS. The abundances and distributions of benthic fishing resources (marketable fishes, Aristeidae, Octopodidae), Vulnerable Marine Species, trawling scars and litter of 17 canyons were calculated and compared, as was the open slope between the Stoechades and Toulon canyons. Funiculina quadrangularis was rarely observed, being confined for the most part to the Marti canyon and, I. elongata was abundant in three canyons (Bourcart, Marti, Petit-Rhône). These two cnidarians were encountered in relatively low abundances, and it may be that they have been swept away by repeated trawling. The Lacaze-Duthiers and Cassidaigne canyons comprised the highest densities and largest colony sizes of scleractinian cold-water corals, whose distribution was mapped in detail. These colonies were often seen to be entangled in fishing lines. The alcyonacean Callogorgia verticillata was observed to be highly abundant in the Bourcart canyon and less abundant in several other canyons. This alcyonacean was also severely affected by bottom fishing gears and is proposed as a Vulnerable Marine Species. Our studies on anthropogenic

  5. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    McCulloch, Malcolm [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australian, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro [ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Montagna, Paolo [LSCE, Av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mortimer, Graham [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short ({approx} 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had {Delta}{sup 14}C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 {+-} 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had {Delta}{sup 14}C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T{sub isol}) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low {Delta}{sup 14}C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at {approx} 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds

  6. The Porcupine Bank Canyon coral mounds: oceanographic and topographic steering of deep-water carbonate mound development and associated phosphatic deposition

    Mazzini, A.; Akhmetzhanov, A.; Monteys, X.; Ivanov, M.

    2012-06-01

    The head of a canyon system extending along the western Porcupine Bank (west of Ireland) and which accommodates a large field of giant carbonate mounds was investigated during two cruises (INSS 2000 and TTR-13). Multibeam and sidescan sonar data (600-1,150 m water depth) suggest that the pre-existing seabed topography acts as a significant factor controlling mound distribution and shape. The mounds are concentrated along the edges of the canyon or are associated with a complex fault system traced around the canyon head, comprising escarpments up to 60 m high and several km long. The sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis of numerous types of authigenic deposits was guided by sidescan sonar and video recordings. Calcite-cemented biogenic rubble was observed at the top and on the flanks of the carbonate mounds, being associated with both living and dead corals ( Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and occasional Desmophyllum cristagalli). This can plausibly be explained by dissolution of coral debris facilitated by strong currents along the mound tops and flanks. In turn, the dissolved carbon is recycled and precipitated as interstitial micrite. Calcite, dolomite and phosphatic hardgrounds were identified in samples from the escarpment framing the eastern part of the survey area. The laterally extensive phosphatic hardgrounds represent a novel discovery in the region, supplying hard substrata for the establishment of new coral colonies. Based on existing knowledge of regional oceanographic conditions, complemented with new CTD measurements, it is suggested that water column stratification, enhanced bottom currents, and upwelling facilitate the deposition of organic matter, followed by phosphatisation leading to the formation of phosphate-glauconite deposits. The occurrence of strong bottom currents was confirmed by means of video observations combined with acoustic and sampling data, providing circumstantial evidence of fine- to medium-grained sand

  7. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera

    O’Hara, James E.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    scapularis Villeneuve, 1944, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Ocyptera scapularis Loew, 1845, nom. n.; Phytomyptera longiarista O’Hara & Cerretti for Phytomyzoneura aristalis Villeneuve, 1936, preoccupied in the genus Phytomyptera Rondani, 1845 by Phasiostoma aristalis Townsend, 1915, nom. n.; and Siphona (Siphona) pretoriana O’Hara & Cerretti for Siphona laticornis Curran, 1941, preoccupied in the genus Siphona Meigen, 1803 by Actia laticornis Malloch, 1930, nom. n. New type species fixations are made under the provisions of Article 70.3.2 of the ICZN Code for two genus-group names: Lydellina Villeneuve, 1916, type species newly fixed as Lydellina villeneuvei Townsend, 1933 (valid genus name); and Sericophoromyia Austen, 1909, type species newly fixed as Tachina quadrata Wiedemann, 1830 (synonym of Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Lectotypes are designated for the following nine nominal species based on examination of one or more syntypes of each: Degeeria crocea Villeneuve, 1950; Degeeria semirufa Villeneuve, 1950; Erycia brunnescens Villeneuve, 1934; Exorista oculata Villeneuve, 1910; Kiniatilla tricincta Villeneuve, 1938; Myxarchiclops caffer Villeneuve, 1916; Ocyptera linearis Villeneuve, 1936; Peristasisea luteola Villeneuve, 1934; and Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938. The following four genus-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms or subgenera are recognized as valid generic names: Bogosiella Villeneuve, 1923, status revived; Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, status revived; Perlucidina Mesnil, 1952, status revived; and Thelymyiops Mesnil, 1950, status n. The following six species-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms are recognized as valid species names: Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908, status revived; Degeeria cinctella Villeneuve, 1950, status revived (as Medina cinctella (Villeneuve)); Nemoraea miranda intacta Villeneuve, 1916, status revived (as Nemoraea intacta Villeneuve); Succingulum